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All Entries for LETTER "B"



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      Deuter-canonical Books are included as references, and less often, the Pseudo-pigraphia (extra-biblical New Testament Era writings - such as the Epistle of Barnabas - used for over 300 years by the early Church.

      Though these are 'NOT' Inerrant Scripture, they are very important as geographical and historical references, and helping to understand how particular Hebrew and Greek words were used.

      Since the Deuter-canonical Books were part of the Jewish Bible that Jesus and Paul used, they have great value for understanding the era between the Covenants, and all things Jewish.

      Many will be surprised to know they were in the Geneva Bible of Calvin and Knox - and the Puritan Pilgrims - and included in the King James for over 275 years . . .

      . . . and left out in later versions - ONLY to make the Bible MORE PROFITABLE, by selling at the usual price, while being much smaller to print!

      No wonder Paul said the "love of money is the root of all evil!"

      Further know, that that these books are rejected by most Bible Preachers today, BECAUSE the Jews of Jesus' Day rejected them for the Jewish Canon at the Council of Jamnia after the fall of Jerusalem.

      This seems reasonable enough, and though these Scribes and Lawyers SHOULD have had superior knowledge in ALL THINGS JEWISH . . . in their Jewish wisdom, THEY ALSO REJECTED JESUS AS THE MESSIAH!!!

      TheDeuter-canonical Books are very "Kingdom of God" and "Messianic" Oriented, thus the Jews sis NOT want any writings confirming that Jesus WAS the Jewish Messiah.

      The wise "Students-north-Scholars" will know them, as they provide light on New Testament Scripture that are NOT understood otherwise;

    Quick Example:

    In Luke 3:36 YOUR Bible reads as follows:
        "Which was the son of Cainan, which was the son of Arphaxad, which was the son of Sem (Shem), which was the son of Noe (Noah), which was the son of Lamech;"

      This ancestor of Jesus named "Cainan, son of Arphaxad: where is he in YOUR Bible; (Check Genesis 11:13, and other genealogies).

      This dilemma - which the WORLD calls a great contradiction in the linage of Jesus as the Christ - can ONLY be solved by the Bible Jesus used, which included the Deuter-canonical Books.

      Do you suppose Jesus knew more about the "Correct Books of the Bible than modern "lukewarm" Denominations?


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      Consider the Hebrew Language:

      Hebrew is "The Perfect Language" - in the original form - as the Hebrew Language has evolved from perfection:

        >> God taught, or programmed, Adam and Eve perfect Hebrew;

        >> over a thousand years it eroded into informal Hebrew, as formal British-English eroded into the American dialect;

        >> over hundreds of more years it became a "dead Hebrew", meaning it is no longer spoken by any nation of people;

        >> eventually evolving into into the derivative Aramaic, which was commonly spoken in the days of Jesus;

        >> finally evolving into that "modern Hebrew" spoken in Israel in Post-AD-2000).

      The linguistics of the Hebrew Language as designed and taught by God to Adam and Eve (or perhaps "programmed" - either way does not affect the evidence of the Godhead) gives us massive and mighty "Eternal Evidence", daily clues and reminders of the Existence and Transcendence of the Almighty Godhead:

        >> God the Spirit - who is Spirit; manifest as Spirit of Ghost (that is Presence without corporeal body or manifestation such as Christ after His Resurrection);

        >> God the Father - willing to give His Son to save the World John 3:16-17;

        >> God the Son - willing to give His life to save the World! John 12:47;

      God decided to continually reveal the "THREE-FOLD-NATURE-OF-HIS-GODHEAD" by making EVERY Hebrew "root word" have THREE-CONSONANTS!"

        > NEVER 2 letters;

        > NEVER 4, 5, 6, or more;

        > BUT ALWAYS 3 letters!

        > And ONLY 3 and THREE alone!


      Likewise, the "Language of Life" - called by some "The Protein Language" - also designed and programmed by God to be the language of all living substance from lions to dandelions to from babies to buttercups top butterflies!

      The Protein Language is the language of Genetics, of Cells, of plants and animals and all that exists: the Code of Life;

      The PROTEIN LANGUAGE consists of "CODONS".

      This Language of all Life is also made of THREE LETTER WORDS, and each letter of these TRINITARIAN CODONS, is the life-giving code for an amino acid, creating the genetic structure of all that is LIFE!

      Thus every word that your body parts (cells, organs, glands and tissues, etc.,) write to each other, and every word your body reads in communication from another body part, these are ALL THREE LETTER WORDS!

      All of the intelligence your body has, all it knows and all it communicates - in every bodily function possible - is given in THREE LETTER WORDS!

        > NEVER 2 letters;

        > NEVER 4, 5, 6, or more;

        > ALWAYS 3 letters!

        > ONLY 3 and THREE alone!

      Can we possibly miss this, asks NewtonStein? (Not if we can count as far as 1, 2, 3!!!)

    Even the Word "G-O-D" in English . . . is Three Letters!

      Why is "GOD" in English significant?

      For the simple reason that today, in the POST-AD-2,000 word, very few scores of thousands speak Biblical Hebrew with the THREE-LETTER-ROOT-WORD structure.

      Comparatively, scores of HUNDREDS OF MILLIONS SPEAK English!

        >> ENGLISH, is an Official Language in well over 100 nations of the World!

        >> ENGLISH, is The Major Language of Science, Globally!

        >> ENGLISH, is an Official - and the Major - Language of , the United Nations!

        >> ENGLISH, is The Official Language of The Internet!

        >> ENGLISH, is The Major Language of Serious Publishing - even in Japan and Germany!

        >> ENGLISH, is The Official Language of Global Airlines and Airports!

        >> ENGLISH, is The Official Language of OF the World!

        ** THUS more people will hear the Gospel in ENGLISH than any other Language!

        ** THUS more people will read the Gospel in ENGLISH than any other Language!

        ** THUS more people will own a Bible in ENGLISH than any other Language!

        ** THUS more people will get saved from learning TRUTH in ENGLISH than any other Language!

        FACT! SINCE God knew of the ENGLISH as the Global Language before the Foundation of the World!

        FACT! SINCE God in His Goodness has ALWAYS given Signs to Those Who Believe, from Moses and Israel, to Samson, to The Virgin Birth as a sign (Isa 7:14) to the Swaddling Clothes as a sign, to the Signs of the times in Matthew 24:4-24, Mark 13:5-20 and Luke 17:31-41 and 21:10-25;

        FACT! SINCE God originally made His name a "Three-Letter-Root-Word in Hebrew - "JAH" (Psalm 68:4)

        FACT! ONCE AGAIN God made His Name a THREE LETTER WORD in ENGLISH, the Global Language of the most populated era of Earth!

      So remember this every time "GOD!" is heard, read, said, etc., teach this to others, and help your family and friends see the "SIGNS along the WAY!"

    Seeing God in Linguistics, in General;

      In linguistics, there are many, many more, that PROVE God is the Designer of (a)All language, (b)alphabet, (c)Hebrew, (d) that Hebrew is the parent language of all others, (e)word structure, (f)actual words unique to Hebrew that pertain to God . . .


      . . . BECAUSE they had no God with eternal Attributes!

      Emmanuel is the same word in every language, and no language has a word it can be translated into, because it means GOD DWELLING IN HIS PEOPLE . . . and no people had "this experience apart from the People of the One True GOD JAH, thus "Emmannuel remains the same word in all languages!

      Likewise "Halleluah" - which is a Hebrew compound word "Hallelu-JAH" - and is a Command to "PRAISE JAH!"

      "Amen!" and Hosanna are also neat, unique words and there are literally hundreds more!

      The scoffing world asks: "Where is evidence for God!?" to which we answer:






    All Commentary from INSPIRED-INERRANT View of God's Word!

    Letter "B"


    Letter "B"


    BAAL, ba' al:
      A very ancient and complex concept of God, corrupted from the one true God of Adam and Eve, Seth, Enoch, Noah, Shem, Job, - of which it was realized there was a SUPREME BEING who owned all, controlled all and could do anything - Miracles as in judgement or answers to prayer favorably; NewtonStein.

      Another form of Baal;


      1. Baal-bcrith

      2. Baal-Kad

      5. liuul-luiinon

      4. lUial-luTinon

      5. Uaiil-pcor

    Baal, Also 'Belli', and 'Bel'

      Baal, Belli or Bel primary meaning "Lord." Baal, Belli, Bel was the title of the supreme god among the Canaanites.

      Name and Character of Baal. In Babylonia it was the same title specially applied to Merodach of Babylon,

      In time came to be used in place of his actual name. As the word in Heb also means "possessor," it has been supposed to have originally signified, when used in a religious sense, the god of a particular piece of land or soil.

      Of this, however, there is no proof, and the sense of "possessor" is derived from that of "lord" though this seems to be the derivation.

      The Bab Bel- Mcrodach was a Sun-god, and so too was the Can Baal whose full title was Baal-Shemaim, "lord of heaven." The Phoenecian writer Sanchuniathon (Philo Bijhliits, Fragmenta II) accordingly says that the children of the first generation of mankind "in time of drought stretched forth their hands to heaven toward the sun;

      [F]for they regarded him as the sole Lord of heaven, and called him Beel-samen, which means Lord of Heaven in the Phoenecian language and is equivalent to Zeus in Or Jupiter."

      Baal-Shemaim had a temple at Umm el-Awamid between Acre and Tyre, and his name is found in inscriptions from the Phoenecian colonies of Sardinia and Carthage.

      Attributes of Baal.

      As the Sun-god, Baal was worshipped under two aspects, beneficent and destructive. On the one hand he gave light and warmth to his worshippers; on the other hand the fierce heats of summer destroyed the vegetation he had himself brought into being.

      Hence human victims were sacrificed to him in order to appease his anger in time of plague or other trouble, the victim being usually the first-born of the sacrifice, and being burnt alive.

      In the OT this is euphemistically termed "passing" the victim "through the fire" (2 King 16:3-21 (i). The forms under which Baal was worshipped were necessarily as numerous as the communities which worshipped him.

      Each locality had its own relationship with Baal as Divine "Lord" and frequently they added to his name the city or place to which he belonged.

      Hence there was a Baal-Zur, "Baal of Tyre"; Baal-hermon, "Baal of Hermon" (Jgs 3 3); Baal-Lebanon, "Baal of Lebanon"; Baal Tarz, "Baal of Tarsus."

      At other times the title was attached to the name of an individual god; thus we have Bel-Merodach, "the Lord Merodach" (or "Bel is Merodach") at Babylon, Baal-Melkarth

      Baal-shalishah; at Tyre, Baal-gad (Josh 11:17) in the north of Canaan-Philistinia (Palestine is a n Error-Myth).

      Occasionally the second element was a noun as in Baal-Shemaim, "lord of heaven," Baal-zelmb (2 Kings 1:2), "Lord of flies," Baal-Hanmifui, usually interpreted "Lord of heat," but more prob ably "Lord of the sun-pillar," the tutelary deity of Cartilage.

      All these various forms of the Sun-god were collectively known as the Baalim or "Baals" who took their place by the side of the female goddesses Ashtaroth and Asherim. At Carthage the female consort of Baal was termed Pene-Baal, "the face" or "reflection of Baal."

      Baal - Worship.

      In the earlier days of Hcb history the title Baal, or "Lord," was applied to the national God of Israel, a usage which was revived in later times, and is familiar to us in the AV. Hence both Jonathan and David had sons called Alerib-baal (1 Ch 8 34; 9 40) and Beeliada (1 Ch 14 7).

      After the time of Ahab, however, the name 1 became associated with the worship ami rites of the Phoen deity introduced into Samaria by Jezebel, and its idolatrous associations accord ingly caused it to fall into disrepute.

      Hosea (2 16) declares that, henceforth the God of Israel should no longer be called Baali, "my Baal," and personal names like Esh-baal (1 Ch 8 33; 9 39), and Beeliada into which it entered were changed in form, Baal being turned into h/l.^/ntk which in Ileb at any rate conveyed t he sense of "shame."

      IV. Temples, etc. Temples of Baal at Samaria and Jerus are mentioned in 1 K 16 32; 2 K 11 1$; where they had been erected at the time when the Ahab dynasty endeavored to fuse Israelites and Jews and Phoenicians into a single people under the same national Phoen god. Altars on which incense was burned to Baal were set up in all the streets of Jerus according to Jeremiah (11 13), apparently on the flat roofs of the houses (Jer 32 29); ami the temple of Baal contained an image of the god in the shape of a pillar or Bethel (2 K 10 20.27). In the reign of Ahab, Baal was served in Israel by 4f>() priests (1 K 18 19), as well as by prophets (2 K 10 19), and his worshippers wore special vestments when his ritual was performed (2 K 10 22). The ordinary offering made to the god consisted of incense (Jer 7 9) and burnt sacri fices; on extraordinary occasions the victim was human (Jer 19 5). At times the priests worked themselves into a state of ecstasy , and dancing round the altar slashed themselves with knives (1 K 18 26.2$), like certain dervish orders in modern Islam.

      V. Use of the Name. In accordance with its signification the name of Baal is generally used with the definite art.; in the LXX this often takes the feminine form, di<rxi ""? ((lific/iiinc) "shame" being intended to be read. We find the same usage in Rom 11 4. The feminine counterpart of Baal was Baalah or Baalath which is found in a good many of the local names (see Baethgen, Bcitriiyc zur wmitiHchcn Religionsgeschichte, 1$$$).

      VI. Forms of Baal. -Baal-berith - "Covenant- Baal," was worshipped at Shechern

      1. Baal- after the death of Gideon (Jgs 8:33; berith 9 4). In Jgs 9:46 the name is replaced by El-berith, "Covenant-god."

      The covenant was that made by the god with his worshippers, less probably between the Israelites and the native Canaanites.

      "Baal [lord] of good luck" (or "Baal is Gad") was the god of a town called

      2. Baal- after his name in the north of Pal, gad which has often been identified with

      Baalbek. The god is termed simply Gad in Isa 65 11 RVm; where he is associated with Aleni, the Assyr Mann (AV "troop" and "number").

      ^Baal-hamon is known only from the fact that Solomon had a garden at a place

      3. Baal- of that name (Cant 8 11). The name hamon is usually explained to mean "Baal of the multitude," but the cuneiform tablets of the Tell el-Amarna age found in Pal show that the Egyp god Amon was worshipped in Canaan and identified there with the native Baal. We are therefore justified in reading the name BaalAmon, a parallel to the Bab Bel-Merodach.

      The name has no connection with that of the Carthaginian deity Baal-hamman.

      Baal-hermon ("^"in bra , ba nl hcruton; BaXa-

      p(it6v, ttdldcrnion) is found in the name of "the

      mountain of Baal-hermon" (Jgs 3 3; cf

      4. Baal- 1 Ch 5 23), which also bore the names hermon of Hermon, Sirion and Shenir (Saniru

      in the Assyr inscriptions), the second name being applied to it by the Phoenicians and the third by the Amorites (Dt 3 9). Baal-hermon will consequently be a formation similar to Baal- Lebanon in an inscription from Cyprus; according to the Phoen writer Sanchuniat hon (I lnlo Bijblius, Fragment a II) the third generation of men "begat sons of surprising si/e and stature, whose names were given to the mountains of which they had obtained possession."

      Beelphegdr) was god of the Moahite mountains, who took his name from Mount Peor

      5. Baal- (X u 23 2S ), the modern l-Vur, and P e or was probably a form of Chemosh

      (Jerome, Cninni., Isa 15). The sensual rites with which he was worshipped (Nu 25 1-3) indicate his connection with the Phoen Baal.

      ("Baal the fly god") was worshipped at Ekron where he had a temple;

      6. Baal- famous oracle (2 K 1 2.3.16). The zebub name is generally tr 1 "the Lord of flies," the Sun-god being associated with the flies which swarm in Pal during the earlier summer months.

      It, is met with in Assyrian inscriptions. In the NT the name assumes the form of Beelzebul in AV BEELZEHTB (q.v )

      A. II. SAYCE

    BAAL, ba al
      Basic meaning is "lord," "master," "possessor" "owner"):

      (1) A descendant of Reuben, Jacob s first-born son, and the father of Beerah, prince of the Reubenites, "whom Tiglath-pileser (1 Ch 5 5.6) king of Assyria carried away captive."

      (2) The fourth of "ten sons of Jeiel (AV "Jehiel"), father and founder of Gibeon. His mother was Maacah; his brother Kish, father of Saul (1 Ch 8 29 f; 9 3f>.36.39; cf 1 S 14 50 f). These passages identify Jeiel and Abiel as the father of Kish and thus of Baal.

      For study of confusions in the genealogical record, in 1 Ch 9 36.39, see NER; KISH; ABIEL; JEIEL.

      (3) In composition often the name of a man and not of the heathen god, e.g. Baal-hanan, a king of Edom (Gen 36 38; 1 Ch 1 49); also a royal prefect of the same name (1 Ch 27 2S).

      Gesenius thinks that Baal in compound words rarely refers to the god by that name. See BAAL (deity) .

      (4) A city of the tribe of Simeon (1 Ch 4 33). See BAALATH-BEER. D WIGHT M. PRATT


      (ba^alah; "possessor," "mistress "): Three occurrences of this name:

      (1) = KIRIATH-JEARIM (q.v.) (Josh 15 9.10; 1 Ch 13 (>).

      (2) A city in the Negeb of Judah (Josh 16 29). In Josh 19:3 Balah and in 1 Ch 4 29 Bilhah; perhaps also Bealoth of Josh 15 24. The site is unknown; but see PEF, III, 26.

      (3) Mount Baalah (Josh 15 11), a mountain ridge between Shikkeron (Ekron) and Jabneel unless, as seems probable, the suggestion of M. Clermont-Ganneau (Her. Crit, 1897, 902) is correct that for "in, har ( = "mount"), we should read "!!"12 , rtahdr ("river").

      In this case the border in question would be the Xahr rubln. Here there is an annual feast held attended by all classes and famous all over Syria which appears to be a real survival of "Baal worship."

      E. W. G. MASTERMAN

    BAALATH, ba a-lath

      ( A, Baaltov, Baulon) :

      (1) A town on the border of Dan (Josh 19 44) associated with Eltekeh and Gibbethon possibly Bela*in.

      (2) ("Mistress-ship"): A store city of Solomon, mentioned witli Beth-horon (1 K 9 IS; 2 Ch 8 and possibly the same as (1).

    BAALATH-BEER, ba a-lath-be er
      "lady [mistress] of the well"; Josh 19 8 [in 1 Ch 4 33," Baal]): In Josh this place is designated "Ramah of the South," i.e. of the Negeb, while in 1 S 30 27 it is described as Ramotli of the Negeb.

      It must have been a prominent, hill (ramdh = "height") in the far south of the Negeb and near a well (iV rr). The site is unknown though Conder suggests that the shrine Kubbct cl Haul may retain the old name.

    BAALBEK, bal bek
      See AVION; Ox.

    BAAL-BERITH, ba-al-be rith;
      "Baal of the Covenant"; An idol worshipped by the Shechemites after Gideon s death

      (Jgs 8 33), as protector and guardian of engage ments. His temple is also referred to in Jgs 9 4. Sec BAAL (1).

      ba al-E-joo da. See KIRIATH-JEAUIM.

    BAAL-GAD, ba al-gad
      Joshua in his conquest reached as far north as Baal-gad in the valley of Lebanon, under Mount Hermon (Josh 11 17). This definitely locates it in the valley between the Lebanons, to the W. or N.W. of Her mon. It must not be confused with Baal-hermon. Condor thinks it may be represented by * Ain Jedeideh,

    BAAL-HAMON, ba-al-ha mon.
      See BAAL (1).

    BAAL-HANAN, ba-al-ha nan
      "the Lord is gracious"):

      (1) A king of Edom (Gen 36 38 f; 1 Ch 1 49 f).

      (2) A gardener in the service of David (1 Ch 27 28).

    BAAL-HAZOR, ba-al-ha zor
      A place on the property of Absalom where his sheep-shearers were gathered, beside Ephraim (2 S 13 23). The sheep-shearing was evidently the occasion of a festival which was attended by Absalom's brethren. Here he compassed the death of Amnon in revenge for the outrage upon his sister.

      The place may be identified with Tell *Asur, a mountain which rises 3,318 ft. above the sea, 4 miles N.E. of Bethel.

    BAAL-HERMON, ba al-hur mon
      Baal-gad under Mount Hermon is described as "toward the sunrising" in Josh 13 .5. If Mount Lebanon proper is here intended the reading may be taken as correct. But in Jgs 3 3 Baal-gad is" replaced by Baal-hermon. One or the other must be due to a scribal error. The Baal-hermon of 1 Ch 5 23 lay somewhere E. of the Jordan, near to Mount Hermon. It may possibly be ident ical with Bdnids.

      "my master"): Baal, a common name for all heathen gods, had in common practice been used also of Jah.

      Hosea (2:16-17) demands that Jah be no longer called Baalli ("my Baal" = "my lord") but Itshl ("my husband"), and we find that later the Israelites abandoned the use of Ba*al for Jah.

    BAALIM, ba a-lim
      of BAAL (q.v.).

    BAALIS, ba a-lis
      perhaps for Baalim, "gods"; Iving of the children of Ammon, the instigator of the murder of dedaliah (Jer 40 14j. Cf Ant, X, ix, 3.

    BAAL-MEON, ba al-me on
      A town built by the children of Reuben along with Nebo, "their names being changed" (Nil 32 38), identical with Beon of ver 3. As Beth-baal-meon it was given by Moses to the tribe of Reuben (Josh 13 17). Mesha names it as fortified by him (MS, 1. 9). It appears in Jer 48 23 as Beth-meon, one of the cities of Moab. Onom speaks of it as a large village near the hot springs, i.e. Callirrhoe, in Wady Zcrkd MII I H, 9 miles from Ileshbon. This points to the ruined site of Mu*7n, about 4 miles SAY. of Madeba. The ruins now visible however are not older than Rom times. W. EWING

    BAAL-PEOR, ba-al-pe or
      See BAAL (1).

    BAAL-PERAZIM, ba-al-pe-ra zim,
      Baal pharasein, "the lord of breakings through"): The spot in or near the Valley of Rephaim where David obtained a signal victory over the Philis; it was higher than Jerus for David asked, "Shall I go up against the Philis?" (2 S 5 20; 1 Ch 14 11). The exact site is unknown, but if the Yale of Reph aim is el Beka*a, the open valley between Jerus and Mar Elias, then Baal-perazim would probably be the mountains to the E. near what is called the "Mount of Evil Counsel" (see JERUSALEM). The Mount Perazim of Isa 28 21 would appear to be the same spot . E. W. G. MASTERMAN

      BAALSAMUS, ba-arsa-mus (BadXcra^os, Budl- samos; AV Balasamus) : B. stood at the right side of Ezra, when the law was read to the people (1 Esd 9 43). Cf Maaseiah (Xeh 8 7).

      BAAL-SHALISHAH, ba-al-shal i-sha, ba-al-sha- le sha (mpbttJ br3, & / shalishdh; BaiOo-apicrd, Baithsarisd) : \\\\\\\\Mience a man came to Gilgal with first-fruits (2 K 4 42) was probably not far from the latter place. According to the Talm (Sanh. 12a) the fruits of the earth nowhere ripened so quickly.

      Baal-tamar Babel, Babylon


      34 S

      It, is called by Eusobius Baithsarith (.Jerome "Beths:ilis;i"), and located 1"> miles N. of Diospolis (Lydda). Khirhrl, tfirlxia almost, exactly fits this description, Gilgal (Jiljulieh) lies in the plain about- 4.\\\\\\\\ miles to the N.W. Khirhet, Kt-fr Thilth, 3.| miles fart.her nort h, has also been suggested. The Arab. Thilth exactly corresponds to the Hob Shdll- s//d/(. \\\\\\\\V. E\\\\\\\\VIN<;

      BAAL-TAMAR, ba-al-ta mar (TCP ^73, ba al tainar; BadX. 0a|idp, Baal Tha/ndr, "Baal of the palm tree"): Evidently a seat of heathen worship (Jgs 20 33) l)et\\\\\\\\veen Bethel and Gibeah (cf vs 18.31). The place was known to Eusebius (Ononi s.v.), but all trace of the name is now lost. Condor suggests that it may be connected with the palm tree of Deborah (Jgs 4 f>) which was between Bethel and Ramah (Ill)B, s.v.).

      BAALZEBUB, ba-al-ze bub (3137 5?3, ba al z f - bhilbli = "Lord of flies"; BdaX-jiuiav, Bdal-muiari) . \\\\\\\\ deity worshipped by the Philis at Ekron (2 K 1 2. 3.0.10). All that can be gathered from this one reference to him in ancient lil . is that he had some fame as a god that gave oracles. Ahaziah, son of Ahal), and king of Israel, went, to consult him whether he should recover of his sickness, and was therefore rebukfd by Elijah, who declared that hisdeath would bo the result of this insult to Jeh. Why he was called "lord of flies," or whether his real name has not boon corrupt ed a.ul lost are matters of conjecture. See BAAL (1).

      BAAL-ZEPHON, ba-al-ze fon ("pES 5?2 , ba al fphun; BeeXtreTr^wv, Beelsepphdn; Ex 14 2. .); Nu 33 7): The name means "Lord of the North," and the place was opposite the Hob camp, which was between Migdol and the sea. It may have been the shrine of a Som deity, but the posi tion is unknown (see EXODUS). Goodwin (see Brugsch, ///.s/. Ei/L, II, 303) found the name Baali-Ztiptuta as that of a god mentioned in an Egyp papyrus in the British Museum.

      BAANA, ba a-na (OT and Apoc; Baavd, Banivi; NjJ"3 , banana , son of oppression"):

      (1,2) Two commissariat-officers in the service of Solomon (1 K 4 12; 4 10; AV "Baanah").

      (3) Father of Zadok, the builder (Neh 3 4).

      (4) A leader who returned with Zorubbabel to Jerus (1 Esd 5 8). Cf Baanah (Ezr 2 2; Neh 7 7; 10 27).

      BAANAH, ba a-na (njys , ba*anah, "son of oppression") :

      (1) Captain in the army of Ish-bosheth (2 S 4 2ff).

      (2) Father of Ileleb, one of David s mighty men (2 S 23 25); 1 Ch 11 30).

      (3) Returned with Zerubbabel to Jerus; a leader and one who sealed the covenant (Ezr 2 2; Neh

      7 7; 10 27). See BAAXA (4).

      BAANI, ba a-m (A, Baavi, Baani; B, Baavti, Bncnici; AV Maani = Bani [Ezr 10 34]): The descendants of B. put away their "strange wives" (1 Esd 9 34).

      BAANIAS, ba-a-nl as. See BANNEAS (Apoc).

      BAARA, ba a-ra (X"J"5 , ba &ra , "the burning one"): A wife of the Benjamite Shaharaim (1 Ch

      8 8).

      work of the Lord." Cf IIl N, 293. An ancestor of Asaph, the musician (1 Ch 6 40).

      BAASHA, ba a-sha (STEPS, ba shd , "boldness"): King of Israel. B., son of Ahijah, and of common birth (1 K 16 2), usurped the throne of Nadab, the son of Jeroboam, killed Nadab and exterminated the house of Jeroboam. He carried on a long war fare with Asa, the king of Judah (cf Jer 41 9), began to build Ramah, but was prevented from completing this work by Ben-hadad, the king of Syria. He is told by the prophet John that because of his sinful reign the fate of his house would bo like that of Jeroboam. B. reigned 2 1 years. His son Elah who succeeded him and all the members of his family were murdered by the usurper Zimri (1 K 15 10 ff; 16 1 ff; 2 Ch l6 1 ff). The fate of his house is referred to in 1 K 21 22; 2 K 9 9. Cf ASA; ELAH; ZIMKI. A. L. BRESLICH

      BAASEIAH, ba-a-si a, ba-a-se ya ba*(iseyah, "the Lord is bold") : Perhaps for mcf&seyah, after the Gr Maaa-al, B, Maasai, "the

      BABBLER, bab ler Cp AV of Eocl 10 11 lit. "master of the tongue"; RV CHARMER; Xa-mo-T^s, lnpin[Px, AV of Ecelus 20 7; RV BRAGGART; o-irepfioXo-yos, */ ntiolw/os; AV and RV of Acts 17 18): The latter Gr word is used of birds, such as the crow, that live by picking up small seeds (xpiriiiu, "a seed," lc//i in, "to gather"), and of men, for "hangers on" and "parasites" who obtained their living by picking up odds and ends off merchants carts in harbors and markets. It carries the "suggestion of picking up refuse and scraps, and in lit. of plagiarism without the capacity to use correctly" (Ramsay). The Athenian philos ophers in calling Paul a spermologos, or "ignorant plagiarist," meant, that he retailed odds and ends of knowledge which he had picked up from others, without possessing himself any system of thought or skill of language without culture. In fact it was a fairly correct description of the Athenian philosophers themselves in Paul s day.

      Ramsay, SV. Paul the Traveller and Roman, Citizen, 141 (T. T. REES

      BABBLING, bab ling (rPTT , s ih; RV COM PLAINING): The consequence of tarrying long at the wine (Prov 23 29 AV); \\\\\\\\a\\\\\\\\ia, lalm, RV "talk" (Ecelus 19 fi; 20 .5 AV); Kevo^wvia., keno- ]>hdni,a, lit. "making an empty sound" (1 Tim 6 20; 2 Tim 2 1(5 AV and RV).

      BABE, bab:

      (1) ("V?2 , rwfar; iraig, pain) of a male infant

      3 months old (Ex 2 (i) tr 1 elsewhere "boy" or "lad."

      (2) (bbte, </<-/, DiblbJEl, taWullm) in the general sense of "child" (Ps 8 2; 17 14; Isa 3 4).

      (3) (Pp <|>os, brcphos) an unborn or newborn child (AV and RV of Lk 1 41.44; 2 12.1(5; 1 Pet 2 2 and RV of Lk 18 lo [AV "infants"]; Acts 7 19 [AV "young children"] and 2 Tim 3 15 [AV "child"]).

      (4) (v^irios, ntpios = Lat iitfans) "a child that cannot speak." (AV and RV of Mt 11 25; 21 10; Lk 10 21; Rom 2 20; 1 Cor 3 1; He 5 13) the same word is tr 1 "child," plur. "children" (in AV and RV of 1 Cor 13 11; Gal 4 1.3; Eph

      4 14) the vb. nepidzete is tr 1 in AV "be ye chil dren" and in RV "be ye babes" (1 Cor 14 20). Nepios is used metaphorically of those who are like children, of simple and single minds, as opposed to the "wise and understanding" (Mt 11 25 = Lk 10 21; cf 1 Cor 14 20). "Babes in Christ" are men of little spiritual growth, carnal as opposed to spiritual (1 Cor 3 1; cf He 5 13; Eph 4 14). Nepios is also used of a child as a minor or infant in the eye of the law (Gal 4 1.3). T. REES



      Baal-tamar Babel, Babylon

      BABEL, bfi bel, BABYLON, bab i-lon (Topo graphical) : Babylon \\\\\\\\vas 1 he Clr name of the city written in the cuneiform script of the Babylonians, bub-ili, which means in Seni, "the gate of sod." The Hebrews called the country, as well as the city, HcMui. This name they considered came from the root, bdlnl, "to confound" (den 11 9). The name in Sumerian ideographs was written Din-tir, which means "life of the forest," and yet ancient ety mologists explained it as meaning "place of the

      Mound Covering Nippur Tower.

      seat of life" (shubut hulalc). Ka-dingirra, which also means "gate of god," was another form of the name in Sumerian. It was also called ^K-antm (which is of uncertain meaning; and l rn-<izwjy<i, "the holy city."

      Herodotus, the Clr historian, has given us a picture of Babylon in his day. He says that the city was a great square, 42 miles in circuit. Ctesias makes it 5(5 miles. This, he writes, was surrounded by a moat or rampart 300 ft. high, and 75 ft. broad. The earliest mention of Babylon is in the time of Sargon 1, about 2700 BO. That monarch laid the foundations of the temple of Anunit, and also those of the temple of Amal. In the time of Dungi we learn that the place was sacked. The city evidently played a very unimportant part in the polit ical history of Babylonia of t he early period, for besides these references it. is almost unknown until the time of Hammurabi, when its rise brought about a new epoch in the history of Babylonia. The seat of power was then 1 ransferred permanently from the southern states. This resulted in the closing of the political history of the Sumerians. The organization of the empire by Hammurabi, with Babylon as its capital, placed it in a position from which it was never dislodged during the remaining history of Babylonia.

      The mounds covering the ancient city have fre quently been explored, but systematic excavations of the city were not undertaken until 1SU9, when Koldewey, the German excavator, began to un cover its ancient ruins in a methodical manner. In spite of what ancient writers say, certain scholars maintain that they grossly exaggerated the si/e of the city, which was comparatively small, espe cially when considered in connection with large cities of the present era.

      In the northern part of the city there was situated what is called the North Palace on the east side of the Euphrates, which passed through the city. A little distance below this point the Arakhtu canal left the Euphrates, and passing through the southern wall rejoined the river. There was also a Middle and Southern Palace. Near the latter was located the Ishtar gate. The temple E-makh was close to the cast side of the gate. Other canals in the city were called Merodach and Libilkhegala. In the southern portion of the city was located the famous temple E-sag-ila. This fane was called by the Or historian, "the temple of Belus." Marduk or

      Merodach (as written in the OT), the patron deity of the city, received from Enlil, as Hammurabi informs us, after he had driven the Elamites out of Babylonia, the title bcl maidte, "lord of lands," not the name which Enlil of Nippur had possessed. In the past there has been a confusion. The ideo gram Enlil or Ellil had been incorrectly read Bel. This necessitated speaking of the old Bel and the young Bel. Beyond being called bcl, "lord," as all other gods were called, Enlil s name was not Bel. Marduk is the Bel of the OT, as well as the god called Bel in the Assyr and Bab inscriptions.

      The temple area included an outer, central and inner court. The shrine of Ishtar and Zamama occupied the central court, and the ziggurrat the inner court. In the temple proper, the shrine Ekua was located, in which stood the golden image of Marduk. This, the ancient writers say, was 40 ft. high. On the topmost stage there was a shrine dedicated to Marduk. It is assumed that it was 50 ft. long by 70 ft. broad and 50 ft. in height.

      Nabopolassar rebuilt the temple and its tower. Nebuchadrezzar enlarged and embellished the sanctuary. He raised the tower so that "its head was in the heavens," an expression found in the story of the Tower of Babel in den, as well as in many of the building inscriptions. See LOTB, 121 ff, and the art. on BABEL, TOWEU OP.

      One of the chief works of Nebuchadrezzar was the building of Aiburshabu, the famous procession street, of the city, which extended from the Ishtar gate to E-sag-ila. It was a great and magnificent causeway, built higher than the houses. Walls lined it on either side, which were decorated with

      Building Inscription of Nebuchadrezzar II.

      glazed tiles, portraying lions, life size in relief. The pavement was laid with blocks of stone brought from the mountains. This procession street figured prominently on the New Year s festal day, when the procession of the gods took place.

      A knowledge of the work Nebuchadrezzar did serves as a fitting commentary to the passage in



      Dal 4 130: "Is not this great Babylon, which I have built?" He had made the city one of the wonders of the world.

      The t\\\\\\\\vo sieves by Darius Hystaspcs and the one by Xerxes destroyed much of the beauty of the city. Alexander desired to make it attain a ^real- cent er and to build an immense fortress in the city; but in the midst of this undertaking lie was mur dered, while living in the palace of Nebuchadrezzar. The temple, though frequently destroyed, was in existence in the lime of the Seleucids, but the city had long since ceased to be of any importance. See also BABYLONIA. A. T. CLAY

      BABEL, BABYLON (513, hahhcl; Assyro-Bab It<ih-ili, Ji(il>-il<liii, "gate of god," or "of the gods," rendered in Sumerian as Ka-tlingira, "gate of god," regarded as a folk-etymology) : (See BABEL, TOWKR OK, sec. 14.)

      1. Names by Which the City Was Known

      2. Probable Date of Its Foundation

      , i. Its Walls and (iates from Herodotus 4. Its Position, Divisions, Si reels and Temple r>. The. Works of Semirarnis and Nitocris (i. Ctesias Description the Palaces and Their Deco rated Walls

      7. The Temple of Belus and the Han^in^ Gardens X. Other Descriptions .. XebuchadreMar s Account

      10. Nebuchadrezzar s Architectural Work at Babylon

      1 1. The Royal Palaces

      12. Quick Building

      l:{. The Temples Restored by Nebuchadrezzar

      11. The Kxtcntof Nebuchadrezzar s Architeet ural Work

      1"). Details Concerning the city from ( on tract-Tablet s

      Hi. Details Concerning Babylon from Other Sources

      17. Modern Kxploration

      IS. Description of the Ruins the Ka-;ter:i Walls

      1<). The Western Walls

      20. The Palaces

      21. The Site of Babylon s (ireat Tower 22. The Central and Southern Ruins 2K. A Walkthrough Babylon

      21. The lstar-(iutc and the Middle Palace

      25. The Festival-Street

      2ti. The Chamber of the Fates

      27. The Northern Palace and the Gardens

      2S. Historical References to Babylonian Buildings


      The name of the great capital of ancient Baby lonia, the Shinar of (Jen 10 10; 14 1, other names of the city being Tin-<lir, "seat of

      1. Names life," E (/;/), probably an abbre- by Which viation of Kri lu (/,/) "I he good city" the City ( = Paradise), Babylonia having seem- Was Known ingly been regarded as the (lardenof

      Eden (I SJtA, June 1911, p. Kil I; and Su-anna, "the high-handed" (meaning, apparently, "high-walled," "hand" and defense" being inter changeable terms). It is possible that these vari ous names are due to the incorporation of outlying districts as Babylon grew in size.

      According to (len 10 9, the founder of Babylon was Nimrod, but among the Babylonians, it was

      Merodach who built the citv, together

      2. Probable with Erech and Niffer (Calneh) and Date of Its their renowned temples. The date Foundation of its foundation is unknown, but it

      certainly went back to primitive times, and Babylon may even have equaled Niffer in antiquity (the American explorers of that site have estimated that its lowest strata of habitations go back to 8,000 years BC). Babylon s late assump tion of the position of capital of the country would therefore be due to its rulers not having attained power and influence at an earlier period. Having once acquired that position, however, it retained it to the end, and its great god, Merodach, became the head of the Bah pantheon partly through the influence of Babylon as capital, partly because the city was the center of his worship, and the place of the great Tower of Babel, concerning which many wonderful things were said. See BABKL, TOWER OF; CONFUSION OF TON-CUES.

      According to Herodotus, the city, which lay in a

      great plain, was square in its plan and measured

      120 furlongs (.s//f</m) each way 480

      3. Its Walls in all. Each side was therefore about and Gates 11 miles long, making a circuit, of from He- nearly ">(> miles, and an area of nearly rodotus I9(i sq. miles. As the space inclosed

      is so great, and traces of the walls would seem to be wanting, these figures may bo regarded as open to question. Around the city, Herodotus says, there was a deep and broad moat, full of water, and then came a wall .")() roval cubits thick and 200 cubits high, pierced by 100 gate ways with bra/en gales and lintels. Reckoning the cubit, at I8jj in., this would mean that Babylon s walls were no less than />! 1. ft. high; and regarding t he royal cubit as being equal to 21 in., their thick ness would be something like S7 ft. Notwith standing that Babylon has been the quarry of the neighboring builders for two millenniums, it is sur prising that such extensive masses of brickwork should have disappeared without leaving at least a few recognizable traces.

      The city was built on both sides of the Euphrates,

      and at the point where the wall met the river there

      was a return-wall running along its

      4. Its Posi- banks, forming a rampart. The houses tion, Divi- of Babylon were of 3 and 4 stories. sions, The roads which ran through the city Streets were straight, and apparently inter- and Temple sect ed each other at right angles,

      like the great cities of America. The river-end of each of the streets leading to the river was guarded by a bra/en gate. Within the great outer wall was another, not much weaker, but inclosing a smaller space. Each division of the city contained a great building, the one being the king s palace, strongly fortified around, and the other the temple of /ens Belos --an erection with brazen gates measuring two furlongs each way. Within this sacred precinct was a solid tower meas uring a furlong each way, and surmounted by other towers to the number of eight. An ascent ran around these towers, with a stopping-place about the middle where the visitor might, rest. Upon the topmost tower a large cell was built, wherein was a couch and a golden table. No image was placed in the cell, and no one passed the night there, except a woman of the people, chosen by the god. In another cell below was a golden image of Zeus sitting, his seat and footstool being likewise of gold, with, near by, a large golden table. The total weight of the precious metal here was 800 talents. I pon a small golden altar outside the cell young sucklings only were sacrificed, and upon another (not of gold) full-grown animals were offered.

      The hydraulic works of Babylon are attributed by Herodotus to two queens, Semiramis and Nito-

      cris. The former made banks of

      5. The earth on the plain which were worth Works of seeing, preventing the river from flood- Semiramis ing the plain like a sea. The second, and Nitocris Xitocris, altered the channel of the

      river in such a way that it flowed three times in its course to the village Andericca, and the traveler by water therefore took three days to pass this spot. She also raised the banks of the river, and dug a great lake above Babylon. The place which was dug out she made into a swamp, the object being to retard the course of the river. The many bends and the swamp were on the shortest route to Media, to prevent the Medes from having dealings with her kingdom and learning of her affairs. Other works were a bridge across the Euphrates, and a tomb for herself over the most frequented gate of the city.

      Both Herodotus and Ctesias were eyewitnesses



      of the glory of Babylon, though only at, the period when it had begun to wane. It is exceedingly prob able, however, that their accounts will be super seded in the end, by those of the people who best knew the city, namely, the inhabitants of Babylon itself.

      According to Ctesias, the circuit of the city was

      not 480, but 300 furlongs the number of the days

      in the Bab year and somewhat under

      6. Ctesias 42 miles. The E. and W. districts Description were joined by a bridge 5 furlongs or the Pal- 1,080 yards long, and 30 ft. broad. aces and At each end of the bridge was a royal Their Dec- palace, that on the eastern bank orated being the more magnificent of the two. Walls This palace was defended by three

      walls, the outermost being 60 furlongs or 7 miles in circuit; the second, a circular wall, 40 furlongs (4i miles), and the third 20 furlongs (2 milesj. The height of the middle wall was 300 ft., and that of its towers 420 ft., but this was ex ceeded by the height, of the inmost wall. Ctesias states that the walls of the second and third in- closures were of colored brick, showing hunting- scenes the chase of the leopard and the lion, with male and female figures, which he regarded as Xinus and Semiramis. The other palace (that on the \\\\\\\\V. bank) was smaller and less ornate, and was inclosed onlv by a single wall 30 furlongs (3i miles) in cir cuit. This also had representations of hunting- scenes and bronze statues of Xinus, Semiramis and Jupiter-Belus (Bel-Merodach). Besides the bridge, he states that there was also a tunnel under the river. He seems to speak of the temple of Belus (see BABKL, TOWKK OF) as being surmounted by three statues Bel (Bel-Merodach), 40 ft. high, his mother Rhea (Dawkina, the Dauke of Damas-

      cius), and Bel-Merodach s spouse

      7. The Juno or Belt is (Zer-panitu m ) . The Temple celebrated Hanging Gardens he seems of Belus to describe as a square of which each and the side measured 400 ft., rising in ter- Hanging races, the topmost of which was plant- Gardens ed with trees of various kinds. If

      this was the case, it must have re sembled a temple-tower covered with verdure. The Assyr sculptures, however, indicate something different (see sec. 27).

      With regard to the size of the city as given by

      other authorities, Pliny copies Herodotus, and

      makes its circuit 4SO furlongs (\\\\\\\\ot.

      8. Other Hist. vi.26); Strabo (xvi.i. sec. f>), 38r>; Descrip- Q. Curtius (v.i. sec. 26), 368; Clit- tions archus (/i/>iid Dioil. Sic. ii.7), 36").

      Though the difference between the highest and the lowest is considerable, it is only what might be expected from independent esti mates, for it is doubtful whether any of them are based on actual measurements. Diodorus (ii.<), end) states that but a small part of the inclosure was inhabited in his time (he was a contemporary of Caesar and Augustus), but the abandonment of the city must then have been practically completed, and the greater part given over, as he states, to cultivation even, perhaps, within the space in closed by the remains of walls today. It is note worthy that Q. Curtius says (v.i. sec. 27) that as much as nine-tenths consisted, even during Baby lon s most prosperous period, of gardens, parks, paradises, fields and orchards; and this the later contract-tablets confirm. Though there is no con firmation of the height of the walls as given by these different authorities, the name given to the city, Su-anna, "the high walled" (see above), indicated that it was renowned for the height of its defensive structures.

      Among the native accounts of the city, that of

      Nebuchadrezzar is the best and most instructive.

      From this record it would seem that

      9. Nebu- there were two principal defensive chadrez- structures, Imgur-Enlil and Ncniitti- zar s Enlll "Enlil has been gracious and Account "Enlil s foundation" respectively. The

      construction of these, which protected the inner city only, on the ( astern and western sides of the Euphrates, he attributes to his father Naboni- dus, as well as the digging of the moat, with the two "strong walls" on its banks, and tho embank ment of the Arahtu canal. He had also lined the Euphrates with quays or embankments probably the structures to which the Gr writers refer but lie had not finished the work. Within Babylon itself he made a roadway from Du-azaga, the place where the fates were declared, to Aa-ibur-sabu, Babylon s festival-street, which lay by the gate of Belt is or Mah, for the great New-Year s festival of Mero- dach and the gods.

      Nebuchadrezzar, after his accession, completed the two great walls, lined the ditches with brick,

      and increased the thickness of the

      10. Nebu- two walls which his father had built. chadrez- He also built a wall, traces of which zar s Archi- are apparently extant, on the W. side tectural of Babylon (he apparently refers to Work at what may be called the "city," in Babylon contradistinction to "greater Baby lon"), and raised the level of Aa-ibur- sabu from the "holy gate" to the gate of Nana; together with the gateways (in consequence? of the higher level of the pathway) through which it passed. The gates themselves were constructed of cedar over laid with copper (bronze), most likely in the same manner as the gates of Imgur-Bel (Balawat ) in Assyria (reign of Slialmaneser II, cir 8">0 BC). Probably none of Babylon s gates were of nolid bronze, notwithstanding the statements of Herod otus; but the thresholds were wholly of that metal, stone being very rare, and perhaps less durable. These gates were guarded by images of bulls and giant serpents or composite dragons of the same metal. Nebuchadrezzar also built a wall on the E. bank of the river, 4,000 cubits distant, "high like a mountain," to prevent the approach of an enemy. This wall also had cedar gates covered with copper. An additional defense made by him was an enormous lake, "like unto the broad sea to cross," which was kept in by embankments.

      The royal palaces next claimed the great king s

      attention. The palace in which Nabopolassar

      had lived, and wherein, in all probabil-

      11. The ity, Nebuchadrezzar had passed his Royal younger days, had suffered from the Palaces floods when the river was high. The

      foundations of this extensive edifice, which extended from the wall called Imgur-Enlil to Libil-hegala, the eastern canal, and from the banks of the Euphrates to Aa-ibur-sabu, the festi val-street, were thoroughly repaired with burnt brick and bitumen, and the doorways, which had become too low in consequence of the raising of that street, were raised to a suitable height. He caused the whole to tower aloft, as he has it , "moun- tainlike" (suggesting a building more than one story high). The roof of this palace was built of cedar, and the doors were of the same wood covered with bronze. Their thresholds, as in other cases, were bronze, and the interior of the palace was decorated with gold, silver, precious stones and other costly material.

      Four hundred and ninety cubits from Nemitti- Enlil lay, as the king says, the principal wall, Imgur-Enlil, and in order to guarantee the former against attack, he built two strong embankments,



      and an outer wall "like a mountain," with a great,

      building between which served both as a fortress

      and a palace, and attached to the old

      12. Quick palace built, by his father. According Building to Nebuchadrezzar s account, which is

      confirmed by Berosus (as quoted by Jos and Eusebius), all this work was completed in 15 days. The decorations were like those of the other palace, and blocks of alabaster, brought, apparently, from Assyria, strengthened the battlements. Other defences surrounded this stronghold.

      Among the temples which Nebuchadrezzar re stored or rebuilt may bo mentioned E-kua, the

      shrine of Merodach within E-sagila

      13. The (the temple of Belus); the sanctuary Temples called I)u-azaga, the place of fate, Restored where, on every New-Year s festival, by Nebu- on the <St h and 9th of Nisan, "the king chadrezzar of the gods of heaven and earth" was

      placed, and the future of the Bab monarch and Jiis people declared. Every whit as important as E-sagila, however, was the restoration of E-temen-an-ki, called "the Tower of Babylon" (see BABKL, TOWKH OF), within the city; and con nected, as will be seen from the plan, with that structure. Among the numerous temples of Babylon which he rebuilt or restored were E-mah, for the god dess Nin-mah, near (lie Istar-gate; Jhe white lime stone temple for Sin, t lie Moon-god; E-ditur-kalama, "the hou.scMif the judge of the land," for Samas, the Sun-god; E-sa-tila for OJula, the goddess of healing; E-hursag-ella, "t he house of the holy mountain," etc. The amount of work accomplished by this king, who, when walking on the roof of his palace, lifted

      up with pride, exclaimed "Is not this

      14. The great Babylon, which I have built?" Extent of (I)nl 4 30), was, according to his own Nebuchad- records and the Or writers, enormous, rezzar s and the. claim he made fully justified. Architectur- But, if he boasts of the work he did, he al Work is just in at t ribut ing much to his fat her

      Nabopolassar; though in connection with this it, is to be noted that his ascribing the building of the walls of Babylon to his father is not to be taken literally in all probability he only restored them, though he may have added supple mentary defences, as Nebuchadrezzar himself (fid.

      Besides Nebuchadrezzar s inscriptions, various other texts give details concerning the topography

      of Babylon, among them being the

      15. Details contract-tablets, which mention vari- Concerning ous districts or quarters of the city, the City such as To which is within Baby lon; the city of Sula which is within

      Babylon; the new city which is within Babylon, upon the new canal. Within the city were also several Hussein perhaps "farms," such as Hussein, KII Iddina-Marduk, "Iddina-Marduk s farm," etc. The various gates are also referred to, such as the g.ite of Samas, the city-gate of Tras, and the gate of Zagaga, which seems to have lain in "the province of Babylon," and had a field in front of it, as had also the gate of Enlil. According to an Assyr and a Bab list of gates, the streets

      16. Details bore names connected with those of Concerning the gates to which they led. Thus Babylon the street of the gate of Zagaga, one from Other of the gods of war, was called "the Sources street of Zagaga, who expels his

      enemies" ; that of the gate of Merodach was "the street of Merodach, shepherd of his land"; while the street of Istar s gate was "the street of Istar, patron of her people." The city-gates named after Enlil, Addu (Iladad or Rimmon), Samas the Sun-god, Sin the Moon-god, etc, had streets simi larly indicated. Certain of the streets of Babylon

      are also referred to on the contract-tablets, and such descriptive indications as "the broad street which is at, the southern gate of the temple E-tur-kalama" seem to show that, they were not in all cases sys tematically named. If the streets of Babylon were really, as Herodotus states, straight, and arranged at right angles, this was probably outside the walls of the ancient (inner) city, and most likely due to some wise Bab king or ruler. Details of the streets have been obtained at the point called Merkes (sec. 22) and elsewhere 1 , and seem to show that the Baby lonians liked the rooms of their houses to be square. Such streets as slanted were therefore full of rec tangles, and must have presented a quite peculiar appearance.

      It is this inner city which has most attracted the attention of explorers, both English and (lerman, and it is on its site that the latter have 17. Mod- carried on their systematic excavations. ern Explo- Indeed, it is probable that the houses ration of the most numerous class of the people;

      artisans, merchants, workmen, et< lay outside the walls to which the Bab royal in scriptions refer. It may be supposed that the

      Brick Bearing the Name of Nebuchadrezzar

      houses in this district were mainly low buildings of unbaked clay (of which, indeed, portions of the temples and palaces were built), and these would naturally disappear more easily than if they had been built of baked brick. Even when baked, however, the brick-built ruins of Babylonia and Assyria have a tendency to disappear, owing to the value which bricks, both baked and unbaked, have for the erection of new houses in the neighborhood. Concerning the extent of the exterior city much doubt naturally exists, but it may well have covered the tract attributed to it (see sec. 3, above). Nine veh, at the time of its prosperity, also had enormous suburbs (see NINEVEH).

      The ruins of Babylon lie between 80 and 90 kilo meters (50 miles or less) from Bagdad. The first

      thing seen on approaching them is the 18. De- broad high ridge of Babil, which marks scription of the site of the ruins of the Northern the Ruins Palace. After some time, the ruins of The East- the ancient walls are reached. They ern Walls are still several yards high, and slope

      down gently to the plain. Starting to the N. of Babil, the wall stretches for about 875 yds. due E., and then runs southwards for another 930 yds., taking at that point a course to the S.E. for about 2 miles 160 yds. (3,300 meters). A wide gap occurs here, after which it runs to the S.W., and is lost in the open fields at the end of about 1 j miles (2 kilometers). "That this is the old city- wall," says Weissbach, "there can be no doubt, and the name Sur, city-wall, given it by the



      Arabs, proves that they have fully recognized its nature. At the northern end it exists in its origi nal extent, the plain out of which it rises being the old bed of the Euphrates, which, in the course of the cents., has become filled up by the desert- sand. At the period of Babylon s glory, the river had a much straighter course than at present, but

      Stone Object Containing an Inscription of Nebuchadrezzar I.

      it reoccupies its old bed about 000 meters (656 yds.) S. of Babil, leaving it afterward to make a sharp bend to the \\\\\\\\V. From tho point where the city wall first becomes recognizable on the N. to its apparent southernmost extremity is about 3 miles.

      On the W. side of the river the traces of the wall are much less, the two angles, with the parts ad joining them, being all that is recog- 19. The nizable. Beginning on the N. where Western the Euphrates has reached its rnid- Walls point in its course through the city,

      it runs westward about 547 yds. (500 meters) W.S.W., and then, bending almost at a right angle S.S.E., turns E. again toward the Euphrates, but is lost in the plain before reaching

      the river. The distance of the two angles from each other is about 1 mile, 208 yds. (1,800 meters), and its distance from the Euphrates is at most f of a mile (1 kilometer). The western portion of the city therefore formed a rectangle with an area of about 1.8 miles, and the eastern quarter, with the projection on the N., Gj square miles. According to Fried. Delitzsch, the size of Babylon was about the same as Munich or Dresden. This, of course, is an estimate from the extant remains as has been indicated above, there was probably a large suburban extension beyond the walls, which would account for the enormous size attributed to the city by the ancients.

      Among the Arabs, the northern ruin is called

      Babil, though it is only the remains of a palace. It g

      present height is 30 meters (OS ft.,

      20. The 5 in.), and its rectangular outline is Palaces still easily recognizable. Its sides face

      the cardinal points, the longest being those of the N. and S. This building, which measures 100 meters (109 yds.), was well protected by the city wall on the N. and E., the Euphrates protecting it on the W. Continuing to the S., the path at present leads through orchards and palm- groves, beyond which is a rugged tract evidently containing the remains of ancient structures, prob ably of inconsiderable height. After further palm- groves, an enormous ruin is encountered, steep on the E. and S., sloping on the N. and \\\\\\\\V. This is the Casr (Qaxr), also called EitijclllMi (Mujclli- bafi), "the overturned," identical with the great palace of Nabopolassar and his son Nebuchadrezzar, referred to so prominently by the latter king in his records. Its longest side skirts the old Euphrates bed, and measures 300 meters (328 yds.). Its sur face is very uneven, projections of 15 meters (over 49 ft.) alternating with deep depressions. On the N.W. side enormous walls of exceedingly hard yellow brick still tower to a considerable height. S. of this the plain, broken only by a few inconsider able mounds, extends for a distance of half a kilo meter (ft mile), and terminates on the S. with another enormous ruin-mound, called Ishan Amran ibn *Ali. It measures (500 meters ((550 vds.) from N. to S., and 400 (437 yds.) from E. "to W., its average height being 25 meters (82 ft.). About the middle, and close to each other, are two Moslem domed tombs, the first called Ibrahim al-Khalil ("Abraham the Friend" [of Clod] probably a late addition to the name of another Abraham than the Patriarch), and the other Amran ibn All, from which the ruin receives its modern name.

      Near the S. termination of the plain on which the

      village of Jim-jimeh lies, there is a square depression

      several yards deep, measuring nearly

      21. The 100 meters (over 100 yds.) each way. Site of In the middle of this depression, the Babylon s sides of which do not quite face the Great cardinal points, there rises, to a height Tower of about 13 ft ., a platform of sun-dried

      brick about 00 meters (197 ft.) each way, its sides being parallel with the outer boundary of the depression. This depression, at present called fiahan, "the dish," is partly filled with foundation- water. Centered in its southern side is a rectangular hollowing-out similarly formed, about 50 meters (104 ft.) long, extending toward the ruin called Amran.

      E. of the Qasr and Emjellibeh are several mounds bearing the name of Ehmcrch, so called from the

      principal mound on the S.E., named

      22. The Ishan al-Oheimar, "the red ruin," Central from the color of its bricks. Close to and South- the S.E. corner of the Qasr lies the ern Ruins ruin called M<rkcs, "the central-point,"

      and to the S. of that again is a long and irregularly shaped mound bearing the name of

      Babel, Babylon Babel, Tower of



      Ixli<in <il-Axtr/i<l, "the black ruin." From this enumeration of the principal remains on the site of Babylon, it- will be easily seen that public build ings in this, the most ancient, quarter of the city, were exceedingly numerous. Indeed, the district \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\as regarded as bring of such importance that the .surrounding walls were not thought altogether suffi cient to protect it, so another seemingly isolated rampart, on the E., was built, running N. and S., as an additional protection.

      The remains on the western side of the river are insignificant, the changed course of the river being in all probability responsible for the destruction of at least, .some of the buildings.

      There is much work to be done before a really complete reconstruction of the oldest quarter of Babylon can be attempted; but some- 23. A Walk thing may be said about the sights to through be seen when taking a walk through

      Babylon the more interesting portion, which, as we know from Herodotus narrative, could be visited by strangers, though it is possible that permission had to be obtained beforehand. Entering by the I ras-gate, some distance to the E. of the Euphrates, one found oneself in An-ibur- xnlii i. the Festival-street, which was a continuation of the royal roadway without the inner wall, com ing from the S. This street ran alongside the Arah- tu canal, on its western bank. After a time, one had the small temple of Xinip on the right (on the other side of the canal), and E-sagila, the great temple of Belus, on the left. This celebrated shrine was dedicated to Merodach and other deities associ ated with him, notably his spouse Zer-panitu" 1 ( = Juno), and Nebo, "the teacher," probably as the one who inculcated Merodach s faith. The shrine of Merodach therein, which was called K-l.nn, is said by Nebuchadrezzar to have been magnificently decorated, and into the temple itself that king had caused to be brought many costly gifts, acquired by him in the lands over which he had dominion. Connected with E-sagila on the X.W. by a causeway and probably a staircase, was the great, temple- tower E-tetnen-an-ki, which, as is indicated above, is not now represented by a tower, but by a depres sion, the bricks having been employed, it is said, to repair the Ilindiyeh canal. This great build ing was a striking monument, of the city, and must have been visible for a considerable distance, its height being something over 300 ft. The stages of which it was composed are thought to have been colored like those of the similar tower laid bare by the French excavations at Khorsabad (Dur- Stirrii-Klcln) in Assyria. Causeways or streets united this building with Aa-ibur-sabu, the festi val-street along which the traveler is supposed to be proceeding. Continuing to the N., the visitor crossed a canal at right angles, named I/ihil- Ijfi/alli., "may he [the god] bring fertility," and found himself immediately opposite the royal palace the extensive building now known as the Qasr. According to Weissbach, its area occupied no less than 4 hectares (rather more than 1 1 acres) and it was divided, as we know from the inscrip tions of Nebuchadrezzar, into two parts, connected by a corridor. The building was richly decorated, as the Babylonians understood such things, the interior walls being lined with enameled brick and other material.

      Passing along the eastern side of the palace, the visitor came to the Istar-gate a massive doorway faced with enameled brick in Nebuchadrezzar s time, and decorated with colored enameled reliefs of the lion, the bull and the dragon of Babylon. On the right of this gateway was to be seen the temple of the goddess Nin-mah, Merodach s spouse a temple of sun-dried brick with traces of white

      coloring. It was a celebrated shrine of the Baby lonians, in the usual architectural style with re cessed buttresses, but modest from our modern point of view. Nin-mah was the goddess of repro duction, who, under the name of Aruru, had aided Merodach to create mankind, hence the honor in which she was held by the Babylonians.

      The Istar-gate was apparently a part- of the more ancient fort iticat ions of Babylon, but which por tion of the primitive city it enclosed is

      24. The doubtful. In the time of Nebuchad- Istar-Gate rez/ar it pierced the continuation, as and the it. were, of the wall on the western "Middle- bank of the river. Passing through Palace" this gateway, the visitor saw, on the

      \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ ., the middle-palace," an enormous structure, built by Nebuchadrezzar, as he boasts, in 1.") days a statement which seems somewhat, of an exaggeration, when we come to consider the massiveness of the walls, some of which have a thickness of several yards. He describes this as having been "a fortress" (dtiru), "mountainlike" (.sw/u///.s-), and on its summit he built an abode for himself a "great palace," which was joined with his father s palace on the S. of the intervening wall. It is possibly this latter which was built in 15 days not the whole structure, including the fortress. It was raised "high as the forests," and decorated with cetlar and all kinds of costly woods, its doors being of palm, cedar, cypress, ebony(?) and ivory, framed in silver and gold, and plated with copper. The thresholds and hinges of its gates were bronze, and the cornice round its top was in (an imitation of) lapis-la/.uli. It was a house for men to admire; and it is not improbable that this was the palace upon which he was regarded as having been walk ing when he referred to "great Babylon," which he had built.

      But the street Aa-ibur-sabu, along which the

      visitor is conceived to be walking, was also a highly

      decorated causeway, fitted for the

      25. The pathway of the great gods. Its Festival- width varied from 11 to 22 yds., and Street it was paved with regularly hewn

      and fitted natural stones limestone and a brownish-red stone with white veins while its walls were provided with a covering of brick enameled in various colors with representations of lions, some of them in relief. The inscriptions which it bore were white on a rich dark-blue ground, also enameled. There were various other streets in Babylon, but these have still to be identified.

      At the end of the Procession-street, and at right angle to it, was the Merodach canal, which com municated directly with the Euphra-

      26. The tes. At this point also, and forming Chamber its end-portion, was the Chamber of of the Fates (Parak ximdtr), where, yearly, Fates the oracles were asked and declared.

      In close connection with this was the Temple of Offerings (Bit nike) or festival-house (Bit dkiti). Concerning these places more information is needed, but it would seem that, before Nebuchad rezzar s time, the Chamber of Fates was simply decorated with silver he, however, made it glorious with pure gold. It is at this point that the Proces sion-street is at its widest. The position of the Temple of Offerings is at present uncertain.

      What may have lain on the other side of the Arahtu-canal, which here made a bend to the N.W.,

      and flowed out of the Euphrates some-

      27. The what higher up, is uncertain; but in Northern the extreme N. of the city was the Palace and palace now represented by the ruin the Gardens called Babil. This was likewise built

      bv Nebuchadrezzar, but it may be doubted whether it was really founded by him.



      Babel, Babylon Babel, Tower of

      The 1 presence of traces of wells here made Hormuzd Rassam think that this WHS probably the site of the Hanging Gardens, but further exploration is needed to decide the point, though it may be re garded as not unlikely that this identification is correct. In that case it, would represent the palace shown in the Assyr saloon at the British Museum a building apparently protected by three walls, and adorned with columns resting on the backs of lions in an attitude of walking. On the adjoining slab is a representation of a small building also with columns on a hill. A figure of a king sculp tured on a stele is seen on (.he left, with an altar in front of it, showing that divine honors were paid to him. The hill is thickly wooded with trees which may be olives, poplars, etc, and on the right is a series of arches on which other trees are planted. Irrigation channels stretch in a long stream to the left, and in shorter streams to the right. As this belongs to the time of Assur-bani-apli, about (150 BC, andj efers to that king s operations against his brother Samas-sum-uktn, the king of Babylon, it is clear that something similar to the Hanging ( !ar- dcns existed before the time of Nebuchadrezzar, and therefore, if it was his queen who had them made, before the time of their reputed founder. This would be the point first reached by the Assyr army when advancing to the attack. Such a park as is represented here with its hills and streams, and thickly planted trees, must have made the palace in the vicinity the pleasant est, in all probability, in all Babylonia, and excited the admiration of every one who visited the sights of the city.

      The architectural history of the city of Babylon has still to be written, but something is already

      known about it, especially its central 28. Histor- point of interest, the great temple ical Refer- E-sagila, wherein Merodach was wor- ences to shipped. The 5th year of Sumu-la-ila Babylonian was known as that in which the great Buildings fortress of Babylon was built; and

      his 22d was that in which a throne of gold and silver was completed anil made for Mero- dach s supreme abode (parnmaha). Later on Abil-Sin, in his 17th year, made a thronei?) for Samas of Babylon; and IJammu-rabi, in his 3rd, 12th and 14th years, also made thrones for the gods Nannar of Babylon (the Moon-god), Zer-paniJu" 1 , Merodach s consort, and Istarof Babylon. Samsu- iluna, his son, in his Olh year, placed a "praying statue" in E-sagila before Merodach, followed, in his Si h, by the dedication of some bright -shining object (mace?) of gold and silver, to the god; and on that occasion it is stated that he made E-sagila to shine like the stars of heaven. Passing over many other references to kings who adorned the temples of the city, the work done there by Agu- kakrime (cir 14X0 BC) may be mentioned. This ruler, who belonged to the Kassite dynasty, not only brought back the images of Merodach and Zer-panitu" 1 to their temple, but also restored the building and its shrine, and made rich offerings thereto. Later on, after the destruction of the city by Sennacherib, his son Esarhaddon, and his grand sons Samas-sum-ukin, king of Babj Ion, and Assur- bani-apli, king of Assyria, all took part in the restor ation of Babylon s temples and palaces. The work of Nabopolassar and Nebuchadrezzar has already been referred to. In 330 BC (reign of Alexander the Great), an attempt was made, by the; tithes of the pious, to clear away the rubbish around E-sangil (E-sagila), but to all appearance no real restorations were made or, at least, the- stage at which they could have been put in hand was not reached. In the year 269 BC Antiochus Soter claims, like Nebuchadrezzar and other Bab

      kings, to have restored the temples E-sagila and E-zida (the latter at Borsippa). Though in late times the temples were more or less dilapidated, the services to all appearance 1 continued to be per formed, and may even have gone on until well in the Christian era, Bab religion and philosophy being still held in honor as late as the 4th cent . The downfall of Babylon as a city began with the found ing of Seleucia on the Tigris, in the reign of Seleucus Nicator (after 312 BC). The inhabitants of Baby lon soon began to migrate to this new site, and the ruined houses and walls of the old capital ultimately became the haunts of robbers and outlaws. It is said that the walls were demolished by later (Se- leucid) kings on that account, and it is not improb able that, wit h the walls, any houses which may have remained habitable were cleared away. Fortunate ly, tin 1 palaces restored by Nebuchadrezzar were too firmly built to be easily demolished, hence their preservation to the present day.

      LITKU \\\\\\\\TI-RK. Fried. Delitzseh. Bnt-l ami Bible, 1903; Fr. 11. \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\Vissbiicli, /;,,x St<nlt>,il,l von Jinbi/lmi, 1004; R. Koldcway, l)i, T<-mi>d von Bnbylon und Borsippa, 1911.

      T. (i. PlNCHKS

      BABEL, TOWER OF: This expression does not occur in the OT, but is used popularly for the tower (*~y^2 , niii/fidal) built by the inhabitants of the world who, traveling in the East, built a city on the Plain of Shinar, with a tower "whose top may reach unto heaven" an expression which is re garded as meaning "a very high tower."

      There was a great difference, however, between

      a Can ntiijhilnl or watchtower, and the great Tower

      at Babylon. The watchtower was

      1. General simply a high structure, probably Form of without any special shape or form, Babylonian which depended upon the will of the Temple- architect and the nature of the ground Towers upon which it was erected. The

      Tower of Babel or Babylon, however, was a structure peculiar to Babylonia and Assyria. According to all accounts, and judging from the ruins of the various erections extant in those countries, Bab towers were always rectangular, built in stages, and provided with an inclined ascent continued along each side to the top. As religious ceremonies were performed thereon, they were generally sur mounted by a chapel in which sacred objects or images were kept .

      These erections had, with the Babylonians, a special name: ziijt/iirutu, meaning, apparently,

      "peak," or the highest point of a

      2. Their mountain, this word being applied Babylonian to the mountain-height upon which Name rt-napistim, the Bab Noah, offered

      sacrifices on coming forth from the ark (or ship) when the waters of the great Flood had sufficiently subsided. It has also been thought that they were used as observatories when the Babylonians studied the starry heavens. This is probable, but as these structures were of no great height, it is possible" that, in the clear atmosphere of the Bab plains, there was no real necessity to go above the surface of the earth when making their observations.

      There has been much difference of opinion as to

      the geographical position of the Tower of Babe 1 !.

      Most writers upon the subject, fol-

      3. Where- lenving the 1 tradition handed down abouts of by the; Jews anel Arabs, have ielentifieel the Tower it with the great Temple 1 of Nebo of Babel in the 1 city of Borsippa, now called

      the Birs-Nimroud (explained as a corruption of Birj Nimrouil, "Tower of Nimrexl"). This building, however, notwithstanding its impor tance, was to all appearance never regareled by the Babylonians as the Tower of Babel, for the very



      good reason that it was not situated in Babylon, but in Borsippa, which, though called, in later times, "the second Babylon," was naturally not the original city of that name. The erection regarded by the Babylonians as the great Tower of their ancient city was E-temen-ana-ki, "t he Temple of t he founda tion of heaven and earth," called by Nabopolassar and Nebuchadrezzar ziqqurat Bdbili, "the Tower of Babylon" the world-renowned fane dedicated to Merodach and his consort Zer-panitu ", Baby lon s chief deities.

      _ This structure was situated in the southern por tion of the city, not far from the right bank of the Euphrates, and according to Weiss- 4. Its Posi- bach, is mnv represented by a depres- tion at sion within which is the original rec-

      Babylon tangular core of unbaked brick. From its shape, the Arabs have made this site Sahan, the dish." These remains of the great temple-tower of Babylon, within the memory of men not so very old, towered, even in its ruined state, high above the surrounding plain. The burnt bricks of the ancient Babylonians, however, who "had brick for stone, and slime [bitumen] for mortar" (11 3m), are still good and have a commercial value, so they were all cleared out, with whatever precious material in the way of antiquities they may have contained, to repair, it is said, the banks of the Hindiyeh Canal. Certain records in the shape of conical "cylinders," however, came into the mar ket, and were acquired by the museums of Europe and America . As t hese refer t o t he rest orat ion of t he building by Nabopolassar, and the part taken by his sons Nebuchadrezzar and Nabu-sum-lisir in t he cere monies attending the rebuilding, it is very probable that they formed part, of the spoils acquired.

      E-temen-ana-ki, to give the Bab (Sumerian)

      name, consisted of six stages built upon a platform,

      and provided with a sanctuary at

      5. A Baby- the top. A tablet seemingly giving Ionian De- a detailed description of this build- scription of ing was for a time in the hands of the the Tower late George Smith in the year 1876.

      Unfortunately he had not ti me to give a tr of the document, or to publish the text, but hisjletailed account of it (Ml,, /i/iciint, February 12, lS7(i) is exceedingly interesting.

      First there was the outer court called the "grand court," measuring, according to G. Smith s esti mate, 1,156 ft. by 900 ft., and a smaller one, called "the court of Istar and Zagaga," 1,056 ft, by 450 ft. Round the court were six gates admitting to the temples: (1) the grand gate; (2) the gate of the rising sun (east); (3) the greal gate; (4) t ho gate of the colossi; (5) the gate of the canal; and (6) the gate 1 of the tower-view.

      After this came a space or platform apparently

      walled a ki-gallu square in form, and measuring

      3 ku each way. Its size is doubtful,

      6. The as the value of the ku is unknown. The Platform sides of this inclosure faced the cardinal

      points. In its walls were four gates, one on each side, and named from the points toward which they looked. Within this inclosure stood a large building measuring 10 gar (Smith: 200 ft.) each way. Unfortunately, the name of t his erection was damaged, so that its nature and use are uncertain.

      Round the base of the Tower were small temples or chapels dedicated to the various gods of the

      Babylonians. On the E. were 16

      7. The shrines, the principal of them being Chapels dedicated to Nebo and Tasmetu, his and Shrines spouse; on the N. were two temples

      dedicated to Ea (Ae) and Nusku re spectively; on the S. was a single temple to the two great gods, Ami and Bel (Enlil?). It was on the W., however, that the principal buildings lay

      a double house with a court between the wings 35 cubits (Smith: 58 ft.) wide. These two wings were not alike in dimensions, the erection on one side being 100 cubits by 20 (166 ft. by 34 ft.) and on the other 100 cubits by 65 (166 ft, by 108 ft.). In these western chambers stood the couch of the god, and the golden throne mentioned by Herodotus, with other objects of great value. The couch was stated to have measured 9 cubits by 4 (15 ft bv 6ft. 8 in.).

      Building Inscription of Nabopolassar.

      (Giviugan account of his restoration of the Tow,. r of Babel.)

      In the center of these groups of buildings stood

      the great Tower in stages, called bv the Babylonians

      "Hie Tower of Babel" (ziqqurat Bdbili).

      8. The The stages decreased from the lowest Tower in upward, but each was square in plan. Its First The first or foundation-stage was 15 Stage gar each way by ~>\\\\\\\\ gar high (300 ft.

      by 110 ft. high), and seems to have been decorated with the usual double recesses which are a characteristic of Assyr-Bab architecture.

      The second stage was 13 gar square and 3 gur high (260 ft. by 60 ft.). A term was applied to it

      which G. Smith did not understand,

      9. The but he notes that it probably had Remaining sloping sides. The stages from the Stages 3d to the 5th were all of equal height,

      namely, 1 gar (20 ft.), and were respectively 10 gar (200 ft.), SJ gar (170 ft.) and 7 gar (140 ft.) square. The dimensions of the 6th stage were omitted, but may be restored in accord ance with the others, namely, 5| qar so (110 ft ) by I gar (20ft.) high.

      On this was raised what Smith calls the 7th stage,

      namely, the upper temple or sanctuary of the god

      Bel-Merodach, 4 gar long, 3 gar

      10. The broad and 2-J- gar high (80, 60 and 50 Chapel at ft. respectively). He does not men- the Top tion the statue of the god, but it may

      be supposed that it was set up in this topmost erection. The total height of the tower above its foundation was therefore 15 gar (300 ft ),


      the same as the breadth of its base. It cannot be said that it was by any means a beautiful erection, but there \\\\\\\\vas probably some symbolism in its measurements, and in appearance 1 it probably resembled (except the decoration) the temple- 1o\\\\\\\\ver of Calah us restored in the frontispiece to Layard s Monuments of Xincrch, 1st series, in which a step-pyramid with a similarly high basement- stage is shown.

      With this detailed description, which is quite what would be expected in a Bab account of such

      a celebrated fane, the description in 11. Herod- Herodotus (i. 181 ff) agrees. Restates otus De- that it was a temple square in form, scription two furlongs (1,1213 ft.) each way, in the

      midst of which was built a solid tower u furlong square (nearly (507 ft.). This, however, must have been the platform, which, with the six stages and the chapel on The top, would make up the total of eight stages of which Herodotus speaks. The ascent, by which 1 he top was reached lie de scribes as running outside round about all the towers" wording which suggests, though not necessarily, that it was spiral--!. e. one had to walk round the structure 7 times to reach the top. Representations on Bab boundary -stones suggest that this view would be correct," though a .sym metrical arrangement of inclined paths might have been constructed which would have greatly im proved the design. At the middle of the ascent, Herodotus says, there was u stopping-place with seats to rest upon, which rather favors this idea. At the top of the last tower there was a large; cell, and in the cell a large couch was laid, well covered; and by it a golden table. There was no image t here, nor did any human being spend the night there, except only a woman of the natives of the place chosen by the god, "as say the Chaldeans who are the priests of this god." These men told Herodotus that the god often came to the cell, and rested upon the couch, "but," h:> adds, "I do not believe them." After mentioning parallels to this at Egyp Thebes and T.itara in Lycia, lie goe- on to speak of another cell below (that referred to in (i. Smith s tablet i wherein was a great image of Zeus (Bel-Merodach) sitting, with a footstool and a large table, all of gold, and weighing no less than X. K) talents. Out side of this cell was an aliar to the god, made of gold; and also another altar, whereon full-grown animals were sacrificed, the golden altar being for sucklings only. The Chaldaeuns also told him that there was in the precincts of the building, a statue 12 cubits high, and of solid gold. Darius Hystaspis desired to take possession of this valuable" object, but did not venture. His son Xerxes, however, was not so considerate of the feelings of the people and the priesthood, for he also killed the priest when he forbade him to meddle with it.

      The Bible record does not state who the people

      were who journeyed in the East and built the city

      and the Tower. The indefinite "they"

      12. The might be taken to mean whatever Builders people were there at the t ime the record of the was written, and probably presupposes Tower that the reader would certainly know.

      As the Tower of Babel bears, in the native inscriptions, a Sumero-Akkadiun name, it may be supposed thai the builders referred to be longed to that race. It is noteworthy that nothing is said in den concerning the stoppage of the

      erection, though they ceased to build

      13. Tradi- the city. Bochurt, records a Jewish tions Con- tradition which makes the tower to cerning Its have been split through to its founda- Destruction lion by fin; which fell from heaven

      suggested probably by the condition of the tower at "the second Babylon," i.e. the

      Birs Nimroud. Another tradition, recorded by Eusebius (Prep. Er/nttj., ix; Cfironicoii, 13; ,S (//<"- eel. Chron., 44) makes it to have been blown down by the winds; "but when it approached the heavens, the winds assisted 1 he gods, and overturned tin- work upon its contrivers: and the gods introduced a diversity of tongues among men, who, until that time, had all spoken the same; language." Tin- place where they built the Tower was called Baby lon, on account of the confusion of languages. Here we have again the statement as

      14. The in den that the meaning of Babel is Meaning "confusion." This, as is well known, of "Babel" is based upon the purely H:>b e y-

      mological law, which makes billiil, "to confuse," or "mingle," assume a reduplicate form; but as far as the cuneiform inscriptions, which are now very numerous, give us information, Babel, from baldln, "to mingle" (the root in ques tion), was an impossibility. But on the Bab side-, that the rendering of the name as Bab-ili (-lldni), "gate of god" ("of the gods") was a folk-etymology, is undoubted, notwithstanding that the Sumerb- Akkadian form Ka-i/int/ini, with the same meaning, is far from ran-. It is noteworthy, however, that one of the forms used by Nebuchadrezzar is Bub- itttni, with the minimal ion or "cmming," which is a characteristic of the Bab language; moreover, a place-name Bnbalam also occurs, which may be a still earlier, and perhaps the original, form." Not withstanding that one would like to see in Bnbuluit/, "the place of bringing together," and in Babilam, "the bringer together," the termination -ant would seem to be an insurmountable difficulty.

      That the building of the city would have been

      stopped when the confusion of "tongues took place

      is natural the depart ure of the greater

      15. The part of the inhabitants made this Ultimate inevitable. \\\\\\\\Yhen the population in- Destruction creased again, the building of the city of the was continued, with the result that Tower Babylon ultimately became the great est city of the then known world. The

      Tower, notwithstanding what had been said as to its destruction, remained, and when, as happened from time to time, its condition became ruinous, some energetic Bab king would restore it. Alex ander and Philip of Macedon began clearing away the rubbish to rebuild the great temple of Belu s (Bel-Merodach) connected with it and there is hardly any doubt that the Tower would have been restored likewise, but the untimely death of the former, and the deficient mental caliber of tin- latter for tin- ruling of a great empire, put an end to the work. The Tower t hen-fore remained unrepaired "The tower was exceedingly tall. The third part of it sank down into the- ground, a second third was burned down, and the remaining third was standing untH the time of the destruction of Baby lon" (Rabbi Yehanan, Sanhedhnn, 101), 1).

      Concerning the reputed intention of the builders

      of the Tower, to carry it as high as the heavens,

      that, notwithstanding the Tulm and

      16. No other writings, may be dismissed at Idea of once. The intention was to build a Reaching very high tower, and that is all that Heaven is implied by the words employed.

      That the Babylonians would have liked their tower to reach heaven may be conceded, and the idea may be taken as symbolical of Baby lon s pride, the more especially as they regarded it as "the house- of the foundation of heaven and earth." Though at present brought lower than the other temple-towers of Babylonia, its renown remains as one of the great glories of that renowned capital. Dedicated as it was to the gods whom they wor shipped, and chiefly to the glory of Meroduch, the




      representative of Bab monotheism, the Babyloni ans descendants, the native; Christians, have no reason to remember this erection of their forefathers with shame, but rather with pride. The rallying- point of nations, Babylon, while it existed, was always a great commercial center, and many are t he languages which have resounded in the Tower s vicinity. The confusion of tongues led to the Jewish fiction that the air of Babylon and Borsippa caused forget fulness, and was therefore injurious to students of the Law, causing them to forget it as the builders of the Tower had of old forgotten their speech (Hashi, tiatilu-dhnn, JO .), 1). This, however, did not prevent the rabbis of Babylon from being more celebrated than those of the Holy Land, and even of Jerus itself. See also ASTRONOMY,

      T. (!. PINTIIKS

      BABI, ba b! (A, Ba|3i, n,,l>i: B, Bair|p, Haifr) = Bebai (E/r 8 11). The descendants of B. re turned with Ezra to Jerus (I Esd 8 37).

      BABYLON IN THE NT: Babvlon <Ba|3v\\\\\\\\wv, Jliilt/tlon), is used in XT in at least two different senses:

      In Mt 1 11.12.17; Acts 7 43 the old Mosop city

      is plainly meant. These all refer to the captivity

      in Babylon and do not demand any

      1. Meso- further discussion.

      potamian All the references to Babylon in

      Babylon Rev are evidently symbolic. Some of UK; most important passages are 14 S; 16 1 .); 17 ">; 18 2.10.21. In 17 Babylon is designated as miixtf rion. This undoubtedly in dicates that the name is to be under-

      2. Symbolic stood fig. A few interpreters have be- Sense lieved that Jerus was the city that was

      designated as Babylon, but most schol ars hold that Rome was the city that was meant. That interpretation goes back at least to the time of Tertullian (A<lr. Marc., hi. 1:5). This interpretation was adopted by Jerome and Augustine and has been commonly accepted by the church. There are some striking facts which point to Rome as the city that is designated as Babylon.

      (1) The characteristics ascribed to this Babylon apply to Rome rather than to any other city of that age: (<i) as ruling over the kings of the. earth (17 iSi; (It) as sitting on seven mountains (17 ,)); (c) as the; center of the world s merchandise (18 3.11-13); (d) as the corrupt er of the nations (17 2; 18 3; 192); (<) as the persecutor of the saints (17 6).

      (2) Rome is designated as Babylon in the Sibyl line Oracles (5 113), and this is perhaps an early Jewish portion of the book. The comparison of Rome to Babylon is common in Jewish apocalyptic literature (see 2 Esd and the Apoc Bar).

      (3) Rome was regarded by both Jews and Chris tians as being antagonistic to the kingdom of (lod, and its downfall was confidently expected. This conception is in accord with the predicted downfall of Babylon (Rev 14 S; 18 2.10-21). As Babylon had been the oppressor of Israel, it was natural that this new power, which was oppressing the people of God, should be designated as Babylon.

      In 5 13 Babylon is designated as the place from

      which 1 Pet was written. Down to the time of the

      Reformation this was generally under-

      3. In 1 Peter stood to mean Rome, and two cursives

      added "en Roma." Since the Reforma tion, many scholars have followed Erasmus and Calvin and have urged that the Mesop Babylon is meant. Three theories should be noted:

      (I) That the Egyp Babylon, or Old Cairo, is meant. Strabo (XVII, 807) who wrote as late as 18 AD, says the Egyp Babylon was a strong for tress, founded by certain refugees from the Mesop

      Babylon. Bui during the 1st cent, this was not much more than a military station, and it is quite improbable that Peter would have gone there. There is no tradition that connects Peter in any way with Egypt.

      (2) That the statement is to be taken lit. and that the Mesop Babylon is meant. Many good scholars hold to this view, and among these are eiss and Thayer, but there is no evidence that Peter was ever in Babylon, or that there was even a church there during the 1st cent. Mark and Silvanus an; associated with Peter in the letter and there is no tradition that connects either of them with Babylon. According to Jos (Ant, XVIII, i\\\\\\\\, 5 .)), the Jews at this lime had largely been driven out of Babylon and were; confined to neighboring towns, and it seems improbable that Peter would have made that his missionary field.

      (3) That Rome was the city that was desig nated as Babylon. The Apocalypse would indi cate that the churches would understand the symbolic reference, and it seems to have been so understood until the time of the Reformation. The denial of this position was in line with the effort to refute Peter s supposed connection with the Rom church. Ancient tradition, however, makes it seem quite probable that Peter did make a visit to Rome (see Light foot, Clement, II, -4<l3ff).

      Internal evidence helps to substantiate the theory that Rome was the place from which the letter was written. Mark sends greetings (1 Pet 5 13), and we know he had been summoned to Rome by the apostle Paul (2 Tim 411). The whole passage, "She that is in Babylon, elect, together with you, saluteth you," seems to be fig., and that being true, it is natural that Babv lon should have been used instead of Rome. The character of the letter as a whole would point to Rome as the place of writing. Ramsay thinks this book is impregnated with Rom thought beyond any other book in the Bible (see The Church in the Ii mii, Empire, 2S(>). A. W. FORTUNK

      BABYLON IN OT. See BABEL, BABYLON. BABYLONIA, bab-i-ld ni-a:

      1. Mounds

      2. Kxplorations

      3. Names

      4. Semites

      5. Siimcrians

      6. Home of the Semites

      7. [mmigration S. Language

      9. Script.

      10. Architecture

      11. Art

      12. Literature

      13. Libraries

      14. Personal Names

      !.">. History of Kingdoms

      lf>. Kish

      17. Lagash

      is. Adah

      19. Nippur

      20. Krech

      21. Larsa

      22. Shuruppak

      23. Kisurra

      24. I m ma 2.->. Accad 20. Opis 27. Basime 2.s. Drehem

      29. rrunima

      30. First Dynasty of Babylon

      31. Sealand Dynasty

      32. Cassite Dynasty

      33. Cassite Rule

      34. Isin Dynasty

      35. Nebuchadrezzar I 3C>. Sealand Dynasty 37. Bit-Ba/i Dynasty 3S. Other Rulers

      39. Babylonian Dynasty

      10. \\\\\\\\eo-Babylonian Rulers

      41. Persian Rulers of Bab LITERATURE

      Babylonia is a plain which is made up of the alluvial deposits of the mountainous regions in the North, where the Tigris and Euphrates have their source. The land is bounded on the N. by Assyria and Mesopotamia; on the E. by Elam, separated by the mountains of Elam; on the S. by the sea marshes, and the country Kaldu (Chaldaea); and on t he \\\\\\\\V. by the Syrian desert. Some of the cities of the lower country were seaport towns in the early period, but now are far inland. This land-making process continues even at the present time at the rate of about 70 ft. a year.

      This plain, in the days when Babylonia nourished, sustained a dense population. It was covered with a network of canals, skilfully planned and regulated,



      Babi Babylonia

      which brought prosperity to the land, because of the wonderful fertility of the soil. The neglect of these canals and doubtless, also, the change of climate, have resulted in altered conditions in the country. It has become a cheerless waste. Dur ing some months of the year, when the inundations take place, large portions of the land are partially covered with swamps and marshes. At other times it looks like a desolate plain.

      Throughout the land there are seen, at the present

      time, ruin-hills or mounds of accumulation of debris,

      which mark the site of ancient cities.

      1. Mounds Some of these cities were destroyed

      in a very early era, and were never rebuilt. Others were occupied for millenniums, and their history extends far into the Christian era. The antiquities generally found in t he upper st nil um of the mounds which were occupied up to so late a period, show that they were generally inhabited by the Jews, who lived there after the Babylonians had disappeared.

      The excavations conducted at various sites have resulted in the discovery, besides antiquities of

      almost every character, of hundreds

      2. Explora- of thousands of inscriptions on clay tions and stone, but principally on 1 1n former material. At Tello more than

      60,000 tablets were found, belonging largely to the administrative- archives of the temple of the . id millennium BC. At Nippur about f>0,000 inscrip tions were found, many of these also belonging to temple archives. But about 20,000 tablets and fragments found in that city came- from the library of the school of the priests, which had been written in the 3d millennium BC. At Sippar, fully 30,000 tablets were found, many being of the same general character, also representing a library. At Delehem and Djokha, temple archives of the same period as those found at Tello have come to light in great numbers, through the illicit diggings of Arabs. Babylon, Borsippa, Kish, Erech and many other cities have yielded to the explorer and the Arab diggers inscribed documents of every period of Bab history, and embracing almost every kind of lit., so that the museums and libraries of America and Europe have stored up unread inscriptions numbering hundreds of thousands. Many also

      Bronze Goat Head from Tello.

      are in the possession of private individuals. After the work of excavating Babylonia has been com pleted and the inscriptions deciphered, many of the pre-Christian cents, in Bab history will be better known than some of those of our Christ ian era. The

      ancient history of the Babylonians will be recon structed by the help of these original sources. Lengthy family genealogies will be known, as indeed in some instances is now the case, as well as the Bab contemporaries of Ezekiel, Abraham and all the other Bib. characters.

      Silver Vase of Entemcna. M Millennium BC.

      The (!r name of Babylonia which is in use at the present time is derived from the name of the city of Babylon, the capital and chief city 3. Names of the land from the time of the First Dynasty of Babylon, about 2000 BC (see BAHYLOXJ. The name of the land in the very earliest period which is represented by antiquities, and even inscribed objects, is not known. But in a comparatively early age t he northern part is called t ri, and the southern part, Engi or En-gira. The second part of the latter name is perhaps the same as in Su-gir, which is thought to be the origin of the ()T Shinar. Su-gir and Su-mer are names of the same country. And inasmuch as Mer and (lir were names of the same west Sern deity, who played an important role in the early history of Babylonia, it is not improbable that the dement Su is also to be identified \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ it h t he ancient name of Mesopotamia. Su is also in Su-bartu, the name of the country to the N. This name is also written Su-(!ir.

      Subsequent to 2000 BC the ideograms read in Sumerian, Uri and Engi, were pronounced in Seni- Bab, Accad and Sumer. The former received its name from the, capital of the kingdom Accad, one of the cities mentioned in (Jen 10 10. The title, "king of Accad and Sumer" was used by rulers as late as the 1st millennium BC.

      The name by which the land is known in the 2d millennium BC is Kar-Duniash, the exact deriva tion of which is in doubt. Kar means "garden, land" in Sem and Sumerian; and Duniash being preceded by the determinative for deity, has been regarded as a name of a Cassite god. A more recently advanced explanation is that Duniash is equivalent to Bel-matdti, which means "lord of


      lands." The meaning of the name, as stated, must be regarded as undetermined.

      In the time of the late Assyr empire a nation in the extreme southern part of the land, called by the (! reeks Chaldaea, which is derived from the name Kaldu, came into existence. In the Assyr historical inscriptions the land is usually called Bit- Yakin. This people seems to have issued from Aram. Under Bib. Merodaeh-baladan they ruled Babylonia for a time. The Neo-Bub Dynasty, founded by Nabopolassar, is supposed to be Chal- daean in origin, in consequence of which the whole land in the (ir period was called C haldaea.

      The home of the Semites has been placed in different parts of the ancient world. A number

      of scholars look to Arabia and others 6. Home of to Africa for their original habitation, the Semites although their theories generally are

      not based upon much archaeological evidence. Unquestionably, the previous, if not the original home of the Sem Babylonians, is to be found in the land of the; Amorites, that is in Syria. In the earliest known period of Bab history, which apparently belongs to the age not very far removed from the time when the Semites entered Babylonia, Amurru was an important factor in the affairs of

      OF TIIK EARLY SrMKHi\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ PKRIOD.

      Two distinet races are found occupying the land

      when we obtain 1 he first glimpses of its history.

      The northern part is occupied by the

      4. Semites Semites, who are closely allied to the

      Amorites, Aramaeans and Arabs; and the southern part by a non-Sem people called Sumerians. Their cultures had been originally distinct, but when they first become known to us there has taken place such an amalgamation that it is only by the knowledge of other Sem cultures that it is possible to make even a partial differentia tion of what was Sem-Bab and what was Sumerian. The Semites, it would almost seem, entered t In land after the Sumerians had established themselves, but this can only be regarded as a conjecture.

      Although the earliest Sumerian settlement belongs to a remote period, few traces of the pre-historic

      Sumerian have been found. The

      5. Sumer- archaeological remains indicate that ians this non-Sem race is not indigenous

      to the land, and that when they came into the country they had already attained to a fair degree of culture. But there is no evidence, as yet, in what part of the ancient world the ele ments of their culture were evolved, although vari ous attempts have been made by scholars to locate their original home.

      the nations, and it was a land which the world con querors of Babylonia, both Sumerian and Sem, endeavored to subjugate. This points to the fact that the culture of Amurru was then already old. Egyp inscriptions fully substantiate this. We look to the land of the Amorites as the home of the Sem Babylonians, because of the important part played by the chief god of that land Amurru or I ru, in the Bab religion and nomenclature. In fact nearly all of the original names of the Sem Bab sun-deities are derived from the names and epithets of the great Sun-god of the Amorites and Aramaeans (see Anuirrn, 1()S ff). These and many other considera tions point to Amurru, or the land of the Amorites, as the previous home of the Semites who migrated into Babylonia and who eventually became masters of the land.

      The original settlements in Babylonia, as stated above, belong to a prehistoric time, but throughout

      the history of the land fresh Sem migra- 7. Immi- tions have been recognized. In the grations Isin and First Dynasty of Babylonia,

      Amorites or Canaanites seem to flood the country. In the 2d millennium a foreign people known as Cassites ruled Babylonia for nearly six centuries. The nomenclature of the period shows that many Hittites and Mittanaeans as well as Cassites




      lived in Babylonia. In the 1st millennium the thousands of names that appear in the contract lit. indicate a veritable Babel of races: Egyptians, Elamites, Persians, Modes, Tabalites, Ilittites, Cassites, Ammorites, Edomites, notably Hebrews, are among the peoples that occupied the land. The deportation of the Israelites by the Assyr kings and of the Jews by the Bab kings, find con firmation besides the historical inscriptions in the names of Hebrews living in Babylonia in the cor responding periods.

      The languages of Babylonia are Se-m and Su merian. The latter is an agglutinative 1 tongue like the Turkish, and belongs to that great

      8. Lan- unclassitiable group of languages, called guage for the sake of convenience, Turanian.

      It has not been shown, as yet, to be allied to any other known language.

      The Sem language 1 known as the Bab, with which the Assyr is practically identical, is of the common Sem stock. After the Somites entered the land, their language was greatly influenced by the Su- merian tongue. The Semites being originally de pendent upon the Sumerian scribes, with whom the script had originated, considered in connection with the fact that the highly developed culture of 1 he Sumerians greatly influenced t hat of the Semites, brought about the peculiar amalgamation known as Bab. The language is, however, distinctively Sem, but it has a very large percentage of Sumerian loan-words. Not knowing the cognate tongues of the Sumerian, and having a poor understanding of the pronunciation of that language, it is impos sible to ascertain, on the other hand, how much the Sumerian language was influenced by the Sem.

      In the late period another Sem tongue was used extensively in the land. It was not because 1 of the position occupied by the Aramaeans in the politi cal history of western Asia, that their language became the linyua fntnni of the 1st millennium BC. It must have been on account of the wide spread migrations of the people. In the time of Sennacherib it seems to have been used as the diplo matic language 1 in Assyria as well as among the Hebrews, as the opisoele in 2 K 18 2ii would show. Then wo recall the story of Belshazzar, and the 1 edicts of the late period referred to in the OT, which were 1 in Aram. (E/r 4 7, etc). In Assyria and Babylonia, many contract (ablets have boon found with Aram, reference ne>1es written upon them, showing that this was the- language 1 of those who held the documents. The Hebrews after the exile- used Aramaic. This wemld seem to point to Baby lonia as the place where they learned the 1 language-. The- Bab language and the cuneiform script con tinued to bo used until the 3el or 2d cent. BC, and perhaps oven later, but it seems that the Aram, had gem-rally supplanted it, except as the literary and le>gal language. In short the tongue 1 of the e-omrnon people or the spoken language- in all probability in the late- period was Aramaic.

      The- cuneiform writing upon clay was used both

      by the 1 Sumerians and the Somite s. Whether this

      script had its origin in the land, or

      9. Script in the oarlior homo of the- Sumerians,

      remains a questiem. It is now known that the Elamites had the-ir own system of writing as early as that of the 1 earliest found in Babylonia; and perhaps it will be found that other ancient pee)plos, who are at the- present unknown to us, also useel the cuneiform script. A writing similar to the Bab was in use at an early time in Cappadocia. The Ilittites and other peoples of that region also employed it. The origin of the use of clay as a writing material, therefore, is shrouele-d in mystery, but as stated above, the system used by the Semites in Babylemia was developed from the Sumerian.

      The script is not alphabetic, but ideographic and phonetic, in that respect similar to the; Chinese-. There are over 500 characters, each one of which has from one to many values. The- combination of two or more characters also has many values. The compilation of the value s of the 1 different signs used in various periods by both the Sumerians and Assyrians numbers at the- present about 25,000, and the number will probably roach 30,000.

      The- architecture of Babylonia is influenced by

      the fact that the 1 building mate-rial, in this alluvial

      plain, had to be of brick, which was

      10. Archi- largely sun-dried, although in certain

      tecture prosperous eras there is much evidence-

      of kiln-dried bricks having been used.

      The baked brick used in the- earliest period was the

      smallest ever employed, being about the size of the

      Brick Stamp of Sargon I.

      ordinary brick used at the present time. The size of the 1 bricks in the era prior te> the 3d millennium varied from this to about 0X10X3 in. At Nippur, Sargon ami his son Naram-Sin use-el a brick, the largest found, about 20 in. square, and about 4 in. in thickness. Following the- operations of those kings at Nippur is the- work of Tr-Engur, who used a brick about 14 in. square and nearly 4 in. in thickness. This size had boon useel at Te-llei prior to Sargon s time, and was thereafter generally employed. It remained the standard si/o of brick throughout the succeeding cents, of Bab history. Adobes, of which the greater portion of the buildings we re con structed, were usually double the- thickness of kiln- dried bricks. The- pillar made of bricks, as well as the pilaster constructed of the same material, seems to have come into use 1 at a very early age-, as is shown by the excavations at Tollo.

      A large number of Bab builders had the brick makers "employ brick stamps which gave 1 their names anel frequently their titles, besides the name of the temple for which the- bricks we re 1 intended. These enable the excavator to determine who the builders or restorers were of the buildings uncovered. Naturally, in a building like the temple of Enlil at Nippur, inscribed bricks of many builders covering a perioel of over 2,000 years were found. These by the help of building inscriptions, which have been found, enable scholars to rewrite con siderable of the history of certain Bab temples. The walls of the city were also built of clay bricks,




      principally adobes. The walls usually were of very

      great, t hickness.

      Clay was also employed extensively in the manu facture of images, weights, drains, playthings, such as animals, baby rattles, etc, and of inscriptions of every kind. Pottery, with the exception of the blue glaze employed in the late period, was usually plain, although some traces of painted pottery have been found. Although every particle of stone found in Babylonia was carried into the count rv, either by man or by inundations, still in certain periods it was used freely for statues, steles, votive objects, and in all periods for door sockets, weights and seal cylinders. Building operations in stone are scarcely known in Babylonia until perhaps the time of the greatest of all ancient builders, Nebuchadrezzar II, who laid a pavement in the causeway of Babylon, Aa-ibur-sabu, with blocks of stone from a mountain quarry. See BAHYI.OX.

      The sculpture of the Sumerians, although in most instances the hardest of materials was used, is one of the great achievements of their 11. Art civilization. Enough examples have

      been found to trace the development of their art from comparatively rude reliefs of the archaic period to the finished sculpture of (iudea s time, od millennium BC, when it reached a high degree of excellence. The work of the sculpture of this age shows spirit and originalitv in many respects unique. In the earliest period the Baby lonians attempted the round, giving frequently the main figures in full face. The perfection of detail, in their efforts to render true to life, makes their modeling very superior in the history of art . The Sumerian seems to have been able to overcome difficulties of technique which later sculptors sys tematically avoided.

      Practically every Babylonian had his own per sonal seal. lie used it as the signature is used at the present time or rather as the little stamp upon which is engraved the name of the individual at tin 1 present time, in the Orient, to make an im pression upon the letter which was written for him by a public scribe. Thousands of these ancient seals have been found. They were cut out of all kinds of stone and metal. The style in the early period was usually cylindrical, with a hole passing length wise through them. In the late period the signet was commonly used. Many of these gems were exquisitely cut by lapidists of rare ability. Some of the very best work of this art belongs to the . id millennium BC. The boldness in outline, and the action displayed are often remarkable. The most delicate saws, drills and other tools must have been employed by the early lapidist . Some of his early work is scarcely surpassed in the present age. The gold and silver smiths of the early age have left us some beautiful examples of their art and skill. A notable one is the silver vase of Entemena of Lagash, mounted on a bronze pedestal, which stands on four feet. There is a votive inscription engraved about its neck. The bowl is divided into two compartments. On the upper are engraved seven heifers, and on the lower four eagles with ex tended wings, in some respects related to the totem or the coat of arms of Lagash. While attention to detail is too pronounced, yet the whole is well rendered and indicates remarkable skill, no less striking than the well-known work of their Egyp contemporaries. Bronze was also used extensively for works of art and utensils. Some remarkable specimens of this craft have been found at Tello.

      In studying the magnificent remains of their art, one is thoroughly impressed with the skill displayed, and with the fact that there must have been a long period of development prior to the age to which these works belong, before such creations could have

      been possible. Although much of the craftsman s work is crude, there is considerable in the sculpture and engraving that is well worthy of study. And in studying these remains one is also impressed with the fact that they were produced in an alluvial plain.

      St;>.( uc of < ; udca from Trllo.

      The literature" in a narrow sense is almost entirely confined to the epics, which are of a religious char acter, and the psalms, hymns, incanta- 12. Litera- lions, omens, etc. These are the ture chief remains of their culture. See


      In a general sense almost every kind of lit. is found among the hundreds of thousands of clay tablets unearthed in Babylonia. The inscribed votive objects are of all kinds and descriptions. The stone vase taken in booty was dedicated to the deity of the conqueror. The beautiful piece of lapis lazuli, agate, cornelian, etc, obtained, was inscribed and devoted in the same way. Slabs, tablets and cones of all shapes and sizes, were inscribed with the king s name and titles, giving the different cities over which IK; ruled and referring esp. to the work that he had accomplished for his deity. From the decipherment of these votive objects much valuable data are gathered for the reconstruction of the ancient history of the land.

      The same is true of what are known as building inscriptions, in which accounts of the operations of the kings in restoring and enlarging temples, shrines, walls and ot her city works are given. Canal digging and dredging, and such works by which the people benefited, are frequently mentioned in these in scriptions.

      Epistolary literature, for example, the royal letters of Hammurabi, the diplomatic correspond ence found in Egypt (see TELL EL-AMARXA) or the royal letters from the Library of Ashurbanipal (see ASHURBANIPAL), as well as the private corre spondence of the people, furnishes valuable historical and philological data.

      The thousands of tablets found in the school libraries of Sippar and Nippur, as well as of the library of Ashurbanipal, among which are all kinds




      of inscriptions used in the schools of the priests and scribes, have furnished a great deal of material for the Assyr dictionary, and have thrown much light upon the grammar of the language. The legal lit. is of the greatest importance for an understand ing of the social conditions of the people. Jt is also valuable for comparative purposes in studying the codes of other peoples. See CODE OF HAMMURABI.

      The commercial or legal transactions, elated in all periods, from the earliest times until the latest, also throw important light upon the social condi tions of the people. Many thousands of these; documents have been found, by the help of which the very life that pulsated in the streets of Bab cit ies is restored.

      The administrative documents from the temple archives also have their value, in that they furnish important data as regards the maintenance of the temples and other institutions; and incidentally much light on the nationality and religion of the people, whose names appear in great numbers upon them. The records are receipts of taxes or rents from districts close by the temples, and of commer cial transactions conducted with this revenue. A

      Fisher, the architect of the Nippur expedition (see LOTH, 1S3). Professor Scheil, in publishing his results, has also given a plan of the school he discovered, and a full description of its arrangements, as well as the pedagogical methods that had been employed in that institution of learning. This has also been attempted by others, but in a less scientific manner. One of the striking features of these libraries is the use of the large reference cylinders, quadrangular, pentagonal and hexagonal in shape. There was a hole cut lengthwise through them for the purpose of mounting them like revolv ing stands. These libraries, doubtless, contained all the works the Babylonians possessed on law, science, literature and religion. There are lexical lists, paradigm tablets, lists of names, of places, countries, temples, rivers, officers, stones, gods, etc. Sufficient tablets have been deciphered to determine their general character. Also hundreds of exercise tablets have been found, showing the progress made 1 by pupils in writing, in mathematics, iti grammar, and in other brandies of learning. Some tablets appear to have been written after dictation. Doubtless, the excavators found the

      Sr.Ai. CYLINDERS.

      large portion of these archives consists of the salary payments of storehouse oilicials and priests. There seems to have been a host of tradesmen and functionaries in connection with the temple. Be sides the priest , elder, seer, seeress, sorcerer, sorceress, singer, etc, there were the farmer, weaver, miller, carpenter, smith, butcher, baker, porter, overseer, scribe, measurer, watchman, etc. These documents give us an insight into Bab system of bookkeeping, and show how carefully the administrative affairs of the temple were conducted. In fact the temple was provided for and maintained along lines quite similar to many of our modern institutions.

      The discovery of the Library of Ashurbanipal at Nineveh speaks volumes for the culture of Assyria, but that culture was largely borrowed 13. Libraries from the Babylonians. Much that this library contained had been secured from Bab libraries by the scribes employed by Ashurbanipal. In every important, center there doubtless existed schools and libraries in connection with the temples. At Nippur, in 1X00, Dr. .1. P. Peters found such a library, but unfortunately, although he termed it such, his Assyriologists did not recognize that one of the greatest discoveries of antiquity had been made. It remained for Dr. ,1. II. Haynes, a decade later, to discover another portion of this library, which he regarded as such, because of the large number of tablets which he uncovered. Pere Scheil, prior to Dr. Haynes s dis covery, had the good fortune while at Sippar to discover a part of the school and library of that important center. Since Professor Scheil s excava tions, Arabs have unearthed many inscriptions of this library, which have found their way to museums and into the hands of private individuals.

      The plan of the Nippur Library, unearthed by Dr. Haynes, has been published by Mr. C. S.

      waste heaps of the school, where these tablets had been thrown for the purpose of working them over again as raw material, for new exercises. The school libraries must have been large. Consider ing for instance that the ideographic and phonetic values of the cuneiform signs in use numbered perhaps 30,000, even the syllabaries which were required to contain these different values must have been many in number, and esp. as tablets, unlike books made of paper, have only two sides to them. And when we take into consideration all the differ ent kinds of lit. which have been found, we must realize that these; libraries were immense, and num bered many thousands of tablets.

      In modern times the meaning of names given children is rarely considered; in fact, in many instances the name has suffered so 14. Personal much through changes that it is diffi- Names cult to ascertain its original meaning.

      Then also, at present, in order to avoid confusion the child is given two or more names. It was not so with the ancient Babylonian. Origi nally the giving of a name was connected with some special circumstance, and though this was not always the case throughout the history of Babylonia, the correct form of the name was always preserved.

      The name may have been an expression of their religious faith. It may have; told of the joy experi enced at the birth of an heir. It may even betray the suffering that was involved at the birth of the child, or the life that the parents had lived. In short, the names afford us an intimate glimpse into the everyday life of the people.

      The average Bab name is theophorous, and indi cates one of the deities worshipped by the family, and often the city. For example, it is suggestive that persons with names compounded with Enlil and Ninib hailed from Nippur. Knowing the deities


      of the surrounding people \\\\\\\\vo have also important evidence in determining the origin of peoples in Babylonia having foreign names. For example, if a name is composed of the Hittite deity Tcshup, or the Amorite deity Amurru, or the Aramaean god Dagan, or the Egyp god Esi (Isis), foreign influence is naturally looked for from the countries repre sented. Quite IVe<[iiently the names of foreign denies are compounded with Bab elements, often resulting from mixed marriages.

      Theophorous names are composed of two, three, four and even five elements. Those having two or three elements predominate. Two-element names have a diety plus a verbal form or a subst.; or vice versa: for example, \\\\\\\\<ibn-nn id (Nabonidus), "Nebo is exalted," or Shulman-asharedu (Shal- nmneser), "Shalman is foremost." Many different combinations are found in three-element names which are composed of the name of the deity, a subst., a verbal form, a pronominal suffix, or some 1 oilier form of speech, in any of the three positions. Explanations of a few of the familiar Bib. names follow: Hin-nkhc-rrba (Sennacherib), "Sin has in creased the brothers"; Mnnt/ilc-n /ml-iililin (Mero- dach-baladan), "Manluk has given a son"; Axtiur- akh-iddin (Esarhaddon), "Ashur has given a brother"; A s/i ur-lxi ni-n/xil, "Ashur is creating a son"; Nabu-kudurri-usur (Nebuchadrezzar), "() Nebo. protect t he boundary" ; Ain<l-Mnr<lnk (Evil- Merodach), "Alan of Marduk"; Kcl-xhar-iixur (Bel- sha/./ar), "O Bel, protect the king." Some Bab names mentioned in the Bible are really of foreign origin, for example, Amraphel and Sargon. Amra- phel originally is west Semitic and is written Hammurabi (pronounced IJnmmn-rnbi, the first letter being the Semitic h<lh). Sargon was per- haps originally Aramaean, and is composed of the elements shar and the god (inn. When written in cuneiform it was written Xlinrtjnni, and later Sh<ir- rnkin, being tr 1 "the true king." Many names in use were not theophorous; for example, such per sonal names as Ulidd, "the month Ulul"; names of animals, as Knlbn, "dog," gentilic names, as Akkadai, "the Akkadian," names of crafts, as Pahdni, "potter," etc.

      The lit. abounds in hypochoristica. One element of a name was used for the sake of shortness, to which usually a hypochoristica suffix was added, like Mardukd (Mordecai). That is, the ending a or ai was added to one of the elements of a longer name.

      The written history of Babylonia at the present begins from about 4200 BC. But instead of finding things crude and aboriginal in this, the earliest period, the remains discovered show that the people had attained to a high level of culture. Back

      of that which is known there must, lie a long period of development. This is attested in many ways; for instance, the earliest writing 15. History found is so far removd from the of City- original hieroglyphs that it is only

      Kingdoms possible to ascertain what the origi nal pictures were by knowing the values which the signs possessed. " The same con clusion is ascertained by a study of the art and literature. Naturally, as mentioned above, it, is not impossible that this development took place in a previous home of the inhabitants.

      The history of early Babylonia is at present, a conflict of the kings and patesis (priest-kings) of the different city-kingdoms, for supremacy over each other, as well as over the surrounding peoples. The principal states that figure in the early history are: Kish, Lagash, Nippur, Akkad. I "nnnii, Erech, I r and Opis. At the present time more is known of Lagash, because the excavations concluded ut that site were more extensive than at others. This makes much of our knowledge of the history of the land center about that city. And yet it should be stated that the hegemony of Lagash lasted for a long period, and the kingdom will ultimately occupy a prominent position when the final history of the land is written. Nippur, where considerable work was also done, was not the seat of rulers, but the sacred city of the god Enlil, to whom the kings of other cities generally did obeisance. Following is a list of known rulers of the different, city- kingdoms.

      Ll-Ohemir, identified as the ancient city of

      Kish, not far from Babylon, is one of the oldest

      Sem centers of the land. No system-

      16. Kish atic excavations have been conducted

      at this site, but besides the inscriptions which the Arabs have unearthed, several of the rulers are known to us through votive inscriptions discovered at Nippur and elsewhere. The rulers of Kish are: I tugp. (patesi), cir 4200 BC; Mesilim k. (king), oh- 4000 BC; Lugal-tarsi k.; Enbi- Ishtar k.; Manishtusu k., cir 2(>.">0 BC; I rumush k.. cir L liOO; Manana k.; Sumu-ditana k. and Tanium k.

      The excavations by the French under De Sarse/

      and Cross at Til/o, the ancient city Lagash, have

      yielded more inscriptions of ancient

      17. Lagash Bab rulers than those ai any other site.

      Lagash was destroyed about 2000 BC, and only partially rebuilt in the post-Bab period. The known rulers are: Lugal-shag-Engur patesi, cir 4000 BC , contemporary with Mesilim k. of Kish; *Baduk.; *En-khegal k.; Lr-Ninak.; Akurgalp.; Eannatum p. and k.; Enannatum I p.; Entemena ]>.; Enannatum II p.; Enetur/i p.; Enlitarzi p.; Lugal-anda p.; Lru-kagina k., contemporary with Lugal-zaggisi. k. of Urnk; Kngilsa p., contemporary with Manishtusu k. of Kish; Lugtil-ushtimgal p., contemporary with Sargon of Accad; Ur-Babbar p., contemporary with Naram-Sin of Accad; Lr-E p.; I Algal-bur p.; Basha-Kama p.; Ur-Mamap.: Ug-mep.; Ur-Baup.; (ludeap.; Nammakhini p. ; Ur-garp.; Ka-azagp.; Galu-Baup.; ( !alu-( iula p.; Ur-Ninsun p.; Lr-Ningirsu p.; contemporary with t r-Engur k. of Ur-abba p.; *(ialu-kazal p.; *Galu- andulp.; *l"t-Lama I p.; *Alla, *Ur-Lama II p.; contemporary with Dungi k. of Lr; Arad-Nannar ]>. Unfortunately, with the exception of about one- third of these rulers, the exact order is yet to be ascertained. (Asterisk denotes unidentified forms ) The mounds of Bismaya which have been identi fied as Adab were partially excavated by Dr. Edgar J. Banks, for the University of

      18. Adab Chicago. Its remains indicate that

      it is one of the oldest cities discovered. A ruler named Esar, cir 4200 BC, is known from a




      number of inscriptions, as well as a magnificent sttit no of the king, discovered by Dr. Banks.

      The large group of mounds covering an area, the

      circumference of which is three miles, called in

      ancient times Nippur, but now Noufar,

      19. Nippur was excavated as mentioned above

      by Drs. Peters and Haynes for the University of Pennsylvania. While a great number of Bab kings and patesis are represented by inscrip tions discovered at Nippur, practically all had their seats of government at other places, it being the sacred city.

      The mounds at the present called Warka, but representing ancient Erech (Gen 10 10), covering

      an area whose circumference is G miles,

      20. Erech have been tentatively examined by

      Loftus and other explorers. Many inscriptions have also been unearthed by the Arabs at this site. The rulers of this city known to us are: Ilu-(m)a-ilu, Lugal-zaggisi k., contemporary with Uru-kagina of Lagash; Lugal-kigubnidudu k.; Lugal-kisalsi k.; Sin-gashid k., cir 2200 BC, and Sin-gamil k.

      Senkereh known in the OT as Ellasar (Gen 14 1), and in the inscriptions as Larsa, has been explored

      by Loftus and others. The known

      21. Larsa rulers of the city are: Gungunu k.,

      contemporary of Ur-Ninib k. of Isin; Sumu-ilu; Nur-Adad; Sin-iddinam; Eri-Aku (Bib. Ariochj cir 2000 BC, son of Kudur-Mabug k. of Eltun, and Rim-Sin (or Rim-Aku), his brother.

      The present Fura, which in ancient times was called Shuruppak, was partially excavated by the

      Germans under Koldewey, Andraea,

      22. Shurup- and Noeldeke. It is also a very pak ancient city. It yielded little to the

      spade of the excavator. It is close by Abu-IIat ab, and known as the place where the scenes of the Bab Deluge sf ory occurred. Two rulers known from the inscriptions found there are Dada and Ila- ladda, belonging to a comparatively early period.

      The site now known as Abu-Hat ab is the ancient Kisurra. It was partially excavated by the Ger mans. It flourished as a city in the

      23. Kisurra 3d millennium BC. The two rulers

      of this city that are known are Idinilu p., and Itur-Shamash p. (?).

      The site now called Jokha lying to the N.W. of Lagash is an ancient Sumerian city known as I mma.

      The site has been explored by Dr.

      24. Umma Peters and others, but more recently

      surveyed by Andraea and Noeldeke. It proved to be a city destroyed in the early period. Arabs have lately found thousands of documents belonging to the ancient archives of the city. Some of the rulers known are: Ush p., Enakalli and Urlumma p., contemporaries of Enannatum I of Lagash; Ili p., appointed by Entemena p., of Lagash; Kur-Shesh p., time of Manishtusu; *Galu-Babbar p.; Ur-nesu p., contemporary of Dungi k., of Ur.

      The city mentioned in Gen 10 10 as Accad, one

      of Nimrod s cities, has not been explored, but is

      well known by the inscriptions of Sar-

      25. Accad gon and his son Naram-Sin as well as

      omen-texts of later eras. Sargon was a usurper. He was born in concealment, and sent adrift in an ark of bulrushes like Moses. He was rescued and brought up by Akki, a farmer. He assumed the title "king of the city" (tihar-ali), or "king of Uri" (Khar Uri). Later he conquered the entire country, and became the "king of Accad and Sumer." In his latter years he extended his conquests to Elam, Amurru and Subartu, and earned for himself the title "king of the Four Quarters," which his son Naram-Sin inherited. The latter followed up the successes of his father and marched into Magan, in the Sinaitic peninsula.

      Naram-Sin, as well as his father, was a great builder. Evidences of their operations are seen in many cities. Naram-Sin was succeeded by Bingani, who appar ently lost the title "king of the Four Quarters," being only called "king of the City, or Uri."

      The exact site of the city of Opis is still in doubt, but the city is represented by the

      26. Opis ruler Zuzu k., who was defeated by

      Eannatum p., of Lagash.

      The city Basime also remains unidentified, but

      is represented by Ibalum p., a contemporary of

      Manishtusu k., of Kish, and son of Ilsu-

      27. Basime rabi, apparently another patesi of that


      A site not far from Nippur, called Delehem or

      Drehem, which was explored by Dr. Peters, has

      recently yielded thousands of tablets

      28. Drehem from the Temple archives dated in the

      reigns of kings in the Ur Dynasty. The extensive group of mounds lying on the west side of the Euphrates, called Mugayyar, and gen erally known as Ur of the Chaldees, is

      29. Urumma the ancient Urumma. It was explored

      by Taylor and others, and proved to have been an important capital from the middle of the 3.1 millennium BC. The dynasty which had made the city its capital is known through inscriptions discovered there and at Tello, Nippur, Drehem and Djokha. Thousands of inscriptions dated in what is commonly called the Ur Dynasty have be:>n published. The dynasty was founded by Ur-Enpur, who is conspicuous for his building operati ms at Nippur and other cities. A dynastic tablet of a much later period, the provenience of which is in doubt, gives the rulers of this dynasty founded about 2400 BC, and the number of years that they reigned.

      URUMMA DYNASTY Ur-Engur, IS years Dungi (son), 5S years Bur-Sin (son), 9 years Gimil-Sin (son), 7 years Ibi-Sin (son), 2.~> years Five kings, 117 years

      The same tablet gives also the following list of the rulers of Isin. Ishbi-l rra, the founder, lived about 2283 BC.

      ISIN DYNASTY Ishbi-Urra, 32 years Gimil-ilishu (son), 10 years Idin-Dagan (son), 21 years Ishme-Dagan (son), 20 years Libit-Ishtar (son), 11 years Ur-Ninib, 2S years Bur-Sin II (son), 28 years Iter-iqisha (son), 5 years Urra-imitti (brother), 7 years Sin-iqisha, f> months Enlil-bani, 21 years Zambia, 3 years , 5 years Ea , 4 years Sin-magir, 1 1 years Damiq-ilishu (son), 23 years Sixteen kings, 225 years and 6 months

      About the time the Nisin Dynasty came to a

      close, and while the Larsa Dynasty was ruling, the

      First Dynasty of Babylon was estab-

      30. First lished. Following is a list of 11 Dynasty of rulers of this dynasty who ruled 300 Babylon years:

      I. FIRST DYNASTY OF BABYLON Sumu-abum, 14 years Sunm-la-el, 30 years



      Sabium (son ), 11 years Aliil-Sin (son ), IS years Sin-muballit (son), 20 years Hammu-rabi (son), 1)5 years Samsu-iluna, (son), -is years Abi-oshuh (son), 2S years Ammi-Ditana (son), . !7 years Ammi-Zaduga (son), 21 years Sanisu-I )itana (son), . 52 years

      The First Dynasty of Babylon came into promi nence in the reign of Sin-muballit who captured Xisin. Eri-Aku of HieLarsa. Dynasty short ly after- \\\\\\\\vard took 1 he city. When Hammurabi came to the throne he was subject 1o Eri-Aku (Bib. Arioch) of Larsa, the son of the Ehunite king, Kudur-Malmg. Tlie latter informs us that he was .suzerain of Amurru (I al and Syria), which makes intelligible 1 lie statement, in (Jen 14, that the kings of Canaan were subject to the kin" of Elam, whose name was Chedorlaomer (Kudur-Lagamar) . In his . -51st year, Hammurabi, who is the Amraphel of (Jen 14 1, succeeded in throwing off the Elamite yoke, and not only established his independence but also became the complete master of Babylonia by driving out the Elamites.

      In the region of the Pers Gulf, south of Baby lonia, ruled a dynasty partly contemporaneously with the First Dynasty, extending

      31. Sealand over the reigns of about five of the Dynasty last kings, and over several of the

      Cassite Dynasty, known as the Sea- land Dynasty. The annalist records for the latter the following list of 1 1 kings who ruled ;i(>S years:


      Ilima-ilu, (>() years It ti-ili-nibi, ,">.") years Damqi-ilishu, 36 years Ishkibal, lf> years Shushshi (brother), 27 years (Julkishar, />."> years Pesh-gal-daramash (son), f>() years Adara-kalama (son-, 2s years Ekur-ul-anna, 2(> years Melamma-kurkura, 7 years Ea-gamil, !* years

      The First Dynasty of Babylon came to an end through an invasion of the Hittites. They plun dered Babylon and perhaps ruled that

      32. Cassite city for a number of years. A new Dynasty dynasty was then established about

      17f>() BC by a foreign people known as Cassites. There were . >(> kings in this dynasty ruling f>7<> years and ( .) months. Unfortunately the tablet containing the list is fragmentary.


      Gandash, 10 years

      Agum I (s), 22 years

      Kashtiliash I, usurper, 22 years; b. of I lambur-

      iash and s. of Burna-buriash Dili ?) shi (s), S years Abirattash (b?) Tazzigurmash (s) Agum II (s)

      ; - - Long gap

      *Kara-indash I, contemporary with Ashur-rim-

      nisheshu, k. of Assyria *Kadashman-Enlil I (s?) *Kuri-(Jalzu I Burna-buriash II, contemporary of Buzur-Ashur,

      k. of Assyria *Kara-Indash II, son-in-law of Ashur-uballit, k.

      of Assyria *Nazi-Bugash (usurper)

      Kuri-Galzu II (s. of Burna. buriash ), 2:! years;

      contemporary of Ashur-uballit, and Enlil-

      nirari, kings of Assyria Xazi-Maruttash (s), 2(i years; contemporary of

      Adad-nirari I, p. of Assyria. Kadashman-Turgu (s), 17 years Kadashnmn-Knlil II, 7 years Kudur-Enlil (s), 9 years Shagarakti-Shuriash (si, 1)5 years Kashtiliash II (s), S years Enlil-nadin-shum, \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ years Kadashman-Kharbe II, I.I vears Adad-shum-iddin, (i years Adad-shum-usiir, ;]() years Meli-Shipak (s?i, lo years Marduk-apil-iddin (s), 1M years Zamania-shiim-iddin, 1 year Bel-mu , ;j years

      The region from which these Cassites came has

      not yet been determined, although it seems to be

      the district X.E. of Assyria. Gan-

      33. Cassite dash, the first king, seems to have Rule enjoyed the all-embracing title, "King

      of the Four Quarters of the World." Little is known of the other rulers until Agum II, who claims the rule of the Cassites, Accad, Babel, Padan, Alman and Guti. In his inscriptions he records the conquest of Khani in Asia .Minor, and the fact that he brought back to Babylon the statues of Marduk and Zarpanit, which had been carried off by the Hittites. The Cassite rule, while extend ing over many cents., was not very prosperous. At Xippur the excavations showed active operations on the part of a few kings in restoring the temple and doing obeisance to Enlil. The rulers .seemed to have conformed to the religion of the land, for few foreign elements have been recognized as having been introduced into it during this era. The many Cassite names found in the inscriptions would indi cate an influx from a Cassite quarter of no small proportion. And yet it should be noted that, in the same era, Hittite and Mittaiiean influence, as is shown by the nomenclature, is as great as the Cassite. It was during this period that Assyria rose to power and influence, and was soon to be come the master of the Alesopot amian region.

      IV. Isiv OR PASMK DYNASTY 11 Kings; began to rule about 1 1 72 BC Marduk .... 17 years Want ing, years Xebuchadrezzar I, contemporary of

      34. Isin Ashur-resh-ishi, k. of Assyria Dynasty Enlil-nadin-apal

      Marduk-nadin-akhi, contemporary of

      Tiglath-pileser I, k. of Assyria Marduk-shapik-zer-mati, contempo rary of Ashur-bel-kala, k. of Assyria Adad-apal-iddin, 22 years Marduk-akh-erba, if 2 Marduk-zer . . . . , 12 years Xabu-shum-libur, S(?) years

      The most famous king of this dynasty, in fact of

      this era, was Xebuchadrezzar I, who reestablished

      firmly the rule of Babylon. He

      35. Neb- carried on a successful expedition into uchadrez- Elam as well as into Amurru where zar I he fought against the Hittite. He

      also conquered the Lulubites. But in contest for supremacy with Assyria Ashur-resh- ishi triumphed, and he was forced to retreat inglori- ously to Babylon. His successors failed to with stand the Assyrians, esp. under Tiglath-pileser I, and were- allowed to rule only by sufferance. The Babylonians had lost their prestige; the Assyrians had become the dominant people of the land. Few




      rulers of the dynasty which followed are known except by name. The dynasties with one exception were of short duration.


      3 Kings

      Simmash-Shipak, IS years; about

      36. Sealand 1042 BC

      Dynasty Ea-mukin-shum, months

      Kashshu-nadin-akhi, 3 years


      3 Kings

      Eulmash-shakin-shum, 17 years; about

      37. Bit-Bazi 1020 BC

      Dynasty Ninib-kudur-usur, 3 years

      Shilanim-Shuqamuna, 3 months

      38. Other VII. An Elamitic King, whose 1 name Rulers is not known

      VIII. 13( ?) kings who ruled 30 years

      IX. A dynasty of .">( ?) kings


      Following is a partial list of the 22 kings who ruled until the destruction of Babylon by Sen nacherib, when (he Assyr kings as-

      39. Baby- sinned direct control. Ashurbanipal, Ionian Dy- however, introduced a new policy nasty and viceroys were appointed.

      Shamash-mudainmiq Nabu-shar-ishkun 1 Nabu-apal-iddin Marduk-nadin-shum Marduk-balatsu-iqbi Bau-akh-iddin Nabu-shum-islikun 1 1 Nabonassar

      Nabu-nadin-zer; 747-734 BC Nabu-shum-islikun III; 733 732 BC Nabu-mukin-zer ; 731-721) IK Pul (Tiglath-pileser III); 720-727 BC Tlula (Shalmanesar V); 727 722 BC Merodach-baladan I; 722 710 IK Sargon; 710-70.") BC Sennacherib; 704-702 BC Marduk-zakir-shum (1 month) Merodach-baladan II (9 months) Bel-ibni; 702 700 BC Ashur-nadin-shum; 700-094 BC Nergal-ushezib; 094-093 BC Mushezib-Marduk; (502 -OS!) BC Sennacherib; OS9-OX1 BC Esarhaddon; OSl-OOs BC Ashurbanipal; OOS-020 BC Shamash-shum-ukin; OOX-048 BC Kandalanu; (54S-020 BC Ashur-et il-ilani-ukin ; 020- Nabopolassar; 020-

      During (he time of Sennach rib, Merodach- baladan the Chaldaean became a great obstacle to Assyria s maintaining its supremacy over Baby lonia. Three times he gained possession of Baby lon, and twice had himself proclaimed king. For thirty years he plotted against Assyria. What is learned from the inscriptions concerning him furnishes an interesting commentary on the send ing of the embassy, in 704 BC, to Hezekiah (2 K 20 12; Isa 39 1) in order to induce him to revolt against Assyria, which he knew would help his own cause. Finally Sennacherib, in 090, after he had experienced much trouble by the repeated uprisings of the Babylonians, and the aspirations of Mero dach-baladan, endeavored to obliterate Babylon from the map. His son and successor Esarhaddon, however, tried to make Babylon again happy and prosperous. One of his first acts was to send back

      to Babylon the statue of Bel-Merodach. He re built the city, and also restored other Bab temples, for instance, that of Enlil at Nippur. The Baby lonians solemnly declared him king. Ashurbanipal, his son and successor, followed his policy. The evi dence of his operations at Nippur is everywhere seen in the. shape? of stamped, kiln-dried bricks.

      Before Esarhaddon died, he had planned that Babylonia should become independent and be ruled by his son, Shamash-shum-ukin, while Assyria he handed down to Ashurbanipal. But when the latter came to the throne, Assyria permitted the former only to be appointed viceroy of Babylon. It seems also that even some portions of Babylonia were ruled directly by Ashurbanipal.

      After fifteen years Shamash-shum-ukin rebelled and attempted to establish his independence, but, Sennacherib besieged Babylon and took it, when Shamash-shum-ukin destroyed himself. Ka- dalanu was then appointed viceroy, and ruled over part of the country. Nabopolassar was the last viceroy appointed by Assyria. At last the 1 time had arrived for I he Babylonians to come again unto their own. Nabopolassar who perhaps was a Chaldaean by origin, made an alliance wit h t he I m man Manda. This he strengthened by the marriage of his son Nebuchadrezzar to the daughter of Aslyages, lin king. Nineveh finally fell before the I mman Manda hordes, and was razed to the ground. This people took possession of Northern Assyria. The Armenian vassal stales, and Southern Assyria, as well as the title to Pal, Syria and Egypt, fell to Babylonia.


      Nabopolassar; (52.") 001 BC Nebuchadrezzar II (s); OOI-.IOX BC

      Kvil-Merodach (s); f>01 oOO BC 40. Neo- Neriglissar (brother-in-law); r>.">9-. r >.">0 Babylonian BC Rulers Labosoarchad (s); ">.">0 BC

      Nabonidus; ">">."> ">39 BC Cyrus conquered Babylonia in ">39 BC

      Nabopolassar having established himself king of Babylon became the founder of the neo-Baby- lonian empire. He was succeeded by his son, Nebuchadrezzar II, who like Hammurabi and Sargon is among the greatest known characters in Bab history. He is (he Bib. Nebuchadrezzar who carried the Jews into captivity. There are a number of lengthy records of Nebuchadrezzar con cerning the buildings he erected, as well as of other public acts, but unfortunately only a fragment of a historical inscript ion referring to him has been found. The building inscriptions portray him as the great builder he is represented to be in the ()T (see BABYLON). lie made Babylon the mistress of the civilized world.

      Evil-Merodach, his son and successor, is also mentioned in the OT. Two short reigns followed when the ruling dynasty was overthrown and Nabonidus was placed upon the throne. The king, who delighted iu exploring and restoring ancient temples, placed his son at the head of the army. Nabonidus desiring to centralize the reli gion of Babylonia, brought to Babylon many of the images of deities from other cities. This greatly displeased the people, and excited a strong feeling against him. The priesthood was alienated, and the military party was displeased with him, for in his antiquarian pursuits he left the de-fence of the empire to others. So when Cyrus, king of Anshan and ruler of Persia, entered the country, he had little difficulty in defeating the Babylonians in a battle at Opis. Sippar immediately surrendered to the invader, and the gates of Babylon were

      Babylonia Bab. and Assyr.



      thrown open to his army under (iobryas, his general. Nabonidus was imprisoned. Three months later Cyrus entered Babylon; Belshaz/ar, who doubtless had set up his throne after his father had been deposed, was slain a week later on the night of the eleventh of Marchesvan. This scene may have occurred in 1 he palace built by Nebuchad rezzar. This event, told by the chronicler, is a remarkable verification of the interesting story related of Belshazzar in Dnl. The title used by the kin^s who follow the Bab Dynasty is "King of Babylon and King of Countries."

      PlCRSIAX Rri.KRS OF B,\\\\\\\\MYLONIA

      Cyrus; f)3S-52> BC

      Cambyses; />2<i-^> BC


      41. Persian Nebuchadrezzar III Rulers of Darius I; f)21 - 4sr> BC Babylonia Xerxes; 4X.">-464 BC

      Artaxerxes I; 4(14-124 BC

      Xerxes II; 424 123 BC

      Darius II; 423-404 BC

      Artaxerxes II; 40f>-3f>S BC

      Artaxerxes III (Ochos); 3r>S-33S BC

      Arses; 33S 33f> BC

      J)arius 111; 33.V331 BC

      Alexander the (Ireat conquered Babvlonia 331 BC.

      Several of the Pers rulers figured prominently in the OT narratives. Cyrus in a cylinder inscription, which is preserved in a fragmentary form, endeavors to justify himself in the eyes of the people. He claims that the god Marduk raised him up to take the place of Nabonidus, and to defend the religion of the people. He tries to show how considerate he was by returning to their respective cities the gods that- had been removed from their shrines; and esp. by liberating foreign peoples held in bond age. While he does not mention what exiles were allowed to return to their native homes, the OT informs us that the Jews were among those de livered. And the returning of the images to their respective places is also an interesting commentary on Ezr 1 7, in which we are told that the Jews were allowed to take wit h them t heir sacred vessels. The spirit manifested in the proclamation for the rebuilding of the temple (Ezr 1 1.4) seems also to have been in accordance with his policy on ascending the Bab throne. A year before his death he associated with himself Cambyses his son, another character mentioned in the OT. He gave him the title "King of Babylon," but retained for himself "King of Countries." A usurper Smerdis, the Magian, called Barzia in the inscrip tions, assumed the throne of Babylonia, but Darius Hystaspes, who was an Aryan and Zoroastrian in religion, finally killed Smerdis and made himself king of Babylon. But before he was acknowledged king he had to reconquer the Babylonians. By so doing the ancient tradition that Bel of Babylon conferre 1 the legitimate right to rule that part of the world ceased to be acknowledged. Under Nidinta-Bel, who assumed the name Nebuchadrezzar III, the Babylonians regained their independence, but it was of short duration, lasting less than a year.

      LITERATURE. History: Rogers, History of Bab and Ax- syr, 1902; \\\\\\\\Vinckler, History of liab and Assyr, l ,K>7; King, Siinii i- and Arrnd. 1910. Religion: .lastnnv, H<ii<iion of Bab and Axxi/r, 1S9S; Rogers, Kelii/ion, of Bab and Axxi/r. Esp. in Itx Relation to Israel, 190S; Sayce, The Relit/ion* nf Ancient Eijijpt and Bali, 10(K{. Literature: A xsijr and Bab Lit., in "The World s (Ireat Hooks": edited by R. F. Harper. Relation to OT: Price. Thr Monuments nnd the OT, 1907; Pinches, Tin <>T in the Light of the Records of Asxi/r and Bah, 1902; (May, Lii/ht on the OT from Babrl. 1908: Clay, Amurru. the Home of the Northern .Sc miffs, 11)09. See also " Literature " in ASSYRIA.

      A. T. CLAY



      1. First Period

      2. Second Period . {. Third Period



      IV. Tin; PANTHEON

      1. Knlil, Kllil

      2. Ann

      . {. Ea

      4. Sin

      5. Shamash ti. Islilar

      7. Marduk (OT Merodach)

      S. Nalni (OT Xebo)

      9. Xergal, the city god of Kutu (OT Guthah)

      10. Xinib

      11. Raminan

      12. Tain inn/ i:i. Asshur


      1. Maqlu

      2. Sliurpu



      /. Definition. The religion of Babylonia and Assyria is that system of belief in higher things with which the peoples of the Tigris and Euphrates valley strove to put themselves into relations, in order to live their lives. The discoveries of the past cent, have supplied us with a mass of informa tion concerning this faith from which we have been able to secure a greater knowledge of it than of any other ancient oriental religion, except that of Israel. Yet the information which is thus come into our hands is embarrassing because of its very richness, and it will doubtless be a long time before it is possible to speak with certainty concerning many of the problems which now confront us. Progress in the interpretation of the literature is however so rapid that we may now give a much more intelligible account of this religion than could have been secured even so recently as five years ago.

      For purposes of convenience, the religion of Babylonia and Assyria may be grouped into three great periods.

      (1) The first of these periods extends from the earliest times, about 3.~>()0 BC, down to the union of the Bab states under Hammurabi, about 2000 BC,

      (2) The second period extends to the rise of the Chaldaean empire under Nabopolassar, G25 BC, and

      (- 5) The third period embraces the brief history of this Chaldaean or neo-Bab empire under Cyrus, 53S BC.

      The Assyr religion belongs to the second period, though it extends even into the third period, for Nineveh did not fall until 607 BC.

      //. The Sources. The primary sources of our knowledge of this religion are to be found in the distinctively religious texts, such as hymns, prayers, priestly rituals and liturgies, and in the vast mass of magical and incantation literature. The major part of this religious lit. which has come down to us dates from the reign of Ashurbanipal (668-025 BCj though much of it is qtiite clearly either copied from or based upon much older material. If, however, we relied for our picture of the Bab and Assyr religion exclusively upon these religious texts, we should secure a distorted and in some places an indefinite view. We must add to these in order to perfect the picture practically the whole of the lit. of these two peoples.

      The inscriptions upon which the kings handed down to posterity an account of their great deeds contain lists of gods whom they invoked, and these



      Babylonia Bab. and Assyr.

      must be taken into consideration. The laws also have in large measure a religious basis, arid the business inscriptions frequently invoke deities at the end. The records of the astronomers, the state despatches of kings, the reports of general officers from the field, the handbooks of medicine, all these and many other divisions of a vast lit. contribute each its share of religious material. Furthermore, as the religion was not only the faith of the king, but also the faith of the state itself, the progress of the commonwealth to greater power oftentimes carried some local god into a new rela tionship to other gods, or the decadence of the commonwealth deprived a god of .some of his powers or attributes, so that even the distinctively political inscriptions have importance in helping us to reconstruct the ancient literature.

      ///. The History. The origin of the Bab religion is hid from our eyes in those ancient days of which we know little and can never hope to know much.

      Babylonian Idols.

      In the earliest documents which have come down to us written in the Sumerian language, t here are found Sem words or constructions or both. It seems now to be definitely determined thai a Sumer ian people whose origin is unknown inhabited Baby lonia before the coming of the Semites, whose original home was in Arabia. Of the Sumerian faith before a union was formed with the Semites, we know very little indeed. But we may perhaps safely say that among that ancient people, beneath the belief in gods there lay deep in their conscious ness the belief in animism. They thought that every object, animate or inanimate, had a zi or spirit. The word seems originally to have meant life. Life manifests itself to us as motion; every thing which moves has life. The power of motion separates the animate from the inanimate. All that moves possesses life, the motionless is lifeless or dead.

      Besides this belief in animism, the early Sume- rians seem to have believed in ghosts that were related to the world of the dead as 1 he zi was related to the world of the living. The lil or ghost was a night demon of baleful influence upon men, and only to be cast out by many incantations. The lil was attended by a serving-maid (anlal lili, "maid of night") which in the later Sem develop ment was transformed into the feminine lilitu. It is most curious and interesting that this ghost demon of the Sumerians lived on through all the history of the Bab religion, and is mentioned even in one of the OT prophets (Isa 34 14; Heb Lillltfi, tr 1 "night monster"). The origin of the Sem reli gion brought by the ancient Sem people and united with this Sumerian faith is also lost in the past.

      It seems to be quite clear that the gods and the religious ideas which these Semites brought with them from the desert had very little if any impor tance for the religion which they afterward pro fessed in Babylonia. Some of the names of their gods and images of these they very probably brought with them, but the important thing, it must always be remembered, about the gods is not the names but the attributes which were ascribed to them, and these must have been completely changed during the long history which follows their first contact with the Sumerians. From the Sumerians there flowed a great stream of religious ideas, subject indeed to modifications from time to time down the succeeding cents. In our study of the pantheon we shall see from time to time how the gods changed their places and how the ideas concerning them were modified by political and other movements. In the very earliest times, besides these ideas of spirits and ghosts, we find also numbers of local gods. Every center of human habitation had its special patron deity and this deity is always asso ciated with some great natural phenomenon. It was natural that the sun and moon should be made prominent among these gods, but other natural objects and forces we re personified and deified, streams, stones and many others.

      Our chief source of information concerning the gods of the first period of religious development before the days of Hammurabi is found in the his torical inscriptions of the early kings and rulers. Many of these describe offerings of temples and treasures made to the gods, and all of them are religious in tone and filled with ascriptions of praise to the gods. From these early texts Professor Jastrow has extricated the names of the following deities, gods and goddesses. I reproduce his list as the best yet made 1 , but keep in mind that some of the readings are doubtful and some were certainly otherwise read by the Babylonians or Sumerians, though we do not now know how they ought to be read. The progress of Assyr research is con tinually providing corrected readings for words hitherto known to us only in ideograms. It is quite to be expected that many of these strange, not to say grotesque, names will some day prove to be quite simple, and easy to utter: En-lil (El- lil, Bel) Belit, Nin-khar-sag, Nin-gir-su, who also appears as Dun-gur, Ban, ( !a-t urn-dug, Nin-din- dug, Ea, Nin-a-gal, Gal-dim-zu-ab, Nin-ki, Dam- gal-nun-na, Nergal, Shamash, A or Malkatu, the wife of Shamash, Nannar, or Sin, Niii-Trum, Innanna, Nana, Anunit, Nina, Ishtar, Ami, Nin- dar-a, Gal-alim, Nin-shakh, Dun-shagga, Lugal- banda, with a consort Nin-sun, Dumu-zi-zu-ab, Dumu-zi, Lugal-Erim, Nin-e-gal and Ningal, Nin-gish-zi-da, Dun-pa-uddu, Nin-mar, Pa-sag, Nidaba, Ku(?)-anna, Shid, Nin-agid-kha-du, Nin- shul-li, En-gubarra, lm-mi-khu(?), Ur-du-zi, Kadi, Nu-ku-sir-da, Ma-ma, Za-ma-ma, Za-za-ru, Im- pa-ud-du, tlr-e-nun-ta-ud-du-a, Khi-gir-nunna, Khi-shagga, (Jur-niu, Zar-mu, Dagan, Damn, Lama, Nesu, Nun-gal, An-makh, Xin-si-na, Nin-asu. In this list great gods and goddesses and all kinds of minor deities are gathered together, and the list looks and sounds hopeless. But these are local deities, and some of them are mere duplications. Nearly every place in early times would have a sun-god or a moon-god or both, and in the political development of the country the moon-god of the conquering city displaced or absorbed the moon- god of the conquered. When we have eliminated these gods, who have practically disappeared, there remains a comparatively small number of gods who outrank all the others.

      In the room of some of these gods that disap peared, others, esp. in Assyria, found places. There



      was, however, a strong tendency to diminish the number of the gods. They tire in early days mentioned by the score, but as time goes on many of these vanish away and only the few remain. As Jastrow has pointed out, Shalmaneser II (Sf>9- S _ "> BC) had only eleven gods in his pantheon: Ashur, Ann, Bel, Ea, Sin, Shamash, Ninib, Xergal,

      Worshipping Heavenly Modies (from a Cylinder of

      White Agate).

      Nnskii, Belit and Ishtar. Sennacherib (704-OSl BC) usually mentions only eight, namely, Ashur, Sin, Shamash, Bel (that is, Mardnk), Xabu, Ner- gal, Ishtar of Nineveh and Ishtar of Arbela. lint we must not lay much emphasis upon the small- ness ot this number, for in his building inscriptions at the end he invokes twenty-five deities, and oven though some of these are duplicates of other gods, us Jastrow correctly explains, nevertheless the entire list is considerably increased over the eight above mentioned. % In the late Bab period the worship seems chiefly devoted to Marduk, Nabu, Sin, Shamash and Ishtar. Often there seem little faint indications of a further stop forward. Some of the hymns addressed to Shamash seem almost upon the verge of exalting him in such a way as to exclude the other deities, but the step is never taken. The Babylonians, with all their wonder ful gifts, were never able to conceive of one god, of one god alone, of one god whose very existence makes logically impossible the existence of any other deity. Monotheism transcends the spiritual grasp of the Bab mind.

      Amid all this company of gods, amid all these speculations and combinations, we must keep our minds clear, and fasten our eyes upon the one sig nificant fact that stands out above all others. It is that the Babylonians were not able to rise above polytheism; that beyond them, far beyond them, lay that great, series of thoughts about (!od that ascribe to him aloneness, to which we may add the great spiritual ideas which today may roughly be grouped under ethical monotheism. Here and there great thinkers in Babylonia grasped after higher ideas, and were able only to at tain to a sort of pantheism of a speculative kind. A personal god, righteous and holy, who loved righteousness and hated sin, this was not given to them to con ceive.

      The character of the gods changed indeed as the people who revered them changed. The Baby lonians who built vast temples and composed many inscriptions emphasizing the works of peace rather than of war, naturally conceived their deities in ti manner different from the Assyrians whose powers were chiefly devoted to conquests in war, but neither the Babylonians nor the Assyrians arose to any such heights as (list inguish the II eb book of Psalms. As the influence of the Babylonians and Assyrians waned, their gods declined in power, and none of them survived the onrush of Or civil- ixalion in the period of Alexander.

      IV. The Pantheon. The chief gods of the Bab and Assyr pantheon may now be characterized in


      In the earliest times known to us the greatest

      of the gods is the god of Nippur whose name in the

      Sumerian text s is Enlil or Kllil. In the

      1. Enlil, Sem pantheon of later times he was Ellil identified with the god Bel, and it is as

      Bel he has been chiefly known. During the whole of the first epoch of Bab history up to the period of Hammurabi, he is the Lord of the World and the King of the Land. He was origi nally the hero of the Flood story, but in the form in which it has come down to us Marduk of Babylon has deprived him of these honors. In Nippur was his chief temple, called E-l;nr or "mountain house." It was built and rebuilt by the kings of Babylonia again and again from the days of Sargon 1 (3SOO BC) onward, and no less than twenty kings are known to us who pride themselves on their work of rebuilding this one temple. He is saluted as "the (treat Lord, the command of whose mouth cannot be altered and whose grace is steadfast." He would seem, judging from the name of his temple ami from some of his attributes, to have been originally a god of the mountains where he must have had his original dwelling-place.

      The name of the god Ann was interpreted as

      meaning heaven, corresponding to the Sumerian

      word ana, "heaven," and he came

      2. Anu thus to be regarded as the god of

      heaven as over against Knlil who was thi> god of earth, and Ea who was the god of the waters. Anu appears first among the great, gods in an inscription of Lugalsaggi, and in somewhat later times he made his way to the top of the ear liest triad which consists of Anu, Enlil and Ea. His chief seat of worship was I ruk, but in the Assyr period he was associated with the god Adad in a temple in the city of Asshur. In the myths and epics he fills an important role as the disposer of all events, but he cannot be thought of as quite equal in rank with P^nlil in spite of his position in the heavens. Antu or Anatu is mentioned as the wife of Anu, but hers is a color less figure, and she may probably be regarded as little else than a gram matical invention owing to t he desire of IheSemites to associate t he feminine with the masculine in their languages.

      The reading of t he name

      of the god Ea still re

      mains uncer-

      3. Ea tain. It may

      perhaps have

      been Ac, as the Or Aos would seem to indicate. His chief city of worship was Eridu, which in the earliest period was situ ated on the Pers (lulf, near the mouths of the Euphrates and the Ti gris. His temple was there called E-abxii, which means "house of the deeps," interpreted also as "house of wisdom." He must, have been a god of great importance in early times, but was left behind by the growing influence of Ellil and in a later period retained honor chiefly because he was assumed to be the father of the god Marduk,




      and so was reverenced by the people of the city of Babylon. As the lord of wisdom he rilled a great role in exorcisms down to the very last, and was believed to be the god who was most ready to re spond to human need in direful circumstances. Ea s wife is called Damkina.

      Sin was the city god of Uru (I r of the Chaldaeans in the OT) . He was originally a local god who came early to a lofty position in the canon 4. Sin because he seems always to have been

      identified with the moon, and in Baby lon the moon was always of more importance than the sun because of its use in the calendar. His



      Worshipping the Lunar Deity.

      temple was called E-kishshirgal, i.e. "house of light." His worship was widespread, for at a very early date he had a shrine at Harran in Mesopo tamia. His wife is called Ningal, the Great Lady, the Queen, and his name probably appears in Ml . Sinai. He is addressed in hymns of great beauty and was regarded as a most kindly god.

      The Sun-god, Xhttinaufi, ranks next after Sin in the second or later triad, and there can be no doubt that he was from the beginning 5. Shamash associated with the sun in the heavens. His seats of worship were l.arsa in southern Babylonia and Sippar in northern Baby lonia, in both of which his temple was called E-bab-

      From an Engraving on a Babylonian Cylinder. Repre senting the Sun-Cod and One of His Priests.

      bar, "shining house." lie also is honored in mag nificent hymns in which he is saluted as the enemy and the avenger of evil, but as the benignant furtherer of all good, esp. of that which concerns the races of men. All legislation is ascribed to him as the supreme judge in heaven. To him the Baby lonians also ascribe similar powers in war to those which the Egyptians accorded to Re. From some of the texts one might have supposed that he would have come to the top of the triad, but this appears not to have been the case, and his influence ex tended rather in the direction of influencing minor local deities who were judged to be characterized by attributes similar to those ascribed to him in the greater hymns.

      The origin and the meaning of the name of the

      goddess lafttur are st ill disputed, but of her rank there

      can be no doubt. In the very earliest

      6. Ishtar inscriptions known to us she does not

      seem to have; been associated with the

      planet Venus as she is in later times. She seems

      rather to have been a goddess of fruitfulness and of love, and in her temple at I ruk temple-prosti tution was a feature. In the mythological lit. she occupies a high place as the goddess of war and of the chase. Because of this later identification she became the chief goddess of the warlike Assyr ians. Little by little she absorbed all the other goddesses and her name became the general word for goddess. Her chief seats of worhip were Uruk in southern Babylonia, where she was worshipped in earliest times under the name of Nana, and Akkad in northern Babylonia, where she was called Anunitu, and Nineveh and Arbela in Assyria. Some of the hymns addressed to her are among the noblest prod ucts of Bab and Assyr religion and reach a con siderable ethical position. This development of a sexual goddess into a goddess who severely judged the sins of men is one of the strangest phenomena in the history of this religion.

      Marduk (in the OT Merodach) is the city-god of Babylon where his temple was called E-stujilu

      ("lofty house") and its tower E-tcntc- 1. Marduk nnnki ("house of the foundation of

      heaven and earth"). His wife is Sar- panitu, and, as we have already seen, his father was Ea, and in later days Nairn was considered his son. The city of Babylon in the earliest period was in significant in importance com pared with Nippur and Eridu, and this city-god could not therefore lay claim to a position comparable with the gods of these cities, but after Hammurabi had made Babylon the chief city of all Babylonia its god rapidly increased in importance until he absorbed the attributes of the earlier gods and displaced them in the great myths. The speculative philosophers of the neo-Bab period went so far as to identify all the earlier gods with him, elevating his worship into a sort of henothcism. His proper name in the later periods was gradually displaced by the appellative /> </// "lord," so that finally he was commonly spoken of as Bel, and his consort was called Belit. lie shares with Ishtar and Shamash the honor of having some of t lie finest hymns, which have come down to us, sung to his name.

      A r a6i* (in the OT Nebo) was the city-god of Bor-

      sippa. His

      8. Nabu nameisclear-

      ly Sem, and

      means "speaker" or "an nouncer." In earlier times he seems to have been a more important god than Marduk and was wor shipped as the god of vegetation. His temple in Borsippa bore the name E-ziila ("perpetual house") with the lower E-uriininanki ("house of the seven Fillers of heaven and earth"). In later times he was identified with the planet Mercury. \\\\\\\\cr;/<il, the city-god of Kutu (in theOTCuthah), was the god

      9. Nergal of the under

      world and his wife Eresh-kigal was the sovereign lady of the under-world. He was also the god of plague and of fever, and in later days was associated with the. planet Mars, though scholars who are attached to the astral theory




      (see below) think that he was identified at an earlier date with Saturn. For this view no certain proof has yet been produced.

      Unfortunately the correct pronunciation of the

      name of the god Xinib has not yet been secured.

      He seems originally to have been a god

      10. Ninib of vegetation, but in the later philo

      sophical period was associated with the planet Saturn, called Kaimanu (Kewan, Chiun, Am 5 26 AV, ERV). As a god of vegetation he be comes also a god of healing and his wife Gula was the chief patroness of physicians. He comes also to be regarded as a mighty hero in war, and, in this capacity generally, he fills a great role in the Assyr religion.

      Rninnmn is the god of storms and thunder among the Babylonians and in the Assyr pantheon he is

      usually called Adad. This form of the

      11. Ram- name is doubtless connected with the man Aram, god Hadad. In the Sumerian

      period his name seems to have been Ishkur. His wife is called Shala.

      The name T/nninnz is derived from the Sumerian Dumuzi-zuab ("real child of the water depths").

      He is ;i god of vegetation which is

      12. Tam- revived by the rains of the spring. muz Tammuz never became one of the

      great gods of the pantheon, but his popularity far exceeded that of the many gods who were regarded as greater than he. His worship is associated with that of Ishtar whose paramour he was, and the beautiful story of the descent of Ish tar to Hades was written to describe Islitar s pur suit of him to the depths of the under-world seek ing to bring him up again. His disappearance in the under-world is associated with the disappearance of vegetation under the midsummer heat which revives again when the rain comes and the god appears once more on the earth. The cult of Tammuz survived the decay of Bab and Assyr civilization and made its way into the western world. It was similar in some respects to that of Osiris in Egypt, but was not so beautiful or so humane.

      The supreme god of Assyria, /l.s.s/mr, was original ly the local god of the city which bears the same name. During the whole of Assyr

      13. Asshur history his chief role is as the god of

      war, but the speculative philosophers of Assyria absorbed into him many of the character istics of Ellil and Marduk, going even so far as to ascribe to him the chief place in the conflict with the sea monster Tiamat in the creation epoch.

      V. Hymns and Prayers. The religious lit. of the Babylonians and Assyrians culminated in a great series of hymns to the gods. These have come down to us from almost all periods of the religious history of the people. Some of them go back to the days of the old city-kingdoms and others were composed during the reign of Naboni- dus when the fall of Babylon at the hands of Cyrus was imminent. The greatest number of those that have come down to us are dedicated to Shamash, the Sun-god, but many of the finest, as we have already seen, were composed in honor t>f Sin, the Moon-god. None of these reached monotheism. All are polytheistic, with perhaps tendencies in the direction of pantheism or henotheism. This incapacity to reach monotheism may have been partially due to the influence of the local city whose tendency was always to hold tightly to the honor of the local god. Babylonia might "struggle never so hard to lift Marduk to high and still higher position, but in spite of all its efforts he remains to the very end of the days only one god among many. And even the greatest of the Bab kings, Nebuchadrezzar and Nabonidus, continued to

      pay honor to Shamash in Sippar, whose temple they continually rebuilt and adorned with ever greater magnificence. Better than any description of the hymns is a specimen adequately to show their quality. Here- arc some lines taken from an ancient Sumerian hymn to the Moon-god which had been copied and preserved with an Assyr tr in the library of . \\\\\\\\shurbanipal:

      O Lord, chief of the gods, who alone art exalted on earth

      and in heaven,

      Father Nannar, Lord, Anshar, chief of the gods, Father Nannar, Lord, great Ann. chief of tin; K ods Father Nannar. Lord, Sin. chief of tin- gods, Father Nannar, Lord of I r, chief of the gods Father Nannar, Lord of E-gish-shir-gal, chief of the gods, I ather Nannar, Lord of the veil, brilliant one, chief of the


      Father Nannar, whose rule is perfect, chief of the gods Father Nannar, who does inarch in great majesty, chief

      of the gods, O strong, young hull, with strong horns, perfect in

      muscles, with beard of lapis lazuli color, full of glory

      and perfection, Self-created, full of developed fruit, beautiful to look

      upon, in whose being one cannot sullieiently sate

      himself; Mother womb, begetter of all tilings, who has taken up

      his exalted habitation among living creatures- O merciful, gracious father, in whose hand rests the life

      of the whole world. O Lord, thy divinity is full of awe, like the far-off heaven

      and the broad ocean. O creator of the land, founder of sanctuaries, proclaimer

      of their names, O father, begetter of gods and men, who dost build

      dwellings and establish offerings, Who dost call to lordship, dost bestow the scepter,

      determinest destinies for far-off days.

      Much of this is full of fine religious feeling, and the exaltation of Sin sounds as though the poet could scarcely acknowledge any other god, but the proof that, other gods were invoked in the same terms and by the same kings is plentiful.

      Some of these hymns are connected with magical and incantation lit., for they servo to introduce passages which are intended to drive away evil demons. A very few of them on the other hand rise to very lofty conceptions in which the god is praised as a judge of righteousness. A few lines from the greatest of all the hymns addressed to Shamash, the Sun-god, will make this plain:


      Who plans evil his horn thou dost destroy, 40 Whoever in fixing boundaries annuls rights. The unjust judge thou restrainest with force. Whoever accepts a bribe, who does not, judge

      justly on him thou imposes! sin. Hut he who does not accept a bribe, who has a care

      for t he oppressed.

      To him Shamash is gracious, his life lie, prolongs. 45 The judge who renders a just decision

      Shall end in a palace, the place of princes shall be his dwelling.


      The seed of those who act unjustly shall not nourish.

      What their mouth declares in thy presence

      Thou shalt burn it up, what they purpose wilt thou


      15 Thou knowest their transgressions: the declara tion of the wicked thou dost cast aside.

      Everyone, wherever he may be. is in thy care.

      Thou directest their judgments, the "imprisoned dost thou liberate.

      Thou nearest, O Shamash, petition, prayer, and appeal.

      Humility, prostration, petitioning, and reverence. 20 With loud voice the unfortunate one cries to thee.

      The weak, the exhausted, the oppressed, the lowly!

      Mother, wife, maid appeal to thee.

      lie who is removed from his family, he that clwellcth far from his city.

      There is in this hymn no suggestion of magic or sorcery. \\\\\\\\Ye cannot but feel how close this poet came to an appreciation of the Sun-god as a judge of men on an ethical basis. How near he was to passing through the vale into a larger religious life!

      The prayers are on the whole upon a lower plane, though some of them, notably those of Nebuchad-



      rezzar, reach lofty conceptions. The following may serve as a sufficient example:

      O eternal ruler, lord of all being, grant that the name of the king that thou lovest, whose name thou hast pro claimed, may flourish as seems pleasing to thee. Lead him in the right way. I am the prince that obeys thee, the creature of thy hand. Thou hast created me, and hast intrusted to me dominion over mankind. According to thy mercy, O Lord, which thou best invest upon all, may thy supreme rule be merciful! The worship of thy divinity implant in my heart! Grant me what seems good to thee, for thou art he that hast fashioned my life.

      VI. Magic. Next in importance to tho gods in the Bab religion are the demons who had the power to afflict men with manifold diseases of body or mind. A large part of (lie religion seems to have been given up to an agonized struggle against these demons, and the gods were everywhere approached by prayer to assist men against these demons. An immense mass of incantations, supposed to have the power of driving the demons out, has come down to us. The use of these incantations lay chiefly in the hands of the priests who attached great importance to specific words or sets of words. The test of time was supposed to have shown that certain words were efficacious in certain instances. If in any case the result was not secured, it could only be ascribed to the use of the wrong formula; hence there grew up a great desire to preserve exactly the words which in some cases had brought healing. Later these incantations were gathered into groups or rituals classified according to purpose or use. Of the rituals which have come down to us, the following are the most important:

      MiK/lu, i.e. "burning," so called because there

      are in it many symbolic burnings of images or

      witches. This series is used in the

      1. Maqlu delivering of sufferers from witches or


      fihiirpti is another word for burning, and this

      series also deals much in symbolic burnings and

      for the same purposes as the former.

      2. Shurpu In these incantations we make the

      acquaintance of a large number of strange demons such as the nihixu, a demon that springs unawares on its victims; the lnh/irln, which attacks women and children; and the l/ln and the lilitu, to which reference has been made before, and the utnlcn, a strong demon.

      These incantations are for the most part a wretched jargon without meaning, and a sad com mentary on the low position occupied by the religion which has attained such noble heights as that represented in the hymns and prayers. It is strange that the higher forms of religion were not able to drive out the lower, but these incantations continued to be carefully copied and used down to the very end of the Bab commonwealth.

      VII. The Last Things. In Babylonia, the great question of all the ages If a man die shall he live again?" was asked and an attempt made to answer it. The answer was usually sad and depressing. After death the souls of men were supposed to continue in existence. It. can hardly be called life. The place to which they have gone is called the "land of no return." There they lived in dark rooms amid the dust and the bats covered with a garment of feathers, and under the dominion of Nergal and Ereshkigal. When the soul arrived among the dead he had to pass judg ment before the judges of the dead, the Annunaki, but little lias been preserved for us concerning the manner of this judgment. There seems to have been at times an idea that it might be possible for the dead to return again to life, for in this under world there was the water of life, which was used when the god Tammuz returned again to earth. The Babylonians seem not to have attached so

      much importance to this after-existence as did the Egyptians, but they did practice burial and not cremation, and placed often with the dead articles which might be used in his future existence. In earlier times the dead were buried in their own houses, and among the rich this custom seems to have prevailed until the very latest times. For others the custom of burying in an acropolis was adopted, and near the city of Kutha was an acropo lis which was especially famous. In the future world there seem to have been distinctions made among the dead. Those who fell in battle seem to have had special favor. They received fresh water to drink, while those who had no posterity to put offerings at their graves suffered sore and many deprivations. It is to be hoped that later dis coveries of religious texts may shed more light upon this phase of the religion which is still obscure. VIII. Myths and Epics. -In ancient religions the myth fills a very important place, serving many of the functions of dogma in modern religions. These myths have come down to us associated usually with epics, or made a part of ancient stories which belong to the library of Ashurbanipal. Most of them have been copied from earlier Bab originals, which go back in origin to the wonderful period of intellectual and political development which began with Hammurabi. The most inter esting of those which have been preserved for us are the story of Adapa and the story of Gilgames. This same divine being Adapa, son of Ea, was em ployed in Ea s temple at Eridu supplying the ritual bread and water. One day, while fishing in the sea, the south wind swept sharply upon him, overturned his boat, and he fell into the sea, the "house of the fishes." Angered by his misfortune, he broke the wings of (lie south wind, and for seven days it was unable to bring the comfort of the sea coolness over the hot land. And Ann said:

      "Why has the south wind for seven days not blown

      over the land?" His messenger Ilabrat answered him:

      "My Lord,

      Adapa, the son of Ea, hath broken the wing of The south wind."

      Then Ami ordered the culprit brought before him, and before he departed to this ordeal Ea gave him instructions. He is to go up to the gatekeepers of heaven, Tammuz and (Jish-zida, clad in mourn ing garb to excite their sympathy. When they ask why he is thus attired he is to tell them that his mourning is for two gods of earth who have dis appeared (that is, themselves), and then they will intercede for him. Furthermore, he is cautioned not to eat the food or drink the water that will be set before him, for Ea fears that food and water of death will be set before him to destroy him. But exactly the opposite happened. Tammuz and Gish-zida prevailed in pleading, and Ami said: "Bring for him food of life that he may eat it." The} 7 brought him food of life, but he did not eat. They brought him water of life, but. he did not drink. They brought him a garment; he put it on. They brought him oil; he anointed himself wit hit.

      Adapa had obeyed Ea literally, and by so doing had missed the priceless boon of immortality. iJ5ome of the motives in this beautiful myth are similar to those found in (Jen. Food of life seems to belong to the same category as the tree of life in (Jen. The Bab doctrine was that man, though of Divine origin, did not share in the Divine attribute of immortality. In the (Jen story Adam lost im mortality because he desired to become like God. Adapa, on the other hand, was already endowed with knowledge and wisdom and failed of immor-

      Bab. and Assyr. Bacchides



      tality, not because he \\\\\\\\v;is disobedient like Adam, but because he was obedient to Ea his creator. The legend would seem to be the Bab attempt to explain death.

      The greatest of all the Bab epics is the story of flilgame-s, for in it the greatest of the myths seem to pour into one great stream of epic. It was written upon twelve big tablets in the library of Ashurbanipal, some ot which have been badly broken. It was, however, copied from earlier tablets which go back to the First Dynasty of Babylon. The whole story is interest ing and important, but its greatest significance lies in the eleventh tablet which contains a description of t lie great flood and is curiously parallel to the Flood storv in the Book of (len.

      The Delude, Tablet.

      IX. The Astral Theory of the Universe. We

      have now passed in review the main features of t he Bab and Assyr religion. \\\\\\\\Ve have come all the way from a primitive animism to a higher organized polytheism with much theological speculation ending in a hope for existence 1 after death, and we must now ask whether there is any great organizing idea which will bring all this religion and specula tion into one great, comprehensive system. A theory has been propounded which owes its ex position generally to Professor Hugo Winckler of the University of Berlin, who in a series of vol umes and pamphlets has attempted to prove that the whole of the serious thinking and writing in the realm of religion among both the Babylonians and Assyrians rests down upon a Weltanschauung, a theory of the universe. This theory of Winckler s has found acceptance and propagation at the hands of Dr. Alfred Jeremias, and portions of it have been accepted by other scholars. The doctrine is extremely complicated and even those who accept it in part decline it in other parts and the exposition of it. is difficult. In the form which it takes in the writings of Winckler and Jeremias, it has been still further complicated quite recently by sundry alterations which make it still more difficult. Most of these can only be regarded as efforts to shield the theory from criticisms which have been suc cessful in pointing out its weakness.

      According to Winckler and Jeremias, the Baby lonians conceived of the cosmos as divided primarily into a heavenly and an earthly world, each of which is further subdivided into three parts. The heavenly world consists of (1) (lie northern ocean;

      (2) the zodiac; (3) the heavenly ocean; while the earthly world consists of (1) the heaven, i.e. the air above the earth; (2) the earth itself; (3) the waters beneath the earth. These great subdivisions were ruled by the gods Ami in the heaven above, Bel in the earth and air, and Ea in the waters beneath. More important than these is the zodiac, the twelve heavenly figures which span the heavens and through which the moon passes every month, the sun once a year, and the five great planets which are visible to the naked eye have their courses. These moving stars serve as the inter preters of the Divine will while the fixed stars, so says Jeremias, are related thereto as the commentary written on the margin of the Book of Rev. The rulers of the zodiac are Sin, Shamash and Ishtar, and according to the law of correspondence, the Divine power manifested in them is identical with the power of Ami, Bel and Ea. The zodiac rep resents the world-cycle in the year, and also in the world-year, one of these gods may represent the total Divine power which reveals itself in the cycle. By the side of these three, Sin, Shamash and Ish tar, which represent respectively the moon, sun and Venus, there are arranged Marduk which is Jupiter, Nabu which is Mercury, Ninib which is Mars, and Nergal which is Saturn, these being the planets known to the ancients. Now upon these foundations, according to Winckler, and his school, the ancient priests of Babylonia built a closely knit and carefully thought-out world-system of an astral character, and this world-system forms the kernel of the ancient and oriental conception of the universe. This conception of the universe as a double-sided principle is of tremendous importance. First, the heavenly world with its three divisions corresponds exactly to the earthly world with its three divisions. Everything on earth corresponds to its counterpart in heaven. The heavens are a mirror of earth, and in them the gods reveal their will and purpose. Everything which has hap pened is only an earthly copy of the heavenly original. It is still written in the heavens above and still to be read there. All the myths and all the legends, not only of Babylonia, but of all the rest of the ancient world, are to be interpreted in accordance with this theory; nothing even in his tory is to be understood otherwise. "An oriental history without consideration of the world era is unthinkable. The stars rule the changes of the times" (Jeremias). The consequences of this theory are so overpowering that it is difficult to deal with it in fairness to its authors and in justice to the enormous labor and knowledge which they have put upon it .

      It is impossible within the reasonable limits which are here imposed to discuss the theory in detail, and for our purpose it will be sufficient to say that to the great majority of modern scholars who have carefully considered it in its details it seems to lack evidence 1 sufficient to support so enormous a structure. That- an astrological struc ture similar at. least to this actually did arise 1 in the Hellenistic period is not here elispute-d. The 1 sole- dispute is as to the 1 antiquity e>f it. Now it ele>e\\\\\\\\s not appear that Wine-kler ami Jeremias have 1 bee-n able to prexluce pre>e>f, first, that the Babylemiaris had e-nemgh knowle dge e>f astronomy before- the- 7th e e iit. BC te) have constructed sue-h a system; and in the seconel place 1 , theTe is no ovielence that all the Bab gexls had an astral charae-ter in the 1 e-arlie-r period. On the- contrary, there seoms, as we; have 1 already attempted te) ,she>w in the eliscussion e>f the panthe-on, te> be 1 ge>oel reasem to believe that many of the 1 deities had ne> relation whatever to the stars in early times, but we re rather genls e>f vegetation e>r e>f water e>r of other natural



      Bab. and Assyr. Bacchides

      forces visible in earthly manifestations. The theory indeed may be said to have broken down by its own weight, for Winckler and Jeremias attempted to show that this theory of the universe spread to Israel, to the Greeks and to the Romans, and that it affords the only satisfactory explanation of the religion and of the history of the entire ancient world. An attempt has been made similar to pre vious abortive efforts to unlock all the doors of the ancient past with one key (see an interesting example cited in Rogers, Rdujion of Habijlonia and Assyria, 224-25). Instead of gaining ad herence in recent times, the theory would appear to have lost, and even those who have given a tentative adherence to its claims, cautiously qualify the extent of their submission.

      X. The Relations with the Religion of Israel. No question concerning the religion of Babylonia and Assyria is of .so great- interest and importance to students of the Bible as the question of the relation between this religion and the faith of Jeh, as professed by Israel. It seems now to be clearly demonstrated that the religion of Israel has bor rowed various literary materials from its more ancient neighbor. The stories of creation and of the flood, both of them, as far as the literary con tents are concerned, certainly rest upon Bab origi nals. This dependence has, however, been exagger ated by some scholars into an attempt to dem onstrate that Israel took these materials bodily, whereas the close shifting and comparison to which they have been subjected in the past few years would seem to demonstrate beyond peradventure that Israel stamped whatever she borrowed with her own genius and wove an entirely new fabric. Israel used these ancient narratives as a vehicle for a higher and purer religious faith. The ma terial was borrowed, the spirit belonged to Israel, and the spirit was Divine. Words and literary materials were secured from Babylonia, but, the religious and spiritual came from Israel and from Israel s Clod. The word Sabbath is Bab indeed, but. the great social and religious institution which it represents in Israel is not, Bab but distinctively Heb. The Divine name Yahweh appears among other peoples, passes over into Babylonia and afterward is used by Israel, but, the spiritual God who bears the name in Israel is no Bab or Kenite deity. The Babylonians, during all their history and in all their speculations, never conceived a god like unto Him. He belongs to the Hebrews alone.

      The gods of Babylonia are connected, as we have seen, with primitive animism or they are merely local deities. The (lod of Israel, on the other hand, is a God revealed in history. He brought Israel out of Egypt. He is continually made known to His people through the prophets as a God revealed in history. His religion is not, devel oped out, of Bab polytheism which existed as poly theism in the earliest periods and endured as poly theism unto the end. The religion of Israel, on the other hand, though some of its material origins are humble, moved steadily onward and upward until the great monotheistic idea found universal acceptance in Israel. The religions of Philistia and Phoenicia, Moab, and of Kdorn, were subject to the same play of influences from Babylonia and Egypt, but no larger faith developed out of them. In Israel alone ethical monotheism arose, and ethical monotheism has no roots in Babylonia. The study of the religion of Babylonia is indeed of the highest importance for the understanding of Israel s faith, but it is of less importance than some modern scholars have attempted to demonstrate.

      LITKIIATCKE. L. AV. King, Bah Reliijinn anil Hf ytholoy u , London, IS .KI; M. Jastrow, Jr., The Rrliyion <>f Hal>u-

      lonia and Assyria, Boston, 189S (completely revised by the author and tr d into Gorman under the title Die Religion Babyluniens un.d Axsurieim, G lessen, appearing in parts, and soon to be completed. This is the standard book on the subject) ; Rogers, The Reliiiimt of Babylonia and Assyria, Esp. in Its Relation to I.irin-1, New York, 1908; Hermann Schneider, Kultur und Den ken der Babylonier und Juden, Leipzig, 1910; It. P. Ohorrue, La religion assyrio-biibalonie.iinc, Paris, 1910. Detailed lit. on the separate phases of the religion will lie found in these books.


      BABYLONIANS, bab-i-ld ni-an/: The inhabi tants of BABYLONIA (q.v.j. They were among the colonists planted in Samaria by the Assyrians (Ezr 4 9). "The likeness of the Babylonians in Chaldea" (Ezk 23 15) refers to the pictures which were common on the walls of Bab palaces, and the reports of them being heard in Jerus, or copies of them seen there, awakened the nation s desire for these unknown lovers, which Judah had ample oc casion to repent of (vs 17.2:]; cf 2 K 24).

      BABYLONISH GARMENT, bab-i-l<Ynish gar - ment : In AV, Josh 7 21, for BABYLONISH MANTLE, which see.

      BABYLONISH MANTLE, man VI (AV Baby lonish Garment): One of the articles taken bv Achan from the spoil of Jericho (Josh 7 21). In the Heb "a mantle of Shinar." Entirely gratuitous is the suggested correction of Shinar to .st VTr, mak ing "a hairy mantle." The Gr has ysiltn poikllen, which Jos apparently understood to mean a royal garment all woven out of gold" (Ant, V, i, 10). The Vulg calls it a scarlet pallium," and some of the rabbinical traditions make it a purple robe. Such classical writers as Pliny and Martial speak of the weaving of embroidered stuffs as a famous industry of Babylonia. Many tablets that have been deciphered indicate that the industry was in deed widely extended, that its costly products were of great variety and that some of them were ex ported to distant markets; in fine, that the account in Joshua is characterized by great verisimilitude. WILLIS J. BEECHER

      BACA, ba ka (XDS , hulcha): In AV in Ps 84 6, where RV has "the valley of Weeping," with a marginal variant which is best put in the form, "the valley of the balsam-trees." The word is elsewhere used only in the duplicated account of one of David s battles (2 S 5 23.24; 1 Ch 14 14.15). There the tr is "the mulberry trees," with "the balsam-trees" in the margin in RV. Conjecturally the word is, by variant spelling, of the stem which denotes weeping; the tree is called " weeper" from some habit of the trickling of its gum or of the moisture on it; the valley of weeping is not a geographical locality, but a picturesque expression for the ex periences of those whose strength is in Jeh, and who through His grace find their sorrows changed into blessings. WILLIS J. BEECHER

      BACCHIDES, bak i-de/ (BaK X i8ris,

      B., ruler over Mesopotamia and a faithful friend of both Antiochus Epiphanes and Demetrius Soter, established at the request of the latter the rulership over Judaea for Alcimus, who, desiring to become high priest, had made false accusations against Judas Maccabee (1 Mace 7 SIT; Ant, XII, x, 2). B. is sent the second time to Judaea after the Syrian general Nicanor was killed near Adasa and Judas Maccabee had gained control of the government (1 Mace 9 1 ff; Aid, XII, x). B. after an unsuc cessful battle near Bethbasi was forced to make peace with Jonathan, the brother of Judas Macca bee (1 Mace 9 5Sff; Ant, XIII, i). In 1 Mace 10 12 and 2 Mace 8 30 reference is made to the




      strongholds B. built during his 2d campaign against Jerus (1 Mace 9 /JO). Cf ALCIMTS; BETHBAHI; JONATHAN MACCABEE; JUDAS MACCAHKE; ADASA; NICANOH. A. L. BuKsi.irii

      BACCHURUS, ha-ku rus (BaKxoCpos, Hnkclioii- ms) : One of the "holy singers" who put away his "strange wife" (1 Esd 9 24). Omitted in Ezr 10.

      BACCHUS, bak us (Aiovvcros, Di6nnsr>H; later BO.KXOS, the Feast of Bacchus; Aiovucria, J)io- Kux/d): The god of wine. His worship had ex tended over the whole (!r and Rom world cents. before the Christian era, and had degenerated into an orgy of drunkenness and unnamable immoralities, possibly under the influence of oriental Baal wor ship, such as the Heb prophets condemned. It has been surmised that Dionysus was originally not a Gr, but an oriental deity. His worship had been introduced into Egypt, perhaps bv the Ptolemies, and Ptolemy Philopator (222-204 BC) had branded the Jews there with his emblem, the sign of the ivy. When Antiochus Epiphanes made his assault upon Jerus in the year ItiS BC, he determined to extir pate the worship of Jeh, which he recognized as t lu st rength of the Jewish resistance, and to replace it by Gr religion. All worship of Jeh and the observance of Jewish rites, such as the Sabbath and circum cision, were prohibited. Heathen worship was set up all over Judaea, and in the temple at Jerus on the altar of burnt offering an altar to Jupiter was erected, "the abomination that maketh deso late" (Dnl 11 31), and a swine was sacrificed upon i1 (see AHOMINATION OF DESOLATION). The immoral practices associated with heathen worship in those days established themselves in the temple. When this feast of Bacchus (Dionysus) with all its revelry came round, the Jews were compelled to go in pro cession in honor of Bacchus (Dionysus), wearing wreaths of ivy, the emblem of the god (2 Mace 6 7). Some years later, when the worship of .Jeh had been restored, Nicanor the general of Demetrius I, in conducting the war against Judas Maccabaeus. threatened the priests that, unless they delivered Judas up as a prisoner, "he would ra/e the temple of God even with the ground, break down the altar, and erect there a temple unto Bacchus (Dionysus) for all to see" (2 Mace 14 33). See DlONYSlA.

      LITERATURE. Choyno, art. "Bacchus," EH; Kent. Hist of the Jewish 1 tople, I, 328-29; Jos, Ant. XII. \\\\\\\\ . 4.

      T. RKKS

      BACENOR, ba-se nor (BaKT|va>p, Jidkenor): An officer in the army of Judas Maccabee engaged in war against Gorgias, governor of Idumaea (2 Mace 12 35). Cf Ant, XII, viii, ti.

      BACHRITE, bak rlt. See BECHEU.


      (1) ("inX, a/iar, "back side" as in AV): "He led the flock to the back of the wilderness" (Ex 3 1), i.e. "to the pasture-lands on the other side of the desert from the Midianite encampments."

      (2) (THIS, ahor, "hinder part," "the West"): Used of God in an anthropomorphic sense ("Thou shall see my back," Ex 33 23) to signify "the after glow of the Divine radiance," the faint reflection of God s essential glorv. See also Lsa 38 17 and cf 1 K 14 9 and Neh 9 20.

      (3) (d-n-icrOev, opixthcn, "back side"): "A book written within and on the back" (Rev 5 1), "but the back of a book is not the same as the reverse side of a roll. St. John was struck, not only with the fact that the roll was sealed, but also with the amount of writing it contained" (IH)K, I, 231). CfEzk 2 10. M. (). EVANS

      BACKBITE, bak blt (53"1, ray/ml; So\\\\\\\\6, <lo- 160) : To slander the absent, like a dog biting behind the back, where one cannot see; to go about as a talebearer. "He that backbiteth [RV slandereth] not with his tongue" (Ps 15 3).

      Backbiters, bak bit-erz (Gr KardXaXoi, katdlrtlni): Men who speak against. Vulg "detractors" (Rom

      I 30).

      Backbiting, bak bit-ing ppy, sdhcr): Adj. "a backbiting tongue"; lit. "a tongue of secrecy" (Prov 25 23). A-araXaXtci, kdidldlid: subst. "a speaking against" (2 Cor 12 20; Wisd 111); "evil speak ing" (1 Pet 2 1). yXwffcra rpLTTj, (/Iowa trite: "a backbiting tongue" (AV of Ecclus 28 14.15); more; lit. tr 1 in RV "a third person s tongue."

      T. REES

      BACKSIDE, bak sld . See BACK.

      BACKSLIDE, bak slld (ra tJE, m shubhah; Hos

      II 7; 14 .4 and often in Hos and Jer, -2TdJ , sliO- bhdbli; 35T5 , shobhcbh, in Jer, 4 times: all meaning "turning back or away," "apostate," "rebellious." "HC , surttr, in Hos 4 16 = "stubborn," "rebellious"; RV "stubborn"): In all places the word is used of Israel forsaking Jeh, and with a reference to the covenant relation between Jeh and the nation, con ceived as a marriage tie which Israel had violated. Jeh was Israel s husband, and by her idolatries with other gods she had proved unfaithful (Jer 3 8.14; 14 7; Hos 14 4). It may be questioned whether Israel was guilty so much of apostasy and defection, as of failure to grow with the growing revelation of God. The prophets saw that their contemporaries fell far short of their own ideal, but they did not realize how far their predecessors also had fallen short of the rising prophetic standard in ideal and action. Sec* APOSTASY.

      Backslider, bak slld er pb y,D , xugh Icbh): "The backslider in heart shall be filled with his own ways" (Prov 14 14). But RV "backslider" conveys the wrong impression of an apostate. The Heb expression here implies simply non-adherence to the right, "The bad man reaps the fruits of his act" (Toy, I ror, in loc.). T. REES

      BADGER, baj er (il ; nn or t ; nn , talid.ih or tdhdnh): The word tdhdxh occurs in the descriptions of the tabernacle in Ex 25, 26, 35, 36 and 39, in the directions for moving the tabernacle as given in Nu 4, and in only one other passage, Ezk 16 10, where Jerus is spoken of as a maiden clot lied and adorned by her Lord. In nearly all these passages the wordtahash occurs with or, "skin," rendered: AV "badgers skins," RV "sealskin," RVm "por poise-skin," LiXX. dermata huakinthina. In all the passages cited in Ex and Nu these skins are men tioned as being used for coverings of the tabernacle; in Ezk 16 10, for shoes or sandals. The LXX rendering would mean purple or blue skins, which however is not favored by Talmudic writers or by modern grammarians, who incline to believe that Inljnxh. is the name of an animal. The rendering, "badger," is favored by the Talmudic writers and by the possible etymological connection of the word with the Lat td.rnx and the German Dachs. The main objection seems to be that badgers skins would probably not have been easily available to the Israelites. The badger, Aides laxus, while fairly abundant in Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon, does not seem to occur in Sinai or Egypt.

      A seal, Moitdchus albiventcr (Arab, fukmch), the porpoise, Phococna connnn/tis, and the common dolphin, Delphinus delphis, are all found in the Mediterranean. The dugong, Ualicore dugo/ia, inhabits the Indian Ocean and adjoining waters from the Red Sea to Australia. The Arab, tukftas




      or dukhas is near to tahash and is applied to the dolphin, which is also called del/hi. It may be used also for the porpoise or even the seal, and is said by Tristram and others to be applied to the dugong. The statement of Gesenius (Boston, lSf>(), s.v. "tahash") that the Arabs of Sinai wear sandals of dugong skin is confirmed by recent travelers, and is of interest with reference to E/k 16 10, "I .... shod thee with badgers skin" (AV). The dugong is a marine animal from 5 to 9 ft. in length, frequenting the shore and feeding upon sea weed. It belongs to the order tiircnia. While outwardly resembling Cctarea (whales and por poises), the tiircnia are really more allied to 1 he ViKjnlata, or hoofed animals. The dugong of the Indian Ocean and the manatee of the Atlantic and of certain rivers of Africa and South America,, are the only living representatives of the Xirenia. A third species, the sea-cow of Behring Sea, became extinct in the 18th cent. The seal and porpoise of the RV, the dolphin, and the dugong arc all of about the same si/e anil all inhabit the seas bordering on Egypt and Sinai, so that all are possi ble candidates for identification with the tahash. Of the four, recent opinion seems most to favor the dugong.

      Mr. S. M. Perlmann has suggested (Zoologist, ser. 4, XII, 25(5, 1908) that the okapi is the animal indicated by tahash.

      Gesenius (Leipzig, 1905) cites Bondi (Aegyptiaca, \\\\\\\\. fT) who adduces the Egyp root ths and makes the expression *t~>r tahash mean soft -dressed skin." This suits the context in every passage and is a very promising explanation. ALFRED ELY DAY

      BAEAN, be an (viol Bcuav, huio i; AV Bean; 1 Mace 64): A tribe mentioned only because of its malignant haired of the Jews. Its aggressive hostility against their religion and the rebuilding of their sanctuary duplicated the con spiracy of Sanballat and his confederates against, the restoration of Jerus and the temple in the days of Nehemiah (cf Neh 4 7.S). Utterly exterminated by Judas Maccabaeus who burned alive, in towers, many of the imprisoned people. See MAON.

      BAG: Bags of various kinds are mentioned in the Eng. Bible, but often in a way to obscure rather than tr the original.

      (1) "Bag" is used for a Ileb word which means a shepherd s "bag," rendered "wallet" ^in RV. This "bag" of the shepherd or "haversack" of the t raveler was of a size sufficient for one or more days provisions. It was made of the skin of animals, ordinarily undressed, as most of the other "bags" of ancient times were, and was carried slung across the shoulder. This is the "scrip for the journey" (n-flpa, pera) mentioned in Mi 10 10 and l| (AV). ("Scrip" is OE, now obsolete.) A unique word appears in 1 S 17 40.49 which had to be explained even to Heb readers by the gloss, "tin 1 shepherd s bag," but which is likewise rendered "wallet" bv t he ARV.

      (2) "Bag" translates also a word (Pa\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\&vrtov, ballantion) which stands for the more finished leather pouch, or satchel which served as a "purse" (see Christ s words, Lk 10 4AV: "Carry neither purse, nor scrip," and 12 33 AV: "Provide your selves bags which wax not old"). The word ren dered "purse" in Mt 10 9: "Get you no gold, nor silver, nor brass in your purses"; Mk 6 8: "No money in their purse," is a different word entirely (&vn, zone), the true rendering of which is "girdle" (RVm). The oriental "girdle," though sometimes of crude leather, or woven camel s hair (see GIRDLE), was often of fine material and elegant workmanship, and was either made hollow so as

      to carry money, or when of silk or cloth, worn in folds, when the money was carried in the folds.

      (3) The small "merchant s bag" often knotted in a handkerchief for carrying the weights, such as is mentioned in Dt 25 13: "Thou shalt not have in thy bag divers weights, a great, and a small," was another variety. This too was used as a "purse," as in the case of the proposed common purse of the wicked mentioned in Prov 1 14: "We will all have one purse," and sometimes car ried in the girdle (cf Isa 46 6).

      Bag: Scrip.

      (4) Then there was the "bag" ("VHS , fror, rendered "bundle" in Gen 42 35) which was the favorite receptacle for valuables, jewels, as well as money, used fig. with fine effect in 1 S 25 29: "The soul of my lord shall be bound in the handle of life" = "life s ji /nl-rusi " (see 2 K 12 10 where the money of the temple was said to be put up "tied up" in bags). This was a "bag" that, could be tied with a string: "Behold, every man s bundle. of money was in his sack," and (cf Prov 7 20) "He hath taken a bag of money with him" (cf Hag 1 (5: "earnet h wages to put it into a hag with holes").

      A seal was sometimes put, on the knot, which occasions the figure of speech used in Job (14 10.17), "Dost thou not, watch over my sin? My trans gression is sealed up in a bag" i.e. it is securely kept and reckoned against me (cf also 1 S 9 7; 21 5 where the Ileb "O3 , kell, is rendered by "vessels" and stands for receptacles for carrying food, not necessarily bags).

      (5) Another Ileb word t2"CT , har d; Arab, haritat, is used, on the one hand, for a "bag" large enough to hold a talent of silver (see 2 K" 5 23, "bound two talents of silver in two bags" ), and on the other, for a dainty lady s satchel, such as is found in Isa 3 22 (wrongly rendered "crisping pins" in AV). This is the most adequate Heb word for a large bag.

      (6) The "bag" which Judas carried (see Jn 12 G AV, "He was a thief and had the hag"; cf 13 29) was in reality the small "bo.r" (RVm) originally used for holding the mouthpieces of wind instru ments (Kennedy, in 1-vol ///)/*). The Heb (TiPX, unjaz, found only here) of 1 S 6 8, rendered "coffer" in EV and tr 1 y\\\\\\\\oa-cr6Ko/j.ov, glossokomon, by Jos, appears to stand for a small "chest" used to hold the gold figures sent by the Philis as a guilt offering. It is from a word that means "to wag," "to move to and fro"; cf the simi lar word in Arab, meaning a bag filled with stones hung at the side of the camel to "preserve" equilib rium (Gesenius). But, the same word Jos uses is found in modern Gr and means "purse" or "bag" (Hatch). Later to "carry the bag" came to mean to be treasurer. Gi:o. B. EAOER

      BAGGAGE, bag aj :

      (1) ( n b?, k"ll, "the impedimenta of an army"): "David left his b. in the hand of the keeper of the b." (1 S 17 22); "at Michmash he layeth up his b " (Isa 10 28). ARV gives b. for "stuff" at 1 S 10 22; 25 13; 30 24.

      (2) (cLTToa-Kevri, aposkeut: "Beside the b." (Jth 7 2), "a great ado and much b." (1 Mace 9 35.39),

      Bago Balance



      "the women ;itul the children and also I he 1>." (AV "and other b."; 2 Mace 12 21).

      (3) (airoo-KevdiofMi, ap(>nkcu(iz<nai, "to make ready for leaving," "to pack up baggage"): "\\\\\\\\Ve took up [made ready RVm] our b." (Acts 21 15, AV "car riages"), i.e. what they could carry = Eng. "lug gage"; but others understand I he term oft he loading of t lie baggage animals. M. (). EVANS

      BAGO, ba go (A, Ba-yo, Btu/o; B, Bavai, Banal = Bigvai [Ezr 8 14]): The descendants of B. returned with E/m to Jerus (1 Esd 8 40).

      BAGOAS, ba-go as (Ba-yuas, Bayonx) : The eunuch in charge of the household of Ilolofernes whom the latter engaged to bring Judith to his palace (Jth 12 11 ff; 13 1.3; 14 14). Cf Jrnrni.

      BAGOI, bag 6-T (A, Ba-yoi, B<i<j<ri; B, Boo-cu, Bosal= Bigvai [K/.r 2 11; Neh 7 I )]): The de scendants of B. returned with Zerubbabel to Jerus (,1 Esd 5 14).

      BAHARUMITE, ba-ha rum-Tt , BARHUMITE,

      bar-hu mlt (1 Ch 11 33; 2 S 23 31): A native

      of BAHUKIM (q.V.).

      BAHURIM, ba-hu rim (2"nna , bnhimm; Ba- ovptiji, Baourcnn, visually, but there are variants): A place in the territory of Benjamin which lay on an old road from Jerus to Jericho followed by David in his flight from Absalom (2 S 15 3216 5 ff). It ran over the Mount of Olives and down the slopes to the E. The Talm identifies it with Ale- math, the modern Alitnl, about a mile beyond A/((7/, going from Jerus. If this identification is correct, \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ <ldy FCirak may be the brook of water (2 S 17 20). Here Palt iel was parted from his wife Michal by Abner (2 S 3 10). It. was the home of Shimei, who ran along a ridge of the hill cursing and throwing stones at the fugitive king (2 S 16 5; 1 K 2 S). In Bahurim Jonathan and Ahimaaz, the messengers of David, were concealed in a well by a loyal woman (2 S 17 ISff). \\\\\\\\v.- niaveth, one of David s heroes, was a native of Bahurim. In 2 S 23 31 we should read, as in 1 Ch 11 33, Barahumitc. W. EWIN<;

      BAITERUS, ba-1 ter-us (BaiTT)povs, Baitcronx; AV Meterus): The descendants of B. returned with Xerubbabel to Jerus (1 Esd 5 17). Omitted in Ezr 2 and Neh 7.

      BAJITH, ba jith. See BAYITII.

      BAKBAKKAR, bak-bak ar Pp^n , bakhnkkar, "investigator"): A Levite (1 Ch 9 15).

      BAKBUK, bak buk (piajpa , Imkhiik, "bottle" perhaps onomatopoetical, referring to the clucking noise created by the pouring out of the contents of abottle=Acub [1 Esd 5 31]): The descendants of B. returned with Zerubbabel to Jerus (Ezr 2 51 ; Nch 7 53).

      BAKBUKIAH, bak-bn-kl a (rPpjapa , haklnikyah, "the Lord pours out"):

      (1) A Levite who "dwelt in Jerus" after the re turn from Babylon (Neh 11 17).

      (2) A Levite who returned with Zerubbabel to Jerus (Neh 12 9).

      (3) A Levite and porter keeping "the watch at, the store-houses of the gates" (Neh 12 25).

      BAKEMEATS, bak mets: Only in Gen 40 17 AV and ERV. "All manner of"baked food for Pharaoh" ARV. Any kind of meat baked or cooked. See BREAD; FOOD.

      BAKING, bak ing. See BKKAD. BAKING PAN. See BREAD; PAN.

      BALAAM, ba lam (22?~3 , hiTtlm, "devourer"): The son of Beor, from a city in Mesopotamia called Pethor, a man possessing the gift of prophecy, whose remarkable history may be found in Nu 22 224 25; cf 31 8.10; I)t 23 4; Josh 13 2 >- 24 <) Neh 13 2; Mic 6 5; 2 Pet 2 15; Jude ver 11 : Rev 2 14.

      When the children of Israel pitched their tents in the plains of Moab, the Moabites entered into some sort of an alliance with the 1. History Midianites. At the instigation of Balak, at that time king of the Moab ites, the elders of the two nations were sent to Balaam to induce him, by means of a bribe, to pronounce a curse on the advancing hosts of the Israelites. But, in compliance with (iod s com mand B. refused to go with the elders. Quite different was the result of a second request en hanced by the higher rank of the messengers and by the more alluring promises on the part of Balak. Not only did Cod permit B. to go with the men, but he actually commanded him to do so, caution ing him, however, to act according to further in structions. While on his way to Balak, this in junction was strongly impressed on the mind of B. by the strange behavior of his ass and by his encounter with the Angel of the Lord.

      Accompanied by Balak who had gone out to meet the prophet, B. came to Kiriath-hu/oth. On the next morning he was brought up "into the high places of Baal" commanding a partial view of the camp of the Israelites. But instead of a curse he pronounced a blessing. From there he was taken to the top of Peor, yet this change of places and external views did not alter the tendency of B. s parables; in fact, his spirit even soared to greater heights and from his lips fell glowing words of praise and admiration, of benediction and glori ous prophecy. This, of course, fully convinced Balak that all further endeavors to persuade the seer to comply with his wishes would be in vain, and the two parted.

      Nothing else is said of B., until we reach Nu 31. Here in ver 8 we are told of his violent death at the hands of the Israelite s, and in ver l(i we learn of his shameful counsel which brought disgrace and disaster into the ranks of the chosen people.

      Now, there are a number of interesting problems connected with this remarkable story. We shall try to solve at least some; of the more 2. Prob- important ones.

      lems (1) Was B. a prophet of Jeh?

      For an answer we must look to Nu 22-24. Nowhere is he called a prophet. He is introduced as the son of Beor and as a man reputed to be of great personal power (cf Nu 22 (>/>). The cause of this is to be found in the fact that he had intercourse of some kind with God (cf Nu 22 9.20; 22 22-35; 23 4; 23 16). Furthermore, it is interesting to note how B. was enabled to deliver his parables. First it is said: "And Jeh put a word in B. s mouth" (Nu 23 5; cf ver 10), a procedure seemingly rather mechanical, while nothing of the kind is mentioned in Nu 24. In stead we meet with the remarkable sentence: "And when B. saw that it pleased Jeh to bless Israel, he went not, as at the other times, to meet with enchantments . . . . " (Nu 24 1), and then: "the Spirit of God came upon him" (ver 26). All this is very noteworthy and highly instructive, esp. if we compare with it vs 3 RVm and 4: "The man whose eye is opened saith; he saith, who hear- eth the words of God, who seeth the vision of the




      Almighty," etc. The inference is plain enough: B. knew the Lord, the Jeh of the Israelites, hut his knowledge was dimmed and corrupted by heathen conceptions. He knew enough of (Jod to obey Him, yet for a long time he hoped to win Him over to his own selfish plan (cf 23 4). Through liberal sacrifices he expected to influence God s actions. Bearing this in mind, we see the import of Nu 24 1. After fruitless efforts to cajole Clod into an attitude favorable to his hidden purpose, he for a time be came a prophet of the Lord, yielding to the en nobling influences of His spirit. Here was a chance for his better nature to assert itself permanently and to triumph over the dark forces of paganism. Did he improve this opportunity? He did not (cf Nu 31 8.16).

      (2) Is the B. of Nu 22-24 identical with the person of the same name mentioned in Nu 31? Quite a number of scholars deny it, or, to be more accurate, there are according to their theory two accounts of B.: the one in Nu 22-24 being favor able to his character, and the other in Nu 31 being quite the reverse. It is claimed the two accounts could only be made to agree by modifying or eliminating Nu 24 25. Now, we believe that Nu 31 10 actually does modify the report of B. s return contained in Nu 24 25. The children of Israel slew B. with the sword (Nu 31 8). Why? Because of his counsel of ver It). We maintain that the author of 24 25 had this fact in mind when he wrote the 1st ver of Nu 25: "And .... the people began to play the harlot, etc. Thus, he closely connects the report of B. s return with the narrative contained in Nu 25. Therefore we regard Nu 31 8.16 as supplementary to Nu 22- 24. But here is another question:

      ( . ,) Is the narrative in Nu 22-24 the result of combining different traditions? In a general way, we may answer this question in the affirmative, and only in a general way we can distinguish be tween two main sources of tradition. But we main tain that they are not contradictory to each other, but supplementary.

      (4) What about the talking of the ass and the marvelous prophecies of B.? We would suggest the following explanation. By influencing the soul of B., God caused him to interpret correctly the inarticulate sounds of the animal. Clod s act ing on the soul and through it on the intellect and on the hearts of men this truth must be also ap plied to B. s wonderful prophetic words. They are called m sfidlntt or sayings of a prophet, a diviner.

      In the 1st of these "parables" (Nu 23 7-10) he briefly states his reasons for pronouncing a blessing; in the 2d (vs 18-24) he again emphasizes the fact that he cannot do otherwise than bless the Israelites, and then he proceeds to pronounce the blessing at some greater length. In the . 3d (Nu 24 3-9) he describes the glorious state of the people, its development and irresistible power. In the last four parables (vs 15-24) he partly reveals the future of Israel and other nations: they are all to be destroyed, Israel s fate being included in the allusion to Eber. Now, at last, B. is back again in his own sphere denouncing others and predicting awful disasters. (On the "star out of Jacob," ver 17, see ASTRONOMY, ii, 9; STAR OF THE MAGI.)

      This may furnish us a clue to his character. It,

      indeed, remains "instructively composite." A

      soothsayer who might have become

      3. B. s a prophet of the Lord; a man who

      Character loved the wages of unrighteousness,

      and yet a man who in one supreme

      moment of his life surrendered himself to God s

      holy Spirit; a person cumbered with superstition,

      covetousness and even wickedness, and yet capable

      of performing the highest service in the kingdom

      of God: such is the character of B., the remarkable OT type and, in a sense, the prototype of Judas Iscariot .

      In 2 Pet 2 15 B. s example is used as a means to illustrate the pernicious influence of insincere

      Christian teachers. The author might 4. B. as a. have alluded to B. in the passage Type immediately preceding 2 Pet 2 15

      because of his abominable counsel. This is done in Rev 2 14. Here, of course, B. is the type of a teacher of the church who attempts to advance the cause of God by advocating an unholy alliance with the ungodly and worldly, and so con forming the life of the church to the spirit of the flesh.

      LITERATURE. Bishop Butler s Sermons, "Balaam"; ICC, "Numbers."

      BALAC, ba lak. See BALAK.


      BALADAN, bal a-dan (" , bnl adhdn, "He [i.e. Merodach] has given a son"): Baladan is said in 2 K 20 12 and Isa 39 1 to have been the father of Berodach (Merodach)-Baladan, king of Babylon. Some have thought that the Bib. writer was wrong here, inasmuch as it is said in the inscriptions of Sargon (Annul*, 228, 315; I r., 122), that Merodach- Baladan was the son of Yakin. It is evident, however, from the analogy of .Jehu, who is called by the Assyr kings the son of Omri, that Yakin is to be looked upon as the founder of the dynasty or kingdom, rather than as the father of Merodach- Baladan. The liilh Yukin, over which Merodach- Baladan is said to have been king, corresponds exactly to the phrase Bilh Kluonria, or House of Omri, over which Jehu is said to have ruled. There is no reason, then, for supposing that there is an error in either case. There is, however, good reason for believing that the Merodach-Baladan of the Book of Kings was the soil of another king of the same name. That only the latter part of the father s name is here mentioned may be com pared with the Shalman of Hos 10 14 for the more fully written Shalmaneser of 2 K 17 3; and with the Jareb of Hos 5 13 and 10 6, probably for Sennacherib. Such abbreviation of proper names was usual among the Assyrians and Babylonians. See Tallquist, Xiuncnhnrh, xiv-xix.


      BALAH, ba la (Sla , balah; B<Ad, Hold): A place, unidentified, in the territory of Simeon (Josh 19 3), called Bilhah in 1 Ch 4 29. It may be identical with Baalah in Judah (Josh 15 29).

      BALAK, ba lak (pSl , balak, "devastator" or "one who lays waste"): Mentioned in connection with the story of Balaam (Nu 22-24; cf Josh 24 9; Jgs 11 25; Mic 6 5; Rev 2 14). He was the king of Moab who hired Balaam to pronounce a curse on the Israelites. See BALAAM.

      BALAMON, bal a-mon (Ba\\\\\\\\.a|xtov, Balamdn; AV Balamo) : In the field between Balamon and Dothaim Manasses, the husband of Judith, was buried (Jth 8 3). Cf Baal-hamon (Cant 811).

      BALANCE, bal ans: The Eng. word "balance" is from the Lat bilanx= "having two scales" (bi = "two" and lanx= "plate," or "scale"). It is used to render three Heb words: (1) D^TX^ , mo znayim (Lev 19 36; Job 6 2; Ps 62 9; Prov 11 1; Isa 40 12.15; Jer 32 10, etc); (2) Hip, kancfi (Isa 46 6), and (3) cbs, peles (Prov 16 11). It is found in the sing., e.g. "a just balance" (Prov 16 11); "a pair of balances" (Rev 6 5, etc), as well as in the plur.,

      Balance Bamoth



      e.g. "just, balance" (Lev 19 3(5), "weighed in the balances" (Dnl 5 27, etc).

      Balance (from Egyptian Tomb).

      (1) The "balances" of the ancient Hebrews differed little, if at. all, from those used by the Egyptians (Wilkinson, Anc. Egypt 1. Balances [1878], II, 240 f). They consisted, among the probably, of a horizontal bar, either Ancient pivoted on a perpendicular rod (see Hebrews; Erman, A< ?////;/< //, 1, Ol.~> for similar the Parts, Egvp balances), or suspended from etc a cord and held in the hand, the

      more primitive form. At. the ends of the bar were pans, or hooks, from which the things to be weighed wore suspended, sometimes in bags.


      Assyrian Balance (from Sculptures at Khorsabad).

      A good description of the more developed and final form is this: A beam with its fulcrum in the middle and its arms precisely equal. From the ends of the arms were 1 suspended two scales, the one to receive the object to be weighed, the other the counter poise, or weight.

      (2) The weights were of stone at first and are so named in Dt 25 13 AVm. A pair of scales (AV "a pair of balances") is used in Rev 6 o by a figure of speech for the balance as a whole; only once is the beam so used, in Isa 46 (5, lit "weigh silver in the beam." Abraham, we are told (Gen 23 10), "weighed the silver."

      The basis and fountain-head of all systems of

      weights and measurements is to be traced, it is now

      thought, to Babylonia; but the primi-

      2. Probably live instruments and systems were of Bab subject to many modifications as they Origin entered other regions and passed into

      the derivative systems. The Rom "balance" is the same as our xlcdyuril (vulgarly called "stilly ards"). Cf the Chinese, Danish, etc.

      Though the "balances" in ancient, times were rudely constructed, the weighing could be done

      quite accurately, as may be seen in

      3. The the use of equally primitive balances System of in the East today. But the system Weighing was- liable to fraud . A "false balance" Liable to might be lit. one so constructed that Fraud the arms were of unequal length, when

      the longer arm would bo intended, of course, for the article to be weighed. The svstom was liable, however, to various other subtle abuses then as now; hence the importance in (iod s sight, of "true weights" and a "just balance" is enforced again and again (see Lev 19 30; Prov 11 1; 16 11; 20 23; Am 8 f>; Mic 6 11, etc).

      "A false balance is an abomination to Jehovah" (Prov 11 1; cf 20 23), and "a just balance and scales

      are Jehovah s" (Prov 16 11). Hos(12

      4. "Wicked 7) condemns "the balances of deceit" in Balances" the hand of the wicked; Am (8 5 AV) Condemned cries out upon "falsifying the balances

      by deceit," and Mic (6 1 1) denounces "wicked balances." Indeed, the righteousness of a just balance and true weights, and the iniquity of false ones are everywhere emphasized by the Jaw- makers, prophets and moral teachers of Israel, and the preacher or teacher who would expose and denounce such things in (Iod s name today need be at no loss for texts and precedents. See WKK;HTS AND MKASTKKS.

      LITKKATTUK. Wilkinson, Ancient Eftypt; Erman, Kyi/lit; Lrpsius. J)i n/cmalir: and arts, on "Balance," rtc, in DH, Eli, Jnr Knc, I! DB, EB, etc.

      (JKO. B. E.U;KH

      BALANCINGS, bal ans-ins: "The balancings of the clouds" (Job 37 1(5), the manner in which they are poised and supported in the air, alike with their mysterious spreadings and motions, challenge the strongest intellect to explain.

      BALASAMUS, ba-las a-mus. See BAALRAMUS. BALD LOCUST, bold lO kust. See LOCUST.

      BALDNESS, bold ness (nrn]5 , korhali): The reference in the Bible to baldness is not to the natural loss of hair, but to baldness produced by shaving the head. This was practised as a mark of mourning for the dead (Lev 21 5; Isa 15 2; 22 12); as the result of any disaster (Am 8 10; Mic 1 10). The custom arose from the fact that the hair was regarded as a special ornament. It was the custom of the people of the land, and the Israelites were strictly forbidden to practise it (Lev 21 5; Deut 14 1). These are striking pas sages with reference* to the knowledge the Israelites had concerning the future life. This is saying to thorn what Paid said to the Thessalonians (1 Thess 4 13). To call one a "bald head" was an epithet of contempt, and was sometimes applied to persons who were not naturally bald. It was the epithet applied by certain infidel young men to Elisha



      Balance Bamoth

      (2 K 2 23.24). In :i fig. souse it, is used to express the barrenness of the country (Jer 47 5). See HAIK; SHAVE. JACOB W. KAPP

      BALL, bol (TH, dur): A rare Ileb word used in this sense only in Isa 22 IS, and correctly rendered in ARV " lie will surely wind thee round and round, and toys thce like a ball into a large country." Do Or, Bottcher, -last row, following Tahn, regard the noun as kn-ddur, but perhaps in correctly. See also GAMES.

      BALM, bam ("H , f e rl, "H , <;6rl; LXX rhetine): The name of an odoriferous resin said to be brought from Gilead by Ishmaelit-e Arabs on their way to Egypt (Gen 37 2;")). It is tr 1 "balm" in AV and RV, but- is railed "mastic," RVm. In Gen 43 11 it is one of 1 he gifts sent by Jacob to Joseph, and in Ezk 27 17 it is named as one of the exports from Judaea to Tyre. The prophet Jeremiah refers fig. to its medicinal prop erties as an application to wounds and as a seda tive (8 22; 46 11; 51 S). The name is derived from a root signifying "to leak," and is applied to it as being an exudation. There is a sticky, honey- like gum resin prepared at the present day at Jericho, extracted from the llnlttnitix Aciji/iitinc/i grown in the Ghor, and sold to travelers in small tin boxes as "Balm of Gilead," but it is improbable that this is the real oo/ 7 and it has no medicinal value. The material to which the classic authors applied the name is that known as Mecca, balsam, which is still imported into Egypt from Arabia. as_it was in early times. This is the exudation from the lialsamodctulron- (>i>ohttlx(nn/<>n, a native- of southern Arabia and Abyssinia. The tree is small, ragged- looking and with a yellowish bark like that, of a plane tree, and the exudation is said to be gathered from its smaller branches. At the present day it grows nowhere in Pal. Dr. Post and other botanists have sought- for it on the Ghor and in Gilead, and have not found it, and there is no trace of it in the neighborhood of Jericho, which Pliny says is its only habitat. Slrabo describes it as growing by the Sea of Galilee, as well as at Jericho, but both these and other ancient writers give inconsistent and incorrect descriptions of the tree evidently at second hand. We learn from TheophrastllS that many of the spices of the farther Kast readied the Mediterranean shore through Pal, being brought by Aral) caravans which would traverse the indefi nitely bounded tract, E. of Jordan to which the name Gilead is given, and it was probably thus that the balm received its local name. MITCH Ixilxunt is an orange-yellow, treacly fluid, mildly irritating to the skin, possibly a weak local stimulant and antiseptic, but of very little remedial vahi".


      BALM OF GILEAD: The people of Jericho today prepare for the benefit of pilgrims a "Balm of Gilead" from the zaklfilm (Balanites Aegyptiaca), but this has no serious claims to be the balm of antiquity. If we are to look beyond the borders of modern Pal we may credit the tradition which claims that Mecca balsam, a product of Balsamo- dcndron Gileadense and B. opobalsamum, was the true "balm," and Post (IIDIi, I, 23(>) produces evidence to show that these plants were once grown in the Jordan valley. Yet another sugges tion, made by Lagardo, is that the s6n = ffT6pa, and if so then "balm" would be the inspissated juice of the Storax-tree (Styrax officinalis), a common in habitant of Gilead. Sec also BALM.

      E. W. G. MASTEKMAN

      BALNUUS, bal-nu us (A, BaXvovos, lialnouos; B, BaXvovs, Balnoiis = Binnui [Ezr 10 30]): B. put away his "strange wife" (1 Esd 9 31).

      BALSAM, bol sam (3T~ H I1 , buxam, OfeS , brxcm; fi8vcr(xaTa, hediismata; 0u(j.i.dfj.aTa, thumidmata) . Is usually "spices" but in RVm (Cant- 5 1.13;

      6 2) is rendered as "balsam." It was an ingre dient in the anointing oil of the priests (Ex 25 6; 35 2S) . The Queen of Shoba brought it as a present to Solomon (1 K 10 2) in large quantity (ver 10) and of a finer quality (2 Ch 9 9) than that brought as a regular tribute by other visitors (1 K 10 25). In the later monarchy Hezokiah had a treasure of this perfume (2 Ch 32 27) which he displayed to his Bab visitors (Isa 39 2); and after the cap tivity the priests kept a store- of if in the temple (1 Ch 9 30). According to E/ekiel the Syrians imported it- from Sheba (27 22). Ther(> is a tradi tion preserved in Jos (An/, VIII, vi, G) that the Queen of Sheba brought roots of the plant to Solomon, who grew them in a garden of spices at Jericho, probably derived from the references to such a garden in Cant 5 1.13; 6 2. This may be the source of the statements of St rabo, Trogus and Pliny quoted above (see HALM). It was probably the same substance as the HALM described above, but from the reference in Ex 30 7; 35 S, it may have been used as a generic name for fragrant resins. The root from which the word is derived signifies "to be fragrant," and fragrant balsams or resins are known in modern Arab, as biihnxnu. The trees called in 2 S 5 23.24 (KYm) "balsam-trees" were certainly not those which yielded this substance, for there are none in the Xh /><lililh, but there are both mulberry trees and terebinths in the district between Rephaim and Ge/er. When used as a per fume the name bawlm seems to have been adopted, but as a medicinal remedy it is called ^orl.


      BALTASAR, bal-ta sar (BaXrao-cLp, Baltasdr; AV Balthasar) :

      (1) The Gr of Ileb, "^Xt l^Il , belt e sha e$ar, or "l^tJSSlpbjl, lH lt xh<i(rar, perhaps corresponding to Balat-idr-usur, "protect the life of the king," the Bab cognomen of Daniel. Cf Belteshazzar (Dnl 1 7; 2 2<i; 4 8 ff, etal.).

      (2) B. is also the Gr of the Ileb lilSCxS , bcl- .s/m cC">", or "l^ tTX*? , I^T.^fitirrnr, the name of the last king of Babylon (corresponding to the- Bab Bel-sar-usur; KAT, III, 396; Syr Blitshazzar; Vulg Baltassar). Cf Bar 1 llandBelshazzar (Dnl 5 Iff;

      7 1; 8 1).

      (3) The name of one of the Magi who according to the legend visited Jesus at Bethlehem: Melchior from Nubia, Balthasar from Godolia, Caspar from Tharsis. A. L. BHESLICII

      BAMAH, ba ma, ba ma (23 , bfitnah, "high place"): The word appears in E/Jc 20 29 where reference is made- to former "high-place worship," the prophet speaking with contempt- of such manner of worship. Ewald suggests a play of words, S3, b<T, "come," and np , innfi, "what," "what [tnnli] is the high place \\\\\\\\ha-m nli\\\\\\\\ whereunto ye come [frd ] ?" It is possible that reference is made to a prominent high place like the one at Gibeon (cf 1 K 3 4; 1 Ch 16 39; 21 29; 2 Ch 1 3) for which the name "Bainah" was retained after the reform mentioned by the prophet .

      BAMOTH, ba moth, BAMOTH-BAAL, ba moth- ba al ( ""5 r^ E?, Ixlinuth-ltti dl, "high places of Baal"): Bamoth "is referred to in Nu. 21 19.20, as a station in the journeyings of Israel N. of the \\\\\\\\rnon. It is probably the same place as the Bamoth-baal of Nu 22 41 (RVm), whither Balak, king of Moab, conducted Balaam to view and to curse Israel. Bamoth-baal is named in Josh 13 17


      Bank, Banking



      as OIK: of the cities given to Reuben. Alesha, on (lie Al 8, speaks of having "rebuilt" Beth-bamoth.

      BAN (A, Bdv, Hd.n; B, Baivdv, Hnindn; 1 Esd 5 37 = Tpbiah [Ezr 2 (H); Xeh 7 02j; some AISS of the LXX read Bovci, lit, mi): The descendants of B. were not able to trace their ancestry to show "how they were of Israel."

      BANAIAS, ban-a-I as (Bavcuas, Huitn ias; 1 Esd 9 3r>=Benaiah [Ezr 10 4:!]); B. put away his "si range wife."

      BAND: The Eng. word has two generic moan- ings, each shading off into several specific meanings: (.1) that which holds together, binds or encircles: a bond; (2) a company of men. The second sense may philologically and logically have been derived from the first, men being held together by social ties. Both meanings appear in OT and NT rep resenting various Hob and (!r words.

      (1) A band (a) ("l^CS? , cyiir) : a flaxen rope (Jgs 15 14); a band of iron and brass (Dili 4 If). 23); metaphorically of a false woman s hands (Keel 7 20). (It) (inn, ArMc/):"The bands of the wicked have robbed me" (AV of Ps 119 til), where "bands" = "troops" by mistr; RV "The cords of the wicked have wrapped me round"; plur. hobhlim "bands" = the name of the prophet s symbolic staff repre senting the brotherhood between Judah and Israel (Zee 11 7.14). (r) (ray, l nl>hoth): "I drew them with cords of a man, with bands of love" (llos 11 4; of K/.k 3 2.1; 4 S; .Job 39 10). ((/) (!"IETE, K(l/>li(ltn: the edge of the round opening in t lie robe of the ephod wit h a band i R V "binding") round _about the hole 1 of it (only in Ex 39 23). (<) <rrZ^~ri, /, a/r r//VW//): bands (RV "bonds") of wickedness (Isa 58 (i); bands ( = pains) in death (Ps 73 4); RVm ("pangs," Cheyne. "torments"). (/) (niT C , moldfi): the cross bar of oxen s yoke, holding them together (Lev 26 13; E/k 34 27 AV: RV "bars"). (<i) Pv lE , muwr): a fetter: "Who hath loosed the bonds of the swift ass . " (Job 39 ,V Ps 2 3; 107 14; Isa 28 22; 52 2; Jer 2 20; all in AV and RV). The same 1 lob word (in Ps 116 111- Jer 5 f>; 27 2; 30 S; Nah 1 13) is tr 1 "bonds" in AV. and in ERV of Ps 116 1C), and Nah 1 13, but "bands" in ERV of Jer 5 f>; 27 2; 30 X; ARV has "bonds" throughout. See BOND. (h) (ITOETE, m,o*hkhoth): ""Canst tliou .... loose the bands of Orion . " (only in Job 38 31). (/) (dfcrfj.6^, desinos, fftivSeff/Ms, siindesmos) . a fetter : that which binds together : of the chains of a luna tic or prisoner (Lk 8 2!); Acts 16 20; 22 30 AV), metaphorically of the mystic union of Christ and the church (Col 2 19). Those words are often tr 1 by "bond" in AV and RV. (,/) (^evKTtjpia, zcuklc- riti): the rudder s bands (only in Acts 27 40).

      (2) A company of men (a) ("^"3, <fdhudh) : a band of soldiers (2 S 4 2; 1 K 11 24 AV; 2 K 6 23; 13 20.21; 24 2; 1 Ch 7 4; 12 1S.21; 2 Ch 22 1). So RV (except in 1 K 11 24, "troop"). (/;) (t S l , n t N!I): "head" = "division": "The Chaldeans made three bands" (Job 1 17); 1 Ch 12 23 RV trans lates "heads." (r) (b^H , hnijil}: "a band of men" RV the "host" (only in 1 S 10 20). (d) (S I S.}S , aghapplm): "the wings of an army," only in Ezk armies of the King of Judah (12 14; 17 21); of (iomor and of Togarmah (38 0); of Gog (RV "hordes") (38 9.22; 39 4). (<) (njrTQ , mahaneh): "Camp".: only in Gen 32 7.10; RV "companies." (/) (7?n , IIOQCQ) : of locusts dividing into com panies or swarms (Prov 30 27). (g) (cnrelpa, speira): usually a "cohort" (see RVm) of Rom

      soldiers; the tenth part of a legion, about 000 rneir (Alt 27 27; Mk 15 10; Acts 10 1; 21 31; 27 1) A smaller detachment of soldiers (Jn 18 3.12; cf 2 Mace 8 23; Jth 14 11). (//) (Troteiv trva-Tpo^v, /x,i- chi sustrophtri) : "to make a conspiracy" : "The Jews banded together" (Acts 23 12). T. RKKS

      (3) The Augustan Band (o-impa Sepao-T^, spc ira Scbastt) to which Julius, the Rom centurion who had charge of St. Paul as a prisoner on his voyage to Rome, belonged, was a cohort apparently stationed at Caesarea at the time (Acts 27 1) Selmror (GJV, I s , 401 f) is of opinion that it was one ot five cohorts mentioned by Jos, recruited m Samaria and called Sobastenes from the Or name ot the city of Samaria (Sobaste). This particular cohort had in all likelihood for its full name Colors Augusta Sebastenorum, Augusta, being an honorific title of which examples are found in the case of auxiliary troops. Sir William Ramsay, followin" Alommsen (,S7. Paid the Traveller, 315, 348), thinks it denotes a body of legionary centurions, selected from legions serving abroad, who were employed by the emperor on confidential business between (ho provinces and Rome, the title Augustan being conferred upon them as a mark of favor and dis tinction. The grounds on which the views of Alommsen and Ramsay rest are questioned by Professor Zahn (Introduction to the XT, 1, f>f)l If), and more evidence is needed to establish them See AUMY (ROMAN).

      (4) The Italian Band (o-n-elpa IraXiKTJ, xpt /ra Italikt] was a cohort composed of volunteer Rom citizens born in Italy and stationed at Caes area at this time (Acts 10 1). Schiirer maintains that there could have boon no Rom cohort, there at this time, although he accepts the testimony of inscriptions to the presence of an Italian cohort at a later time. He accordingly rejects the storv of Cornelius, holding that the author of the Acts has given in this narrative conditions belonging to a later time (<!,JV, I 3 , 402 f). In reply to Schiirer, HI: IAS asks why one of the five cohorts mentioned by Jos may not have been composed of Rom citizens living at Caesarea or Sebaste, and bearing this name ( Blass, Ada Apostolorum, 124). I<Yom a recently discovered inscription, Sir W. AI. Ramsay has ascertained that there was an Italian cohort stationed in Syria in 09 AD, which heightens the probability of one actually being found in Caesarea, at 41 44 AD, and he shows that even if his cohort was at the time on duty elsewhere a centurion like Cornelius might well have boon at Caesarea at t lie time mentioned (Kxitaxilor. oth ser., IV, V, with Schiirer s rejoinder). The subject of detached service in the provinces of the Rom Empire is ad mittedly obscure, but nothing emerges in this dis cussion to cast doubt upon the historical character of St. Luke s narrative. See ARMY (Ro\\\\\\\\iA\\\\\\\\).

      T. NICOL



      BANI, ban! (%2 , bum, "posterity"):

      (1) A Gadite, one of David s mighty men (2 K 23 30).

      (2) A Levite w r hose son was appointed for service in the tabernacle at David s time (1 Ch 6 40).

      (3) A Judahito whose son lived in Jems after the captivity (1 Ch 9 4).

      (4) The descendants of B. (called Binnui, Neh 7 15) returned with Zerubbabel (Ezr 2 10) and had taken "strange wives" (Ezr 10 29).

      (5) B. who had taken a "strange wife" (Ezr 10 38) mentioned with his brothers, the sons of B. who also had taken "strange wives" (Ezr 10 34).



      Bank, .Banking

      (<>) Son of B., a Levite and builder (Neh 317).

      (7) B., who instructed the people at Ezra s time (Neh 8 7).

      (8) Three Levites mentioned in connection with the temple worship at Ezra s time (Neh 9 4.5).

      (9) A Levite who sealed the covenant with Neh (Neh 10 13).

      (10) A leader of the people who also signed the covenant (Neh 10 14).

      (11) One whose son Uzzi was overseer of the Levites at Jerus (Neh 11 22). See BINNUI.

      A. L. BUESLICH

      BANIAS, ha-nl as (B, Bavias, Banias; A, Bavi, Hani; AV Banid [1 Esd 8 30]): An ancestor of Salimoth. The descendants of B. returned with Ezra to Jerus. The name is omitted (Ezr 8 10), perhaps due to the oversight of a copyist or a mistaken reading of " IS , b ne, "sons of," for ^ZZL , bam.


      BANID, ba nid (I Esd 8 30): In RV BAMAS, which see.

      BANISHMENT, ban ish-rnent . See Prxisii-


      BANK, bank:

      (1) (riBip, saphah, "lip," "edge"): "By the b. of the Jordan" (2 K 2 13); "Upon the b. of the river were very many trees" (Ezk 47 7.12).

      (2) (i"TI3, gddftdh, "cuttings"): Always of banks overflowed (Josh 3 In; 4 18; Isa 8 7), as also

      (3) (rP~a, (jitihi/ah, 1 Ch 12 15).

      (4) (r\\\\\\\\f D, sdl r lah, "mound," "rampart"): "Cast up a b. against the city" (2 S 20 15, ERV "mount," ARV "mound"; cf 2 K 19 32; Isa 37 33). "Banks of sweet herbs" (Cant 5 13); "the mar ginal rendering is the right one, towers of per fumes, i.e. plants with fragrant leaves arid flowers trained on trellis-work" (Speaker s Coinm. in loo.).

      (5) (x-pa, chdrax, "a stake," "entrenchment"): "Thine enemies shall cast up a bank about thee" (Lk 19 43 AV "trench"). It is probably a mili tary term and stands for a "palisade" (so RVm), i.e. probably an embankment of stakes strength ened with branches and earth, with a ditch behind it, used by the besiegers as a protection against arrows or attacking parties (Lat v/dlum), such, no doubt, as was employed by Titus in the siege of Jerus, 70 AD (Jos, BJ, V, vi, 2).

      (0) BANK, BAXKI\\\\\\\\<; (q.v.). M. O. EVANS

      BANK, BANKING: "Banking" in the full modern sense, of taking money on deposit and

      lending it out on interest, is of com- 1. Intro- paratively recent origin. A few ductory "banks of deposit" were founded in

      Italy in the Middle Ages, but the earliest "banks of issue," of the modern sort, wen; those of Amsterdam (1609) and Hamburg (1619), beginning in the 17th cent. The law of Moses forbade Israelites to charge each other interest (Ex 22 25; Lev 25 35.37; Dt 23 19), but let them lend on interest to Gentiles (Dt 23 20), though this law was often evaded or disregarded (Neh 5 10.12). Banks and banking, however, are found in operation in the Gr cities; "money changers," sitting at their tables (trdpezai) in the market place, both changed coins and took money on deposit, giving high interest; and banking of a sort, in its incipient stages, existed among the an cient Hebrews. But the Phoenicians are now thought to have been the inventors of the money- changing, money-lending system which is found in

      more or less modified and developed forms among ancient peoples and in full development and opera tion in the palmy days of the Rorn Empire. In the Gr-Rom period, without doubt, bankers both received money on deposit, paying interest, and let it out at a higher rate, or employed it in trade, as the publicani at Rome did, in farming the revenues of a province (Plumptre).

      (1) The Heb money-changer, like his modern Syr ian counterpart, the saruf (see PEF8, 1904, 49" ff,

      where the complexity of exchange in

      2. Banking Pal today is graphically described), among the changed the large coins current into Ancient those of smaller denominations, e.g. Hebrews giving denarii for Mnidrucltms, or

      silver for gold, or copper for silver.

      (2) But no mean part, of his business was the exchanging of foreign money, and even the money of the country of a non-Phoen standard, for shekels and half-shekels on this standard, the latter being accepted only in payment of the temple dues (see MONKY) The "money-changers" of Mt 21 12, as the Gr signifies, were men who made small change. Such men may be seen in Jerus now with various coins piled in slender pillars on a table (cf cin. trnpczan, Lk 19 23), ready to be used in changing money for a premium into such forms, or denominations, as would be more current or more convenient for immediate use.

      (3) "Usury" in EV is simply OE for what we today call "interest," i.e. the sum paid for the use of money, Lat u^urn; and "interest" should take the place of it in all passages in the OT and NT, where it has such significance.

      The Gr word rendered (tt>kn*), "usury" in the NT (see Lk 19 23 f) means lit. "what is horn of money." "what money brings forth or produces." "I sury" has (dine to mean exorbitant interest," but did not mean this at the time of AV, 1011.

      (1) In Christ s time, and immediately following,

      there was great need for money-changers and

      money-changing, esp. on the part of

      3. Banking foreign Jews whom custom forbade in NT to put any but Jewish coins into the Times temple treasury (see Mk 12 41). It

      was mainly for the convenience of these Jews of the Dispersion, and because it was in order to a sacred use, (hat the people thought it proper to allow the money-changers to set up their tables in the outer court of the temple (see Mt 21 12 ff).

      Bank: Money Changer.

      (2) The language of Mt 25 27, Thou oughtest to have put my money to the banker*, etc, would seem to indicate the recognition by Christ of the custom and propriety of lending out money on interest (cf 19 23). The "exchangers" here" are "bankers" (cf Mt 25 27). The Gr (trapczltai) is from a word for "bank" or "bench" (trdpeza), i.e. the "table" or "counter" on which the money used to be received and paid out. These "bankers" were clearly of a higher class than the "small- change men" of Mt 21 12, etc (cf "changers of

      Bannaia Baptism



      money," Jn 2 14, and "changers," Jn 2 I.") EV). Christ upbraids the "slothful servant" because he had not given his pound to "the bank" (or "banker," t /// tru IKZIIII, lit. "on a banker s table"), who, it is implied, would have kept it safe and paid interest for it ( Lk 19 2:! f). It is noteworthy that the "ten minae" of ver 24 are those acquired by "the good servant" from the "one" which was first lent him. So these wealthier bankers even then in ;i way received money on deposit, for in vestment and paid interest on it, after the fashion of t he ( .reeks.

      (1) In Christ s parable (Lk 19 2. ] IT) "the bunk" (lit. "a bank," "table") is taken by some to mean

      "the N///i<ii/i>yu< ," by others to mean 4. Interpre- "the church" (Lunge, L.I, II, 1, 414); tations, i.e. it is though! that Christ meant

      Figurative to teach that the organi/ed body, Uses, etc "synagogue" or "church," might use

      the gifts or powers of an adherent or disciple, when he himself could not exercise them (cf IM d, art. "Bank").

      (2) Then some have thought that Christ was here pointing to prayer as a substitute for good works, when the disciple was unable to do such. Such views seem far-fetched and unnecessary (cf Bruce, r<ir<it>lir Tiur/n i/i/ <>f C/tri*/, 20 .) Cj.

      (3) The "money-changers," then as now, had ever to be on guard against false money, which gives point to the oft-quoted extra-scriptural say ing (agraphon) of Jesus to His disciples: "lie ye expert money-changers" i(!r gineslhai tmpeziiai dokimoi; see Origen, in Joiun, XIX), which was taken (Clem., lloni.. Ill, (11) to mean, "He skilful in distinguishing true doctrine from false" (lll)li, 1-vol). CKO. B. EA<;EK

      BANNAIA, ba-na ya. See SABANNEUS.

      BANNAS, ban as (Bdwos, i xinnox; AV Banuas/: A name occurring in the list of those who returned from the captivity with Xerubbabel (1 Esd 5 2(>). Bannas and Sudias are represented by lloodaviah in the lists of Ezra and Xehemiah.

      BANNEAS, ban-e as (Bavvaias, Jldiintiias: AV Baanias [I Esd 9 2(i] = Benaiah |E/.r 10 25]): B. put. away his "strange wife."

      BANNER, ban er (E\\\\\\\\si<;\\\\\\\\, STANDARD): The Eng. word "banner" is from bundcriii, Low Lat, meaning a banner (cf l>undni, Eat, which meant first a "band," an organi/ed military troop, and then a "Hag"). It lias come to mean a Jldy, or standard, carried at the head of a military band or body, to indicate the line of march, or the rallying point,

      Assyrian Standards and Banners.

      and it is now applied, in its more extended signifi cance, to royal, national, or ecclesiastical "banners" also. We find it applied sometimes to a streamer on the (Mid of a lance, such as is used by the Arab sfu-ik today. "B." occurs in the following signifi cant OT passages: (1) in the sing., "Lift ye up a b.

      upon the high mountain" (Isa 13 2 AV); "a 1). to them that fear thee" (Ps 60 4); and (2) in theplur., "In t he name 1 of our (iod we will set up our b." (Ps 20 )); "terrible as an army with b." (Cant 6 4).

      The Hebrews, it. would seem, like the Assyrians, the Egyptians, and other ancient nations, had military ensigns. As bearing upon 1. Military this question, a very significant pas sage is that found in Nu 2 2: "The children of Israel shall encamp every man by his own standard, with the ct i- .S/V///N of their Cat hers houses." "Stand ard-bearer" in Isa 10 18 AV, "They shall be as when a standard-bearer Cainteth," is not a case in point, but is to be rendered as in HVm, "as when a sick man pinet h away."

      Ensigns among the Hebrews

      Egyptian Standards

      passage a distinction seems in tentionally made (another view is held by some)

      between "the citxiyiiH oC their fathers 2. A Dis- houses" (lit. "signs"; cf Ps 74 4, where tinction the reference is thought by some today

      with a to be to the standards (if Antiochus

      Difference army), and "the *lunt/<ir</x" of the four

      great divisions of the Heb tribes in the (ef the "bannei " of Cant 2 1 and 6 4. relation of these to the "standard" oC Nil 21 Sf (Heb ne?, AV and HV "standard") is by no means clear. The word ties, here tr 1 "standard," seems to have meant at first a pole si 1 ) up on an eminence as a signal for mustering t roops (cf "mast " Isa 30 17 EHVm). But it. occurs frequently in the prophets both in this lit. and original sense, and in t he fig. or derived sense of a rallying point for ( lod s people (see Isa 5 2(1; 11 10; Jer 4 21 and else where). Here the rendering in EV alternates be tween "ensign" and "banner" (see ///>//, 1-vol, art,. "Banner"). CEO. B. EA<;EH

      BANNUS, ban us (Bawoiis, linnnonx fl Esd 9 34] = Bani or Binnui |E/r 10 2!).:{()|): The sons oC B. put away their "strange wives."

      BANQUET, ban kwet : (1) "Banquet" and "ban queting" in AV always include and stand Cor wine- drinking, not simply "feast" or "feast - 1. The ing" in our sense. Thus (Cant 2 4),

      Ancient "He brought me to the banquet ing-

      Hebrew house" is lit. "the house of wine," and

      Customs Est 7 2 has in the Heb "a banquet of wine." In the NT we see a reflection of the same Cact in 1 Pet 4 3 AV, "We walked in . . . . excess of wine, Ixutfjitclint/n" (Or "drinkings"; HV "earousings"). CC Amos 6 7 AV, "The ban quet of them that stretched themselves," where the reference seems to be to reclining at wine-drinkings. See MEALS.

      The Heb of Job 1 4 (nniS Q ITBD- AY tr "make a banquet," may refer to a social feast of a less objection able sort (cf 41 <; AV) drink" Til ="wine quet." See SYMPOSIUM.

      A.V), though the Heb nflp O ="tO was used as synonymous with "ban-



      Bannaia Baptism

      Music, dancing and merriment usually attended all such festivities. Certainly the ancient Hebrews, like other peoples of the ancient East, were very fond of social feasting, and in Christ s day had acquired, from contact with Greeks and Romans, luxurious and bibulous habits, that often carried them to excess in their social feasts.

      Among the Crooks the word for "feast" ( is from dechomai "to receive" (cf our Eng. usage, "to receive" and "reception"). This word doctu is used with poieln "to make," to signify "to make" or "give a feast." Cf Lk 5 29 where Levi "made a feast."

      (1) In view of existing customs and abuses, Christ taught His followers when they gave a

      banquet to invite the poor, etc (Lk 2. In 14 13), rather than, as the fashion

      Christ s of the day called for, to bid the rich Teaching and influential. Much in the NT and Prac- that has to do with banquets and tice banquetings will bo obscure t o us of t he

      West if we do not keep in mind the many marked differences of custom between the East and the West.

      (2) "Banquets" were usually given in the house of the host to specially invited guests (Lk 14 15; Jn 2 2), but much more freedom was accorded to the uninvited than we of the West are accus tomed to, as one finds to be true everywhere in the East today. The custom of reclining at meals (see MEALS; TRICLINIUM, etc) was everywhere in vogue among the well-to-do in Christ s day, even in the case of the ordinary meals, the guest leaning upon the left arm and eating with the aid of the right (cf Mt 26 2()m "reclining," and 1 Cor 11 20, "the Lord s supper").

      (3) "Banquets" were considered normal parts of weddings as they are now throughout the East. Jesus and His disciples were bidden to one at Cana in Galilee, and accepted the invitation (Jn 2 2ff), and wine-drinking was a part of the feast. The "banquet" Levi gave was in Christ s honor (Lk 5 29). There were numbers present and marked gradations in the places at table (Mt 23 6; Mk 12 39; Lk 14 7; 20 46). Guests were invited in advance, and then, as time-pieces were scarce, specially notified when the feast was ready, which helps to explain Christ s words (Mt 22 4), "All things are ready: come to the marriage" (cf Lk 14 17; Est 5 S; 6 14).

      (4) Matthew tells us (23 6) that the Pharisees "love the chief place ["uppermost rooms" AV] at feasts."

      In Mt 22 3.4 "made a marriage feast." is rendered by some simply "a feast," because Or gdmos, "marriage," was used by LXX to translate the Hell for "feast" in Kst 1 5. But, as this is the only known example of such a use of yamox. it is better to take it here in the lit. sense of "marriage feast," as would seem to be re quired by the words "for his son" (Messiah). The Gr is plur. (gamous) to indicate the several parts or stages of the feast (Button, 23; cf Eng. "nuptials").

      The "ruler of the feast" (architriklinos, Jn 2 8.9), was usually one of the guests, and his business was to see that wine was provided, superintend the drinking, etc (cf Lk 22 27).

      (1) In Mt 22 4, "I have made ready my dinner," "dinner" in Gr is nriston (cf Lk 11 38). "Supper"

      (Gr deii>non) is found in Mt 23 6 and 3. A Dis- often in the NT. Both words are tinctionGiv- found in Lk 14 12. The question ing Rise to arises, What was the distinction? a Question Thus much may be said in answer:

      The (iriston (EV "dinner") was a meal usually taken about the middle of the forenoon, with variations of earlier or later; the duipnon (EV "sup per"), the one taken at the close of the day, often after dark. In Ant, V, iv, 2 Jos supposes Eglon s

      guards (Jgs 3 24) were negligent about noon, "both because of the heat and because their attention was turned to dinner" (ariston). So the "dinner" (a r is ton) was sometimes as late as noon. Yet Jn (21 12. 15) shows, on the other hand, that the ariston was on some occasions taken shortly after dawn.

      (2) Another question raised is this, Were the ancient Jews accustomed to have two or three meals a day? Vambery, quoted by Morison, gives a saying of the Turks that is in point: "There are only two meals a day, the smaller at 10 or 11 o clock in the morning, the second and larger after sunset." There seems no evidence to sustain the view, maintained by Grimm and entertained by others, that the Jews of Christ s day were accustomed to take a separate and slight meal on rising, as the later Greeks and some of the later Romans did. There is certainly no clear evidence that, the Jews of that day had more than two meals a day (see DJi, art. " Meals").

      (3) The marriage- feast of Mt 22 3 f was an arixton, somewhat like an Eng. "wedding-breakfast"; but that in Lk 14 16 f was a dcipnon, which was as usual delayed till after dark (ver 17). Perhaps the (trialott in this case was preliminary, while the marriage with its accompanying dcipnon was after dark; such things are not unheard of today (cf Mt 26 20 and 1 Cor 11 20, "the Lord s deipnon").

      GKO. B. EACKH

      BANUAS, ban fi-as (1 Esd 5 26): A misprint for B ANN AS (RV), which set 1 .



      1. Terminology

      2. Proselyte Baptism :?. l ! reek I sugo

      4. NT I sage

      5. The Dulm-hc


      This art. is not a discussion of the whole subject, but is merely a presentation of the Baptist inter pretation of the ordinance. The origin and his tory of the ordinance, as a whole, do not come with in the range of the present treatment.

      /. Meaning of Baptism. The vb. used in the NT is paTTTifa (b(i/>lizd). The subst. buptisma and b(ij)li^in6s occur, though the 1. Termi- latter is not used in the NT of the nology ordinance of baptism except by impli

      cation (He 6 2, "the teaching of baptisms") where the reference is to the distinction between the Christian ordinance and the Jewish ceremonial ablutions. Some documents have it also in Col 2 12 (cf He 9 10, "divers washings") for a reference purely to the Jewish purifications (cf the dispute about purifying in Jn 3 25). The verb baptizo appears in this sense in Lk 11 38m where the Pharisee marveled that Jesus "had not first bathed himself before breakfast" (noon-day meal). The Mosaic regulations required the bath of the whole body (Lev 15 16) for certain unclean- nesses. Tcrtullian (dc Baptismo, XV) says that the Jew required almost daily washing. Herodotus (ii.47) says that if an Egyptian "touches a swine in pa.ssing with his clothes, lie goes to the river and dips himself \\\\\\\\bdpto] from it" (emoted by Broadus in Comm. on Alnlth.ciP, 333). See also the Jewish scrupulosity illustrated in Sir 34 25 and Jth 12 7 where baptizo occurs. The same thing appears in the correct text in Mk 7 4, "And when they come from the market-place, except they bathe themselves, they eat not." Here baptizo is the true text. The use of rhaittizd ("sprinkle") is due to the difficulty felt by copyists not familiar with Jewish customs.




      Sor also tho omission of "couches" in the same verse. The couches were "pallets" and could easily be dipped into water. It is noteworthy that here rhantizo is used in contrast with haptizd, showing thai baptizo did not mean sprinkle. The term baplismos occurs in Jos (Ant, XVI II, v, 2) in con nection with John s baptism (cf also Irenaeus (iSli 15 about Christ s baptism). In general, however, baptisina is the subsl. found for the ordinance. The vb. baptizo is in reality a frequentative or in tensive of bapld ("dip"). Examples occur where that idea is still appropriate, as in 2 K 5 14 (LXX) where Naaman is said to have "dipped himself seven times in the .Jordan (ebaptisato) . The notion of repetition may occur also in Jos (Ant, XV, iii, 3) in connection with the death of Aristobulus, brother of Mariamne, for Herod s friends "dipped him as he was swimming, and plunged him under water, in the dark of the evening." lint in general the term baptizo, as is common with such forms in the late (ir, is simply equivalent to bapto (cf Lk 16 21) and means "dip." "immerse," just as rhantizo, like rliaino, means simply "sprinkle."

      If baptizo never occurred in connection with a disputed ordinance, there would be no controversy on the meaning of the word. There are, indeed, fig. or metaphorical uses of the word as of other words, but the fig. is that of immersion, like our "im mersed in cares," "plunged in grief," etc. It remains to consider whether the use of the word for a ceremony or ordinance lias changed its significance in the XT as compared with ancient (!r.

      It may be remarked that no Baptist has written a lexicon of the (Ir language, and yet the standard lexicons, like that of Liddell and Scott, uniformly give the meaning of baptizo as "dip," "immerse." They do not give "pour" or "sprinkle," nor has anyone ever adduced an instance where this verb means "pour" or "sprinkle." The presumption is therefore in favor of "dip" in the XT.

      Before we turn directly to the discussion of the ceremonial usage, a word is called for in regard to Jewish proselyte baptism. It is still 2. Prose- a matter of dispute whether this lyte Bap- initiatory rite was in existence at the tism time of John the Baptist or not.

      Schiirer argues ably, if not conclusive ly, for the idea that this proselyte baptism was in use long before the first, mention of it in 1he2d cent, (cf The Jeirish People in tlie Time of Jesus Christ, Div ii, II, 3 1 .iff: also Edersheim, Life and Times of Jesus, Appendix, xii, Baptism of Proselytes). It matters nothing at all to the Baptis contention what is true in this regard. It would not be strange if a bath was required for a (lentile who became a Jew, when the Jews themselves required such frequent ceremonial ablutions. But what was the Jewish initiatory rite- called proselyte bap tism? Light fool (Home llebraicnc, Mt 3 "7) gives the law for the baptism of proselytes: "As soon as he grows whole of the wound of circumcision, they bring him to Baptism, and being placed in the water they again instruct him in some weightier and in some lighter commands of the Law. Which being heard, he plunges himself and comes up, and, behold, he is an Israelite in all things." To this quotation Marcus Dods (Presbyterian) HDH adds: "To use Pauline language, his old man is dead and buried in the water, and he rises from this cleansing grave a new man. The full significance of the rite would have been lost had immersion not been practised." Light foot says further: "Every person baptized must dip his whole body, now stripped and made naked, at one dipping. And wheresoever in t he Law washing of the body or garments is mentioned, it means nothing else than the washing of the whole body." Edersheim (op.

      cit.) says: "Women were attended by those of their own sex, the rabbis standing at the door outside." Jewish proselyte baptism, an initiatory ceremonial rite, harmonizes exactly with the current meaning of baptizo already seen. There was no peculiar "sacred" sense that changed "dip" to "sprinkle."

      The (Ir language has had a continuous history, and baptizd is used today in Greece for baptism. As is well known, not only in Greece, but, 3. Greek all over Russia, wherever the Gr church Usage prevails, immersion is the unbroken

      and universal practice. The Greeks may surely be credited with knowledge of the meaning of their own language. The substitution of pouring or sprinkling for immersion, as the Chris- lian ordinance of baptism, was late and gradual and finally triumphed in the West because of the decree of the Council of Trent. But the Baptist position is that this substitution was unwarranted and subverts the real significance of the ordinance. The Gr church does practice trine immersion, one immersion for each person of the Trinity, an old practice (cf tcr inenjilnnutr, Tertullian ii.79 A), but not the Scriptural usage. A word will be needed later concerning the method by which pouring crept in beside immersion in the 2d and later cents. lie- fore we turn directly to the NT use of baptizo it is well to quote from the (Irak Lexicon of the Roman and Byzantine Periods by Professor E. A. Sophocles, himself a native Greek. He says (p. 207): "Then- is no evidence that Luke and Paul and the other writers of the NT put upon this verb meanings not recognized by the Greeks." We expect therefore to find in the NT "dip," as the meaning of this word in the ceremonial sense of an initiatory Christian rite. Thayer s Lexicon likewise defines the word in this ceremonial Christian use to mean "an immer sion in water, performed as a sign of the removal of sin."

      Baptists could very well afford to rest the matter right here. There is no need to call for the testi mony of a single Baptist scholar on this subject. The world of scholarship has rendered its decision with impartiality and force on the side of the Baptists in this matter. A few recent deliverances will suffice. Dr. Alfred Plummer (Church of Eng land) in his new Commentary on Matthew (p. 28) says that the office of John the Baptist was "to bind them to a new life, symbolized by immersion in water." Swete (Church of England) in his Commentary on Mark (p. 7) speaks of "the added thought of immersion, which gives vividness to the scene." The early Gr ecclesiastical writers show that immersion was employed (cf Barnabas, XI, 11): "We go down into the water full of sins and filth, and we come up bearing fruit in the heart." For numerous ecclesiastical examples see Sophocles Lexicon .

      But the NT itself makes the whole matter per fectly plain. The uniform meaning of "dip" for baptizd and the use of the river Jordan 4. NT as the place for baptizing by John the

      Usage Baptist makes inevitable the notion of

      immersion unless there is some direct contradictory testimony. It is a matter that should be lifted above verbal quibbling or any effort to disprove the obvious facts. The simple narrative in Mt 3 6 is that "they were baptized of him in the river Jordan." In Mk 1 9.10 the baptism is sharpened a bit in the use of eis and ek. Jesus "was baptized of John in [eis] the Jordan. And straightway coming up out of [ek] the water, he saw." So in Acts 8 38 we read: "They both went down into [eis] the water, both Philip and the eunuch; and he baptized him. And when they came up out of [ek] the water, the Spirit . . . . caught away Philip." If one could still be in doubt




      about the matter, Paul sets it at rest by the sym bolism used in Rom 6 4, "We were buried therefore with him through baptism into death: that like as Christ was raised from the dead through the glory of the Father, so we also might walk in new ness of life." The submergence and emergence of immersion thus, according to Paul, symbolize the death and burial to sin on the one hand and the resurrection to the new life in Christ on the other. Sunday and Headlam (Church of England) put it thus in their Coinni. on- Romans (p. 153): "It expresses symbolically a series of acts correspond ing to the redeeming acts of Christ. Immersion = Death. Submersion = Burial (the ratification of death). Emergence = Resurrection." In Col 2 12 Paul again says: "having been buried with him in baptism, wherein ye were also raised with him through faith in the working of (!od. who raised him from the dead." The 1 same image is here presented. Light foot (Church of England) on Colossians (p. 1S2) says: "Baptism is the grave of the old man, and the birth of the new. As he sinks beneath the baptismal waters, the believer buries there all his corrupt affections and past sins; as he emerges thence, lie rises regenerate, quickened to new hopes and new life."

      There is nothing in the XT to offset this obvious

      and inevitable interpretation. There are some

      things which are brought up, but they vanish on

      examination. The use of "with" after baptize

      in the English 1r is appealed to as disproving im-

      mer.-ion. It is enough to reply that the Committee

      of the American Standard Revision, which had no

      Baptist member at the final revision, substituted

      "in" for "with." Thus: "I indeed baptize you

      in water unto repentance" (Mt 311; cf also Mk

      1 8). The use of both "with" and "in" in Lk 3 1<>

      is a needless stickling for the use of the (Jr en with

      the locative case. In Mk 1 8 en- is absent in the

      best MSS, and yet the American Revisers correct ly

      render "in." In Acts 1 f> they seek to draw the

      distinction between the mere locative and en and

      the locative. As a matter of fact the locative case

      alone is amply sufficient in Gr without, en for the

      notion of "in." Thus in .Jn 21 S the tr is: "But

      the other disciples came in the little boat." There

      is no en in the Gr, but "the boat is simply in the

      locative case. If it be argued that we have the

      instrumental case (cf the instrumental case of en as

      in Rev 6 S, "kill with sword"), the answer is thai

      the way to use water as an instrument in dipping

      is to put the subject in the water, as the nat ural way

      to use the boat (Jn 21 8) as an instrument is to get

      into it. The presence or absence 1 of en with hnp-

      tizo is wholly immaterial. In either case "dip"

      is tin 1 meaning of the vb. The objection that three

      thousand people could not have been immersed in

      Jerus on the day of Pentecost is superficial. Jenis

      was abundantly supplied with pools. There were

      120 disciples on hand, most of whom were probably

      men (cf the 70 sent out before by Jesus). It is

      not at all necessary to suppose that the 12 (Matthias

      was now one of them) apostles did all the baptizing.

      But even so, that would be only 250 apiece. I

      myself have baptized 42 candidates in a half-hour

      in" a creek where there would be no delay. It would

      at most be only a matter of four or five hours for

      each of the twelve 1 . Among the Telugus this record

      has been far exceeded. It is sometimes objected

      that Paul could not have immersed the jailer in the

      prison; but the answer is that Luke does not say

      so. Indeed Luke implies just the opposite 1 : "And

      he took [took along in the 1 Gr, pam] them the same

      hour e>f the night, and washed their stripes; and

      was baptized." lie took Paul anel Silas along with

      him anel found a place for the baptism, probably,

      somewhere; on the prison grounds. There is

      absolutely nothing in the XT to controvert the unvarying significance of baptizd.

      Appeal has been made to the Teaching of the Twelve Apostles, which may belong to the first

      half of the 2d cent. Here for the 1 first 5. The time 1 pouring is distinctly admitted as

      "Didache" an ordinance in place of immersion.

      Because of this remarkable passage 1 it is argued by some 1 thai, though immersion was the 1 normal and regular baptism, yet alongside of it, pouring was allowe d, and that in reality it was a matter of indifference which was used even in the 1 1st cent. But that is not the 1 true interpretation of the facts in the case 1 . The passage deserves to be quoted in full anel is he-re 1 given in the 1 tr of Philip Schaff (Presbyterian) in his edition of the Did (pp. 184 ff) : "Xow conevrning baptism, baptize 1 thus: Having first taught ail these things, baptize ye 1 into [cis] the name e>f the- Father, and of the 1 Son. anel of the Holy Ghost, in living water. And if thou hast not living water, baptize into other water; and if thou canst not in e e>ld, then in warm | water]. But if thou hast neithe-r, pour water thrice 1 upon the- he ad in [els] the 1 name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghe>st." The re is thus no doubt that early in t he 1 I d cent, some Christians fe lt that baptism was so important that, when the 1 real baptism (immersion) could not be performed be 1 - cause of lack of wate>r, pouring might be used in its place. This is absolute-ly all that can be ele 1 - duced from this passage. It is to be 1 noteel that for pouring another worel (ckclieo) is used, clearly showing that baptizo does not mean "te> pour." The very exception filed proves the Baptist con tention conceTiiing baptizo. Xow in the NT lxt/>- tizo is the worel used fen- baptism. Ekrlicd is never so used. Harnack in a letter to Ren . C. E. YV. Dobbs, Madison, Ind. (publisheel in The Independ ent for February 9, 188")), under date of January 16, 1885 says: "(1) Baptizcin undoubtedly sig nifies immersion (nntnnchen). (2) Xo proof can be founel that it signifies anything e lse 1 in the XT anel in the most ancient Christian literature. The 1 suggestion regarding a sacred sense 1 is out of the 1 (Uiestie)ii." This is the whole point of the Baptists admirably stateel by Ade>lph Harnack. There is no thought of defying that pouring early in the 1 2d cent, came te> be used in place e>f immersion in certain extreme cases. The meaning of Ixiplizd is not affect eel a particle by this fact. The question re-mains as to why this use of pouring in extreme- cases grew up. The answer is that it was due 1 te> a mistaken and exaggerated estimate put, upon the value of baptism as essential to salvation. Theise whe> elied without baptism wen 1 felt by some to be 1 lost. Thus arose "clinic" baptisms.

      (For the doctrine e)f baptismal regeneration sev Justin Martyr, First Apolotjij, 61.) Out of this

      perversion e>f the symbolism of bap- 6. Bap- tism grew both pouring as an ordi-

      tismal Re- nance and infant baptism. If bap- generation tism is nece ssary to salvation or the

      means of regeneration, then the 1 sie-k, the dying, infants, must be baptized, e>r at any rate something must be 1 elone for the-m if the real baptism (immersion) cannot, be performed because of extreme illness e>r want of water. The Baptist- contention is to prote-st against the perversion e>f the significance of baptism as the ruin of the sym bol. Baptism, as taught in the 1 XT, is the picture of death anel burial to sin and resurrection to new life, a picture of what has already taken place in the heart, not the means by which spiritual change is wrought. It is a privilege and duty, not a neces sity. It is a picture that is lost when something else is substituted in its place. See BAPTISMAL RE GENERATION.




      //. The Subjects of Baptism. It is significant that even the / < nrhint/ of the Tu cli-c Apostles with its exaggerated not ion of 1 he importance of bapt ism docs not allow bapt ism of infants. It says: "Hav ing first taught all these things." Instruction precedes baptism. That is a distinct denial of infant baptism. The uniform practice in the NT is that baptism follows confession. The people "confessing their sins" were baptized by John (Mt 3 o). It is frankly admitted by I aedobapt ist scholars that the NT gives no warrant for infant baptism. Thus Jacobus (Congregat ionalist ) in the Stdinlnrd HI) says: "\\\\\\\\Ye have no record in tin 1 NT of the baptism of infants." Scott (Presby terian) in the 1-vol ///>>/> says: "The NT con tains no explicit reference to the baptism of in fants or young children." Hummer (Church of Kngland), III) tt, says: "The rcci/iicnlx of Christian baptism were required to repent, and believe." Marcus Dods (Presbyterian), /)< (!, says: "A rite wherein by immersion in water the participant symboli/es and signalizes his transition from an impure to a pure life, his death to a past he aban dons, and his new birth to a future he desires." It would be hard to state the Baptist interpretation in better terms. Thus no room is found in the NT for infant baptism which would symbolize what the infant did not experience or would be understood to cause the regeneration in the child, a form of sacrament alism repugnant to the NT teaching as understood by Baptists. The dominant Baptist note is the soul s personal relation to ( !od apart from ordinance, church or priest. The infant who dies unbapti/ed is saved without baptism. The baptized individual, child (for children are often baptized by Baptists, children who show signs of conversion) or man, is converted before his bap tism. The baptism is the symbol of the change already wrought. So clear is this to the Bapti-t that he bears continual protest against that per version of this beautiful ordinance by those who treat it as a means of salvation or who make it meaningless when performed before conversion. Baptism is a preacher of the spiritual life. The Baptist contention is for a regenerated church mem bership, placing the kingdom before t he local church. Membership in the kingdom precedes membership in the church. The passages quoted from the NT in .support of the notion of infant, baptism are wholly irrelevant, as, for instance, in Acts 2 . ! .) where there is no such idea as baptism of infants. So in 1 Cor 7 14, where note husband and wife. The point is that the marriage relation is sanctified and the children are legitimate, though husband or wife be heathen. The marriage relation is to be maintained. It is begging the question to assume the presence of infants in the various household baptisms in Acts. In the case of the family of Cornelius they all spake with tongues and mag nified God (Acts 10 46"). The jailer s household rejoiced greatly" (Acts 16 34). We do not even know that Lydia was married. Her household may have been merely her employes in her business. The NT presents no except ions in this matter.

      ///. The Present Obligation. ~ The Baptists make one more point concerning baptism. It is that, since Jesus himself submitted to it and en joined it upon His disciples, the ordinance is of perpetual obligation. The arguments for the late ecclesiastical origin of Mt 28 lit are not convincing. If it seem strange that Jesus should mention tin- three persons of the Trinity in connection with the command to baptize, one should remember that the Father and the Spirit were both manifested to Him at His baptism. It was not a mere cere monial ablution like the Jewish rites. It was the public and formal avowal of fealty to God, and the

      names of the Trinity properly occur. The new heart is wrought by the Holy Spirit. Reconciliation with the Father is wrought on the basis of the work of the Son, who has manifested the Father s love in His life and death for sin. The fact that in the Acts in the examples of baptism only the name of Jesus occurs does not show that this was the exact formula used. It may be a mere historical summarv of the essential fact. " The name of Jesus stood for the other two persons of the Trinity. On the other hand the command of Jesus may not have been regarded as a formula for baptism; while in no sense sacramental or redemptive, it is yet obliga tory and of perpetual significance. It is not to be dropped as one of the Jewish excrescences on Chris tianity. The form itself i.s necessary to the signifi cance of the rile. Hence Baptists hold that immer sion alone is to be practised, since immersion alone was commanded by Jesus and practised in the NT times. Immersion alone sets forth 1 he death to sin, and burial in the grave the resurrection to new life in Christ. Baptism as taught in the NT is a mould of doctrine," a preacher of the heart of the gospel. Baptists deny the right of disciples of Jesus to break that mould. The point of a symbol is the form in which it is cast. To change the form radically is to destroy the symbolism. Baptists insist on the maintenance of primitive NT baptism because it alone 1 i.s baptism, it alone proclaims the death and resurrection of Jesus, the spiritual death and resurrection of the believer, the ultimate resur rect ion of t he believer from t he grave. The disciple is not above his Lord, and has no right to destroy this rich and powerful pict lire for t he sake of personal con venience, nor because he is willing to do something else which Jesus did not enjoin and which has no as- social ion with Him. The long years of perversion do not justify this wrong to 1 he memory of Jesus, but all 1 he more call upon modern disciples to follow the example of Jesus who himself fulfilled righteous ness by going into the waters of the Jordan and re ceiving immersion at the hands of John the Baptist.

      LITEKATUKE. The Greek Lexicons, like Suiccr, Licl- dcll and Scott. Sophocles. Thayer. Preusehcn; the Bib. Dictionaries; the Critical Commentaries on the NT; books of antiquities like Smith s Dictionary of Christian An- tiiiuitit-x; the new Scli-Urr:; Hingham s A ntiqiiiticx of the Christ, nit Church; SchalV s Creeds of Chrixtcmln in; Xeale s History of tin II "In Eastern Church; Lives of Christ, like Edersheim s LT.I M, or a survey of the customs of the .lews like SchUrcr s II. II ; books on John the Baptist like Reynolds John tin linptixt. Feather s Luxt of tin Prophets, Robertson s J,,hn tin- l.oi/nl; special treatises on Baptism like Wall s History of Infant Knptixm. Stanley s Christian Institutions, Dargan s Ecclesiolorjy, Conant s Haptizein, Mozley s Revii w of the Baptismal Controversy, Christian s Immersion, Broadus 1 Immersion, Frost s Tin Moml Dig nity of Hnplixm. Whitsitt s .1 (JitrxtiiiH iii Hitptixt Hixtoni, Lofton s Tin- linpiixt Reformation, Li&mbert s The Sacra ments of the AYir Ti xtmni iit, Dale s Cluxxic Rn/itixin and Chri.-itinn ami I ntrixtic Hu/it/xin. Kirtley s Di-xii/n of Ba p- tixm. Forester s The finptixt Poxitio,,, Frost s Baptist Win/ ami Why \\\\\\\\<il, Ford s Studies in Baptism.


      I. TUP: SCRIPTURAL NAMES FOB THE RITE II. PRE-CHRISTIAN BAPTISM 1. Baptism of Proselytes 2. Baptism of John :i. Baptism in the Pagan Mysteries


      1. The Administration of the Rite

      2. The Mode of Using the Water

      (1) Immersion

      (2) Affusion

      (3) Aspersion

      .i. Who May Perform Baptism 4. Who May Receive Baptism

      (1) Baptism of Infants

      (2) Baptism for the Dead


      The Doctrine of Infant Baptism LITERATURE

      Baptism (Baimo-na, baptism a, Bairrio-fAos, baptis- ?/io,s-, BairTii^iv, baptlzein) has been from the earliest




      times the initiatory rite signifying the recognition of entrance into or of presence within the Christian church. We find the earliest mention of the cere mony in the Epistle to the Gal (3 27), written about 20 years after the death of Jesus. There and in 1 Cor (1 13; 12 13) St. Paul takes for granted that every one who becomes a Christian (himself included) must be baptized. The rite seems also to have existed among the discipleship of Jesus before His death. We are told (Jn 4 1.2) that, although Jesus Himself did not baptize, His disciples did, and that their bap tisms were more numerous than those of John.

      /. Scriptural Names for the Rite. The words commonly used in the NT to denote the rite are the verb baptizo, and the nouns baptisma and bap- lismos; but none are employed in this sense alone. The vb. is used to denote the ceremonial purifica tion of the Jews before eating, by pouring water on the hands (Lk 11 3S; Mk 74); to signify the sufferings of Christ (Mk 10 38.39; Lk 12 50); and to indicate the sacrament of baptism. It is the intensive form of bdptciti, "to dip," and takes a wider meaning. The passages Lk 11 38 and Mk 7 4 show conclusively that the word does not in variably signify to immerse the whole body. Some have held that bapliMnos invariably means cere monial purification, and that baptixtna is reserved for the Christian rite; but the distinction can hardly be maintained. The former certainly means cere monial purification in Mk 7 4, and in 7 8 (AY); but it probably means the rite of baptism in He 6 2. Exegetes find other terms applied to Chris tian baptism. It is called the Water in Acts 10 47: "Can any man forbid the Water, that these should not be baptized?"; the laver of the water in Eph 5 20 RVm (where baptism is compared to the bridal bath taken by the bride before she was handed over to the bridegroom); and perhaps the laver of regeneration in Tit 3 5 RVm (cf 1 Cor 6 11), and illumination in He 6 4; 10 32.

      II. Pre-Christian Baptism. Converts in the early cents., whether Jews or Gentiles, could not have found this initiatory rite, in 1. The which they expressed their new-born

      Baptism of faith, utterly unfamiliar. Water is Proselytes the element naturally used for cleans ing the body and its symbolical use entered into almost every cult ; and into none more completely than the Jewish, whose ceremonial wash ings were proverbial. Besides those the Jew had what would seem to the convert a counterpart of the Christian rite in the baptism of proselytes by which Gentiles entered the circle of Judaism. For the Jews required three things of strangers who declared themselves to be converts to the Law of Moses: circumcision, baptism, and to offer sacrifice if they were men: the two latter if they were women. It is somewhat singular that no baptism of proselytes is forthcoming until about the beginning of the 3d cent.; and yet no Com petent scholar doubts its existence. Schiirer is full of contempt for those who insist on the argument from silence. Its presence enables us to see both how Jews accepted readily the baptism of John and to understand the point of objectors who questioned his right to insist that all Jews had to be purified ere they could be ready for the Messianic kingdom, although he was neither the Messiah nor a special prophet (Jn 1 19-23).

      The baptism of John stood midway between the Jewish baptism of proselytes and Christian baptism. It differed from the former because 2. The it was more than a symbol of cere-

      Baptism monial purification; it was a baptism of John of repentance, a confession of sin, and of the need of moral cleansing, and was a symbol of forgiveness and of moral purity.

      All men, Jews who were ceremonially pure and Gentiles who were not, had to submit to this bap tism of repentance and pardon. It differed from the latter because it only symbolized preparation to receive the salvation, the kingdom of God which John heralded, and did not imply entrance into that kingdom itself. Those who had received it, as well as those who had not, had to enter the Chris tian community by the door of Christian baptism (Acts 19 3-6). The Jewish custom of baptizing, whether displayed in their frequent ceremonial washings, in the baptism of proselytes or in the baptism of John, made Christian baptism a familiar and even expected rite to Jewish converts in the 1st cent.

      Baptism, as an initiatory rite, was no less famil iar to gentile converts who had no acquaintance with the Jewish religion. The cere- 3. Baptism monial washings of the priests of pagan in the religions have been often adduced as

      Pagan something which might familiarize

      Mysteries gentile converts with the rite which introduced them into the Christian community, but they were not initiations. A more exact parallel is easily found. It is often for gotten that in the earlier cents, when Christianity was slowly making its way in the pagan world pagan piety had deserted the official religions and taken refuge within the Mysteries, and that these Mysteries represented the popular pagan religions of the times. They were all private cults into which men and women were received one by one, and that by rites of initiation which each had to pass through personally. When admitted the con verts became members of coteries, large or small, of like-minded persons, who had become initiated because their souls craved something which they believed they would receive in and through the rites of the cult. These initiations were secret, jealously guarded from the knowledge of all out siders; still enough is known about them for us to be sure that among them baptism took an impor tant place (Apuleius Metamorphoses xi). The rite was therefore as familiar to pagan as to Jewish converts, and it was no unexpected requirement for the convert to know that baptism was the doorway into the church of Christ. These heathen baptisms, like the baptism of proselytes, were for the most part simply ceremonial purifications; for while it is true that both in the cult of the Mysteries and beyond it a mode of purifying after great crimes was baptizing in flowing water (Eurip. I ph. in Tauri 167) or in the sea, yet it would appear that only ceremonial purification was thought of. Nor were ceremonial rites involving the use of water confined to the paganism of the early cents. Such a ceremony denoted the reception of the newly born child into pagan Scandinavian households. The father decided whether the infant was to be reared or exposed to perish. If he resolved to preserve the babe, water was poured over it and a name was given to it.

      ///. Christian Baptism. In the administration of the rite of Christian baptism three things have to be looked at: the act of baptizing; 1. The Ad- those who are entitled to perform it; ministration and the recipients or those entitled of the Rite to receive it. A complete act of bap tizing involves three things: what has been called the nntlcria wicntiHcnti; the method of its use; and the forum sacramenti, the baptismal formula or form of words accompanying the use of the water. The motcrui, sacramenti is water and for this reason baptism is ( ailed the Water Sacra ment. The oldest ecclesiastical manual of discipline which has descended to us, the Didache, says that the water to be preferred is "living," i.e. running



      water, water in a stream or river, or fresh flowing from a fountain; "But if thou hast not living water, baptize in other wafer; and if thou canst not in cold, then in warm" (c. 7). In those directions the prescriptions of the ceremonial for the Jewish bap tism of proselytes are closely followed. The earlier canons of the church permit any kind of water, fresh or salt, provided only it be true and natural water (dqini rer/i el natu rails ).

      (1) Immersion. The use of the water is called ablutio. According to the rules of by far the largest portion of the Christian church the 2. The water may be used in any one of three

      Mode of ways: immersion, where the recipient Using the enters bodily into the water, and Water where, during the action, the head

      is plunged either once or three times beneath the surface; affusion, when 1 water was poured upon the head of the recipient who stood either in water or on dry ground; and aspersion where water was sprinkled on t he head or on t he face. It has frequently been argued thai the word bap- tizein invariably means "to dip" or immerse, and that therefore Christian baptism must have been performed originally by immersion only, and that the t\\\\\\\\vo other forms of affusion and aspersion or sprinkling are invalid that there can be no real baptism unless the method of immersion be used. But the word which invariably means "to dip" is not. baptizein but liapiein. ttaptizein has a wider signification; and its use to denote the Jewish ceremonial of pouring water on the hands (Lk 11 38; Mk 7 4), as has already been said, proves conclusively that it is impossible to conclude from the word itself that immersion, is the only valid method of performing the rite. It may be admitted at once that immersion, where the whole bodv including the head is plunged into a pool of pure water, gives a more vivid picture of the cleansing of the 1 soul from sin; and that complete surround ing with water suits better the metaphors of burial in Rom 6 4 and Col 2 12, and of being surrounded by cloud in 1 Cor 10 2.

      (2) Affusion. On the other hand affusion is cer tainly a more vivid picture of the bestowal of the Holy Spirit which is equally symbolized in baptism. No definite information is given of the mode in which baptism was administered in apostolic times. Such phrases as "coming up out of the water," "went down into the water" (Mk 1 10; Acts 8 3Sj are as applicable to affusion as to immersion. The earliest account of the mode of baptizing occurs in the Didache (c. 7), where it is said: "Now concerning Baptism, thus baptize ye: having first uttered all these things, baptize in the name of the Father, and of the Son and of the Holy Ghost, in living water. But if thou hast not living water, baptize in other water; and if thou canst not in cold, then in warm. But if thou hast neither, pour water upon the head thrice in the name of Father, and Son, and Holy Ghost." This seems to say that to baptize by im mersion was the practice recommended for general use, but that the mode of affusion was also valid and enjoined on occasions. What is here prescribed in the Didache seems to have been the practice usually followed in the early cents, of the Christian church. Immersion was in common use: but affusion was also widely practised : and bot h were esteemed usual and valid forms of baptizing. When immersion was used then the head of the recipient was plunged thrice beneath the surface at the mention of each name of the Trinity; when the mode was by af fusion the same reference to the Trinity was kept by pouring water thrice upon the head. The two usages which were recognized and prescribed by the beginning of the 2d cent, may have been in use throughout the apostolic period although definite

      information is lacking. When we remember the various pools in Jerus, and their use for ceremonial washings it is not impossible to suppose that the 3,000 who were baptized on the day of Pentecost may have 1 been immersed, but, when the furnishing and conditions of Palestinian houses and of oriental jails are taken into account, it is difficult to con ceive that at the baptisms of Cornelius and of the jailer, the ceremony was performed otherwise than by affusion. It is a somewhat curious fact that if the evidence from written texts, whether ancient canons or writings of the earlier Fathers, be studied by themselves, the natural conclusion would seem to be that immersion was the almost universal form of administering the rite; but if the witness of the earliest pictorial representation be collected, then we must infer that affusion was the usual method and that immersion was exceptional; for the pictorial representations, almost without exception, display baptism performed by affusion, i.e. the recipient is seen standing in water while the minister pours water on the head. It may therefore be inferred that evidence 1 for the almost universal practice of immersion, drawn from the fact that baptisms took place in river pools (it is more than probable that when we find the names of local saints given to pools in rivers, those places were their favorite places of administering the rite), or from the large- size of almost all early mediaeval baptisteries, is by no means so conclusive as many have supposed, such places being equally applicable to affusion. It is also interesting to remember that when most of the Anabaptists of the Kith cent . insisted on adult baptism (re-baptism was their name for it) immersion was not the method prac tised by them. During the great baptismal scene in the market-place of the city of Minister the ordinance was performed by the ministers pouring three cans of water on the heads of the recipients. They baptized by affusion and not by immersion. This was also the practice among the Mennonitesor earliest Baptists. This double mode of administering the sacrament --by immersion or by affusion pre vailed in the churches of the first twelve cents., and it was not until the 13th that the practice of aspersio or sprinkling was almost universally employed.

      (3) Aspersion. The third method of administer ing baptism, viz. by as/>ersio or sprinkling, has a different history from the other two. It was in the early cents, exclusively reserved for sick and infirm persons too weak to be submitted to immersion or affusion. There is evidence to show that those who received the rite in this form were somewhat despised; for the nicknames clinici and orabatorii were, unworthily Cyprian declares, bestowed on them by neighbors. The question was even raised in the middle of the 3d cent., whether baptism by aspersio was a valid baptism and Cyprian was asked for his opinion on the matter. His answer is contained in his Ixxvth epistle (Ixix Hartel s ed). There he contends that the ordinance ad ministered this way is perfectly valid, and quotes in support of his opinion various OT texts which assert the purifying effects of water sprinkled (Ezk 36 25.26; Nu 8 5-7; 19 It is not the amount of the water or the method of its applica tion which can cleanse from sin: "Whence it appears that the sprinkling also of water prevails equally with the washing of salvation .... and that where the faith of the giver and receiver is sound, all things hold and may be consummated and per fected by the majesty of God and by the truth of faith." His opinion prevailed. Aspersio was rec ognized as a valid, though exceptional, form of baptism. But it was long of commending itself to ministers and people, and did not attain to almost general use until the 13th cent.




      The idea that baptism is valid when practised in the one method only of immersion can scarcely be looked on as anything else than a ritualistic idea.

      The Scripture nowhere describes or limits the

      qualifications of those who are entitled to perform

      the rite of baptism. We find apostles,

      3. Who wandering preachers (Acts 8 38), a May Per- private member of a small and per form Bap- secuted community (Acts 9 18) per- tism forming the rite. So in the sub- apostolic church we find the same liber ty of practice. Clement of Alexandria tells us that the services of Christian women were necessary for the work of Christian missions, for they alone could have access to the gynaeceum and carry the message of the gospel there (Strom., Ill, 6). Such women missionaries did not hesitate to baptize. Whatever credit may be given to the Acts of Paul and Theckla, it is at least historical that Theckla did exist, that she was converted by Paul, that she worked as a missionary and that she baptized her converts. Speaking generally it may be said that as a sacrament has always been looked upon as the recognition of presence within the Christian church, it is an act of the church and not of the individual believer; and therefore no one is en titled to perform the act who is not in some way a representative of the Christian community the representative character ought to be maintained somehow. As soon as the community had taken regular and organized form the act of baptism was suitably performed by those who, as office-bearers, naturally represented the community. It was recog nized that the pastor or bishop (for these terms were synonymous until the 4th cent, at least) ought to preside at the administration of the sacra ment; but in the early church the power of dele gation was recognized and practised, and elders and deacons presided at this and even at the Eucharist. What has been called lay-baptism is not forbidden in the NT and has the sanction of the early church. W r hen superstitious views of baptism entered largely into the church and it was held that no unbaptized child could be saved, the practice arose of encouraging the baptism of all weakling infants by nurses. The Reformed church protested against this and was at pains to repudiate the superstitious thought of any mechanical efficacy in the rite by deprecating its exercise by any save approved and ordained ministers of the church. Still, while condemning lay-baptism as irregular, it may be questioned whether they would assert any administration of the rite to be invalid, pro vided only it had been performed with devout faith on the part of giver and receiver.

      The recipients of Christian baptism are all

      those who make a presumably sincere profession

      of repentance of sin and of faith in

      4. Who the Lord Jesus Christ, the Saviour; May Re- together with the children of such ceive Bap- believing parents. The requirements tism are set forth in the accounts given us of

      the performance of the rite in the NT, in which we see how the apostles obeyed the com mands of their Master. Jesus had ordered them to "make disciples of all the nations, baptizing them into the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit" (Mt 28 19) to "preach the gospel to the whole creation. He that believeth and is baptized shall be saved; but he that disbelieveth shall be condemned" (Mk 16 15.16). The apostle Peter said to the inquirers on the Day of Pentecost, "Repent ye, and be baptized every one of you in the name of Jesus Christ unto the remission of your sins; and ye shall receive the gift of the Holy Spirit" ; and 3,000 were added to the church through the initiatory rite of baptism. The Samaritans,

      who believed on Jesus through the preaching of Philip, were admitted to the Christian community through baptism; though in this case one of the baptized, Simon Magus, after his reception, was found to be still in "the bond of iniquity" (Acts 8 12.23). The jailer and all his, Lydia and her household, at Philippi, were baptized by St. Paul on his and her profession of faith on Jesus, the Saviour. There is no evidence in any of the ac counts we have of apostolic baptisms that any prolonged course of instruction was thought to be necessary; nothing of classes .for catechumens such as we find in the early church by the close of the 2d cent., or in modern missionary enter prise. We find no mention of baptismal creeds, declarative or interrogative, in the NT accounts of baptisms. The profession of faith in the Lord Jesus, the Saviour, made by the head of the family appears, so far as the NT records afford us informa tion, to have been sufficient to secure the baptism of the "household" a word which in these days included both servants and children.

      (1) Baptism of infants. This brings us to the much-debated question whether infants are to be recognized as lawful recipients of Christian bap tism. The NT Scriptures do not in so many words either forbid or command the baptism of children. The question is in this respect on all fours with the change of the holy day from the seventh to the first day of the week. No positive command au thorizes the universal usage with regard to the Chris tian Sabbath day; that the change is authorized must be settled by a weighing of evidence. So it is with the case of infant baptism. It is neither commanded nor forbidden in so many words; and the question cannot be decided on such a basis. The strongest argument against the baptizing of infants lies in the thought that the conditions of the rite are repentance and faith; that these must be exercised by individuals, each one for himself and for herself; and that infants are incapable either of repentance or of faith of this kind. The argu ment seems weak in its second statement ; it is more dogmatic than historical; and will be referred to later when the doctrine lying at the basis of the 1 rite is examined. On the other hand a great deal of evidence supports the view that the baptism of infants, if not commanded, was at least permitted and practised within the apostolic church. St. Paul connects baptism with circumcision and implies that under the gospel the former takes the place of the latter (Col 2 12); and as children were circumcised on the 8th day after birth, the inference follows naturally that children were also to be baptized. In the OT, promises to parents included their children. In his sermon on the Day of Pente cost St. Peter declares to his hearers that the gospel promise is "to you and to your children" and connects this with the invitation to baptism (Acts 2 38.39). It is also noteworthy that children shared in the Jewish baptism of proselytes. Then we find in the NT narratives of baptisms that "households" were baptized of Lydia (Acts 16 15), of the jailer at Philippi (Acts 16 32), of Stephanas (1 Cor 1 16). It is never said that the children of the household were exempted from the sacred rite. One has only to remember the posi tion of the head of the household in that ancient world, to recollect how the household was thought to be embodied in its head, to see how the repent ance and faith of the head of the household was looked upon as including those of all the members, not merely children but servants, to feel that had the children been excluded from sharing in the rite the exclusion would have seemed such an unusual thing that it would have at least, been mentioned and explained. Our Lord expressly made very



      young children the types of those who entered into His kingdom (Mk 10 U-llij; :unl St. Paul so unites parents with children in the faith of Christ that- he does not- hesitate to call the children of the believing husband or wife "holy," and to imply that, the children had passed from a state of "un- cleanness" to a state of "holiness" through the faith of a parent. All these things seem lo point, to the fact that the rite which was the door of en- tance into the visible community of the followers of Jesus was shared in by the children of believing parents. Besides evidence for the baptism of chil dren goes back to the earliest, times of the suit- apostolic church. Irenaeus was the dis<-iple of Polycarp, who had been the disciple of St. John, and it is dilhcult to draw anv other conclusion from his statements than that lie believed that the bap tism of infants had been an established practice in the church long before his days (A lr. finer., li, 22; cf :>!)). The witness of Tertullian is specially interesting; for he himself plainly thinks that adult baptism is to be preferred to the baptism of infants. He makes it. plain that the custom of baptizing infants existed in his days, and we may be sure from the character and the learning of the man, that had he been able to aiiirm that infant- baptism had been a recent innovation and had not been a long-established usage desremling from apos tolic t lines, he would certainly have had no hesit at ion in using what would have seemed to him a verv convincing way of dealing with his opponents. Tertullian s testimony comes from the end of t he 2d cent, or the beginning of the 3d. Origin, the most learned Christian writer during the first three cents, and who comes a little later than Tertullian, in his 1 1th Homily on St. Luke bears witness to the fact that the baptism of infants was usual. He argues that original sin belongs to children because the church baptizes them. At the same time it is plain from a variety of evidence too long to cite that the baptism of infants was not a universal practice in the early church. The church of the early cents, was a mission church. It drew large numbers of its members from heat hen- dom. In every mission chur> j h the baptism of adults will naturally take the foremost place and be most in evidence. But is is clear that manv Christians were of the opinion of Tertullian and believed that baptism ought not to be administered to children but should be confined to adults. Nor was this a theory only; it was a continuous practice handed down from one generation to another in some Christian families. In (he -1th cent . few Chris tian leaders took a more important place than Basil the Great and his brother Gregory of Nyssa. They belonged to a family who had been Christians for some generations; yet. neither of the brothers was baptized until after his personal conversion, which does not appear to have come until they hail attained the years of manhood. The whole evi dence seems to show that in the early church, down to the end of the 4th cent, at least, infant and adult baptism were open questions and that the two practices existed side by side with each other without, disturbing the unity of the churches. In the later Pelagian controversy it became evident that the theory and practice of infant baptism had been able to assert itself and that the ordinance was always administered to children of members of the church.

      (2) ttnptixm for the rlcn,L~S{. Paul refers to a custom of "baptizing for the dead" (1 Cor 15 2;M. What this "vicarious baptism" or "baptism for the dead" was it is impossible to say, even whether it was practised within the primitive Christian church. The passage is a very difficult one and has called forth a very large number of explanations,

      which are mere guesses. Paul neither commends it nor disapproves of it; he simply mentions its existence and uses the fact as an argument for the resurrection. See BAPTISM FOR THE DEAD.

      IV. The Formula of Baptism. The Formula of Christian baptism, in the mode which prevailed, is given in Mi 28 1 .): "I baptize thee in the name of the Father, of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost." But it is curious that the words are not given in anv description of Christian baptism until the time of Justin .Martyr: and there they are not repeated exactly but in a slightly extended and explanatory form. lie says that Christians "receive the washing with water in the name of ( iod, the Ruler and Father oi the universe, and of our Saviour, Jesus Christ, and of the Holy Spirit" (/ A/>ol., (il). In every account of the performance of the rite in apostolic times a much shorter formula is in use. The 15, 000 believers were baptized on the Day of Pentecost "in the name of Jesus" (Acts 2 oX); and the same formula was used at Hie baptism of Cornelius and those that wen- with him (Acts 10 -IS). In deed it would appear to have been the usual one, from St . Paul s question to the Corinthians: "Were ye baptized into the name of Paul?" (1 Cor 1 1M). The Samaritans were baptized "into the name of the Lord Jesus" (Acts 8 1(5) ; and the same formula (a common one in acts of devotion) was used in tin- case of the disciples at Ephesus. In some instances it is recorded that before baptism the converts were asked to make some confession of their faith, which took the form of declaring that Jesus was the Lord or that Jesus Christ was the Son of God. It may be inferred from a phrase in ] Pet 3 21 that a formal interrogation was made, and that the answer was an acknowledgment that Jesus Christ was Lord. Scholars have exercised a great deal of ingenuity in trying to explain how, with what appear to be the very words of Jesus given in the Gospel of Alt, another and much shorter formula seems to have been used throughout the apostolic church. Some have imagined that the shorter formula was that used in baptizing disciples during the lifetime of Our Lord (Jn 4 1.2), and that the apostles having become accustomed to it con tinued to use it during their lives. Others declare that t he phrases "in the name of Jesus Christ" or "of the Lord Jesus" are not meant to give the formula of baptism, but simply to denote that the rite was Christian. Others think that the full formula was always used and that the narratives in the Book of Acts and in the Pauline Epistles an- merely brief summaries of what took place an idea rather difficult to believe in the absence of any single reference to (he longer formula. Others, again, insist that baptism in the name of one of the- persons of (he Trinity implies baptism in the name of the Three. While others declare that St. Matthew does not give the very words of Jesus but puts in His month what was the common for mula used at the date and in the district where the First Gospel was written. Whatever explanation be given it is plain that the longer formula became universal or almost universal in the sub-apostolic church. Justin Martyr has been already quoted. Tertullian, nearly half a century later, declares ex pressly that the "law of baptism has been imposed and the formula prescribed" in Mt 28 19 (De Bapt., lo); and he adds in his AtlrcrxHs Prnxcan (c. 26): And it is not once only, but thrice, that we are immersed into the Three Persons, at each several mention of Their names." The evidence to show that the formula given by St. Matthew became the established usage is overwhelming; but it is more than likely that the use of the shorter formula did not altogether die out, or, if it did, that it was revived. The historian Socrates informs us that




      some of the more extreme Arians "corrupted" baptism by using the name of Christ only in the formula; while injunctions to use the longer formula | and punishments, including deposition, threatened to those who presumed to employ the shorter which meet us in collections of ecclesiastical canons (Apos. Canons, 43, 50), prove that the practice of using the shorter formula existed in the 5th and Gtli cents., at all events in the East.

      V. The Doctrine of Baptism. The sacraments, and baptism as one of them, are always described to be (1) signs representing as in a picture or figure spiritual benefits (1 Pet 3 21), and also ( 2} as seals or personal tokens and attestations confirma tory of solemn promise s of spiritual benefits. Hence the sacrament is said to have 1 wo parts: "the one an outward and sensible sign, used accord ing to Christ s appointment; the other an inward and spiritual grace thereby signified." It is held, moreover, that when the rite of baptism has been duly and devoutly performed with faith on the part of both giver and receiver, the spiritual benefits do follow the performance of the rite. The ques tion therefore arises: What are the spiritual and evangelical blessings portrayed and solemnly promised in baptism? In the New Testament we find that baptism is intimately connected with the following: with remission of sins, as in Acts 22 10 ("Arise, and be baptized, and wash away thy sins"), and in He 10 22; with regeneration or the new birth, as in Tit 3 (i and Jn 3 5 (this idea also entered into the baptism of proselytes and even into the thought of baptism in (he Mysteries; neo phytes were taught that in the water they died to their old life and began a new one [. \\\\\\\\puleius Afcla. xi]); with ingrafting into Christ, with union with Him, as in Gal 3 27 and union in definite ways, in His death, His burial and His resurrection, as in Rom 6 3-(>; with entering into a new relation ship with God, that of sonship, as in Gal 3 211.27; with the besto\\\\\\\\val of the Holy Spirit, as in 1 Cor 12 13; with belonging to the church, as in Acts 2 -1 1 ; with the gift of salvation, as in Mk (?) 16 Iti; Jn 3 5. From these and similar passages theo logians conclude that baptism is a sign and seal of our ingrafting into Christ, and of our union with Him, of remission of sins, regeneration, adopt ion and life eternal: that the water in baptism represents and signifies both the blood of Christ, which takes away all our sins, and also 1 he sanctifying influence of the Holy Spirit against 1 he dominion of sin and the corruption of our human nat lire; and that bap tizing with water signifies the cleansing from sin by the blood and for the merit of Christ, together with the mortification of sin and rising from sin 1o newness of life by virtue of the death and resurrection of Christ. Or to put it more .simply: Baptism teaches that all who are out of Christ are unclean by reason of sin and need to be cleansed. It signifies 1 hat just as washing with water cleanses 1 he body so God in Christ cleanses the soul from sin by the Holy Spirit and that we are to see in this cleansing not merely pardon but also an actual freeing of the; soul from the pollution and power of sin and therefore the beginnings of a new life. The sacrament also shows us that the cleansing is reached only through connection with the death of Christ, and further that through the new life begun in us we become in a special way united to Christ and enter into a new and filial relationship with God. Probably all Christians, reformed and unreformed, will agree in the above statement of the doctrinal mean ing in the rite of baptism; and also that when the sacrament is rightly used the inward and spiritual grace promised is present along with the outward and visible signs. But Romanists and Protestants differ about what is meant by the riy/it use of the

      sacrament. They separate on the question of its efficacy. The former understand by the right use simply the correct performance of the rite and the placing no obstacle in the way of (he How of efficacy. The latter insist that there can be no right use of the sacrament unless t he recipient exercises faith, that without faith the sacrament is not efficacious and t he inward and spirit ual blessings do not accompany the external and visible signs. Whatever minor dif ferences divide Protestant evangelical churches on this sacrament they are all agreed upon this, that where there is no faith there can be no regeneration. Here emerges doctrinally the difference between t hose who give and who refuse to give the sacrament to infants.

      The latter taking their stand on the fundamental doctrine of all evangelical Christians that faith is necessary to make any sacrament The Doc- efficacious, and assuming that the trine of In- effect of an ordinance 1 is always tied fant Bap- to the precise time of its administra- tism lion, insist that only adults can per

      form such a conscious, intelligent, and individually independent act of faith, as they be lieve all Protestants insist on scriptural grounds to be necessary in the/vV//// use of a sacrament. There fore they refuse to bapti/e infants and young children.

      The great majority of evangelical Protestants practise infant baptism and do not think, due ex planations being given, that it in any way conflicts with the idea, that faith is necessary to the efficacy of the sacrament. The Baptist position appears to them to conflict with much of the teaching of the NT. It implies that all who are brought up in the faith of Christ, and within the Christian family still lack, when they come to years of discretion, that great change 1 of heart and life whie h is symbolized in baptism, and can only receive it by a conscious, intelligent and thoroughly inelependent act of faith. This seems in accordance neither with Scripture nor with human nature 1 . We are told that a child may be- full of the Holy Ghost from his mother s womb (T,k 1 15); that little children are in the kingdom of Christ (Mt 19 14;; that children of believing parents are holy (1 Cor 7 14). Is there nothing in the fact that in the NT as in the OT the promise- is "to you and your children"? Beside-s, the argument of those who oppose the- baptism of infants, if logically carried out, leaels to conse- enienevs whie h few of them wemld accept. Faith is as esse-ntial to salvation, on all evangelical theol ogy, as it is for the rigfit //w of the sacrament; and every one of the- arguments brought against the baptism of infants is e-qually applicable to the denial of their salvation. Nor e-an the Baptist position be- said to be true- te> the- facts of ordinary human nature 1 . Faith, in its evangelical sense of fiducia or trust, is not such an abrupt, thing as they make it. Their demand for such a consciems, intelligent, strictly individualist act of faith sets aside some of the deepest facts of human nature 1 . No one, young or old, is entirely self-dependent; nor are our thoughts and trust always e>r even frequently en- tire ly inelepende-nt and free from the unconscious influences of others. We- are interwoven together in society; and what, is true ge-nerally reveals itself still more strongly in the- intimate relations of the family. Is it possible in all cases to trace the crea tive effects of the subtle imperceptible influences which surrenmd children, or to say when the slowly dawning intelligence is first able to apprehend enough to trust in half-conscious ways? It is but a shallow view of human nature which sets all such considerations on the; one siele anel insists on regard ing nothing but isolateel acts of knowledge or of faith. With all those thoughts in their minds, the



      great majority of evangelical churches admit and enjoin the baptism of infants. They believe that the children of believing parents are "born within \\\\\\\\he church and have interest in the covenant of grace and a right to its seal." They explain that the ef ficacy of a sacrament is not rigidly tied to the exact time of administration, and can be appropriated whenever faith is kindled and is able to rest on the external sign, and that tho spiritual blessings signified in the rite can be appropriated again and again with each fresh kindling of faith. They declare that no one can tell how soon the dawning intelligence may awaken to the act of appropriation. Therefore these churches instruct their ministers in dispensing the sacrament to lay vows on parents that they will train up the infants baptized "in the knowledge and fear of the Lord," and will teach them the great blessings promised to them in and through the sacrament and teach them to appropriate these blessings for themselves. They further enjoin their ministers to admonish all who may witness a baptismal service to look back on their own baptism in order that their faith may be stirred afresh to appropriate for themselves the blessings which accompany the proper use of the rite.

      LITEKATTHK. The literature on the subject of baptism Is very extensive. It may be sumcienl to select the follow ing: .). S. Candlish, Tlu- Sitrramrntx, l()th thousand, 1900; J.C. \\\\\\\\V. Au-uisti. Denkwiirdigkeiten ou </. christ. Archd- oloni>: V, 1S20; Moiling, Das SakramentderTaufe, IS-Ui IS; J. B. Mozlcy, ltfd< u- of thi Hai>timtil ( outrun ,-*,/, 2(1 ed, IS 1 .*.-); \\\\\\\\V. (ioodc. The Doctrine <>f tin Church of Kn,/l,i,i,l u.< to Hi, Kffi-i-ts of liaptixm in the Case of Infants, 1S49; W. Wall. Ilixtori, i of Infant liaptixm. 1705; K. B. t nderhill. Confessions of Faith .... of Baptist Churches of England (Hanserd KnollysSoc., IX), lsr>4.

      T. M. LINDSAY


      I. THK TKHM

      1 . The Derivation

      2. Tho Meaning

      15. The Application 4. Kqnivalent Terms II. THK OKDINANC K

      1. The Teaching of Scripture

      (1) An Authoritative Command

      (2) A Clear Declaration of the Object in View (:i) A Definite Promise

      (4) A Plain Indication of the Scope

      2. The Biblical History of the Ordinance :*. Types of Baptism


      1. Are Mt 28 1S-20 and Mk 16 1/).1G Genuine^

      2. Was the Trinitarian Formula I sed in XT Times ?

      3. Was Christian Baptism Really a New Ordinance ?

      4. .Should Infants Be Baptized ? r>. Why Did Paul not Baptize?

      (i. What Is the Baptism for the Dead ?

      /. The Term. The word "baptism" is the

      Anglicized form of the (Ir hiiplixina, or baptixnw.-i.

      These Gr words are verbal nouns de-

      1. The rived from bti/>lizo, which, again, is Derivation the intensive form of the vb. btipto.

      " Kaptismos denotes the action of baptizein (the baptizing), baplixnia the result of the action (the baptism)" (Cremer). This distinction I differs from, but is not necessarily contrary to, that of Plummer, who infers from Mk 7 4 and He 9 10 that baptismos usually means lustrations or cere monial washings, and from Rom 6 4; Eph 4 5; 1 Pet 3 21 that baptisma denotes baptism proper (HDli). i

      The Gr words from which our Eng. "baptism" has been formed are used by Gr writers, in classical

      antiquity, in the LXX and in the

      2. The NT, with a great latitude of meaning. Meaning It is not possible to exhaust their

      meaning by any single Eng. term. The action which the Gr words express may be performed by plunging, drenching, staining, dip ping, sprinkling. The nouns baptisma and bap tismos do not occur in the LXX; the verb baptizo occurs only in four places, and in two of them in a fig. sense (2 K 5 14; Jth 12 7; Isa 21 4; Ecclus

      31 (34) 25). Wherever these words occur in the NT, the context or, in the case of quotations, a comparison with the OT will in many instances suggest which of the various renderings noted above; should be adopted (cf Mk 7 4; He 9 10 with Nu 19 18.19; 8 7; Ex 24 4-6; Acts 2 10.17.41 with Joel 2 28). But there are passages in which the particular form of the act of baptizing remains in doubt. "The assertion that the command to baptize is a command to immerse is utterly un authorized" (Hodge).

      In the majority of Bib. instances the vbs. and nouns denoting baptism are used in a lit. sense, and signify the application of water to an 3. The Ap- object or a person for a certain pur- plication pose. The ceremonial washings of the Jews, the baptism of proselytes to the Jewish faith, common in the days of Christ, the baptism of John and of the disciples of Christ prior to the Day of Pentecost, and the Christian sacrament, of baptism, are literal baptisms (ba/>- tixmufs fluminis, "baptism of the river," i.e. water). But Scripture speaks also of fig. baptisms, with out water (Mt 20 22; Mk 10 38; Lk 12 50= the sufferings which overwhelmed Christ and His followers, especially the martyrs baplixinii* san- yninia, "baptism of blood"; Mt 311; Mk 1 8; Lk 3 10; Acts 1 5; 11 16= the outpouring of the miraculous gifts of the Holy Ghost, which was a characteristic phenomenon of primitive Christianity baptismus jluniinix, "baptism of wind, breeze," i.e. "spirit"). Some even take Mt 21 25; Mk 11 M; Acts 18 25; 1 Cor 10 2 in a synecdochical sense, for doctrine of faith, baptism being a promi nent feature of that doctrine (baplinmus lumittin, "baptism of light").

      Scripture occasionally alludes to Christian bap tism without employing the regular term. Thus in Tit 3 5, and Eph 5 20 we have 4. Equiva- the term loutron, "washing," instead lent Terms of baptisma. From this term the Lat church derived its lumcrum (Eng. "laver") as a designation of baptism. In He 10 22 we have the verbs rhanlizo and loud, "sprinkle" and "wash"; in Eph 5 20 the verb katharizo, "cleanse"; in 1 Cor 611 the verb apoloud, "wash," are evidently synonyms of baptizo, and the act has been so denominated from its prime effect.

      //. The Ordinance. Christian baptism, as now practised, is a sacred ordinance of evangelical grace, solemnly appointed by the risen 1. The Christ, prior to His entering into the

      Teaching of state of glory by His ascension, and Scripture designed to be a means, until His second coming, for admitting men to discipleship with Him. Mt 28 18-20 and its parallel Mk 16 15.10 are the principal texts of Scripture on which the church in all ages has based every essential point of her teaching regarding this ordinance. The host of other baptismal texts of Scripture expand and illustrate the contents of these two texts. We have in these text s :

      (1) An authoritative (Mt 28 19) command, is sued in plain terms: "Make disciples .... bap tizing." This command declares (a) spcciem actus, i.e. it indicates with sufficient clearness, by the use of the term "baptize," the external element to be employed, viz. water, and the form of the action to be performed by means of water, viz. any dipping, or pouring, or sprinkling, since the word "baptize" signifies any of these modes. On the strength of this command Luther held: "Bap tism is not simple water only, but it is the water comprehended in God s command"; and the Westminster Shorter Catechism (Ques. 94) calls baptism "a washing with water." Water is dis-




      tinctly mentioned as the baptismal element in Acts 8 38; 10 47; Eph 5 26; He 10 22. "There is no mention of any other element" (Plummer). The phraseology of Eph 5 26, "the washing of water with the word," shows that not the external element alone, nor the physical action of applying the water, constitutes baptism; but "the word" must be added to the element and the action, in order that there may be a baptism. (Detrahe verbum, et quid est aqua nisi aqua ? Accedit verbum ad elementum, ft fit sacramentum, "Remove the word and what is water but water? The word is added to the element and it becomes a sacrament" Augustine). "Without the Word of God the water is simple water, and no baptism" (Luther). The command prescribes (b) exercitium actus, i.e. it en joins a continued exercise of this function of the messengers of Christ for all time.

      (2) A clear declaration of the object in view. The participle "baptizing" qualifies the impera tive "make disciples," and expresses that, what the imperative states as the end, is to be attained by what the participle names as a means to that end. The participle "baptizing," again, is qualified by "teaching" (ver 20). The second participle is not connected by "and" with the first, hence, is subor dinate to the first (Meyer). Discipleship is to be ob tained by baptizing-teaching. There is no rigid law regarding the order and sequence of these actions laid down in these words; they merely state that Christ desires His disciples to be both baptized and fully informed as to His teaching.

      (3) A definite promise: salvation (Mk 16 16), i.e. complete and final deliverance from all evil, the securing of "the end of faith" (1 Pet 1 9). This is a comprehensive statement, as in 1 Pet 3 21, of the blessing of baptism. Scripture also states, in detail, particular baptismal blessings: (a) Regeneration, Tit 3 5; Jn 3 3.5. Despite Calvin and others, the overwhelming consensus of inter preters still agrees with the ancient church and with Luther in explaining both these texts of bap tism, (b) Remission of sins, or justification (Acts 2 38; 22 16; 1 Cor 6 11; Eph 5 26; He 10 22). This blessing, no doubt, is also intended in

      1 Pet 3 21, where eperotema has been rendered "answer" by the AV while the RV renders "in terrogation." The word denotes a legal claim, which a person has a right to set up (see Cremer s.v. and Rom 81). (c) The establishment of a spiritual union with Christ, and a new relation ship with God (Gal 3 2(5.27; Rom 6 3.4; Col

      2 12). In this connection the prepositions with which baptizein in the NT connects may be noted. Baptizein eis, "to baptize into," always denotes the relation into which the party baptized is placed. The only exception is Mk 1 9. Baptizein en, or epi, "to baptize in" (Acts 10 48; 2 38), denotes the basis on which the new relation into which the bap tized enters, is made to rest (Cremer). (d) The sanctifying gifts of the Holy Spirit (1 Cor 12 13; Tit 3 5). All these blessings Scripture declares to be effects of baptism (Wirkung der Taufe, Riehm, Handwdrlerb.). "Baptism is called wash ing of regeneration, not merely because it sym bolizes it, or pledges a man to it, but also, and chiefly, because it effects it" (Holtzmann, Huther, Pfleiderer, Weiss). "Regeneration, or being be gotten of God, does not mean merely a new capacity for change in the direction of goodness, but an actual change. The legal washings were actual external purifications. Baptism is actual internal purification" (Plummer). To these modern au thorities Luther can be added. He says: "Bap tism worketh forgiveness of sin, delivers from death and the devil, and gives eternal salvation to all who believe, as the words and promises of God de

      clare" (Smaller Catech.). In Tit 3 5 AV the force of the preposition did, "by," deserves to be noted: it declares baptism to be the regenerating, renew ing, justifying, glorying medium to the heirs of eternal life. The baptismal promise is supported, not only in a general way, by the veracity and sin cerity of the Speaker, who is the Divine Truth incarnate, but also in a special way, by the Author s appeal to His sovereign majesty" (Alt 28 18), and by the significant assurance of His personal ("I" = ego, is emphatic: Meyer) presence with the dis ciples in their afore-mentioned activity (Mt 28 20; cf Mk 16 20).

      (4) A plain indication of the scope: "all nations," "the whole creation" (pdse te klisei to be understood as in Col 1 23 = "all men"). Baptism is of univer sal application; it is a cosmopolitan ordinance be fore which differences such as of nationality, race, age, sex, social or civil status, are leveled (cf Col 3

      11 with 1 Cor 12 13). Accordingly, Christ orders baptism to be practised "alway" (lit. "all days"), "even unto the end of the world," i.e. unto the con summation of the present age, until the Second Advent of the Lord. For, throughout this period Christ promises His cooperative presence with the efforts of His disciples to make disciples.

      (5) A prescribed formula for administering the ordinance: "into the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit." The belief in the Trinity is fundamental to Christianity; accordingly, the sacred rite by which men are initiated into the Christian religion justly emphasizes this belief. The three Persons are mentioned as distinct from one another, but the baptismal command is issued upon their joint and coequal authority ("in the name," not "names"), thus indicating the Unity in Trinity. This ancient baptismal formula rep resents "the Father, as the Originator, the Son as the Mediator, the Holy Ghost as the Realization, and the vital and vitalizing blessing of the promise and fulfilment," which is extended to men in this ordinance (Cremer).

      After the Lord had entered into His glory, we find that in the era of the apostles and in the primi tive Christian church baptism is the

      2. The established and universally acknowl- Biblical edged rite by which persons are ad- History mitted to communion with the church of the (Acts 2 38.41; 8 12f.36.38; 9 18; 10 Ordinance 47 f; 16 15.33; 18 8; 22 16; Rom 6

      3; 1 Cor 12 13; Gal 3 27). Even in cases where an outpouring of the special gifts of the Holy Spirit had already taken place, baptism is still administered (Acts 10 44 ff; 11 15f). "Thus, bap tism occupied among the Gentile converts to Chris- tianity, and later among all Christians, the same position as circumcision in the Old Covenant (Col

      2 11 f; Gal 6 2). It is, essentially, part of the foundation on which the unity of the Christian society rested from the beginning (Eph 45; 1 Cor

      12 13; Gal 3 27 f)" (Riehm, Handworlerb.).

      In 1 Cor 10 1.2 the apostle states that the

      Israelites "were all baptized unto Moses in the

      cloud andinthesea." Farrar attempts

      3. Types the following solution of this type: of Baptism "The passing under the cloud (Ex 14

      19) and through the sea, constituting as it did their deliverance from bondage into free dom, their death to Egypt, and their birth to a new covenant, was a general type or dim shadow of Christian baptism (compare our collect, figuring thereby Thy holy baptism ). But the typology is quite incidental; it is the moral lesson which is paramount. Unto Moses ; rather, into. By this baptism they accepted Moses as their Heaven sent guide and teacher" (Pulpit Comm.). In 1 Pet

      3 21 the apostle calls baptism the antitupon of the




      Deluge. Delitzsch (on He 9 21) suggests that tui>os and iixli/itjion in (!r represent the original figure and a copy made therefrom, or a prophetic foretype and its later accomplishment. The point of comparison is the saving power of water in cither instance. Water saved N oah and his family by floating the ark which sheltered them, and by removing from them the disobedient gen eration which had sorely tried their faith, as it had tried (iod s patience. In like manner the water of baptism bears up the ark of the Christian church and saves its believing members, by separat ing t hem from their filthy and doomed fellow-men.

      ///. Difficulties. Feme (I h If, XIX. 396 f) and

      Kattenbusch (N<7/-//r/-,~, I, -loo f) argue that the

      Trinitarian formula in Alt 28 10 is

      1. Are Mt spurious, and that the text, in Mk 28 vs 18- belongs to a section which was added 20 and Mk to this Gospel at a later time. The 16 vs 15.16 former claim had first been advanced Genuine? by Conybeare, but later research by

      Riggenbach has established the gen uineness of the Trinitarian formula in Mt. Feine still maintains his doubts, however, on subject ive grounds. As to the concluding section in Mk (16 9-20), Jerome is the first to call attention to its omission in most ( !r MSS to which he had access. But Jerome himself acknowledged ver 14 as gen uine . Gregory of Nyssa reports that, while this section is missing in some MSS, in the more ac curate ones many MSS contain it. No doctrinal scruple can arise on account of this section; for it contains nothing that is contrary to the doctrine of Scripture in other places on the same subject; and it has always been t reated as genuine by the Chris tian church. The, question is a purely historical one (see Bengel, Apparatus CY///V//.S-, 170 f).

      No record of such use can be discovered in the

      Acts or the epistles of the apostles. The baptisms

      recorded in the NT after the Day of

      2. Was the Pentecost are administered "in the Trinitarian name of Jesus Christ" (Acts 2 3s ), Formula "into the name of the Lord Jesus" Used in (8 10), "into Christ" (Rom 6 3: C-al NT Times? 3 27). This difliciilty was considered

      by the Fathers; Ambrose says: (J>it>il vcrbo taciturn fuerat, cjcprcxxmii r.s/ jidr, "What had not been express M! in word, was expressed by faith." On close inspection the difficulty is found to rest on the assumption that the above are records of bap tismal formulas used on those occasions. The fact is that these records contain no baptismal formula at all, but "merely state that such persons were bap tised as acknowledged Jesus to be t he Lord and the Christ/ (Plummer). The same can be said of any person baptized in our day with the Trinitarian formula. That this formula was the established usage in the Christian church is proven by records of baptisms in Justin (ApoL, I, 01) and Tertullian (A<li>. I m*., XXVI).

      Baptism was practised among the Jews prior to the solemn inauguration of this ordinance by the

      risen Christ.. The ceremonial wash-

      3. Was ings of the Jews are classed with the Christian transient forms of the Levitical wor- Baptism ship (He 9 9.10), which had not been Really a intended to endure except "until a New Or- time of reformation." They were dinance? removed when Christian baptism was

      erected into an abiding ordinance of the church of God (Col 2 11-13). It is erroneous to say that those ancient, washings developed into Christian baptism. A shadow does not develop into a substance. Nor do we find the origin of Christian baptism in the baptism of proselytes, which seems to have been a Jewish church custom in the days of Christ. Though the rite of bap

      tism was not unknown to the Jews, still (he bap tism of John startled them (Jn 1 2f>). Such pas sage s as Isa 4 4 (1 16); Ezk 36 25; 37 23; Zee 13 1 had, no doubt, led them to expect a rite of purification in the days of the Messiah, which would supersede their Levitical purification. The dele gation which they sent to John was to determine the Messianic character of John and his preaching and baptizing. Johannic baptism has been a fruitful theme of debate. Tin; question does not affect the personal faith of any Christian at the present time; for there is no person living who has received Johannic baptism (Chemnitz). The entire subject and certain features of it, as the incident recorded Acts 19 1-7, will continue to be debated. It- is best, to fix in our minds a few essen tial facts, which will enable us to put the Scriptural estimate on the baptism of John. John had received a Divine commission to preach and bap- ti/e (Lk 3 2; Jn 1 33; Mt. 21 2.")). He bapti/ed with water (Jn 3 23). His baptism was honored by a wonderful manifestation of the holy Trinity (Mt 3 Hi. 17), and by the Redeemer, in His capacity as the Representative of sinful mankind, the sin- bearing Lamb of Clod, accepting baptism at John s hand (Ml, 3 13 ff; Jn 1 29f f). It was of the necessity of receiving John s baptism that Christ spoke to Nicodemus (Jn 3 3 ff). The Pharisees invited their eternal ruin by refusing John s bapt ism (Lk 7 30); for John s baptism was to shield them from the wrath to come (Mt 37); it was for the remission of sin (Mk 14); it was a washing of regeneration (Jn 3 ">). When Jesus began His public ministry, lie took up the preaching and bap tism of John, and His disciples practised it with such success that .John rejoiced (Jn 3 22. 25 36; 4 1.2). All this evidence fairly compels the belief that there was no essential difference between the baptism of John and the baptism instituted by Christ; that what the risen Christ did in Mt 28 1S-20 was merely to elevate a rite that had pre viously been adopted by an order "from above" to a permanent institution of His church, and to pro claim its universal application. The contrast which John himself declares between his baptism and that of Christ is not a contrast between two baptisms with water. The baptism of Christ, which John foretells, is a baptism with the Holy Ghost and with fire, the Pentecostal baptism. But for the general purpose of begetting men unto a new life, sanctifying and saving them, the Spirit was also bestowed through John s baptism (Jn 3 5). The command in Mt 28 19; Mk 16 16 is all- embracing; so is the statement concerning the

      necessity of baptism in Jn 3 5. After 4. Should reading these statements, one feels Infants Be inclined, not to ask, Should infants be Baptized? baptized? but Why should they not

      be baptized? The onux j>mlxnt(li- rests on those who reject infant baptism. The desire to have their infants baptized must have been mani fested on the day when the first three thousand were baptized at Jerus, assuming that they were all adults. The old covenant had provided for their children; was the new to be inferior to the old in this respect? (See Plummer in IIDB.) The bap tism of entire households is presumptive evidence that children and infants were baptized in apostolic; times (Acts 16 15.33; 18 X; 1 Cor 1 16). The arguments against infant baptism imply defective views on the subject of original sin and the efficacy of baptism. Infant faith for, faith is as necessary to the infant as to the adult may baffle our attempts at explanation and definition; but God who extends His promises also to children (Acts 2 39), who es tablished His covenant even with beasts (Gen 9 16.17); Christ who blessed also little children (Mk




      10 K5 ff), and spoke of tin-in as believers (Mt 18 ( )), certainly does not consider the regeneration of ;i child or infant a greater task than that of an adult (cf Alt 18 3.4).

      Paul did baptize Crispus, Gaius and Stephanas

      with his household. These baptisms he performed

      at Corinth alone; we have no record

      5. Why Did of his baptisms at other places. What Paul not Paul declares in 1 Cor 1 14-17 is, Baptize? that by his baptizing he could not have

      become the cause of the divisions in the Corinthian congregation, because he had bap tized only a few persons at Corinth, and, moreover, he had not baptized in his own name, hence had attached no one to his person. The statement, "Christ sent me not to baptize," is made after the Sem idiom, and means: "not so much to baptize as to preach" (Farrar in Pulpit Comin.). If they are taken in any other sense, it is impossible to pro tect Paul against, the charge that he did something that he was not authorized to do, when he bap tized Crispus, etc.

      1 Cor 15 29 is sometimes taken to mean that the early Christians practised baptism by proxy.

      After they had been converted to

      6. What Is Christianity, it is held, they desired the Baptism to convey the benefits of their faith for the to their departed friends who had died Dead? in paganism, by having themselves

      baptized "in their behalf," perhaps on their graves. We have no evidence from his tory that such a practice prevailed in the early Christian churches. Nor does the text suggest it. The Gr preposition hit per expresses also the motive that may prompt a person to a certain action. In this case the motive was suggested by the dead, viz. by the dead in so far as they shall rise. The context shows this to be the meaning: If a person has sought baptism in view of the fact that the dead are to rise to be judged, his baptism is value less, if the dead do not rise. See BAPTISM FOR THE DKAI>. W. II. T. DAU

      BAPTISMAL REGENERATION, bap-tiz mal re> jen-er-a shun: As indicated in the general arts, on BAPTISM and SACRAMENT, the doctrine ordinarily held by Presbyterians, Congregationalists, Baptists, Methodists, and also by Low-Church Episcopalians, differs from that of the Roman and Greek churches, and of High-Church Anglicans, in its rejection of the idea that baptism is the instrumental cause 1 of regeneration, and that the grace of regeneration is effectually conveyed through the administration of that rite wherever duly performed. The teach ing of Scripture on this subject is held to be that salvation is immediately dependent on faith, which, as a fruit of the operation of the Spirit of God in the soul, already, in its reception of Christ, implies the regenerating action of that Spirit, and is itself one evidence of it. To faith in Christ is attached the promise of forgiveness, and of all other bless ings. Baptism is administered to those who al ready possess (at least profess) this faith, and sym bolizes the dying to sin and rising to righteous ness implicit in the act of faith (Rom 6). It is the symbol of a cleansing from sin and renewal by God s Spirit, but not the agency effecting that renewal, even instrumentally. Baptism is not, indeed, to be regarded as a bare symbol. It may be expected that its believing reception will be accompanied by fresh measures of grace, strength ening and fitting for the new life. This, however, as the life is already there, has nothing to do with the idea of baptism as an opus operatum, working a spiritual change in virtue of its mere administra tion. In Scripture the agency with which regen eration is specially connected is the Divine "word"

      (cf 1 Pet 1 23). Without living faith, in those capable of its exercise, the outward rite can avail nothing. The supposed "regeneration" may be received in multitudes of instances is received without the least apparent change in heart or life.

      The above, naturally, applies to adults; the case of children, born and growing up within the Chris tian community, is on a different footing. Those who recognize the right of such to baptism hold that in the normal Christian development, children of believing parents should be the subjects of Di vine grace from the commencement (Eph 6 4); they therefore properly receive the initiatory rite of the Christian church. The faith of the parent, in presenting his child for baptism, lays hold on God s promise to be a CJod to him and to his chil dren; and he is entitled to hope for that which baptism pledges to him. But this, again, has no relation to the- idea of regeneration through, baptism.



      Regeneration, the initial gift of life in Christ, is, in the church s normal system, associated with the sacrament of baptism. The basis for this teach ing and practice of the church is found primarily in Our Lord s discourse to Nicodemus (Jn 3 1-8) wherein the new birth is associated not only with the quickening Spirit but with the element of water. The Saviour s words, lit. tr 1 , are as follows: "Ex cept one be born [out] of water and Spirit (ex hu- datos kal pneumatos genndomai), he cannot enter into the kingdom of God." (That it is the imper sonal aspect of the Divine Spirit, i.e. as equiv alent to "spiritual life" which is here presented, is indicated by the absence of the art. in the Gr of ver 5.) Entrance into the kingdom of God implies entrance into the church as the outward and visible embodiment, of that kingdom. Our Lord, in the passage above cited, does not limit the possibility or the need of "new birth" to those who have arrived at, adult age, or "years of dis cretion," but uses the general pronoun rls, tis, "anyone." The Anglican church does not, how ever, teach that baptism is unconditionally neces sary, but only that it is "generally" necessary to salvation (cf the language of the Church Cate chism with the qualification mentioned in the Prayer-Book "Office for the Baptism of Those of Riper Years," "Whereby ye may perceive the great necessity of this Sacrament,, where it may be had"). It is not, taught, that the grace of God is absolutely or unconditionally bound to the external means, but only that these sacramental agencies are the ordinary and normal channels of Divine grace.

      The typical form of baptism is that appropriate to the initiation of adults into the Christian body. Justin Martyr in his First Apology (ch Ixi) no doubt testifies to what was the general view of Christians in the 2d cent, (cir lot) AD): "As many as are persuaded and believe that the things taught and said by us are true, and, moreover, take upon them to live accordingly, arc taught, to pray and ask of God with fasting for forgiveness of their former sins; .... and then they are brought to a place of water, and there regenerated after the same manner with ourselves; for they are washed in the name of God, the Father and Lord of the universe, and of our Saviour Jesus Christ, and of the Holy Spirit." For the due administration of this sacrament, personal faith and repentance on the part of the candidate arc prerequisite conditions. However, "the baptism of young children" (i.e. of infants) "is in any wise to be retained in the Church, as most agreeable to the institution of Christ" (XXXIX Articles, Art. XXVII, sub fin.). In the service "For the Baptism of Infants." repent-




      ance and faith are |)roinisc(l for I he children by their "sureties" (ordinarily known ;is "sponsors" or "godparents"), "which promise, when they come to age [the children] themselves ;ire bound to perform." The person, whether adult or infant, receives in his baptism a real forgiveness; a washing away of all sins, whether original or actual. lie also re ceives, at least in germ, the beginnings of new life in Christ; which life, however, must be developed and brought to perfection through his personal cooperation with the grace of (!od. But. regen eration, as such, is not conversion; it is not, even faith or love, strictly speaking. These latter, while they are conililioiix. or <.//V<7x, or i-rli/cnci \\\\\\\\ of regeneration, are not regeneration itself, which is purely the work of (iod, operating by His creative power, through the Holy (ihost. The moral test of the existence of spiritual life is the presence in heart and conduct of the love of ( .od and of obe dience to His commandments (see 1 .In paxxini).

      It may be added thai the bestowment of the gifts of spiritual strength of the manifold graces and ot the fulness ot the Holy Spirit -is primarily associated with the laying on of hands (confirma tion) rather than with baptism proper; the rite of confirmation was, however, originally connected with the baptismal service, as an adjunct to it. The newly-made Christian is not to rest content with the initial gift of life; he is bound to strive forward unto perfection. Confirmation is, in a sense, the completion of baptism. "The doctrine of laying on of hands" is accordingly connected with "the doctrine of baptisms," and both are reckoned by the author of the Epistle to the He as among "the first principles of Christ" (He 6 1.2 AV).

      LITERATURE. For the Anglican doctrine on the sub ject of regeneration in baptism the following author ities may he consulted: Hooker. Ecclesiastical 1 nliti/ V, lix. Ix: Waterland. 7V,, Doct. T,, of Christian Sacra ments; Regeneration; Wall, Infant liu />tiiti; K. I . Wilbcr- force, Tin Doctrine of ///// Baptixm; Harwell Stone //<</// Baptism, in "The Oxford Library of Practical Theology"; A. .1. Mason. The I- nith of the Gospel. For patristic teaching on this subject, cf Tertutlian, DC H apt is mo.

      WILLIAM SAMTKL Bisiioi


      Regeneration is here taken in its strict meaning to denote that internal spiritual change, not of the

      substance, but of the qualities, of the 1. Defini- intellect and will of natural man, by tion of which blindness, darkness in regard to

      Terms spiritual matters, esp. the gospel, is

      removed from the former, and spiritual bondage, impotency, death from the latter (2 Cor 3 f>; Acts 26 IS; Phil 2 Di), and the heart of the sinner is made to savingly know and appropriate the Lord Jesus Christ, and t he merits of His atoning sacrifice, as its only hope for a Clod-pleasing life here in time and a life in glory hereafter. Re generation in the strict sense signifies the first spir it uahnovements and impulses in man, the beginning of his thinking Divine thoughts, cherishing holy desires and willing Cod-like volitions. Hut it does not signify t he radical ext inct ion of sin in man; for evil concupiscence remains also in the regenerate as a hostile element to the new life (Rom 7 23-2."); Cal 5 10.17). I ccctititi/i toll// in- in. Ixiptixino, non ul non .s-//, Kill at non dhxil Augustine. "Sin is re moved in baptism, not that it may not be, but that it may not hurt." Reduced to its lowest terms, regeneration in the strict sense may be defined as the kindling of .saving faith in the heart of the sinner; for according to 1 Jn 5 1, "whosoever be- lieveth that Jesus is the Christ is begotten of God." Such terms as new creation (2 Cor 6 17; Gal 6 15 m), spiritual quickening, or vivification (Eph 2 f>; Rom 6 11), spiritual resurrection (Eph 2 0; Col

      3 1 ), are true synonyms of regeneration in the strict sense. In the point, of time justification coincides with regeneration in the strict, sense; for it is by faith, too, that, the sinner is justified. But these two spiritual events must not be confounded; for justification affects, not the internal conditions of the sinner s heart, but his legal standing with God the righteous Judge. Regeneration is called baptis mal regeneration in so far as it occurs in the event and as an effect of the application of the Christian baptism. See BAPTISM (1), I, 0.

      The two leading texts of Scripture which declare in plain terms that baptism is a means for effecting regeneration in the strict sense are 2. Scrip- Jn 3 o and Tit 3 5. But this doc- tural Basis trine is implied in Acts 2 :>X; Eph 5 of This 20; Gal 3 27; 1 Pet 3 21. In Jn 3

      Doctrine 7 if is immaterial whether dndlhcn gennethtna/i is rendered "to be born from above" or "to be born a second time." For the second birth is never of the flesh (Jn 1 lo; 3 -l- r ); hence, is always of divine origin, "from above." It is ascribed to the agencv of the entire Trinity: the Father (Jas 1 IS; 1 Pet 1 3); the Son (Jn 1 12); anil the Spirit (Tit 3 5). But, by appropriation it is generally attributed to the Spirit alone, whose particular function is that, of Quickener (see Crcmer, Bibl.-theol. Wortcrh., <)th ed, s.v. "pneuma," Si)4f). Baptism is an instrument by which the Holy Spirit effects regeneration. Water and the Spirit" (Jn 3 f>) is a paraphrastic description of baptism: "water," inasmuch as the man is baptized therewith (1 Jn 5 7.S; Eph 5 20) for the forgiveness of sin (Acts 2 ;; 22 10; 1 Cor 6 1 1), and "N/"V 7," inasmuch as the Holy Ghost is given to the person baptized in order to his spiritual renewal and sanctification; "both together the former as causa ina/iunx, the latter as cauxu effi cient constitute the objective and causative ele ment out of irliich (cf 1 13) the birth from above is produced [</,-]" (Meyer). In Tit. 3 f> "the ex pression in lonlroii palingenesias, lit. bath of re generation, has been very arbitrarily interpreted by some expositors, some taking loutron as a fig. name for the Tcycncration itself, or for the /ir/i/ ilirn- tio crantfclii, preaching of the gospel or for the Holy Spirit, or for the abundant imparting of the Spirit. From Eph 5 20 it is clear that. it. can mean not hing else than baptism; cf too. He 10 J>)< 1 Cor 6 11; Acts 22 10." Of this laver of re generation Paul says that, through it (ilii i), i.e. by its instrumentality, men are saved. Meyer is riglit when, correcting a former view of his," he states: "According to the context, Paul calls baptism the bath of the new birth, not, meaning that it pledges us to the new birth ( to complete the process of moral purification, of expiation and sanctification, Matthies), nor that it is a visible image of the new birth M)e Wette), for neither in the one sense nor in the other could it. be regarded as a means of saving. Paul uses that name for it as the bath by means of which God (ictnnlli/ brings about the new birth." The application of baptism and the operation of the Spirit must, be viewed as one undivided action. Thus the offense of Spurgeon, Weiss and others at. "regeneration by water-baptism" can be removed.

      Baptism does not produce salutary effects ex (>l>crc ojH-rato, i.e. by the mere external performance of the baptismal action. No instru- 3. Faith in ment with which Divine grace works Baptism does. Even the preaching of the gos pel is void of saving results if not "mixed with faith" (He 4 2AV). Luther correctly describes the working of baptism thus: "How can water do such great things? It is not the water indeed that does them, but the Word of God which is in and with the water (God s giving hand), and




      faith which trusts such word of God in the water (man s receiving hand)." But this faith, which is required for a salutary use of the gospel and bap tism, is wrought by these as instruments which the Holy Spirit employs to produce faith; not by imparting to them a magical power but by uniting His Divine power with them (Rom 10 17; 2 Cor 4 6; Eph 5 20).

      The comprehensive statements in Jn 3 6; Eph 2 3 ("by nature") show that infants are in need

      of being regenerated, and Mt 18 3.6, 4. Infants that they are capable of faith. It is and Adults not more difficult for the Holy Spirit

      to work faith in infants by baptism, than in adults by the preaching of the gospel. And infant faith, though it may baffle our attempts at exact definition, is nevertheless honored in Scrip ture with the word which denotes genuine faith, pisteuein, i.e. trustfully reiving on Christ (Mt 18 6; cf 2 Tim 3 15; 15). In the case of adults who have received faith through hearing and read ing the gospel (Jas 1 IS; 1 Pet 1 23; 1 Cor 4 15), baptism is still "the washing of regeneration," because it is a seal to them of the righteousness which these people have previously obtained by believing the gospel (Rom 4 11-13; Gal 3 7); and it reminds them of, and enables them to dis charge, their daily duty of putting away the old and putting on the new man (Eph 4 22.24), just as the Word is still the regenerating word of truth (Jas 1 18) though it be preached to persons who are regenerated a long time ago. Accordingly, Luther rightly extends the regenerating and renewing in fluences of baptism throughout the life of a Christian, when he says "Baptizing with water signifies that the old Adam in us should, by daily contrition and repentance, be drowned and die, with all sins and evil lusts; and, again, a new man should come forth and arise, who shall live before God in righteousness and puritv forever" (Smaller Catech.).

      W. H. T. DAU

      BAPTISM FOR THE DEAD (pairT^ojiai virep TOJV vtKpeiv, baptizomai fin per ton nekrtin) . Some of

      the Corinthian Christians denied the

      1. Paul s resurrection of the dead, and Paul ad- Argument vances three arguments to convince

      them that the dead will be raised: (1) "If there is no resurrection of the dead, neither hath Christ been raised," but Christ is raised (1 Cor 15 13.20). (2) If the dead are not raised, why are men being baptized for the dead (ib 15 29)? (3) Why should the apostle himself wage his spiritual warfare (ib 15 30)? The first argument rests upon the central fact of Christianity, and the other two are appeals to the consistency of the Corinthians, and of Paul himself. Whatever "baptism for the dead" meant, it was, in Paul s opinion, as real, valid and legitimate a premise from which to conclude; that the dead would rise as his own sufferings. The natural meaning of the words is obvious. Men in Corinth, and possibly elsewhere, were being con tinually baptized on behalf of others who were at the time dead, with a view to benefiting them in the resurrection, but if there be no resurrection, what shall they thus accomplish, and why do they do it? "The only legitimate reference is to a practice .... of survivors allowing themselves to be bap tized on behalf of (believing?) friends who had died without baptism" (Alford in loc.).

      Tertullian believed that Paul referred to a custom of vicarious baptism (Ren., 48c; Adv. Marc., 5.10).

      There is evidence that the early church

      2. Patristic knew such a practice. Epiphanius men- Evidence tions a tradition that the custom

      obtained among the Cerinthians (Haer., 28 G). And Chrysostom states that it prevailed among the Marcionites.

      But commentators have offered between thirty and forty other interpretations, more or less strained, of the passage. (For a sum-

      3. Modern mary of different views sec T. C. Views Edwards and Stanley, Comma., ad

      loc.) Two of the most reasonable views from recent commentators arc: "What shall they do who receive baptism on account of the dead? i.e. with a view to the resurrection of the dead?" and therefore to sharing in it themselves (Canon Evans, Speaker s Conun., ad loc.) ; "that the death of Christians led to the conversion of survivors, who in the first instance for the sake of the dead (their beloved dead), and in the hope of reunion, turn to Christ" (Findlay, Expositor s (1 reck Test., ad loc.). Both ideas may be true, but they are simply imported into this passage, and the latter also is quite irrelevant to the argument and makes Paul identify conversion with baptism.

      But why is all this ingenuity expended to evade the natural meaning? Because (1) such a custom would be a superstition involving the

      4. The principle of opus operation; and (2) Difficulty Paul could not share or even tolerate

      a contemporary idea which is now regarded as superstition. To reply (with Alford) that Paul does not approve the custom will not serve the purpose, for he would scarcely base so great an argument, even as an aryionetttion ad fiotninem, on a practice which he regarded as wholly false and superstitious. The retort of those who denied the resurrection would be too obvious. But why should it be necessary to suppose that Paul rose above all the limitations of his age? The idea that symbolic acts had a vicarious significance had sunk deeply into the Jewish mind, and it would not be surprising if it took more than twenty years for the leaven of the gospel to work all the Jew out of Paul. At least it serves the apostle s credit ill to make his argument meaningless or absurd in order to save him from sharing at all in the inadequate conceptions of his age. He made for himself no claim of infallibility. T. REES

      BAPTISM OF FIRE (ev irvtv^aTi d^ico Kal

      en, pneiiinati huij io kin purl) : This expression is used in Mt 311. The copulative KCU requires that the baptism "in the Holy Ghost and in fire," should be regarded as one and the same thing. It does violence to the construction, therefore, to make this statement refer to the fire of judgment. The diffi culty has always been in associating fire with the person of the Holy Ghost. But in the connection of fire with the work or influence of the Holy Ghost the difficulty disappears. The thought of John is that the Saviour would give them the Divine Saric- tifier as purifying water to wash away their sins and as a refining fire to consume their dross; to kindle in their hearts the holy flame of Divine love and zeal; to illuminate their souls with heavenly wis dom. The statement, therefore, in this verse indi cates the manner in which Christ will admit them to discipleship and prepare them for Llis service. See BAPTISM; FIRE. JACOB W. KAPP


      pression "baptism of the Holy Spirit" is based on a number of predictions found in our 1. The four Gospels and in connection with

      Biblical these the record of their fulfilment

      Material in the Book of Acts. The passages in the Gospels are as follows: Mt 3 11 : "I indeed baptize you in water unto repentance: but he that cometh after me is mightier than I, whose shoes I am not worthy to bear: he shall bap tize you in the Holy Spirit and in fire." The last clause is O.VTOS v/xas /3a7rri <7 fv irvevp.a.ri.

      Baptism Bar



      KO.I irvpt=autos hnnnix baptisei en pneumati hn- gio knl pun. In Mk 1 S and Lk 3 1(1 we have the declaration in a slightly modified form; and in Jn 1 : John the Baptist declares that the de scent of the Spirit upon Jesus at the baptism of the latter marked out Jesus as "he that baptize! h in the Holy Spirit." Again in .In 7 o7.:>S \\\\\\\\ve read: "Now on the last day, the great, day of the feast, Jesus stood and cried, saying, If any man thirst, let him come unto me and drink. He that believe! h on me, us the scripture hath said, from within him shall flow rivers of living water." Then t he evangel ist adds in ver !> .): "But this spake he of the Spirit, which they that believed on him were to receive: for the Spirit was not yet given; because Jesus was not yet glorified." These are the specific references in the four Gospels to 1 he bapt isms of the Holy Spirit. In Acts we find direct reference by Luke to the promised baptism in the Holy Spirit. In 1 5 Jesus, just before the ascension, contrasts John s baptism in water with the baptism in the Holy Spirit which the disciples are to receive "not many days hence," and in ver 8 power in witness ing for Jesus is predicted as 1 lie result of the bapt ism in the Holy Spirit. On the evening of the resur rection day Jesus appeared to the disciples and "he breathed on them, and saith unto them, Receive ye the Holy Spirit" (Jn 20 22). This was probably not a wholly symbolic act but an actual communication to the disciples, in some measure, of the gift of the Spirit, preliminary to the later complete bestowal.

      We observe next the fulfilment of these predic tions as recorded in Acts. The gift, of the Holy Spirit, on the Day of Pentecost and the miraculous manifestations which followed are clearly the chief historical fulfilment of the prediction of the baptism of the Holy Spirit. Among the manifestations of the coming of the Spirit, at Pentecost were first those which were physical, such as "a sound as of the rushing of a mighty wind, and it filled all the house where they were sitting" (Acts 2 2), and the 1 appearance of "tongues parting asunder, like as of fire; and it sat upon each one of them" (Acts 2 . {>. Secondly, there were spiritual results: "And they were all filled with the Holy Spirit, and began to speak with other tongues, as the Spirit gave them utterance" (Acts 24). In vs 16 ff Peter declares that this bestowment of the Holy Spirit, is in ful filment of the prediction made by the prophet Joel and he cites the words in 2 2S ff of Joel s prophecy.

      There is one other important passage in Acts in which reference is made to the baptism of the Holy Spirit. While Peter was speaking to Cornelius (Acts 10 44) the Holy Spirit fell on all that heard the word and they of the circumcision who were with Peter "were amazed" "because that on the Gentiles also was poured out the gift of the Holy Spirit." When giving the brethren at, Jems an account, of his visit to Cornelius, Peter declares that this event which he had witnessed was a baptism of the Holy Spirit (Acts 11 16): "And I remembered the word of the Lord, how he said, John indeed baptized with water; but ye shall be baptized in the Holy Spirit ."

      We consider next the significance of the baptism of the Holy Spirit from various points of view.

      (1) Front, the point of view of OT teaching as to the gift of the Spirit. The prophecy of Joel quoted by Peter indicates something extra- 2. Signifi- ordinary in the gift of the Spirit at cance of Pentecost. The Spirit now comes in Baptism of new forms of manifestation and with the Holy new power. The various classes men- Spirit tioned as receiving the Spirit indicate the wide diffusion of the new power. In the OT usually the Spirit was bestowed upon individuals; here the gift is to the group of dis

      ciples, the church. Here the gift is permanently bestowed, while in the OT it was usually transient and for a special purpose. Here again the Spirit comes in fulness as contrasted with the partial bestowment in OT times.

      (2) From the point of rieic of the ascended Christ. In Lk 24 49 Jesus commands the disciples to tarry in the city "until ye be clothed with power from on high," and in Jn 15 26 He speaks of the Comforter "whom I will send unto you from the Father," "he shall bear witness of me"; and in Jn 16 13 Jesus declares that the Spirit when He comes shall guide the disciples into all truth, and He shall show them things to come. In this verse; the Spirit is called the Spirit of truth. It was fit ting that the Spirit who was to interpret, truth and guide into all truth should come in fulness after, rather than before, the completion of the life-task of the Messiah. The historical manifestation of Divine truth as thus completed made necessary the gift of the Spirit in fulness. Christ Himself was the giver of the Spirit . The Spirit now takes the place of the ascended Christ, or rather takes the things of Christ, and shows them to the disciples. The baptism of the Spirit at Pentecost, thus becomes the great historic event signalizing the beginning of a new era in the kingdom of God in which the whole movement is lifted to the spiritual plane, and the task of evangelizing t he world is formally begun.

      (3) The significance of the baptism of the, Spirit front the point of rn ir of the tlixci plex. It can scarcely be said with truth that Pentecost was the birth day of the church. Jesus had spoken of His church during His earthly ministry. The spiritual rela tion to Christ which constitutes the basis of the church existed prior to the baptism of the Holy Spirit. But that baptism established the church in several ways. First in unity. The external bond of unity now gives place to an inner spiritual bond of profound significance. Secondly, the church now becomes conscious of a spiritual mission, and theocratic ideals of the kingdom disappear. Third ly, the church is now endued with power for its work. Among the gifts bestowed were the gift of prophecy in the large sense of speaking for God, and the gift of tongues which enabled disciples to speak in foreign tongues. The account in the second ch of Acts admits of no other construction. There was also bestowed power in witnessing for Christ. This was indeed one of the most, prominent bless ings named in connection with the promise of the baptism of the Spirit. The power of working miracles was also bestowed (Acts 3 4 ff; 5 12 ff). Later in the epistles of Paul much emphasis is given to the Spirit as the sanctifying agency in the hearts of believers. In Acts the word of the Spirit is chiefly Messianic, that is, the Spirit s activity is all seen in relation to the extension of the Mes sianic kingdom. The occasion for the outpouring of the Spirit is Pentecost when men from all nations are assembled in Jerus. The symbolic representa tion of tongues of fire is suggestive of preaching, and the glossolalia, or speaking with tongues which followed, so that men of various nations heard the gospel in their own languages, indicates that the baptism of the Spirit had a very special relation to the task of world-wide evangelization for the bring ing in of the kingdom of (Jod.

      The question is often raised whether or not the

      baptism of the Holy Spirit occurred once for all or is

      repeated in subsequent baptisms. The

      3. Finality evidence seems to point to the former

      of the Bap- view to the extent at least of being

      tism of the limited to outpourings which took place

      Holy Spirit in connection with events recorded in

      the early chapters of the Book of Acts.

      The following considerations favor this view:


      Baptism Bar

      (1) In the first ch of Acts Jesu.s predicts, accord ing to Luke s account, that the baptism of the Holy Spirit would take place, not many days hence" (Acts 1 5). This would seem to point to a defi nite and specific event rather than to a continuous process.

      (2) Again, Peter s citation in Acts 2 17-21 of Joel s prophecy shows that in Peter s mind the event which his hearers were then witnessing was the definite fulfilment of the words of Joel.

      (3) Notice in the third place that only one other event in the NT is described as the baptism of the Holy Spirit, and for special reasons this may be regarded as the completion of the Pentecostal baptism. The passage is that contained in Acts 10 1 11 18 in which the record is given of the following events: (a) miraculous vision given to Peter on the housetop (10 1 1-16) indicating that the things about to occur are of unique importance; (b) the speaking with tongues (10 45.46); (c) Peter declares to the brethren at Jems that the Holy Ghost fell on the Gentiles in this instance of Corne lius and his household "as on us at the beginning" (11 15); ((/) Peter also declares that this was a ful filment of the promise of the baptism of the Holy Spirit (11 16.17); (c) the Jewish Christians who heard Peter s account of the matter acknowledged this as proof that God had also extended the privi leges of the gospel to the Gentiles (11 IS). The baptism of the Holy Spirit bestowed upon Cornelius and his household is thus directly linked with the first outpouring at Pentecost, and as the event which signalized the opening of the door of the gospel formally to Gentiles it is in complete harmony with the missionary significance of the first, great Pente costal outpouring". It was a turning point or crisis in the Messianic kingdom and seems designed to complete the Pentecostal gift by showing that Gen tiles as well as Jews are to be embraced in all the privileges of the new dispensation.

      (4) We observe again that nowhere in the epistles do we find a repetition of the baptism of the Spirit.. This would be remarkable if it had been understood by the writers of the epistles that the baptism of the Spirit was frequently to be repeated. There is no evidence outside the Book of Acts that the baptism of the Spirit ever occurred in the later NT times. In 1 Cor 12 13 Paul says, "For in one Spirit were we all baptized into one body .... and were all made to drink of one Spirit." But here the reference is not to the baptism of the Spirit, but rather to a baptism into the church which is the body of Christ. We conclude, there fore, that the Pentecostal baptism taken in con junction with the baptism of the Spirit in the case of Cornelius completes the baptism of the Holy Spirit according to the NT teaching. The baptism of the Spirit as thus bestowed was, however, the definite gift of the Spirit in His fulness for every form of spiritual blessing necessary in the progress of the kingdom and as the permanent and abiding gift of God to His people. In all subsequent NT writings there is the assumption of this presence of the Spirit and of His availability for all believers. The various commands and exhortations of the epistles arc based on the assumption that the bap tism of the Spirit has already taken place, and that, according to the prediction of Jesus to the disci ples, the Spirit was to abide with them forever (Jn 14 16). We should not therefore confound other forms of expression found in the NT with the baptism of the Holy Spirit. When Christians are enjoined to "walk by the Spirit" (Gal 5 16) and "be filled with the Spirit" (Eph 5 18), or when the Spirit is described as an anointing (xpi<r/ja.= chrisma) as in 1 Jn 2 20-27, and as the "earnest of our inheritance" (Appa^div arrabdn), as in Eph 1

      14, and when various other similar expressions are employed in the epistles of the NT, we are not to understand the baptism of the Holy Spirit. These expressions indicate aspects of the Spirit s work in believers or of the believer s appropriation of the gifts and blessings of the Spirit rather than the historical baptism of the Spirit.

      Three final points require brief attention, viz. the relation of the baptism of the Spirit to the bap tism in water, and to the baptism in 4. Relation fire, and to the laying on of hands, of Baptism (1) We note that the baptism in of the fire is coupled with the baptism in the

      Spirit to Spirit in Mt 3 11 and in Lk 3 16. Other These passages give the word of John

      Baptisms the Baptist. John speaks of the coming One who "shall baptize you in the Holy Spirit and in fire" (Lk 3 16). This baptism in fire is often taken as being parallel and synonymous with the baptism in the Spirit. The context however in both Alt and Lk seems to favor another meaning. Jesus Messianic work will be both cleansing and destructive. The "you" ad dressed by John included the people generally and might naturally embrace both classes, those whose attitude to Jesus would be believing and those who would refuse to believe. His action as Messiah would affect all men. Some He would regenerate and purify through the Holy Ghost. Others He would destroy through the fire of punishment. This view is favored by the context in both gospels. In both the destructive energy of Christ is coupled with His saving power in other terms which admit of no doubt. The wheat He gathers into the garner and the chaff He burns with unquenchable fire.

      (2) The baptism of the Holy Spirit was not meant to supersede water baptism. This is clear from the whole of the history in the Book of Acts, where water baptism is uniformly administered to converts after the Pentecostal baptism of the Spirit, as well as from the numerous references to water baptisms in the epistles. The evidence here is so abundant that it is unnecessary to develop it in detail. See Rom 6 3; 1 Cor 1 14-17; 10 2; 12 13; 15 29; Gal 3 27; Eph 4 5; Col 2 12; 1 Pet 3 21.

      (3) In Acts 8 17 and 19 6 the Holy Spirit is bestowed in connection with the laying on of the hands of apostles, but these are not to be regarded as instances of the baptism of the Spirit in the strict sense, but rather as instances of the reception by believers of the Spirit which had already been bestowed in fulness at Pentecost.

      LITERATURE. Arts, on Holy Spirit in II DR and DCG; art. on "Spiritual Gifts" in EB; Moule, Veni Creator; Smeaton, The Doctrine of the Holy Spirit; Kuyper, The Work of the Holy Spirit. Sec also HOLY SPIRIT.

      E. Y. MULLINS

      BAPTISM, INFANT. See BAPTISM (I), II; (II), III, 3, v; (III), III, 3.

      BAPTIST, bap tist. See Jonx THE BAPTIST.

      BAR, bar (prefix): Aram, for the Heb "? , ben, "son." Cf Aram, sections of Ezr and Dnl. In the OT the word is found three times in Prov 31 2 and once in Syr Ps 2 12 (Hier. translates "pure"). In the NT "Bar" is frequently employed as prefix to names of persons. Cf Barabbas; Bar-Jesus; Bar- Jonah; Barnabas; Barsabbas; Bartholomew; Barti- maeus. See BEN.

      BAR, bar (subst.):

      (1) irn.3, 7rn7 /i="a bolt" (Ex 26 26-29; 35 11; 36 31-34; 39 33; 40 18; Nu 3 36; 4 31; Dt 3 5; Jgs 16 3; IS 23 7; 1 K 4 13; 2 Ch 8 5; 14 7; Neh 3 3.6.13-15; Job 38 10 "bars and doors"

      Barabbas Barefoot



      for the sea (the bank or shore of the sea); Ps 107 1(1; 147 13 "the bars of thy gates": the walls of the city were now rebuilt and its gates only closed and barred by night [see Neh 7 3\\\\\\\\; I rov 18 1!>, "bars of a castle"; Isa 45 2; Jer 49 31; 51 . >(); Lain 2 <); Exk 38 11) : meaning "a rock in the sea" (Jon 2 G).

      (2) t2 ;i a, ,//o/ = "a staff," "stick," "]M,le" (Nu 4 10.12m); "strong fortification and great impedi- inent" (Isa 45 2; Am 1 .">, "the bolt of Damascus" : no need here to render prince, as some do [G. A. Smith in loc.]).

      (. )) "2, l>a<lh= "staff," "part of })ody," "strength" (Job 17 1C), "bars of Sheol": the gales of the world of the dead; cf Isa 38 10; some read, "Will the bars of Sheol fall?").

      (-1) 5" 1 w^ , in til = "something hammered out, a (forged) bar" (Job 40 IS). See Doou; GATK; Hoi si;. FKA.VK !]. HIHSCH

      BARABBAS, ba-rab as (Bapappds, linrnlM*}-. For Aram. Bar-abba = lit. son of the father," i.e. of the master or teacher. Abba in the time of Jesus was perhaps a title of honor (Mt 23 <)), but became later a proper name. The variant Bar- rabban found in the Ilarclean Syr would mean "son of the rabbi or teacher." Origen knew and does not absolutely condemn a reading of Alt. 27 10.17, which gave the name "Jesus Barabbas," but although it is also found in a fe\\\\\\\\v cursives and in the Aram, and the Jerus Syr VSS in this place only, it is probably due to a scribe s error in tran scription (It //, App., 19 20). If the name was simply Barabbas or Barrabban, it may still have meant that the man was a rabbi s son, or it may have been a purely conventional proper name, sig nifying nothing. He was the criminal chosen by the Jerus mob, at the instigation of the priests, in preference to Jesus Christ, for Pilate to release on the feast of Passover (Mk 15 15; Mt 27 2021 Lk 23 IS; J n 18 40). Mt calls him "a notable [i.e. notorious] prisoner" (27 10). Mk says that lie was "bound with them that, had made insurrection, men who in the insurrection had committed murder" (15 7). Luke states that he was cast into prison for a certain insurrection made in the city, and for murder" (23 19; cf Acts 3 14). John calls him a _"robber" or "brigand" (18 40). Nothing further is known of him, nor of the insurrection in which he took part.. Luke s statement that he was a mur derer is probably a deduction from Mark s more circumstantial statement, that he was only one of a^gang, who in a rising had committed murder. Whether robbery was the motive of his crime, as Jn suggests, or whether he was "a man who had raised a revolt against, the Rom power" (Gould) cannot be decided. But it seems equally improb able that the priests (the pro-Rom party) would urge the release of a political prisoner and that Pilate would grant it, esp. when the former were urging, and the latter could not resist, the execution of Jesus_on a political charge (Lk 23 2). The insurrection may have been a notorious case of brigandage. To say that the Jews would not, be interested in the release of such a prisoner, is to forget the history of mobs. The custom referred to of releasing a prisoner on the Passover is other wise unknown. "\\\\\\\\Vhat Mt [and Jn] represents as brought about, by Pilate, Mk makes to appear as if it were suggested by the people themselves. An unessential variation" (Meyer). For a view of the incident as semi-legendary growth, see Schmiedel in EB. See also Allen, Matthew, and Gould, Mark, ad loc., and art. "Barabbas" by Plummer in ///;//

      T. RICKS

      BARACHEL, bar a-kel (5X3^3, bfirnkftT-l, "God blesses"; : B., the Buxite, of the family of Ram, was the father of Elihu, who was the last one to reason with Job (Job 32 2.0). Cf Buz; RAM.

      BARACHIAH, bar-a-kl a (Bapa X ias, fiarachias- AY Barachias; Mt 23 3f>): Father of Zachariah who was murdered between the sanctuary and the altar. It is possible that reference is made to Zechariah, the son of Jehoiada (2 Ch 24 20 ff), whom Matthew by mistake calls "Z., the son of Lk 11 f)l omits the name of the father of Z. (cf Zahn s Kommentar, 049, note).

      BARACHIAS, bar-a-ki as. See BAHACHIAII.

      BARAK, ba rak (p??, b<lnlk, "lightning flash"): ie name occurs in Sabaean Cp^3 , in Palmyrene p"Q, and in Punic Hamix, as surname of Hamilcar; and as Divine name in Assyr Rainman-Hirkn and Gibil-Birk-u (Del. Assyr, IIWH, 1S7). Barak was the son of Abinoam of Kcdesh, a refuge city in Mt. Naphtali. He was summoned by the prophetess Deborah to lead his countrymen to w^ar against the Canaanites under the leadership of Sisera. From the celebrated ode of Deborah we gather that Israel suffered at the hand of the enemy; the caravan roads were in danger, traffic almost ceased; the cultivated country was plundered (Jgs 5 0.7). The fighting men in Israel were dis armed, a shield was not to be seen nor a spear among forty thousand men (ver S). The prophet ess raised the signal of struggle for independence. Soon Barak came to her aid. With an army of 10,000 men according to Jgs 4 10 they were all drawn from Zebuhm and Naphtali, whereas Jgs 5 i:j--l,S adds Benjamin, Machir and Issachar to the list of faithful tribes Barak, accompanied by Deborah, rushed to the summit of Mt. Tabor. This location was very favorable to the rudely armed Israelites in warding off the danger of the well-armed enemy. The wooded slopes protected them against the chariots of the Canaanites. In addition they were within striking distance should the enemy expose himself on the march. Under the heavy rainfall the alluvial plain became a morass, in which the heavy-armed troops found it impossible to move. Soon the little stream Kishon was filled with chariots, horses and Canaan ites. Sisera abandoned his chariot and fled on foot. Barak pursued him and found him mur dered by Jael in her tent. This completed the victory. See BIODAX; Moore, "Judges," ad loc.


      BARBARIAN, bar-ba ri-an, BARBAROUS, biir- ba-rus (Pdppapos, Imrlxirox): A word probably formed by imitation of the unintelligible sounds of foreign speech, and hence in the mouth of a Greek it meant anything thai was not Gr, language, people or customs. With the spread of Gr lan guage and culture, it came to be used generally for all that was non-Gr. Philo and Jos sometimes called their own nation "barbarians," and so did Rom writers up to the Augustan age, when they adopted Gr culture, and reckoned themselves with the ( ! reeks as the only cultured people in the world. Therefore Greek and barbarian meant the whole human race (Rom 1 14).

      In Col 311, "barbarian, Scythian" is not a

      classification or antithesis but a "climax" (Abbott)

      = "barbarians, even Scythians, the lowest type of

      barbarians." In Christ, all racial distinctions,

      even the most pronounced, disappear.

      In 1 Cor 14 11 Paul uses the term in its more primitive sense of one speaking a foreign, and therefore, an unintelligible language: "If then I



      Barabbas Barefoot

      know not the meaning of the voice, I shall be to him that speaketh a barbarian, and he that speak- eth will be a barbarian unto me." The speaking with tongues would not be a means of communi cation. The excited inarticulate ejaculations of the Corinthian revivalists were worse than useless unless someone had the gift of articulating in intelli gible language the force of feeling that produced them (duuamis Its pfwitts, lit. "the power of the sound").

      In Acts 28 2.4 (in AV of ver 2 "barbarous people" = barbarians) the writer, perhaps from the Gr-Roin standpoint, calls the inhabitants of Melita barbarians, as being descendants of the old Phoen settlers, or possibly in the more general sense of "strangers." For the later sense of "brutal," "cruel," "savage," see 2 Mace 2 21; 4 25; 15 2. T. REES

      BARBER, bar ber:

      (1) The Eng. word "barber" is from Lat barba, "beard" = a man who shaves the beard. Dressing and trimming the hair came to be added to his work. "Barber" is found only once EV, in Ezk 5 1, "Take thee a sharp sword; as a barber s razor shalt thou take it unto thee, and shalt cause it to pass upon thy head and upon thy beard" (of H&ghlgha 46, Shab, 6).

      An Oriental Barber.

      (2) In Gen 41 14 we probably have a case of conformity to Egyp, rather than Palestinian cus tom, where Joseph "shaved himself, and changed his raiment, and came in unto Pharaoh." It is known that Egyptians of the higher classes shaved the beard regularly and completely (as the Hit- tites, Elamites and early Babylonians seem to have

      done), except that fashion allowed, as an exception to the rule, a small tuft, or "goatee," under the chin.

      (3) We learn from various Scriptural allusions, as well as from other sources (cf W. Max Miiller, Asien und Europa, 290 IT), that the business of the oriental barber included, besides ceremonial shav ing, the trimming and polling of the hair and the beard. Cf 2 S 19 24 where it appears that the moustache (Heb sdphdm; AV "beard") received regular trimming; and 1 S 21 14, where the neg lect of the beard is set down as a sign of madness.

      That men wore wigs and false beards in ancient days, the latter showing the rank of the wearer, appears from Herod. ii.3G; iii.12; and Wilkinson, Anc. Egypt, II, 324, etc. Jos, Vita, II, gives one case where false hair appears to have been used as an intentional disguise. See also Polyb. iii.78.

      (4) The business of the barber (see Ezk 5 1, "as a barber s razor shalt thou take it unto thee, and shalt cause it to pass upon thy head and upon thy beard"), outside of ceremonial shaving, may have consisted in trimming and polling the beard and the hair of the head. Of other nations with whom Israel of old came in contact, the Hittites and Elamites, it is now known, shaved the beard completely, as the earliest Babylonians also seem to have done.

      (5) The prohibition enjoined in the Mosaic law upon "the priests the Levites, the sons of Zadok" (Ezk 44 15.20) forbidding either "shaving the head," or "suffering their locks to grow r long," or shaving off the corners of their beard (Lev 21 5), was clearly, in a sense peculiar to the priests, etc: "They [the priests] shall only cut off," i.e. trim, not shave, "the hair of their heads" (Ezk 44 206). But in the Apos Const, I, 3, insistence is laid upon the Bib. prohibition as applicable to all as regards the removal of the beard (cf Clement of Alex., Paeil., Ill, ed Migne, I, 5SOf). Jerome on Ezk 44 20 and some of the Jewish sages find the basis of this prohibition in the fact that God gave a beard to man to distinguish him from the woman so, thev reasoned, it is wrong thus to go against Na ture (cf Bahya, on Lev 19 27).

      (0) In the Pal of the Gr period, say in the 3d cent. BC, when there was a large infusion of Hel lenic population and influence, clipping of the beard prevailed in some circles, being omitted only in times of mourning, etc. The common people, however, seem to have seen little distinction be tween clipping the beard and shaving. But see pictures of captive Jews with clipped beard in the British Museum.

      LITERATURE. Renzinger. )\\\\\\\\e1>. Arch., 110; Nowack, Lehrbuch der Heb. Arch., 1:54; \\\\\\\\V. Max Miiller, Asian und Europa, 290 IF.

      GKO. B. EAGER

      BARCHUS, b-ir kus (B, Ba X ovs, Hachoiis; A, BapxoW, Bare-hone; AV Charchus, from Aldine ed, Ckarkous; 1 Esd 5 32 = Barkos [Ezr 2 53; Neh 7 55]): The descendants of B. (temple-servants) returned with Zerubbabel to Jerus.

      BAREFOOT, bar foot : The word is found in the following passages: EV, "He went barefoot"

      (2 S 15 30); "[Isaiah] did so, walking 1. Intro- .... barefoot" (Isa 20 2); and like the ductory Egyptians, "naked and barefoot" (Isa

      20 3.4). It seems that David in his flight before Absalom "went barefoot," not to facilitate his flight, but to show his grief (2 S 15 30), and that Micah (1 X) makes "going barefoot" a sign of mourning (LXX "to be barefoot"; AV "stripped"). The nakedness and bare feet of the prophet Isaiah (20 2) may have been intended to symbolize and express sympathy for the forlorn condition of captives (cf Job 12 17.19, where AV

      Barhumite Barnabas


      and RV have "spoiled," but sonic authorities give as the true tr "barefoot").

      .lastrow, in art. on "Tearing tlio Garments" (Jour, of the Am. Oriental Sor.. XXI, 2:5-:i<J) presents a view worth considering of going barefoot as a sign of mourning and then of grief in general icf also .1 , w Kit*-, art . " Barefoot"). All these passages seem to imply the discomfort of going barefoot: on long journeys, over stony roads or hot sands; but then, as now. in the Orient sandals seem to ha\\\\\\\\e been little worn ordinarily in and around the house. See SHOKS.

      The "shoes" of the ancients, as \\\\\\\\vc know from many sources, were "sandals," i.e. simply soles,

      for the most part of rawhide, tied to 2. An the feet to protect them against the

      Ancient gravel, stones or thorns of the road.

      Oriental Shoes of the modern sort, as well as Custom socks and stockings, were unknown.

      In ancient times it was certainly a common custom in Bible hinds to go about in and around one s house without sandals. The peasantry, indeed, like the Ji-llaliccn of today, being hardened to it, often went afield barefoot. But for a king, or a prophet, a priest or u worshipper, logo barefoot, was another matter, as it was also for a mourner, for one in great distress, to be found walk ing the streets of a city, or going any distance in bare feel. Here we come again to customs peculiar to the Orient, and of various significance. For instance, it was considered then, as it is now in the Moslem world, profane and shocking, nothing short of a desecration, to enter a sanctuary, or walk on "holy ground," with dust-covered shoes, or unwashed feet. Moses and .Joshua were com manded to take off their shoes when on "holy ground" (Ex 3 ;">; Josh 6 l. r >). "No one was allowed to walk on the temple ground with shoes on, or with dust on his feet" (B<r., IX, ">; cf Jarn- blichus, Pythagoras, l()oj. No one in the East today is allowed to enter any mosque with shoes on, or without first putting slippers furnished for the purpose over his shoes. As a rule, loo, the feet must be cleansed by ablution in every such case, as^vell as hands and feet before each meal.

      The priests of Israel, as would seem true of the

      priests in general among the ancients, wore no

      shoes when ministering (see Xiliux

      3. Priests Italicus, III, 2S; cf Theodore! on on Duty K\\\\\\\\ 3, (/ucx/io 7; and Yer, Slut.. 5, Went -IS,/). Anciently, certainly the priesis Barefoot of Israel, when going upon the plat form to serve before the ark, in Taber nacle or temple, as later in the synagogue to bless the congregation, went barefoot ; though today, strange to say, such ministering priests among the Jews wear stockings, and are not supposed Jo be barefoot (Sotah, \\\\\\\\()n; RII, .Sl<>; ShuUian . I /v7 /,-//, Orali Hayylin, 128, 5; see Jew Enc, art. "Ban- foot").

      The reason or reasons for the removal of the

      shoes in such cases as the above, we are not at. a

      loss to divine; but when it comes to the

      4. Reasons removal of 1 he shoes in t imes of mourn- for the ing, etc, opinions differ. Some see Ancient in such customs a trace of ancestor- Custom worship; others find simply a rever sion or return to primitive modes of

      life; while others still, in agreement with a widely prevalent Jewish view, suggest that it, was adopted as a perfectly natural symbol of humility and sim plicity of life, appropriate to occasion s of grief, distress and deep solemnity of feeling.

      The shoes are set aside now by many modern Jews on the Day of Atonement and on the Ninth of Ab.

      LITERATURE. Winer, BR. s.v. " Priester und Schuhe "; Kiehin, Handwdrterbuch cles bib. Alt., s.v. "Schuhe."


      BARIAH, ba-rl ah (rTn.3 , hari."h, "fugitive"); B. was a descendant of David in the line of Solomon (1 Ch 3 22).

      BAR- JESUS, bar-je zus (BapiT]o-ovs,

      "A certain sorcerer [Gr mdi/o.^, a false prophet, a Jew" whom Paul and Silas found at Paphos in Cyprus in the train of Sergius Paulus, the Rom proconsul (Acts 13 Off). The proconsul was "a man of understanding" (lit. a prudent or sagacious man), of an inquiring mind, interested in the thought and magic of his times. This character istic explains the presence of a mayo* among his staff and his desire to hear Barnabas and Saul. Bar-Jesus was the magician s Jewish name. Elymas is said to be the interpretation of his name (ver X). It is the (ir transliteration of an Aram, or Arab. word equivalent to Or HIIUJUX. From Arab. <i/lai<i, "to know" is derived a/l/ti, "a wise" or "learned man." In Koran, Sur n. KHi, Moses is called Hahir allin, "wise magician." Elymas therefore means "sorcerer" (cf Simon "Magus").

      The East was flooding the Rom Empire with its new and wonderful religious systems, which, cul minating in neo-Platonism, were the great rivals of Christianity both in their cruder and in their more strictly religious forms. Superstition was extremely prevalent, and wonder-workers of all kinds, whether impost ers or honest exponents of some new faith, found their task easy through t In credulity of the public. Babylonia was the home of magic, for charms are found on the oldest tablets. "Magos" was originally applied to the priests of the Persians who overran Babylonia, but the title degenerated when it was assumed by baser per sons for baser arts. Juvenal (vi. 562, etc), Horace (Sat. i.2.l) and oilier Lat authors mention Chal- daean astrologers and impostors, probably Bab Jews. Many of the Magians, however, were the scientists of their day, the heirs of the science of Babylon and the lore of Persia, and not merely pretenders or conjurers (see MAGIC). It may have been as the representative of some oriental system, a compound of "science" and religion, thai Bar- Jesus was attached to I he train of Sergius Paulus.

      Both Sergius and Elymas had heard about the teaching of the apostles, and this aroused the curiosity of Sergius and the fear of Elymas. When the apostles came, obedient to the command of the proconsul, their doctrine visibly produced on him a considerable impression. Fearing lest his position of influence and gain would be taken by the new teachers, Elymas "withstood them, seeking to turn aside the proconsul from the faith" (ver S). Paul, inspired by the Holy Spirit, worked a wonder on the wonder-worker by striking him blind with his word, thus revealing to the proconsul that behind him was Divine power. Sergius Paulus believed, "being astonished at the teaching of the Lord" (ver 12). S. F. HU.NTEH

      BAR-JONAH, biir-jo na (Bap-novas, Har-ionas): Simon Peter s patronymic (Alt 16 17). Bar is Aram, for "son" (cf Bar-timaeus, Bartholomew, etc), and corresponds to Heb ben. Thus we are to understand that Peter s father s name was Jonah. But in .In 1 42; 21 15-17, according to the best reading, his name is given as John (so RV, instead of AV Jona, Jonas). There are two hypotheses to account for this difference: (1) (Jonah) in Ml 16 17 may be simply a contraction of Idanes (John); (2) Peter s father may have been known by two names, Jonah and John.


      BARKOS, bar kos (CIpIS, barkos, "party-col ored" 1?1; cf HPN. 68. n! 2): The descendants



      Barhumite Barnabas

      of B. returned with Zerubbabel to Jerus (Ezr 2 53; Neh 7 55). Cf Barchus (1 Esd 5 32).

      BARLEY, biir li (rnbte , s^omh) :

      (I) In the Bible, as in modern times, barley was a characteristic product of Pal "a land of wheat ami barley, and vines and fig-trees," etc (Dt 8 8), the failure of whose crop was a national disaster (Joel 1 11). It was, and is, grown chiefly as provender for horses and asses (1 K 4 28), oats being practically unknown, but it was, as it now is, to some extent, the food of the poor in country districts (Ruth 2 17; 2 K 4 42; Jn 6 0.13). Probably this is the meaning of the dream, of the Midianite concerning Gideon: "Behold, I dreamed a dream; and, lo, a cake of barley bread tumbled into the camp of Midian, and came unto the tent, and smote it so that it fell, and turned it upside down, so that the tent lay flat. And his fellow answered and said, This is nothing else save the sword of Gideon, the son of Joash, a man of Israel" (Jgs 7 13 f). Here the barley loaf is type of the peasant origin of Gideon s army and perhaps, too, of his own lowly condition.

      Bringing Homo the Barley Harvest.

      Barley was (E/k 4 0) one of the ingredients from which the prophet was to make bread and "eat it as barley cakes" after having baked it under repulsive condit ions (ver 12), as a sign to the people. The false prophetesses (Ezk 13 10) are said to have profaned God among the people for "handfuls of barley and for pieces of bread."

      Barley was also used in the ORDEAL OF JEAL OUSY (s.v.). It was with five barley loaves and two fishes that Our Lord fed the live thousand (Jn 6 9.10).

      (2) Several varieties of barley are grown in Pal. The Hnnlcnnt flint icli ton or two-rowed barley is probably the nearest to the original stock, but IIordciiiH tetrastichum, with grains in four rows, and Honh tnn hexastichum, with six rows, are also common and ancient; the last is found depicted upon Egyp monuments.

      Barley is always sown in the autumn, after the "early rains," and the barley harvest, which for any given locality precedes the wheat harvest (Ex 9 31 f), begins near Jericho in April or even March but. in the hill country of Pal is not concluded until the end of May or beginning of June.

      The barley harvest was a well-marked season of the year (see TIMK) and the barley-corn was a well- known measure of length. See WEIGHTS AND MEASURES. E. W. G. MASTEHMAN

      BARN, barn (fn Wp , m r ghiirah, "a granary," "fear," Hag 2 10; 3CX , dydtn, "a storehouse," Prov 3 10; TTTO B C) , mamm e ghurah, "a repository," .Joel 1 17; d^-oe^KT!, apothcke, Alt 6 20; 13 30; Lk 12 18.21): A place for the storing of grain, usually a dry cistern in the ground, covered over with a thick layer of earth. "Grain is not stored in

      the East until it is threshed and winnowed. The apotheke in Rom times was probably a building of some kind. But the immemorial usage of the East has been to conceal the grain, in carefully prepared pits or caves, which, being perfectly dry, will preserve it for years. It thus escaped, as far as possible, the attentions of the tax-gatherer as well as of the robber not always easily distin guished in the East; cf Jer 41 8" (Tc.mple Dic tionary, 215).

      Figurative of heaven (Mt 13 30). See AGRI CULTURE; GARXER. M. (). EVANS

      BARNABAS, bar na-bas (Bapvipas, liiirttdbns, "son of exhortation," or possibly "son of Nebo"): This name was applied to the associate of Paul, who was originally called Joses or Joseph (Acts 4 3G), as a testimony to his eloquence. Its lit. meaning is "son of prophecy" (bnr, "son"; n e bhu ah, "prophecy"). Cf word for prophet in Gen 20 7; Dl 18 15.18, etc. This is interpreted in Acts 4 36 as "son of exhortation" RV, or "son of con solation" AY, expressing two sides of the Gr pdrdklt sis, that are not exclusive. The office of a prophet being more than to foretell, all these inter pretations are admissible in estimating Barnabas as a preacher. "Deismann (Bibelstudien, 175-78) considers Barnabas the Jewish Grecized form of Barnebous, a personal Sem name recently discovered in Asia Minor inscriptions, and meaning "son of Nebo" (Xl(intl<ir<l 1U) in loc.).

      He was a Levite from the island of Cyprus, and cousin, not "nephew" (AV), of the evangelist Mark, the word r///( /w/o.s (Col 4 10), being used in Nu 36 11, for "father s brothers sons." When we first learn of him, he had removed to Jerus, and acquired property there. He sold "a field," and cont ributed its price to the support of the poorer members of the church (Acts 4 30 ff). In Acts 11 24 he is described as "a good man and full of the Holy Spirit" (cf Isa 11 2; 1 Cor 12 8.11) "and of faith," traits that gave him influence and leadership. Possibly on the ground of former acquaintanceship, interceding as Paul s sponsor and surety, he removed the distrust of the disciples at Jerus and secured the admission of the former persecutor into their fellowship. When the preach ing of SOUK; of the countrymen of Barnabas had begun a movement toward Christianity among the Greeks at Antioch, Barnabas was sent from Jerus to give it encouragement and direction, and, after a personal visit, recognizing its importance and needs, sought out Paul at Tarsus, and brought him back as his associate. At the close of a year s successful work, Barnabas and Paul were Rent to Jerus with contributions from the infant church for the famine sufferers in the older congregation (11 30). Ordained as missionaries on their return (13 3), and accompanied by John Mark, they proceeded upon what is ordinarily known as the "First Mission ary Journey" of Paid (Acts 13 4.5). Its history belongs to Paul s life. Barnabas as well as Paul is designated "an apostle" (Acts 14 14). Up to Acts 13 43, the precedency is constantly ascribed to Barnabas; from that point, except in 14 14 and 15 12.25, we read "Paul and Barnabas," instead of "Barnabas and Saul." The latter becomes the chief spokesman. The people at Lystra named Paul, because of his fervid oratory, Mercurius, while the quiet dignity and reserved strength of Barnabas gave him the title of Jupiter (Acts 14 12). Barnabas escaped the violence which Paul suffered at Iconium (14 10).

      Upon their return from this first missionary tour, they were, sent, with other representatives of the church at Antioch, to confer with the apostles arid elders of the church at Jerus concerning the

      Baruch, Book of



      obligation of circumcision and the ceremonial law in general under the NT the synod of Jerus. A separation from Paul seems to begin with a temporary yielding of Barnabas in favor of the in consistent course of Peter (( Jal 2 l . >). This was followed by a more serious rupture concerning Mark. On the second journey, Paul proceeded alone, while Barnabas and Mark went to Cyprus. Luther and Calvin regard 2 Cor 8 18.19 as meaning Barnabas by "the brother whose praise; is spread through all the churches," and indicat ing, therefore, subsequent joint work. The inci dental allusions in 1 Cor 9 (land (Jal 2 13 (" even Barnabas") show at any rate Paul s continued appreciation of his former associate. Like Paul, he accepted no support from those to whom he ministered.

      Tertullian, followed in recent years by Gran and Zahn, regard him as the author of the Epistle to the He. The document published among patristic writings as the Epistle of Barnabas, and found in full in the Codex Situations, is universally assigned today to a later period. "The writer nowhere claims to be t he apost le Barnabas; possibly its author was some unknown namesake of the son of consolation " (Lightfoot, A/iofituHc / V///rx, 239 f). II. E. JACOBS




      BARODIS, ba-ro dis (BapuSeis, Huroild*, 1 Esd 6 34): The descendants of 15. (sons of the servants of Solomon) returned with Zerubbabel to Jerus. Omitted in Ezr 2 and Noli 7.

      BARREL, har cl: The word "barrel" in AV (see

      1 K 17 12. 14. 1C.; 18 33: " Hie barrel of meal," "fill four barrels with water," etc) stands for the large earthenware jar (so ARV) used in the East for carrying water from the spring or well, and for storing grain, etc, according to a custom that still persists. It is elsewhere (EV) more fitly rendered "pitcher." See HOUSK; PITCHKR, etc.

      BARREN, bar cn, BARRENNESS, bar en-nos

      (rrs, & i/aii ; nnbp, m e lehah; bzr, skakkoi;

      *akar; crreipos, .s/rf/vw; dp-yes, o/v/o.s) :

      (1) Of land that bears no crop, either (a) because it is naturally poor and sterile: fnjah "dry" (Joel

      2 20), m lehah, "salt" (Job 39 <> AV), shakhol, "miscarrying" (2 K 2 19.21), or (b) because it is, under God s curse, turned into a ni ir/jd/i. or salt desert, for the wickedness of the people that dwell therein (Ps 107 34 AV; of Con 3 17. IS).

      (2) Of females that bear no issue: V7/a7/v Sarah (Gen 11 30); Rebekah (25 21); Rachel (29 31); Manoah s wife (Jgs 13 2.3); Hannah (1 S 2 5) ; stitirnx: Elisabeth (Lk 1 7.3(1).

      In Israel and among oriental peoples generally barrenness was a woman s and a family s greatest misfortune. The highest, sanctions of religion and patriotism blessed the fruitful woman, because children were necessary for (.he perpetuation of the tribe und its religion. It is significant, that the mothers of the Hob race, Sarah, Rebekah and Rachel, were by nature sterile, and therefore God s special intervention shows His particular favor to Israel. Eruit fulness was God s special blessing to His- people (Ex 23 20; Dt 7 14; Ps 113 9). A complete family is an emblem of beauty (Cant 4 2; 6 6). Metaphorically, Israel, in her days of adver sity, when her children were exiled, was barren, but in her restoration she shall rejoice in many children

      (Isa 54 1; Gal 4 27). The utter despair and terror of the destruction of Jerus could go no farther than that the barren should be called blessed (Lk 23 29).

      (3) Argos is tr 1 in AV "barren," but in RV more accurately "idle" (2 Pet 1 S). T. RKIOS


      BARTACUS, bar ta-kus (BdpraKos, Hartakox; Jos PapeSaiais, Rhnhc:<lkcx; Vnlg Be/axes [1 Esd 4 29]): The father of Apame. He is called "the illustrious," probably because of rank and merits. The family seems to be of Pers origin since the name Bartaeus (Syr P J~IX) in the form of Artachaeas is mentioned by Herod, (vii.22.117) as a person of rank in the Pers army of Xerxes and the name of his daughter Apame is identical with that, of a Pers princess who married Soleueus I, Nioator, and be came the mother of Antiochus I. Apamea, a city in Asia Minor founded by Seleucus I, is named in honor of his wife Apame. Cf APAME; ILLUSTRIOUS.

      BARTHOLOMEW, bar-thol 6-mu (BapOoXo- [j.aios, Bartholomaios, i.e. "son of Tolnuii or Tal- niai"j: One of the Twelve Apostles (Mt 10 3; Mk 3 IS; Lk 6 14; Acts 1 13). There is no further reference to him in the NT. According to the Genealogies of the Twelve Apostles" (Budge, Coiilcm/iiif/H of tin A/MtHtlcs, II, 50) "Bartholomew was of the house of Naphtali. Now his name was formerly John, but Our Lord changed it, because; of John the son of Zebedee, His beloved." A "Gospel of Bartholomew" is mentioned by Hiero- nymus (Coin in. f roon ml Multh.), and Gelasius gives the tradition that Bartholomew brought the Hob gospel of St. Matthew to India. In the "Preaching of St. Bartholomew in the Oasis" (of Budge, II, 90) he is referred to as preaching probably in the oasis of Al Balmasa, and according to the "Preaching of St. Andrew and St. Bartholomew" he labored among the Parthians (Budge, II, LS3). The "Martyrdom of St. Bartholomew" states that he was placed in a sack and cast into the sea.

      From the 9th cent, onward, Bartholomew has generally been identified with Nathanael, but thin view has not been conclusively established. See NATHAN AKI,. C. M. KKKR


      BARTIMAEUS, bar-ti-mo us (Bap T i(j.aios, Bar- tit/ittiox): A hybrid word from Aram. 6ar="son," and Gr timaios = "honorable." For the improbabil ity of the derivation from l><ir-tii ai="x<m of the unclean," and of the allegorical meaning = the Gentiles or spiritually blind, see Schiniedel in Eli. In Mk (10 4(>-52j Bartimaeus is given as the name of a blind beggar, whose eyes Jesus Christ opened as fie went out from Jericho on His last journey to Jems. An almost identical account is given by Lk (18 35-43), except that the incident occurred "as he drew nigh unto Jericho," and the name of the blind man is not given. Again, according to Mt (20 29-34), "as they went out from Jericho" (like Mk) two blind men (unlike Mk and Lk) re ceive their sight. It is not absolutely impossible that two or even three 1 events are recorded, but so close is the similarity of the three accounts that it is highly improbable. Regarding them as referring to the name event, it is easy to understand how the discrepancies arose in the passage of the story from mouth to mouth. The main incident is clear enough, and on purely historical grounds, the miracle cannot be denied. The discrepancies


      Barnabas, Ep. of


      themselves are evidence of the wide currency of the story before our Gospels assumed their present form. It is only a most mechanical theory of inspiration that would demand their harmonization.

      T. REES

      BARUCH, ba ruk, bar uk (TpHZL , baruk; Bapovx, Barouch, "blessed"):

      (1) Son of Neriah and brother of Seraiah, King Zedekiah s chamberlain (Jer 51 59). He was the devoted friend (Jer 32 12), the amanuensis (36 4fO2) and faithful attendant (36 10 ff; Jos, Ant, X, vi, 2) of the prophet Jeremiah. He seems to have been of noble family (see Ant, X, ix, 1; cf Jer 51 59; Bar 1 1). He was also according to Jos a man of unusual acquirements (Ant, X, ix, 1). He might have risen to a high position and seemed conscious of this, but under Jeremiah s influence (see Jer 45 5) he repressed his ambition, being content to throw in his lot with the great prophet whose secretary and companion he became. Jere miah dictated his prophecies to Baruch, who read them to the people (Jer 36). The king (Jehoiakim) was greatly angered at these prophecies and had Baruch arrested and the roll burnt . Baruch however rew r rote the prophet s oracles. In the final siege of Jerus Baruch stood by his master, witnessing the purchase by the latter of his ancestral estate; in Anathoth (Jer 32). According to Jos (Ant, X, ix, 1) he continued to reside with Jeremiah at Mizpah after the fall of Jerus. Subsequent to the murder of Gedaliah, he was accused of having unduly influenced Jeremiah when the latter urged the people to remain in Judah a fact which shows how great was the influence which Baruch was believed to have had over his master (Jer 43 3). He was carried with Jeremiah to Egypt (Jer 43 (5; Ant, X, ix, 6), and thereafter our knowledge of him is merely legendary. According to a tradition pre served by Jerome (on Isa 30 G f) he died in Egypt soon after reaching that country. Two other tra ditions say that he went, or by Nebuchadnezzar w T as carried, to Babylon after this king conquered Egypt. The high character of Baruch and the important part he played in the life and work of Jeremiah induced later generations still further to enhance his reputation, and a large number of spurious writings passed under his name, among them the following: (a) The APOCALYPSE OF BARUCH (q.v.); (1>) the Book of Baruch; (c) the Rest of the Words of Baruch; (d) the gnostic Book of Baruch; (e) the Lat Book of Baruch, composed originally in Lat; (/) a Gr Apocalypse of Baruch belonging to the 2d cent, of our era; ((/) another Book of Baruch belonging to the 4th or 5th cent.

      (2) A son of Zabbai who aided Nehemiah in rebuilding the walls of Jerus (Noli 3 20).

      (3) One of the priests who signed the covenant with Nehemiah (10 6).

      (4) The son of Colhozeh, a descendant of Perez, the son of Judah (Neh 11 5).



      BARUCH, BOOK OF: One of the Apocryphal or Deutero-canonical books, standing between Jer and Lam in the LXX, but in the Vulg after these two books.

      /. Name. See under BAUUCH for the meaning of the word and for the history of the best-known Bib. personage bearing the name. Though Jewish traditions link this book with Jeremiah s amanuensis and loyal friend as author, it is quite certain that it was not written or compiled for hundreds of years after the death of this Baruch. According to Jer 45 1 it was in the 4th year (604 BC) of the reign of Jehoiakim (008-597 BC) that Baruch wrote

      down Jeremiah s words in a book and read them in the ears of the nobles (EV "princes," but king s sons are not necessarily meant; Jer 36). The Book of Baruch belongs in its present form to the latter half of the 1st cent, of our era; yet some modern Roman Catholic scholars vigorously maintain that it is the work of Jeremiah s friend and secretary.

      II. Contents. This book and also the Epistle of Jeremy have closer affinities with the canonical Book of Jer than any other part of the Apoc. It is probably to this fact that they owe their name and also their position in the LXX and in the Vulg. The book is apparently made up of four separate parts by independent writers, brought together by an R, owing it is very likely to a mere accident each being too small to occupy the space on one roll they were all four writ t en on OIK; and the same roll. The following is a brief analysis of the four portions of the book:

      Historical Introduction, giving an account of the

      origin and purpose of the book (1 1-14). Vs

      1 f tell us that Baruch wrote this book

      1. Histor- at Babylon "in the fifth month [not ical Intro- "year" as LXX], in the seventh duction day of the month, what time as the

      Chaldeans took Jerus, and burnt it with fire" (see 2 K 25 Sff). Fritzsche and others read: "In the fifth year, in the month Sivan [see ver 8], in the seventh day of the month," etc. Um gives the date of the feast Pentecost, and the supposition is that the party who made a pilgrimage to Jerus did so in order to observe that feast. Ac cording to vs 3-14, Baruch read his book to King Jehoiachin and his court by the (unidentified) river Sud. King and people on hearing the book fell to weeping, fasting and praying. As a result money was collected and sent, together with Baruch s book, to the high priest Jehoiakim, 1 to the priests and to the people at Jerus. The money is to be used in order to make it possible to carry "on the services of the temple, and in particular that prayers may be offered in the temple for the king anil his family and also for the superior lord King Nebuchadnezzar and his son Baltasar ( = the Belshazzar of Dnl 5).

      Confession and prayer (1 15 3 8) (1) of the Palestinian remnant (1 15 2 15). The speakers

      arc resident in Judah not in Babylon

      2. Confes- (ver 15; cf 2 4), as J. T. Marshall sion and and R. H. Charles rightly hold. This Prayer section follows throughout the arrange ment and phraseology of a prayer con tained in Dnl 9 7-15. It is quite impossible to think of Dnl as being based on liar, for the writer of the former is far more original than the author or authors of Bar. But in the present section the original passage in Dnl is altered in a very significant way. Thus in Dnl (9 7) the writer describes those for whom he wrote as t he men of Judah and the inhabitants of Jerus and all Isra(. i l[ites]: those near and those far off, in all the lands [countries] whither thon hast driven them on account of their unfaithfulness toicard thee. The italicized words are omitted from Bar 1 15, though the remaining part of Dnl 9 7 is added. Why this difference? It is evident, as Marshall has ably pointed out, that the R of the section intends to put the confession and prayer of 1 15 2 5 into the mouths of Jews who had not been removed into exile. Ewald (History, V, 208, 6) holds that Dnl 9 7-9 is dependent on Bar 1 15 2 17. The section may thus bo analyzed :

      (n) 1 15-22: Confession of the sins of the nation from the days of Moses down to the exile. The

      i So spplt in tho canonical hooks; hut it is Joacirn or Joachim in Apoc AV, and in the Apoc KV it is invariahly Joakiin.



      principle* of solidarity (see C cntnry Bible, "Psalms," II, 21, 19 ), 2ir>) so governed the thoughts of tlic ancient Israelites that the iniquities of their fore fathers were in effect their o\\\\\\\\vn.

      (h) 2 l-o : (lod s righteous judgment on the nat ion in hi mil ding and scattering them.

      Confession and prayer (2) of the exiles in Babylon 2 Id 3 s. That the words in this section are sup posed to he uttered by Bah exiles appears from 2 13 f; 3 71 and from the general character of the whole. This portion of the hook is almost as de- pen (lent on older Scriptures as t he foregoing. Three sources seem in particular to have been used.

      (a) Tin* Hook of Jer has been freely drawn upon.

      (h) Dcuteronomic phrases occur frequently, esp. in the beginning and end. These are perhaps taken second-hand from ,(er, a book will known to the aiil hor of 1 hese verses and deeply loved by him.

      (i } Solomon s prayer as recorded in 1 K 8 is another quarry from which our author appears to have dug.

      This seel ion may he thus divided:

      (a) 2 d -12: Confession, opening as the former (see 1 1.")) with words extracted from Did 9 7.

      (/3) 2 13 -3 S: Prayer for restoration.

      3 1 S shows more independence than the rest, for the author at this point makes use of language not borrowed from any original known to us. As such these verses are important as a clue to the writer s position, views and character.

      in 3 -1 we have the petition: "Hear now the prayer of the dead Israelites," etc, words which as they stand involve the doctrine that the dead (Solomon, Daniel, etc) are still alive and make intercession to ( !od on behalf of the living. But this teaching is in opposition to 2 17 which occurs in the same context. Without making any change in the Heb consonants we can and should read for "dead |///<7/ic] Israelites" "the men of [n/ /lif] Israel." The LXX confuses the same words in Isa 5 13.

      The praise of "Wisdom, "for neglecting which*

      Israel is now in a strange land. (Jod alone is the

      author of wisdom, and He bestows it

      3. The not upon the great and mighty of this Praise of world, but upon His own chosen people, Wisdom who however have spurned the Divine

      gift and therefore lost it (3 94 4). The passage, 3 10 do (Israel s rejection of "Wis dom" the cause of her exile), goes badly with the context and looks much like an interpolation. The dominant idea in the section is that C.od has made Israel superior to all other nations by the gift of "wisdom," which is highly extolled. Besides stand ing apart from t he context these four verses lack the rhythm which characterize the other verses. What is so cordially commended is described in three wax s, each showing up a different facet, as do the eight syn onyms for t he Divine word in each of the 22 st rophes in Ps 119 (see d ntiu-y Jiihlr, "Psalms," II, 2.14).

      (1) It. is called most frequently "Wisdom."

      (2) In4 1 it is described as the Commandments of ( Jod and as the Law or more correctly as authorita tive instruction. The Heb word for this last (lurdh) bears in this connect ion, it is probable, 1 he technical meaning of the Pent, a sense which it never has in the ()T. Cf Dt 4 d, where the keeping of the command ments is said to be "wisdom" and understanding.

      (1) The line of thought here resembles closely

      that pursued in Job 28, which modern scholars

      rightly regard as a later interpolation.

      4. The De- Wisdom, the most valuable of pos- pendence sessions, is beyond the unaided reach of This of man. C.od only can give it that Wisdom is what is taught, in these parts of Section both Bar and .Job with the question

      "Where shall wisdom be found?" (Job 28 12; cf Bar 3 14 f, where a similar question

      5. Words of Cheer to Israel

      forms the basis of the greater portion of the section of Job 38 f). Wisdom is not here as in Prov hypos- tatized, and the same is true of Job 28 This in itself is a sign of early elate , for the personifying of "wisdom" is a later development (cf I iiilo, John 1).

      (2) The- language- in t his sect ion is moelelcel largely on that of Dt, perhaps however through Jer, winch is also esp. after ch 10 Deuteronomic in thought and phraseole)gy. See ante- II, 2 (2 I/;).

      The most original part of this division of the book is where 1 the- writer enumerates the various classes ol the world s great one s to whom (iod hail net given "wisdom": princes of 1 he heathen, wealthy men, silversmiths, merchants, theoleigians, philos ophers, etc (3 10 t f). See WISDOM.

      The ge-neral themght that pervades the see-lion, 4 55 9, is words of chee-r to Israel (i.e. Judah) in exile-, but we have here really, according to Hetthstein, a compilation edited so skilfully as to give it the ap pearance- of a unity which is not re-al. Earlier Bib. writ ings have thnmghout been largely drawn upon. Hothstein (Katit/sch, Die Apokryphen, etc, 213 15) divides the see-lion in the- following manner:

      (1) 4 5-9: Introductory sectiem, giving the wlmle its kevnote -"lie of good che-er," etc; 4 7 f follows Dt 32 15 IS.

      (2) 4 \\\\\\\\)l>- 29: A song, elivisibl (n) Personified Jerus eleplore.

      Israel in exile ( vs 9/> 10).

      (l>) She urge-s her unfeirt unate- children to give themselves to hope- and prayer, amending their ways se> that (!od mav bring about their de-liver- ane -e- (vs 17 29).

      (c) 4 30 -5 9: A second semg, beginning as t he- first with the words, "Be of good cheer," and having the same- general aim, te> comfort exiled and e>p- presseel Israel.

      In all three parts earlier Scriptures have be-en largely used, and in particular Dentem-lsaiah has had much influe-nce- upon the autheir. But there ele> ne>t seem to the present, writer reasons ce)ge-nt enough for concluding, with Hothstein, that these- three j>ortions are- by as many different writers. There is throughout the- same recurring thought "Be e>f gooel cheer," and there is nothing in the- style- to suggest eliverge-nt aut he>rship.

      (3) The relation between 4 30 -5 9 and Ps Sol 11. It was perhaps Ewald (di xrhiclilr, IV, 19S) whe> first pointed out t he- similarity of language-

      and viewpoint between Bar 4 30 -5 9 and Ps Se>l 11, esp. 11 3-S. The only possible 1 explanatie)ji is that which makes Bar 4 30 IT an imitatiem of Ps Sell 11. So Ewald (op. cit.); Ryle and James ( Ps Sol Ixx, ii ff).

      Ps Sol were written originally in Heb, and refer ences to Pompey (el. 4S BC) and to the- capture of Jerus (03 BC) show that this pseudepigraphical Psalter must have- bee>n written in the- first half of the 1st cent. BC. Bar, as will be shown, is of much later elate than this. liesieles it is now almost, certain that the part of Bar under discussion was written in (Ir (see be-low, IV) and that it never had a Ile-b original. Ne>w it is exceedingly unlikely that a writer of a. He b psalm would e^opy a Cr original, though the contrary suppositiem is a very likely one-.

      On the other hand A. Geiger (Pwtlt. Hoi., XI, 137-39, 181 1), followed by W. B. Stevenson ( Temple Bil/lc), ami many others argue for the- priority of Bar, using this as a reason for giving Bar an earlier date than is usually eleme. It is possible, of course, that the> Pseudo-Solomon and the Pseuelo-Barnch have been digging in the same quarry; and that the real original used by both is lost.



      ///. Language. For our present purpose the hook inusl l>o divided into two principal parts: (1) 1-3 S; ( 2) 3 .15 9. There is general agreement among the best recent scholars from Ewald down ward that, the first portion of the book at least was written originally in Heb. (1) In the Syro-Hex. text there are margin notes to 1 17 and 2 3 to the effect that these verses are lacking in the Heb, i.e. in the original Heb text.

      (1) There are many linguistic features in this first part which are best explained on the supposition that the C.r text is from a Heb original. In 2 25 Ihe LXX 10 V <ii><stolt . at the end of the verse means "a sending of." The EV ( pestilence") renders a Ileb word which, without the vowel signs (in troduced late) is written alike for both meanings (ilhr). The mistake can be explained only on the assumption of a Heb original. Similarly the read ing "dead Israelites" for "men of Israel" ( = Israel ites) in 3 4 arose through reading wrong vowels with the same consonants, which last were alone written until the 7th and St h cents, of our era.

      Frequently, as in Ileb, sentences begin with (ir L lil. ( = "and") which, without somewhat slavish copying of the Heb, would not be found. The construction called parataxis characterizes Heb; in good ( !r we meet with hi/potn.rix.

      The Heb way of expressing "where" is put lit. into the (Jr of this book (2 4.13.29; 3 8). Many other Heb idioms, due, it is probable, to the trans lator s imitations of his original, occur: in "to speak in the ears of" (1 3); the word "man" (apropos) in the sense "everyone" (2 3); "spoken by thy servants the prophets" is in (Jr by "the hand of the servants," which is good Ileb but bad (.Jr. Many other such examples could be added.

      There is much less agreement among scholars as tot he original language or languages of t he second part of the book (3 95 9). That this part too was written in Heb, so that in that case the whole book appeared first in that language, is the position held and defended by Ewald (op. cit.), Kneucker mp. cit.), Konig (Ein), Kothstein (op. cit.) and Bissell (Lange). It is said by these writers that this second part of Bar equally with the first carries with it marks of being a tr from the Heb. But one may safely deny this statement. It must, be ad mit ted by anyone, who has examined the text of the book that the most striking Hebraisms and the largest number of them occur in the first, part of the book. Bissell writes quite fully and warmly in defense of the view that the whole book was at first written in Heb, but the Hebraisms which he cites are all with one solitary exception taken from the first part of the book. This one exception is in 4 If) where the C.r conjunction luM i is used for the relative tn >, the Ileb usher having the meaning of both. There seems to be a Hebraism in 4 21: "He .shall deliver thee from .... the fin/i/l of your enemies," and there are probably others. But, there are Hebraisms in Hellenistic (ir always the 1 present writer designates them "Hebraisms" or "Semiticisms" notwithstanding what Deismann, Thumb and Moulton say. In the first part of this book it is their overwhelming number and their striking character that tell so powerfully in favor of a Heb original.

      (3) The following writers maintain that the second part of the book was written first of all in (!r: Frit/sche, Hilgenfeld, Reuss, Schurer, Clifford, Cornill and R. II . Charles, though they agree that the first part had a Heb original. This is probably the likeliest view, though much may be written in favor of a Heb original for the whole book and there is nothing quite decisively against, it. J. Turner Marshall (HDB, I, 253) tries to prove that 3 9 4 4 was written first in Aram., the rest

      of the book (4 5 5 9) in (ir. But though he defends his case with great ability he does not appear to the present writer to have proved his thesis. Ewald (op. cit . ), llit/.ig (I mlnu-ii , 11, ll .li, Dillmann, Ruetschi, Fritzsche and Bissell were so greatly impressed by the close likeness between the Gr of Bar and that of the LXX of Jer, that they came to the conclusion that both books were tr 1 by the same person. Subsequently Hitzig decided that Bar was not written until after 70 AD, and therefore abandoned his earlier opinion in favor of this one that the translator of Bar was well acquainted with the LXX of Jer and was strongly influenced by it.

      IV. Date or Dates. It is important to distinguish between the date of the completion of the entire book in its present form and the dates of the several parts which in some or all cases may be much older than that of the whole as such.

      1 1-14 was written after the completion of the book expressly to form a prologue or historical ex planation of the circumstances under

      1. The His- which the rest of the book came to be torical In- written. To superficial readers it troduction could easily appear that the whole

      book was written by one man, but a careful examination shows that the book is a com pilation. One may conclude that the introduction was the last part of the book to be composed and that therefore its date is that, of the completion of the book. Reasons will be given (see below) for believing that 4 5 5 9 belongs to a time subse quent to the destruction of Jems and its temple in 70 AD. This is still more true of this intro duction intended as a foreword to the whole book.

      The following points bear on the date; of the section 1 15 3 X, assuming it to have one date:

      (1) The generation of Israelites to

      2. Confes- which the writer belonged were sulTer- sion and ing for the sins of their ancestors; see Prayer esp. 3 1-8.

      (2) The second temple was in exist ence in the writer s day. 2 20 must (with the best scholars) be tr 1 as follows: "And thou hast made the house over which thy name is called as it is this day," i.e. the temple still in being -is shorn of its former glory. Moreover though Dnl 9 7 14 is largely quoted in 1 15 -2 12, the prayer for the sanctuary and for Jems in Dnl 9 10 is omitted, because the temple is not, now in ruins.

      (3) Though it is implied (see above II, 2, [1]) that there are Jews in Judah who have never left their land there are a large number in foreign lands, ami nothing is said that they were servants of the Bab king.

      (4) The dependence of 2 13 -3 8 on Dt, Jer and 1 K 8 (Solomon s prayer) shows that, this part of the book is later than these writings, i.e. later than say 550 BC. Cf 2 13 wit h Dt 28 02 and Jer 42 2.

      "(5) The fact that Dnl 9 7-14 has influenced Bar 1 152 12 proves that, a date later than Did must be assumed for at. least, this portion of Bar. The temple is still standing, so that the book belongs somewhere between 105 BC, when Dnl was written, and 71 AD, when the temple; was finally destroyed.

      Ewald, Gilford and Marshall think that this section belongs to the period following the conquest of Jems by Ptolemy I (320 BC). According to Ewald the author of 1 1 3 8 (regarded as by one hand) was a Jew living in Babylon or Persia. But Dnl had not in 320 BC been written. Fritzsche, Schrader, Keil, Toy and Charles assign the section to the Maccabean age a quite likely date. On the other hand Hitzig, Kneucker and Schurer prefer a date subsequent to 70 AD. The last writer argues for the unity of this section, though he admits that the middle of ch 1 comports ill with its context.




      It has been pointed out (see above, II, 3) that 3 13 docs not belong to ttiis section, being- manifest ly a later interpolation. The depend-

      3. The once of this Wisdom portion on Job 28 Wisdom and on Dt implies a post-exilic date. Section The identification of Wisdom with the 3:9 -4:4 Torali which is evident Iv a synonym for

      the Pent, argues a date at any rate not earlier than 300 BC. Hut how much later we have no means of ascertaining. The reasons ad duced by Kneucker and Marshall for a date immedi ately before or soon after the fall of Jem.- in 70 AI) have not convinced the present writer.

      The situation implied in these words may be thus set forth:

      (1) A great calamity has happened

      4. Words to Jems (4 !) f). Nothing is said of Cheer proving that the whole land has shared 4:55:9 the calamity, unless indeed this is

      implied in 4 f) f.

      (2) A large number of Jerusalemites have been transported (4 10).

      (3) The nation that lias sacked Jems and carried away many of its inhabitants is "shameless," hav ing "a strange language, neither reverencing old men nor pitying children" (4 lf>).

      (4) The present home of the Jerusalemites is a great city (4 32-3 ">), not the country.

      Now the above details do not answer to any dates in the history of the nation except these two: (n) f>S(i BC, when the temple was destroyed by the Babylonians; (h) 71 AD, when the temple was finally destroyed by the Romans. But the date f>S(i HC is out of the question, and no modern scholar pleads for it. We must therefore assume for this portion of the book a date soon after 70 Al ). In the time of Pompey, to which ( iraetz assigns the book, neither Jerus nor the temple was destroyed. Nor was there any destruction of either during" the Maccabean war. In favor of this date is the de pendence of 4 3(>ffon Ps Sol 11 (see above, II, /">, [3j>. Rothstein (in Kaiitxsch) says that in this section there are at least, three parts by as many different writers. Marshall argues for four independent parts. But if either of these views is correct the R has done his work exceedingly well, for the whole harmonizes well together.

      Kneucker, author of the fullest Commentary, endeavors to prove that the original book consisted of 1 1 f + 3a (the heading) +3 05 0, and that it^ belongs to the reign of Domitian (Xl-0(> AD). The confession and prayer in 1 15 3 Swere written, he says, somewhat earlier and certainly before 71 AD, and as a separate work, being inserted in the book by the scribe who wrote 1 4-14.

      V. Versions. The most, important YSS are the following. It is assumed in the article that 1 he (!r text of the book up to 3 S is itself a tr from a Ileb text now lost. The same remark may be true of the rest of the book or of a portion of it (see above, III).

      There are two versions in this language: (1) The Vulg which is really the Old Lat, since Jerome s revision was confined to the Ileb Scrip- 1. Latin tares, the Apoc being therefore omitted in this revision. This version is a very lit. one based on the (!r. It is therefore for that reason the more valuable as a witness to the; C!r text. (2) There- is a later Lat tr, apparently a revision of the former, for its Latinity is better; in some cases it adopts different readings and in a general way it has been edited so as to bring it into harmony with the Vatican uncial (B). This Lat version was published in Rome by J. Maria Caro (d. cir 1688) and was reprinted by Sabatier in parallel columns with the pre-Jeromian version noticed above (see Bibliotheca Casincnsix, I, 1S73).

      _ There are also in this language two extant ver sions: (1) The Pesh, a very lit. tr, can be seen in the London (Walton s) l ol>/(/iot and

      2. Syriac most conveniently in Lagarde s Libr.

      A /tor. S // "-, the last, being a more accu rate reproduction. (2) The Hexap. Syr tr made by Paul, bishop of Telle, near the beginning of the 7th cent. AD. It has been published by Ceriani with critical apparatus in his beautiful photograph- lithographed edition of the Hexap. Syr Bible.

      There is a very literal tr to be

      3. Arabic found in the London Polyglot, referred

      to above.

      LiTKUA-rruE. For editions of the Or text see under APOCRYPHA. Of commentaries the fullest and host is that by Kneucker, Dax /*,-/< liomck (1879), who gives an original < ierman rendering bused on a restored Ileb original, other valuable commentaries are those by Fritzsche (lSf>l); Kwald, I)i<- Propheten , etc (ISfiS) III, 251-82 (Kug. tr); The Prophets of the <>T, V. 10S- 37, by Reusch (lSf>r; Zoekler (1X1)1) and Kothstein (op. cit.); and in Kn^., Bissell (in Lange s serie.s edited by I). S. Schair. ISM);; and Gilford (Speaker s Comm 1888). The S.P.C.K. has a handy and serviceable volume published in t ho series of popular commentaries on the OT. Hut this commentary, though published quite recently (my copy belongs to 1SU4, "nineteenth thousand"), needs strengthening on the side of its scholarship.

      Arts, dealing with introduction occur in the various

      Dictionaries (l)li, \\\\\\\\Vestcott and Kyle; 11 1) H

      . Marshall, able and original; !:/{, Bevan, rather

      Slight). t o these must he added excellent arts, in Jew

      Km- (<;. F. Moore), and K li (R. l[. Charles).


      BARZILLAI, bar-zil a-i, bar-zil I C^na , barzil- liuj; Bep^XXi, /> , /-,///, "man of iron" [BDB, but cf Cheyne, EH}):

      (1) A (iileadite of Rogelim who brought provi sions to David and his army to Mahanaim, in their flight from Absalom (2 S 17 27-20). When David was returning to Jerus after Absalom s defeat, B. conducted him over Jordan, but being an old man of SO years of age, he declined David s invitation to come to live in the capital, and sent instead his son Chimham (2 S 19 31-30). David before his death charged Solomon to "show kindness unto the sons of H." (1 K 2 7). Cheyne in EB, without giving any reason, differentiates this B. from B. the Gileadite (E/r 2 01 = Xeh 7 63). See (2) below.

      (2) The father of a family of priests who in Ezra s time, after the return of the exiles, could not trace; their genealogy. "Therefore wen; they

      deemed polluted and put from the priesthood." This H. had taken "a wife of the daughters of B. the (iileadite," and had adopted his wife s family name (E/r 2 fil.(i2 = Xeh 7 (13.04). His original name is given as Jaddus (AV Addus) (1 Esd 5 38). (See ZOKZELLEUS; RVm "Phaezeldaeus.")

      (3) B. the Meholathite, whose son Adriel was married to Saul s daughter, either Michal (2 S 21 S)or Merab(l S 18 10). T. REES

      BASALOTH, bas a-loth (A, Baa\\\\\\\\<60, Bnnloth; B, Bacra\\\\\\\\>, liaxaletn; \\\\\\\\ Esd 5 31 = Ba/luth [E/r 2 52] and Ha/lit h [Xeh 7 .54]): The descendants of B. (temple-servant s)rcturned wit h Zerubbabel to Jerus.

      BASCAMA, bas ka-ma (Bao-Ka(j.d, Baskamd [1 Mace 13 23j): A town located in the country of (lilead, where Tryphon slew Jonathan, the son of Absalom. Cf JONATHAN (Apoc).

      BASE, bas:

      (1) Subst. from Lat basis, Gr pdons, basis, a foundation, (a) (nr.H a, m e khdnah): the fixed resting-place on which the lavers in Solomon s temple were set (1 K 7 27-43; 2 K 16 17; 25 13. 16; 2 Ch 4 14; Jer 27 10; 52 17.20; cf Ezr 3 3; Zee 5 11 ARVrn). (6) 0? , ken): pedestal in AV and RV (1 K 7 20.31) and in RV only (Ex 30 18. 2S; 31 0; 35 1(5; 38 8; 39 30; 40 11; "Lev 8 11) of



      Baruch, Book of Basilisk

      the base of the laver of the tabernacle (AV "foot"). (c) (:f"P , ydrckh) : "base of candlestick" (RV of Ex 25 31; T 37 17) AV "shaft." (d) ("IC 1 ?, ifsodk): RV "base of altar"; AV "bottom" (Ex 29 12; 38 8; Lev 4; 5 9; 8 15; 9 9). (e) (13, (jnbh): RV "elevation," i.e. basement of altar; AV "higher place" (Ezk 43 13).

      (2) Adj. from Fr. ban low, or Welsh bds "shallow": of lowly birth or station, of voluntary humility and of moral depravity, (a) ( 3TB, shuphCd, bSTD , sh phal): of David s self-humiliation (2 S 6 22): "a modest unambitious kingdom" (Ezk 17 14; 29 14.15 [BOB]; Dnl 4 17 [ARV "lowest"]): cf sh"phclah = "lowland." (6) (nb^ , kdldh) : men of humble birth and station as opposed to the nobles (Isa 3 5). (c) (atp" b3 , b ii-shem): "nameless," "of no account": "children of fools, yea, children of base men" (Job 30 8). (d) AVmen, sons, daughters, children of Belial; lit. "worthless persons"; in ARV "base," except 1 S 1 16 "wicked woman"; also ERV of Dt 13 13, "base," which elsewhere retains AV rendering. (<) (rarei^s, ta- pi inos): "lowly," "humble or abject" (2 Cor 10 1); RV, "lowly"; so Paul s enemies said he appeared when present in the church at Corinth. (/) (dyevris, agent s): "of low birth," "of no account" (1 Cor 1 2S) : "base things of the world." ((/ ) (dyopaios, agoralos): "belonging to the market-place," loafers, worthless characters (Acts 17 5): "certain lewd fellows of the baser sort"; RV "certain vile fellows of the rabble." T. REES

      BASEMATH, bas e-rnath, BASHEMATH, bash - 0-math, BASMATH, bas math (P,pTp3 , bus math, "fragrant") :

      (1) Basemath, one of the wives of Esau, a daughter of Elon, the Hittite ((.Jen 26 34; AV Bashemath), probably identical with or a sister of Adah whom he also married (Gen 36 2). Cf ADAH.

      (2) Basemath (AV Bashemath), another wife of Esau, a daughter of Ishmael and a sister of Ne- baioth ((Sen 36 This wife is also called Mahalath (Con 28 9), and is of the house of Abraham. Esau married her because his father was not pleased with his other wives who were daughters of Canaan. Cf MAHALATH.

      (2) Basemath (AV Basmath), the daughter of Solomon, and wife of Ahirnaaz, a commissariat- officer in the service of Solomon (1 K 4 15).

      A. L. BRESLICH

      BASHAN, bii shan O^in, ha-bdshan, "the Bashan"; Bacrav, Jiamln): This name is probably

      the same in meaning as the cognate 1. Bound- Aral), bathneh, "soft, fertile land," aries or bathaniyeh (balanaea), "this land

      sown with wheat" ("wheatland"). It often occurs with the art., "the Bashan," to describe the kingdom of Og, the most northerly part of the land E. of the Jordan. It stretched from the border of Gilead in the S. to the slopes of Hermon in the N. Hermon itself is never definitely included in Bashan, although Og is said to have ruled in that mountain (Josh 12 5; 13 11). In Dt 3 10 Salecah and Edrei seem to indicate the E. and W. limits respectively. This would agree with Josh 12 5; 13 11, which seem to make Geshur and Maaeath the western boundary of Bashan. If this were so, then these unconquered peoples literally "dwelt in the midst of Israel." On the other hand Dt 4 47 may mean that the Jordan formed the western boundary; while Dt 33 22 makes Bashan extend to the springs of the Jordan. If Golan lay in the district in which its name is still preserved (dJaiddn), this also brings it to the lip

      2. Charac teristics

      of the Jordan valley (Dt 4 43). "A mountain of summits," or "protuberances" (Ps 68 15.16: Heb), might describe the highlands of the Jaulan, with its many volcanic hills as seen from the W. "A mountain of God" however does not so well apply to this region. Perhaps we should, with Wetz- stein (Das batanaische Giebelgebirge) take these phrases as descriptive of Jcbcl Hauran, now usually called Jebcl vd-Dntze, with its many striking sum mits. This range protected the province from en croachment by the sands of the wilderness from the E. On the S. Bashan marched with the desert steppe, el-Hamad, and Gilead. Of the western boundary as we have seen there can be no certainty. It is equally impossible to draw any definite line; in the N.

      Bashan thus included the fertile, wooded slopes of Jebel cd-Druzc, the extraordinarily rich plain of el-Haurdn (en-Nukrah, see HAURAN), the rocky tract of ei-Lcjd , the region now known as cl-Jedur, resembling the Hauran in character, but less culti- perhaps, the breezy uplands of el- Jaulan, with its splendid reaches of pasture land. It was a land rich in great cities, as existing ruins sufficiently testify. It can hardly be doubted that many of these occupy sites of great antiquity. We may specially note Ashtaroth and Edrei, the cities of Og; Golan, the city of refuge, the site of which is still in doubt; and Salecah (Salkhad) , the fortress on the ridge of the mountain, marking the extreme eastern limit of Israel s possessions.

      The famous oaks of Bashan (Isa 2 13; Ezk 27 6) have their modern representatives on the mountain slopes. It seems strange that in Scrip ture there is no notice of the wheat crops for which the 1 country is in such repute today. Along with Carmcl it stood for the fruitfulness of the land (Isa 33 9 etc); and their languishing was an evi dent mark of God s displeasure (Nah 1 4). The "bulls of Bashan" represent blatant and brutal strength (Ps 22 12, etc). It is long since the lion deserted the plateau (Dt 33 22); but the leopard is still not unknown among the mountains (Cant 4 8).

      In pro-Israelite days Bashan w T as ruled by Og the Amorite. His defeat at Edrei marked the end of his kingdom (Nu 21 33 ff; Josh 3. History 13 11), and the land was given to the half tribe of Manasseh (Josh 13 30, etc). In the Syrian wars Bashan was lost to Israel (1 K 22 3ff; 2 K 8 28; 10 32 f), but it was re gained by Jeroboam II (2 K 14 25). It was in corporated in the Assyr empire by Tiglath-pileser III (2 K 15 29). In the 2d cent. BC it was in the hands of the Nabataeans. It formed part of the kingdom of Herod the Great, and then belonged to that of Philip and Agrippa II. W. EWIXG

      BASHAN - HAVVOTH - JAIR, ba shan-hav oth-

      jii ir O" 1 ^" 1 n-H "JTTSL , bdahdn hawwulh yd lr). See HAVVOTH-JAIR.

      BASHEMATH, bash e-math. See BASEMATH.

      BASILISK, baz i-lisk (JBS, gcpha\\\\\\\\ gipli dni, from obs root ^5^ , fdpha\\\\\\\\ "to hiss": Isa 11 8; 14 29; 59 5; Jer 8 17; Prov 23 32m. In Prov 23 32, AV has "adder," m "cockatrice"; in the other passages cited AV has "cockatrice," m "adder" [except Jer 8 17, no m]): The word is from /Sao-iAtcr/cos, basiliskos, "kinglet," from basi- leus, "king," and signifies a mythical reptile hatched by a serpent from a cock s egg. Its hissing drove aw r ay other serpents. Its look, and esp. its breath, was fatal. According to Pliny, it was named from a crown-like spot on its head. It has been identified

      Basin, Bason Bastard



      with the equally mythical COCKATKICK (q.v.). In all the passages cited, il denotes a venomous ser pent (see AI>DKK; SKKPKNTS >, hut it is impossible to tell what, it any, particular species is referred to. It must be borne in mind that while there are poisonous snakes in Pal, there are more which are not poisonous, and most of the latter, as well as some harmless lizards, are commonly regarded as deadly. Several of the harmless snakes have crown- like markings on their heads, and it is quite con ceivable that the basilisk myth may have been Founded upon, one of these. ALFKKD Ei.v DAY

      BASIN, baVn, BASON: The ARYhas "basin," the AV and RV "bason," the preferred spelling of

      the Eng. revisers. In the Appendix 1. The to the Revised ( )T the American

      Terms Used Revisers ( viii) say, "The modern and Their spelling is preferred for the following Meaning words"; then follow among others

      "basin" for "bason"; but no similar statement appears in the Appendix to the Revised NT. The Hel) word so rendered in EV is chiefly used for the large bowl of bronze (AV "brass") employed by the priests to receive the blood of the sacrificial victims (Ex 27 3; cf 29 Hi; 1 K 7 -I."), etc). It is found only once in secular use (Am 6 (1, "drink wine in bowls"), if the text there is cor rect; the I, XX has it otherwise. See BOWL. The "basins" of Ex 12 22; 2 S 17 2S were probably of earthenware.

      shing before Kating.

      While the priests bowls were, of bronze, similar

      bowls or basins of silver were presented by the

      princes of the congregation, according

      2. OfVa- to Nu 7 13 fT; and those spoken of rious Ma- in 1 K 7 f>() as destined for Solomon s terials and temple 1 were of gold (cf 1 Ch 28 17). Forms (1) The well-known eastern mode

      of washing the hands was and is by pouring water on the hands, not by dipping them in water, an act, of course, calling for the aid of an

      attendant. Elisha "poured water on

      3. The Typical Ewer of the East

      the hands of Elijah" (2 K 3 11; see Kitto s note in Pictorial Jiihl< 2 , II, 3:!()>. A disciple came to be known as "one who poured water on the hands of another." Such was beyond question the prevailing custom among the ancient Hebrews, as it was, and is, among eastern peoples in general. They incline to look with disgust, if not with horror, upon our western practice of washing face and hands in water retained in a basin.

      (2) The typical vessel of the East used in such ablutions has a long spout, not unlike our large coffee-pot (see Kitto, Pict. Bib., II, 331, note). While the EY unfortunately often suggests nothing

      like such /iinirini/, the Ileb expresses it, e.g. in 1 S 25 41, where we have the Qal of rdhat; (JTPj; cf Kennedy in l-vol ///>/> , and II l)H, arts. "Bath," "Bathing." Kennedy shows that "affusion," "pouring on" of water, was meant in many cases where we read "bathe" or "wash" in EV. Lane (Mod. tti/i/pl, ch v) says: "A servant, brings him a basin, anil arrr (called l/xhl and ibn-d,-) of tinned copper or brass. The first has a cover with holes, wit h a raised receptacle for t he soap; and 1 he water is poured upon the hands and passes through the ewer into the space below; so that when the basin is brought to a second person the water with which the former has washed is not seen."

      (1) A wash-basin of a special sort was used by Jesus for washing the disciples feet (see Jn 13 f>).

      The Cr is ni/ttTr (viirrrip) , c lta bdlli-i 4. A Basin In idor cis ton niott-ra, tr 1 RV, "then of a Unique he poureth water into tl/c basin." Sort This word ni/t/rr is not found else

      where in t he NT, nor in the LXX, nor, indeed, in Gk profane lit. But fortunately the general sense is here made plain by the context and by comparison of the cognate verbs iri.ntcin and nizrin. It evidently denotes an article, not necessarily a vessel, specifically suited to the use of washing a part of the body, e.g. t he hands or the feet, and hence is used with the art., "the basin," RV. It is doubtful, therefore, if "basin." or "bason," conveys a true idea of cither the oriental article here meant or the scene portrayed. The fact that, according to the custom of the day, the position of t he disciples here was reclining, precludes the possibility of the use of a "basin" of our sort, in the way we are accustomed to, i.e. for immersing the feet in t he water, in whole or in part .

      (2) So it is likely that the ni/>/rr was a jiif/, or ewer, with a dish, saucer, or basin placed under it and combined with it to catch the dripping water. Y\\\\\\\\ e know from other sources that such a vessel was kept in the Jewish house regularly for ordinary handwashings, etc (see Mt 15 2; .\\\\\\\\Ik 7 3), anil for ceremonial ablutions. Hence it would naturally be ready here in the upper room as a normal part of the preparation of the "goodman of the house" for his guests (AV Mk 14 14; Lk 22 12), and so it is distinguished by the Gr art . ton. Jesus Himself used the H //>/( /, standing, doubtless, to impress upon His disciples the lessons of humility, self- abasement and loving service which He ever sought to impart and illustrate.

      (3) Our conclusion, we may say with George Farmer in I)( (i, art. "Bason," is that ni/>/<~r was not simply one large basin, but the set of ewer and basin combined, such a set as was commonly kept in the Jewish house for the purpose of cleansing either the hands or the feet by means of affusion. The Aral). //*///, authorities tell us, is the exact rendering of nip/cr, and it comes from a root which means "to pour," or "rain slightly." (See Anton Tien, reviser of the Aral), prayer-book, author of Arab, and Moil. (!r Uratntnars, etc, quoted in DCG, art . "Bason.") CEO. B. EA<;KH

      BASKET, bas ket: Four kinds of "baskets" come to view in the OT under the Ileb names, dildh, tcnc\\\\\\\\ w/atid /" lilbh. There is little, however, in these names, or in the narratives where they are found, to indicate definitely what the differences of size and shape and use were. The Mish renders us some help in our uncertainty, giving numerous names and descriptions of "baskets" in use among the ancient Hebrews (see Kreugel, Das Hamqemt in der Mishnah, 39-45) . They were variously made of willow, rush, palm-leaf, etc, and were used for various purposes, domestic and agricultural, for instance, in gathering and serving fruit , collecting



      Basin, Bason Bastard

      alms in kind i or the poor, etc. Some had handles, others lids, some both, others neither.

      (1; Uudh was probably a generic term for various kinds of baskets. It was probably the "basket" in which the Israelites in Egypt carried 1. Meaning the clay for bricks (cf Ps 81 6, where of OT it is used as a symbol of Egyp bond-

      Terms age), and such as the Egyptians them

      selves used for that purpose (Wilk., AHC. Egypt, I, 379), probably a large, shallow basket, made of wicker-work. It stood for a basket that was used in fruit-gathering (see Jer 24 1), but how it differed from Amos basket of summer fruit" (Am 8 1) we do not know. Dudh is used for the "pot" in which meat was boiled (1 S 2 14), showing probably that a pot-shaped "basket" was known by this name. Then it seems to have stood i or a basket tapering toward the bottom like the calatliua of the Romans. So we seem forced to con clude that the term was generic, not specific.

      ( 2) The commonest basket in use in OT times was the sn[. It was the "basket" in which the court -baker of Egypt carried about his confec tionery on his head ((Sen 40 16). It was made in later times at least of peeled willows, or palm- leaves, and was sometimes at least large and Hat like the ainistru/ti of the Romans, and, like it, was used for carrying bread and other articles of food (Gen 40 1(5; Jgs 6 19;. Meat for the meat offerings and the unleavened bread, were placed in it (Ex 29 3; Lev 8 2; Nu 6 15). It is expressly required that the unleavened cakes be placed and offered in such a "basket." While a "basket," it was dish-shaped, larger or smaller in size, it would seem, according to demand, and perhaps of finer text ure than 1 he diidh.

      (3) The tent- was a large, dee]) basket, in which grain and other products of garden or field were carried home and kept (Dt 28 5.17), in which the first-fruits were preserved (Dt 26 2), and the tithes transported to the sanctuary (Dt 26 2 f). It has been thought probable that the Ijabi/a, the basket of clay and straw of the Pal peasantry of today, is a sort of survival or counterpart of it. It has the general shape of a jar, and is used for storing and keeping wheat, barley, oats, etc. At the top is the mouth into which the grain is poured, and at the bottom is an orifice through which it

      Ancient Egyptian Baskets.

      can be taken out as needed, when the opening is again closed with a rag. The LXX translates tene by kdrtallos, which denotes a basket of the shape of an inverted cone.

      (4) The term k e lubh, found in Am 8 1 for a "fruit- basket," is used in Jer 6 27 (AV and RV "cage") for a bird-cage. But it is not at all unreasonable to suppose that a coarsely woven basket with a cover would be used by a fowler to carry home his feathered captives.

      In the NT interest centers in two kinds of "bas ket," distinguished by the evangelists in their

      accounts of the feeding of the 5,000 2. Meaning and of the 4,000, called in Gr kophinos of NT and spurts (\\\\\\\\YH sphuris).

      Terms (1) The kophinos (Mt 14 20; Mk

      6 43; Lk 9 17; Jn 6 13) may be confidently identified with the kuphtu of the Mish, which was provided with a cord for a handle by

      Modern Oriental Baskets.

      means of which it could be carried on the back with such provisions as the disciples on the occasions under consideration would naturally have with them (cf Kreugel, and Broadus, Connn. in loc.). The Jews of Juvenal s day carried such a specific "provision-basket" with them on their journeys regularly, and the Lat for it is a transliteration of this Gr word, coptihtux (cf Juvenal iii.14, arid J as trow, Diet., art. "Basket"). Some idea of its si/.e may be drawn from the fact that in CIC, 1625, 46, the word denotes a Boeotian measure of about two gallons.

      (2) The sphuris or spuris (Mt 15 37; Mk 8 8) we may be sure, from its being used in letting Paul down from the wall at Damascus (Acts 9 25, etc), was considerably larger than the kophinos and quite different in shape and uses. It might for distinction fitly be rendered "hamper," as Professor Kennedy suggests. Certainly neither the Gr nor ancient usage justifies any confusion.

      (3) The sarfidnc (2 Cor 11 33) means anything plaited, or sometimes more specifically a fish-basket.

      G !:<>. B. EACJER BASMATH, bas math. See BASKMATH.

      BASON, ba s n. See BASIN. BASSA, bas a. See BASSAI.

      BASSAI, bas fi-I, bas I (Bao-o-at, Ihisstii, Hassd; AV Bassa; 1 Esd 6 16; Be/ai [E/r 2 17; Neh 7 23]): The sons of 15. returned with Zerubbabel to Jems.

      BASTAI, bas ta-I. See BASTHAI.

      BASTARD, bas tard ("VPSIS , intimztr; voOos, no- thos) : In Dt 23 2 probably the offspring of an incestuous union, or of a marriage within the pro hibited degrees of affinity (Lev 18 6-20; 20 10-21). He and his descendants to the tenth generation are excluded from the assembly of the Lord. (See Driver, ad loc.). Zechariah (9 6), after prophesying the overthrow of three Phili cities, declares of the fourth: "And a bastard [RVm "a bastard race"] shall dwell in Ashdod," meaning probably that a "mixed population" (BDB) of aliens shall invade and settle in the capital of the Philis. In He (12 8) in its proper sense of "born out of wedlock," and therefore not admitted to the privileges of paternal care and responsibility as a legitimate son.

      T. REES

      Basthai Bath Kol



      BASTHAI, bas th;i-I, bas thl (Bao-Oai, Hasthai; AY Bastai; 1 Esd 5 31 = Besai [Ezr 2 49; Neh 7 52)): The descendants of B. (temple-servants) returned with Zerubhahel to Jeru.s.

      BAT (53t?y, l atnl<~i>li; Lev 11 19; Dt 14 18; Isa 2 20) : Bats are the most widely distributed of mammals, reaching even the oceanic islands, and modern science has revealed the existence of an astonishing number of species, nearly twenty being recorded from Pal. These include both fruit-eating and insect-eating bats, the latter being the smaller.

      Bats Ears.

      It has no! ahvays been realized that they are mam mals, and so it is not surprising that they should be mentioned at the end of the list of unclean bin Is in Lev 11 19 and Dt 14 IS. It may, however, be significant that they are at the end of the list and not in the middle of it. The fruit bats are a pest to horticulturists and often strip apricot and other trees before the fruit has ripened enough to be picked. On this account the fruit is often in closed in bags, or the whole tree may be surrounded with a great sheet, or net. They commonly pick the fruit and eat it on some distant perch beneath which the seeds and the ordure of these animals arc- scat tered. The insect bats, as in other countries, flit about at dusk and through the night catching mosquitoes and larger insects, and so are distinctly beneficial.

      The reference in Isa 2 20, "cast .... idols . . to the moles and to the bats" refers of course to these animals as inhabitants of dark and deserted places. As in the_case of many animal names the etymology of l dtaleph is doubtful. Various deriva tions have been proposed but none can be regarded as satisfactory. The Arab, name, watirat, throws no light on the question. ALFRED ELY DAY

      BATANAEA, bat-a-ne a: The name used in Or times for BASHA.V (q.v.), Jos, Life, II; Ant, XV, x, 1; XVII, ii, 1, "toparchy of Batanaea."

      BATH (P2 , bath): A liquid measure equal to about 9 gallons, Eng. measure. It seems to have been regarded as a standard for liquid measures (Ezk 45 10), as in the case of the molten sea and the lavers in Solomon s temple (1 K 7 26.38), and for measuring oil and wine (2 Ch 2 10; Ezr 7 22; Isa 5 10; Ezk 45 14). Its relation to the homer is given in Ezk 45 11.14). See WEIGHTS AND MEASURES.

      BATH, bath, BATHING, bilth ing: Bathing in the ordinary, non-religious sense, public or private,

      is rarely met with in the Scriptures. 1. Ordinary We find, however, three exceptional Bathing and interesting cases: (1) that of

      Pharaoh s daughter, resorting to the Nile (Ex 2 5) ; (2) that of Bath-sheba, bathing on the house-top (2 S 11 2 RV) ; (3) the curious case mentioned in 1 K 22 38. (To wash with royal

      blood was supposed to be beneficial to the com plexion.)

      The dusty, limestone soil of Pal and the open foot-gear of the Orient on stockingless feet, called for frequent washing of the feet (Gen 24 32; 43 24; Jgs 19 24; 1 S 25 41; 2 S 11 8; Cant 5 3, etc), and bathing of the body for refreshment; but the chief concern of the writers of Scripture was with bathing of another sort. Indeed, something of the religious sense and aspect of bathing, in ad dition to that of bodily refreshment, seems to have entered into the ordinary use of water, as in the washing of the hands before meals, etc (see Gen 18 4; 19 2; Lk 7 44).

      The streams and ponds, when available, were the usual resorts for bathing (Ex 2 5; 2 K 5 10, etc),

      but the water-supply of large cities] 2. Bathing stored up in great pools or large cis- Resorts terns, was certainly available at times

      to some degree for bathing (2 S 11 2); though, as Benzinger says, no traces of bathrooms have been found in old Heb houses, even in royal palaces. In Babylon, it would seem from Sus lf>, I here were bathing pools in gardens, though this passage may refer simply to bathing in the open air. Certainly public bdlhn as now known, or plunge- baths of the Gr type, were unknown among the Hebrews until they were brought in contact with the Gr civilization. Such baths first come into view during the Gr-Rom period, when they are found to be regularly included in the gymnasia, or "places of exercise" (1 Mace 1 14). Remains of them, of varying degrees of richness and archi tectural completeness, may be seen today in various parts of the East, those left of the cities of the De- capolis, esp. at Gerash and Amman, being excellent examples (cf also those at Pompeii). A remarkable series of bath-chambers has recently been discovered

      Plan of the Baths in the Castle at Gezer (PEF).

      by Mr. R. A. S. Macalister at Gczer in Pal, in connection with a building supposed to be the palace built by Simon Maccabaeus. For an inter esting account of it see PEFS, 1905, 294 f.

      W T hen we consider that in Pal six months of the year are rainless, and how scarce and pricelessly



      Basthai Bath Kol

      valuable water is during most of the year, and in many places all the year round; and when we

      recall how the Bedouin of today looks 3. Gr on the use of water for cleansing in

      versus such times and places of scarcity, view-

      Sem Ideas ing it as a wanton waste (see Benzinger,

      Heb. Arch., 108, note), the rigid re quirement of it for so many ritual purposes by the Mosaic law is, to say the least, remarkable (see ABLUTION; CLEAN AND UNCLEAN, etc). Cer tainly there was a marked contrast between the Gr idea of bathing and that of the Hebrews and Asiatics in general, when they came in contact. But when Gr culture invaded Pal under Antiochus Epiphanes (cir 168 BC), it brought Gr ideas and Gr bathing establishments with it; and under Herod (40-44 BC) it was given the right of way and prevailed to no mean degree (see Anecdote of Gamaliel II in Schiirer, HJP, II, i, 18, 53).

      the Lake of Galilee, which have been a health resort from time immemorial. It is probably true, however, as some one has said, that in OT times and in NT times, the masses of the people had neither privacy nor inclination for bathing. GEO. B. EAGER

      BATH KOL, bath kol, bath kol (bip H3, bath kol, "the daughter of the voice") : Originally sig nifying no more than "sound," "tone," "call" (e.g. water in pouring gives forth a "sound," bath kol, while oil does not), sometimes also "echo." The expression acquired among the rabbis a special use, signifying the Divine voice, audible to man and unaccompanied by a visible Divine manifestation. Thus conceived, bath kol is to be distinguished from God s speaking to Moses and the prophets; for at Sinai the voice of God was part of a larger thcophany, while for the prophets it was the resultant inward demonstration of the Divine


      But "bathing" in the Bible stands chiefly for ritual acts purification from ceremonial unclean- ness, from contact with the dead, 4. Cere- with defiled persons or things, with monial "holy things," i.e. things "devoted,"

      Purification or "under the ban," etc (see CLEAN AND UNCLEAN, etc). The Heb of the OT does not sharply distinguish between bathing and partial washing both are expressed by rahac, and the RV rightly renders "wash" instead of "bathe" in some cases. Talmudic usage simply codified custom which had been long in vogue, according to Schiirer. But Kennedy grants that the "bath" at last became, even for the laity, "an important factor in the religious life of Israel." We read of daily bathing by the Essenes (Jos, BJ, II, viii, 5). Then later we find John, the Baptizer, immersing, as the record clearly shows the apostles of Christ did also (Acts 8 38; Rom 6 3f); cf Lk 11 38 where pairrtfu, boptizo, in passive = "washed."

      In Jn 5 2-7 we have an example of bathing for

      health. There are remains of ancient baths at

      Gadara and at Callirrhoe, E. of the

      6. Bathing Jordan, baths which were once cele-

      for Health brated as resorts for health-seekers.

      There are hot baths in full operation

      today, near Tiberias, on the southwestern shore of


      will, by whatever means effected, given to them to declare (see VOICE). It is further to be distin guished from all natural sounds and voices, even where these were interpreted as conveying Divine instruction. The conception appears for the first time in Dnl 4 28 (EV 31) it is in the Aram, portion where, however, kal = kol, "voice" stands without berath = bath, "daughter": "A voice fell from heaven." Jos (Ant, XIII, x, 3) relates that John Hyrcanus (135-104 BC) heard a voice while offer ing a burnt sacrifice in the temple, which Jos ex pressly interprets as the voice of God (cf Bab Sot ah 33a and Jerus Sotah 24b, where it is called bath kol). In the NT mention of "a voice from heaven" occurs in the following passages: Mt 3 17; Mk 1 11; Lk 3 22 (at the baptism of Jesus); Mt 17 5; Mk 9 7; Lk 9 35 (at His transfigura tion); Jn 12 28 (shortly before His passion); Acts 9 4; 22 7; 26 14 (conversion of Paul), and 10 13.15 (instruction of Peter concerning clean and unclean). In the period of the Tannaim (cir 100 BC-200 AD) the term bath kol was in very frequent use and was understood to signify not the direct voice of God, which was held to be super sensible, but the echo of the voice (the bath being somewhat arbitrarily taken to express the dis tinction). The rabbis held that bath kol had been

      Bath-rabbim Bear, The



      an occasional means of Divine communication throughout the whole history of Israel and that, since the cessation of the prophetic gift it was t In sole means of Divine; revelation. It, is noteworthy that the rabbinical conception of bath kol sprang up in the period of the decline of OT prophecy and flourished in the period of extreme traditional ism. Where the gift of prophecy was clearly lack ing perhaps even because of this lack there grew up an inordinate desire for special Divine manifestations. Often a voice from heaven was looked for to clear up matters of doubt and even to decide between conflicting interpretations of the law. So strong had this tendency become that Rabbi Joshua (cir 100 AD) felt it to be necessary to oppose it and to insist upon the supremacy and the sufficiency of the written law. It is clear that we have here to do with a conception of the nature and means of Divine revelation thai is distinctly inferior to the Bib. view. For even in the Bib. passages where mention is made of the voice from heaven, all that is really essential to the revelation is already present, at least in principle, without the audible voice.

      LITEHATUUK. F. Weber, Si/s/i /n I/IT altsynagogalen tmliistinixrln it T/n iilo,/, , , 2(1 C(l. IS<)7. KM II : .) . Ham burger, Real- E nc des Judentums, II. ISDti: \\\\\\\\V. Bacher,

      At/mlii i/i r Tun mnli n <U1<1 Aijm/ii <li-r imliixf. A innniir

      (see Index); Jew Knc, II. 588 ff; " linth Kol" in TSBA.

      IX. IS; P. Fit-bin. A 1 /, i " d-x -li. un<l (Irf/rntnirt. l.s.v.

      .1. R. VAX PELT

      BATH-RABBIM, bath-rab im, THE GATE OF ("" ^n nS 1" , xhu ur li/it/i-rnhhlni; LXX evmuXcus 6-u-y aT Ps TroXXaiv, en />ril<iix thagatros pollon, lit. "in the gates of the daughter of the many." The gate of Heshbon near which were t he pools compared to the Shulammite s eyes (Cant 7 4). Guthe would translate "by the gate of the populous city." Cheyne would amend the passage and read

      "Thine eyes are like Solomon s pools, By the wood of Beth-cerem,"

      and transfer the scene to (lit- pools of Solomon, S. of Bethlehem (EH, s.v.). But this is surely very violent. One of the pools of Heshbon still survives, measuring 191 ft. X 139 ft., and is 10 ft. deep. The walls however have been rent by earthquakes, and now no longer retain the water. W. EWING

      BATH-SHEBA, bath-she ba, bath shf-ba (375Tl3~ri3 , balh-shcbha\\\\\\\\ "the seventh daughter," or "the daughter of an oath," also called Bathshua [yiTD~P3 , bath-shu a *], "the daughter of opulence" [1 Ch 3 5]; the LXX however reads Iier.-il>ir. everywhere; cf BATHSHUA; II PN, 65, (37, 77, 206 for Bath-sheba, and 67, 69, n. 3, for Bathshua): Bath-sheba was the daughter of Eliam (2 S 11 3) or Ammiel (1 Ch 3 5); both names have the same meaning. She was the beautiful wife of Uriah the Hittite, and because of her beauty was forced by David to commit adultery (2 S 11 2 ff; Ps 51). Her husband Uriah was treacherously killed by the order of David (2 S 11 Off). After the death of her husband David made her his wife and she lived with him in the palace (2 S 11 27). Four sons sprang from this marriage (2 S 5 14; 1 Ch 3 5), after the first child, the adulterine, had died (2 S 12 14 ff). With the help of the prophet Nathan she renders futile the usurpation of Adonijah and craftily secures the throne for her son Solomon (1 K 1 11 ff). Later Adonijah suc ceeds in deceiving Bath-sheba, but his plan is frus trated by the king (1 K 2 13 ff). According to Jewish tradition, Prov 31 is written by Solomon in memory of his mother. In the genealogy of Jesus (Mt 1 6) Bath-sheba is mentioned as the former wife of Uriah and the mother of Solomon


      A. L. BRESLICH

      BATHSHUA, bath shn-a (J1BJT3, buth-shu"*, "the daughter of opulence" or "the daughter of Shua"; cf BATH-SHEBA; for derivation see II P X 67, 69, n. 3):

      (1) In Cen 38 2 and 1 Ch 2 3, where the name is tr 1 "Shua s daughter," the wife of Judah.

      (2) In 1 Ch 3 5, the daughter of Ammiel and wife of David. See BATH-SHEBA.

      BATH-ZACHARIAS, bat h-zak-a-ri as. Sec BETH-


      BATTERING-RAM, bat er-ing-ram. See SIEGE. BATTLE. See WAR.

      BATTLE-AXE, bat"l-ax. Ill, 1; Ax (AxE).

      See ARMOR, ARMS,

      BATTLE-BOW, bat"l-bf>: Found in the striking Messianic prophecy: "The battle bow shall be cut off" (Zee 9 10). The prophet is predicting the peace that, shall prevail when Zion s king cometh, "just, and having salvation; lowly, and riding upon an ass, even upon a colt the foal of an ass." The words convey their full significance only when read in the light of the context: "I will cut off the chariot from Ephraim, and the horse from Jems; and the battle bow shall be cut off; and he shall speak peace unto the nations" (cf 10 4). The battle-bow was sometimes made of tough wood, sometimes of two straight horns joined together (Horn. //. iv. 105-11), and sometimes of bron/e. In Ps 18 34 RV we find "bow of. bra.s-.s-," but it probably should be of "bron/e" (PlSTi: , n e hoxheth), a metal very different from our brass, which is a mixture of copper and zinc. The point of the pas sage in this connection ("He t cachet h my hands to war; so that mine arms do bend a bow of bronze"), as well as of that in 2 K 9 24 ("And Jehu drew his bow with his full strength") is that, it required great strength to bend the battle-bow. See ARCHERY; ARMOR. GEO. B. EAGER


      BAVAI, bav ti-T. See BAVVAI.

      BAVVAI, bav a-I (^3, bainrny; LXX A, Bvt, licnc i; B, BeSeC, Jicilei; AV Bavai, "wisher" [?] [Neh 3 IS]): Perhaps identical with or a brother of Binnui (Neh 3 24). See BINNUI. B., "the son of Henadad, the ruler of half the district of Keilah," was of a Levitical family. He is mentioned as one of those who repaired the wall of Jerus after the return from Babylon (Neh 3 17 f).

      BAY, bfi. See COLORS.

      BAY, bil CpTDS , Idshun, lit. "tongue"; KoX-rros, l:i >l/x>fi): The word occurs in the sense of inlet of the sea in the OT only in Josh 15 2.5; 18 19, and in NT only in Acts 27 39 (of Malta, AV "creek").

      BAYITH, ba yith (rP3 , bayith; AV Bajith, "house" [Isa 15 2]): A town in the country of Moab. The reading of RVm, "Bayith and Dibon are gone up to the high places to weep," seems to be the proper rendering of this passage. Duhm et al., by changing the text, read either "house of" or "daughter of." The construct of this word beth is frequently used in compound words. See BETH.



      Bath-rabbim Bear, The

      BAY TREE, ba tre (AV only; Ps 37 3.5; ezrdh): The word means "native," "indigenous," and RV tr s "a green tree in its native soil."

      BAZLITH, baz lith, BAZLUTH, baz luth (^523 , bafllth, Neh 7 54; n ? ,323, bnqliith, Ezr 2 52; Basaloth, 1 Esd 5 31, "asking") : The descendants of B. (temple-servants) returned with Zerubbabel to Jerus.

      BDELLIUM, del i-um (nbl3 , Ifdholak): The word occurs twice in the Pent: (1) in (Jen 2 12, in conjunction with gold and onyx, as a product of the land of HAVILAH (q.v.), and (2) in Nu 11 7, where the manna is likened to this substance in appearance: "The appearance thereof as the appearance of bdellium." The latter comparison excludes the idea of b dholnh being a precious stone, and points to the identification of it with the fragrant resinous gum known to the Creeks as bili llion, several kinds being mentioned by Dios- corides and Pliny. It was a product of Arabia, India, Afghanistan, etc. JAMES OKH

      BEACH, bech (al-y^aXos, u/i/iiilox): The part of the shore washed by the tide on which the irarcx dash (Mt 13 2.4S; Jn 21 4; Acts 21 5; 27 39.40).

      BEACON, be k n. The tr of the Heb "7P , turcn, which usually means "mast" (cf Isa 33 2:5; Ezk 27 5), but in Isa 30 17 being used in parallel ism with "ensign" the meaning mav be "signal- staff" (Isa 30 17 ARVm "pole").

      BEALIAH, be-a-ll a (rPb?3 , l^nlijnh, ".Jehovah is Lord," cf HPN, 144, 2S7 ) : B., formerly a friend of Saul, joined David at Ziklag (1 Ch 12 5).

      BEALOTH, be a-loth (r^?3. , b-^ ninth; Ba\\\\\\\\u>e, Jinlnth) . An unidentified city of Judah in tlie Negeb (Josh 15 24).

      BEAM, bein: The word is used to translate various ( )T terms:

      (1) 23, gchh (1 K 6 9j, 752, (v/u , "a rib" (1 K 7 3), rrpp, kurnh cl> Ch 3 7; 34 11; Cant 1 17), all refer to constructional beams used in buildings for roofing and upper floors, main beams being carried on pillars generally of wood. The last, term is used in 2 K 6 2.5 ("as one was felling a beam") of trees which were being cut, into logs. A related form is !"nj2 , knrnh (used of the Creator, Ps 104 3; of building, Neh 28; 3 3.0"). Yet another term, 2 n D2 , kaphim, is used in Hab 2 11: "The stone shall cry out of the wall, and the beam out of the timber shall answer it" a protest against sin made by inanimate things. The Douay version, in translating, "the timber that is between the joints of the building," suggests the use of bond timbers in buildings, similar to that used at one time in Eng. brickwork It probably refers to its use in mud brick buildings, although bond timbers might also be used in badly built stone walls. The Arabs of the present day use steel joints to strengthen angles of buildings.

      (2) Beam, in weaving, represents two words, ^").^>, eregh (Jgs 16 14, the beam of a loom to which Samson s hair was fastened; used in Job 7 6 of a weaver s shuttle), and Til 12 , manor (1 S 17 7; 2 S 21 19; 1 Ch 11 23; 20 5), of a spear-staff.

      (3) In the NT Jesus uses the word SOKOS, dokox, "a rafter," in bidding the censorious person first cast the "beam" out of his own eye before attempt

      ing to remove the "mote" from another s eye (Mt 7 3; Lk 641.42). See ARCHITECTURE; HOUSE.

      BEAN, be an. See BAEAN.


      BEANS, benz (51S , pol; Arab, fill): A very common product of Pal; a valuable and very an cient article of diet. The Bible references are probably to the Fnbn vulgaris (N.D. Leguminosae) or horsebean. This is sown in the autumn; is in full flower filling Ihe air with sweet perfume in the early spring; and is harvested just after the barley and wheat. The bundles of black bean stalks, plucked up by the roots and piled up beside the newly winnowed barley, form a characteristic feature on many village threshing-floors. Beans are threshed and winnowed like the cereals. Beans are eaten entire, with the pod, in the unripe state, but to a greater extent the hard beans are cooked with oil and meat.

      In Ezk 4 9, beans are mentioned with other articles as an unusual source of bread and in 2 S 17 28 David receives from certain staunch friends of his at Mahanaim a present, which included "beans, and lentils, and parched pulse."

      K. \\\\\\\\Y. (J. MASTERMAN

      BEAR, bar (3*1 or SI", ilobh; cf Arab, dubb}: In 1 S 17 34-37, David tells Saul how as a shep herd boy he had overcome a lion and a bear. In 2 K 2 24 it is related that two she bears came out of the wood and tore forty-two of the children who had been mocking Elisha. All the other references to bears are fig. ;cf 2 S 17 8; Prov 17 12; 28 15; Isa 11 7; 59 11; Lam 3 10; Dnl 7 5; Hos 13 8; Am 5 19; Rev 13 2. The Syrian bear, .sometimes named

      Syrian Roar Vrxiix Ki/riacux.

      as a distinct species, Urxux <S //nV/n/.s, is better to be regarded as merely a local variety of the European and Asiatic brown bear, Ursus arctos. It still exists in small numbers in Lebanon and is fairly common in Anti-Lebanon and Hermon. It does not seem to occur now in Pal proper, but may well have done so in Bible times. It inhabits caves in the high and rugged mountains and issues mainly at night to feed on roots and vegetables. It is fond of the hummus or chick-pea which is sometimes planted in the upland meadows, and the fields have to be well guarded. The fig. references to the bear take account of its ferocious nature, esp. in the case of the she bear robbed of her whelps (2 S 17 8; Prov 17 12; Hos 13 8). It is with this character of the bear in mind that Isaiah says (11 7), "And the cow and the bear shall feed; their young ones shall lie down together." ALFRED ELY DAY

      BEAR, bar, THE (ARCTURUS). A great north ern constellation. See ASTRONOMY, II, 13.

      Bear, Born Beatitudes



      BEAR, bar (vb.), BORN, born O>? , yaladh): ( )ccurs frequently in its lit. sense, alluding to mother hood (Gen 16 11; 17 17.19.21; 18 13; 22 23; 30 3 Lev 12 5; Jgs 13 3; 5 7; Ruth 1 12; 1 K 3 21; Jer 29 0); in the NT yewdu, gcnndo, in the same sense (Lk 1 13).

      Figurative: It is often used with reference to the beginning of the spiritual life or regeneration (Jn 1 13; 3 3-S; 1 Jn 2 29; 3 9; 4 7; 5 1.4. IS AV). See REGENERATION.

      BEAR, bar, BORNE, born (Xt I , nasa ; Xajipdvoj, lanihdnd, dva4>e pw, <nt<ip/iero, Pao-Taa>, htin(dz< >): In EV the physical sense is familiar, of supporting or carrying any weight or burden. The tr of RV is to be preferred in Ps 75 3 ("have set up"); Lam 3 2S ( hath laid it upon him"); Zeph 1 11 ("were laden with silver"); Lk 18 7 ("he is longsuffering over them"); Jn 12 6 ("took away what was put there in"); Acts 27 15 ("could not face the wind").

      Figurative: The words are used in the fig. sense of enduring or taking the consequences of, be it for oneself or as representative for others: one s own iniquity (Lev 5 17 and often); chastisement- (Job 34 31 j; reproach (Ps 69 7; 89 50); or the sins of others (Isa 53 4.11.12; Mt 8 17; He 9 2S; 1 Pet 2 24). In Isa 46 1-7 a striking contrast is presented between the idols of Babylon whom their worshippers had carried (borne) about- and which would be borne away by the conquerors, and Jell who had carried (borne) Israel from t he beginning. "Jacob and Israel .... borne by me from their birth .... and I will bear; yea, I will carry." "They bear it upon the shoulder," etc. M. (). EVANS

      BEARD, berd:

      (1) Western Semites in general, according 1o the monuments, wore full round beards, to which they evidently devoted great care. The nomads of the desert, in distinction from the settled Semites, wore a clipped and pointed beard (see Jer 9 20: "all that have the corners of their hair cut off, that dwell in the wilderness"; and cf 25 23 49 3 > etc).

      Beards (Egyptian in Top Row; Other Nationalities in Bottom Row).

      (2) Long beards are found on Assyr and Bab monuments and sculptures as a mark of the highest aristocracy (cf Egyp monuments, esp. representa tions by W. Max Muller, Asien und Europa, 140). It is not clear that it was ever so with the Jews. Yet it is significant that the Heb "elder" (zaken) seems to have received his name from his long beard (cf bene barbatus).

      (3) The view of some that it was customary among the Hebrews to shave the upper lip is considered by the best authorities as without foundation. The mustache (Heb sapham, "beard"), according to 2 S 19 24, received regular "trimming" (thus EV after

      the Vulg, but the Heb is generic, not specific: "He had neither dressed his feet, nor trimmed his beard").

      (4) In one case (1 S 21 13.14) the neglect of the beard is set down as a sign of madness: "[He] let his spittle fall down upon his beard. Then said Achish, .... Lo, ye see the man is mad."

      (5) It was common Scm custom to cut both hair and beard as a token of grief or distress. Isaiah (15 2), describing the heathen who have "gone up to the high places to weep," says "Moab waileth over Nebo, and over Medeba; on all their heads is baldness, every beard is cut off." Jeremiah (41 5), describing the grief of the men of Samaria for their slain governor, (Jedaliah, says, "There came men from .... Samaria [his sorrowing subjects] even four score men, having their beards shaven and their clothes rent," etc. And Amos, in his prophecy of the vision of the "basket of summer fruit" (8 1 IT), makes Jeh say to His people: "I will turn your feasts into mourning; .... I will bring sackcloth upon all loins, and baldness upon every head" (8 10). On the other hand it was even more significant of great distress or fear to leave the beard untrimmed, as did Mephibosheth, the son of Saul, when he went to meet King David, in the crisis of his guilty failure to go up with the king accord ing to his expectation: "He had neither dressed his feet, nor trimmed his beard, nor washed his clothes, from the day the king departed until the day he came home in peace." (Cf 1 S 21 13 14- 2 S 19 24.)

      (0) Absalom s hair was cut only once a year, it would seem (2 S 14 2(5; cf rules for priests, Levites, etc, Ezk 44 20). But men then generally wore their hair longer than is customary or seemly with us (cf Cant 5 2.11, "His locks are bushy, and black as a raven"). Later, in NT times, it was a dis grace 1 for a man to wear long hair (1 Cor 11 6-15). To mutilate the beard of another was considered a great indignity (see 2 S 10 4; cf Isa 50 6, "plucked off the hair"). The shaving of the head of a cap tive slave-girl who was to be married to her captor marked her change of condition and prospects (Dt 21 12; W. R. Smith, Kinship, 209).

      T,iTKRATrRE. Wilkinson. Ancient E>/>/ p/ianx, II, 324, 34!); Herod. i.l<>5; ii.3<>; iii.12; Jos, Ant, VLI[, viii, 3; XVI, viii, 1; W. R. Smith, Kinship, 209; RS, 324; Well- hausen, Skizzen, III, 107.

      GKO. B. EAGER

      BEAST, best : This word occurs often in both Old and New Testaments and denotes generally a mammal (though sometimes a reptile) in distinc tion U> a man, a bird or a fish. In this distinction 1 he Eng. is fairly in accord with the Heb and Gr originals. The commonest Heb words b e hemah and hai have their counterpart in the Arab, as do three others less often used, b *Ir (Gen 45 17; Ex 22 5; Nu 20 8 AV), nephesh (Lev 24 18), and tebhah (Prov 9 2). B hemah and Arab, bahimah are from a root signifying vagueness or dumbness and so denote primarily a dumb beast. Hai and Arab, haiwan are from the root hayah (Arab, haya), "to_live," and denote primarily living creatures. B e lr, "cattle," and its root -verb, bd ar, "to graze," are identical with the Arab. ba f ir and ba ara, but with a curious difference in meaning. Ba lr is a common word for camel among the Bedawin and the root-verb, ba*ara, means "to drop dung," ba ( rah being a common word for the dung of camels, goats, and sheep. Nephesh corresponds in every way with the Arab, nephs, "breath," "soul" or "self " Tebhah from tabhnh, "to slaughter," is equivalent to the Arab, dhibh from dhabaha, with the same meaning. Both Gijplov, therlon ("wild beast"), and ftov, zoon ("living thing"), occur often in the Apocalypse. They are found also in a few other places, as mammals (He 13 11) or fig. (Tit 1 12). Therion is used also of the viper which fastened on Paul s



      Bear, Born Beatitudes

      hand, and this has parallels in classical Gr. Beasts of burden and beasts used for food were and are an important form of property, hence KT^I/OJ, kttnos ("possession"), the word used for the good Samari tan s beast (Lk 10 34) anil for the beasts with which Lysias provided Paul for his journey to Caes- area (Acts 23 24).

      For "swift beast," kirkaroth, "dromedary" (Isa 66 20 AV), see CAMEL. For "swift beast," rckhcafi, sec HORSE (Mic 1 13 AV; 1 K 4 28 AVm; cf Est 810.14). See also WILD BEAST.


      BEAST-FIGHT, best flt. See GAMES.


      BEATITUDES, be"-at i-tiids: The word "beati tude" is not found in the Eng. Bible, but the Lat beatitudo, from which it is derived,

      1. The occurs in the Vulg version of Rom Name 4 6 where, with reference" to Ps 32

      1.2, David is said to pronounce the "beatitude" of the man whose transgressions are forgiven. In the Lat church bcatitudo was used not only as an abstract term denoting blessedness, but in the secondary, concrete sense of a particular declaration of blessedness and esp. of such a declara tion coming from the lips of Jesus Christ. Beati tudes in this derivative meaning of the word occur frequently in the OT, particularly in the Pss (32 1.2; 41 1; 65 4, etc), and Jesus on various occasions threw His utterances into this form (Mt 11 6; 13 16; 16 17; 24 40, with the Lukan parallels; Jn 13 17; 20 29). But apart from individual sayings of this type the name Beatitudes, ever since the days of Ambrose, has been attached specifically to those words of blessing with which, according to both Mt and Lk, Jesus began that great discourse which is known as the Sermon on the Mount.

      When we compare these Beatitudes as we find them in Mt 5 3-12 and Lk 6 20-23 (24-2(5), we

      are immediately struck by the resem-

      2. The Two blances and differences between them. Groups To the ordinary reader, most familiar

      with Mt s version, it is the differences that first present themselves; and he will be apt to account for the discrepancy of the two reports, as Augustine did, by assigning them to two distinct occasions in the Lord s ministry. A careful com parative study of the two narratives, however, with some attention to the introductory circumstances in each case, to the whole progress of the discourses themselves, and to the parabolic sayings with which they conclude, makes this view improbable, and points rather to the conclusion that what we have to do with is two varying versions given by the Evangel ists of the material drawn from an underlying source consisting of Logia of Jesus. The differences, it must be admitted, are very marked, (a) Mt has 8 Beatitudes; Lk has 4, with 4 following Woes. (6) In Mt the sayings, except the last, are in the 3d per.; in Lk they are in the 2d. (c) In Mt the blessings, except the last, are attached to spiritual qualities; in Lk to external conditions of poverty and suffering. Assuming that both Evangelists derived their reports from some common Logian source, the question arises as to which of them has adhered more closely to the original. The question is difficult, and still gives rise to quite contrary opinions. One set of scholars decides in favor of Mt, and accounts for Lk s deviation from the Matthaean version by ascribing to him, on very insufficient

      grounds, an ascetic bias by which he was led to impart a materialistic tone to the utterances of Jesus. Another set inclines to the theory that Lk s version is the more literal of the two, while Mt s partakes of the nature of a paraphrase. In support of this second view it may be pointed out that Lk is usually more careful than Mt to place the say ings of Jesus in their original setting and to pre serve them in their primitive form, and further that owing to the natural tendency of the sacred writers to expand and interpret rather than to abbreviate an inspired utterance, the shorter form of a saying is more likely to be the original one. It may be noted, further, that in Mt 5 11.12 the Beatitude takes the direct form, which suggests that this may have been the form Mt found in his source in the case of the others also. On the whole, then, proba bilities appear to favor the view that Lk s version is the more literal one. It does not follow, however, that the difference between the two reports amounts to any real inconsistency. In Lk emphasis is laid on the fact that Jesus is addressing His disciples (6 20), so that it was not the poor as such whom He blessed, but His own disciples although they were poor. It was not poverty, hunger, sorrow or suffering in themselves to which lie promised great rewards, but those experiences as coming to spiritual men and thus transformed into springs of spiritual blessing. And so when Mt, setting down the Lord s words with a view to their universal application rather than with reference to the particular cir cumstances in which they were uttered, changes "the poor" into "the poor in spirit," and those that "hunger" into those that "hunger and thirst after righteousness," he is giving the real purport of the words of Jesus and recording them in the form in which by all men and through all coming time they may be read without any chance of misunder standing.

      As regards the Beatitudes of the meek, the merci ful, the pure in heart, the peacemakers, which are given by Mt only, they may have been spoken by Jesus at the same time as the rest and have been intended by Him in their association with the other four to fill out a conception of the ideal character of the members of the Kingdom of God. In view, however, of their omission from Luke s list, it is impossible to affirm this with certainty. That they are all authentic utterances of Jesus Himself there is no reason to doubt. But they may have been originally scattered through the discourse itself, each in its own proper place. Thus the Beatitude of the meek would go fitly with vs 38 ff, that of the merciful with 43 ff, that of the pure in heart with 27 ff , that of the peacemakers with 23 ff . Or they may even have been uttered on other occasions than that of the Sermon on the Mount and have been gathered together by Matthew and placed at the head of the Sermon as forming along with the other four a suitable introduction to Our Lord s great discourse on the laws and principles of the Kingdom of God.

      With regard to the number of the Beatitudes in Matthew s fuller version, some have counted 7 only, making the list end with ver 9. 3. Number, But though the blessing pronounced Arrange- on the persecuted in vs 10-12 differs ment, from the preceding Beatitudes, both

      Structure in departing from the aphoristic form and in attaching the blessing to an outward condition and not to a disposition of the heart, the j| in Lk (6 22 f) justifies the view that this also is to be added to the list, thus making 8 Beatitudes in all. On the arrangement of the group much has been written, most of it fanciful and unconvincing. The first four have been described as negative and passive, the second four as positive

      Beautiful Gate Bed, Bedstead



      ;md active. The first four, amain, have been repre sented as pertaining to the desire for salvation, the second four as relating to its actual possession. Some writers have endeavored to trace in the group as a whole the steadily ascending stages in the de velopment of the Christian character. The truth in this last suggestion lies in the reminder it brings that the Beatitudes are not to be thought of as setting forth separate types of Christian character, but as enumerating qualities and experience s that are combined in the ideal character as conceived by Christ and as exemplified, it may be added, in His own life and person.

      In respect of their structure, the Beatitudes are all alike in associating the blessing with a promise a promise which is sometimes represented as having an immediate re.-dizat ion (vs 3.10), but in most cases has a future or even (cf ver 12) an escha- tological outlook. The declaration of blessedness, therefore, is based not only on the possession of the quality or experience described, but on the present or future rewards in which it issues. The poor in spirit are called blessed not merely because they are poor in spirit, but because the kingdom of heaven is theirs; the mourners because they shall be comforted; those that hunger and thirst, after righteousness because they shall be filled; those who are persecuted because a great reward is laid up for them in heaven. The Beatitudes have often been critici/ed as holding up an ideal of which limitation, privation and self-renunciation are the essence, and which lacks those positive elements thatare indispensable to any complete conception of blessedness. But when it is recognized that the blessing in every case rests on the associated promise, the criticism falls to the ground. Christ does demand of His followers a renunciation of manv things that seem desirable to the natural heart, and a readiness to endure many other things from which men naturally shrink. But just as in His own case the great self-emptying was followed bv the glorious exaltation (Phil 2 (iff), so in the case of His disciples spiritual poverty and the bearing of the cross carry with them the inheritance of the earth and a great reward in heaven.

      LITKKATI -!(!:. -Votaw in /!DH. V. 14 If: Adency in Expositor, f>th ser., 11. 3<>.~>ir; Stanton, Th,- Gospels <ix //ixtitrii-til Documi ntx. FT, HKiff, :7f; Core, S,rt,n>i, <,n the .Mount, 1") If; Dykes, Mninf, xt<, ,,f (!,, KUI-I, L 5-200.

      .]. ( . LAMHKKT BEAUTIFUL, bii t i-fool, GATE, gat . See TKM RLE.

      BEAUTY, bu ti: The space allotted to this topic allows liberty only for the statement of two prob lems to students of the Bible. They should give distinct attention to the interblending of aesthetics with ethics in the Scripture. They should observe the extent and meaning of aesthetics in Nature.

      That the Bible is an ethical book is evident. Righteousness in all the relations of man as a moral being is the key to its inspiration, the 1. Aesthet- guiding light to correct understanding ics in Scrip- of its utterance. But it is everywhere ture inspired and writ in an atmosphere

      of aesthetics. Study will bring out this fact from Gen to Rev. The first pair make their appearance in a garden where grew "every tree that is pleasant to the sight" (Gen 2 9), and the last vision for the race is an abode in a city whose gates are of pearl and streets of gold (Rev 21 21). Such is the imagery that from beginning to end is pictured as the home of ethics at first in its untried innocence and at last in its stalwart righteousness. The problem will be to observe the intermingling of these two elements the beautiful and the good in the whole Scripture range. A few texts will set before us this kinship and then the Bible student can detect it as he reads.

      "One thing have I asked of Jeh, that will I seek after: That I may dwell in the house of Jeh all the days of my


      To behold the beauty of Jeh. And to inquire in his temple" ( Ps 27 4).

      "For all the gods of the peoples are idols; But Jeh made the heavens. Honor and majesty are before him: Strength and beauty are in his sanctuary" ( Ps 96 5.0).

      _ If we catch the spirit set forth in such and similar Psalms, we can use it as a magnetic needle to detect its like wherever we shall read: and we shall find that like in abundance. It is only neces sary to turn to the directions given for making the Ark of the Covenant and its encircling tabernacle, and the decorations of the priests that, were to minister in the worship of Jeh in the ceremonies described, as given in Ex 25 ff, to see that every resource of Israel was brought to bear to render ark and tabernacle and their service beautiful. One will find in a concordance half a column of references under the word "Ark and a column and a half under the word "Tabernacle. By looking up these references one can realize how much care was spent to give and preserve to these aids to worship the attractiveness of beauty.

      In 1 Ch 15 and 16 we have an account of David s bringing in the Ark of the Covenant into liis own city to rest in a tent he had provided for it. On this occasion a demonstration was made with all the aesthetics of which the music of that day was capable. "And David spake to the chief of the Levitt s to appoint their brethren the singers, with instruments of music, psalteries and harps and cymbals, sounding aloud and lifting up the voice with joy." And David himself gave to the celebration the aesthetics of one of the noblest of his psalms (1 Ch 16 <S-3(>).

      It is almost idle to refer to Solomon and his temple (1 K 6 ff; 2 Ch 3 ff). It is a common understanding that the civilization of Solomon s day was drawn upon to its utmost in every depart ment of aesthetics, in the building of that house for Jeh and in the appointments for the worship there to be conducted. Beauty of form and color and harmony of sound were then and there inte grated made one with worship in holiness. The propriety of that association has been seen and felt through the ages.

      There is beauty in speech. It is a fact that the supreme classics in the lit. of the tongues of two of the dominant, nations of the earth, the Eng. and the German, are tr s of the Bible. There is no explanation of such fact except that the original justified the tr s . You can read indifferently from one tr to the other and catch the same aesthetic gleam. Nobility and poetry of thought, lay in what was to be tr 1 . Here is proof that cannot be gainsaid that the Scripture authors sought the aid of aesthetics as garb for the ethics they taught. So they wrote in poetry. So they used allegory, illustration, figure, metaphor that would charm and hold. The parables of Jesus are examples of this method of clothing thought. They do their ethical work because they have swept into it figure and imagery from familiar aesthetic perceptions. "The sower went forth to sow" (Mt 13 3). That is a glad sight -always has been and always will be. That is why a picture of "The Sower" hangs on the walls of a Christian home. Just the painting and every beholder remembers the parable and cannot forget its ethics. The intensity of thought concentrated upon ethics in the NT has drawn away attention from the partnership between these two principles in religion. But it is there, and we shall see it when once we look for it.

      It is something to which we do not wake up till late in life -to wit, the illimitableness of the pro-

      41 1


      Beautiful Gate Bed, Bedstead

      vision in Nature for beauty. Common consent

      awards beauty to the rainbow. Reflect that every

      drop of water in the ocean, or in the

      2. Aesthet- hydrated rocks, or in the vapor floating

      ics in over Saturn, has in it the possibility

      Nature of rainbow coloring. In fact all matter

      has color of which the rainbow is only specimen. Any element incandescent has a spec trum partially coincident with that of water and ranging above and below it in the infinite capacity it has to .start ether undulations. As apparently the larger part of the matter of the universe is incandescent, we can see that the field for expres sion in color is infinite. No one but- the infinite God can see it all.

      If we come down to this plain, plodding earth, cultivation of aesthetic sense will bring out beauty everywhere, from the grandeur of mountain scenery to aesthetic curves and colors revealed only by the microscope. We 1 say the butterfly is beautiful. But the larva from which it is derived often carries as much beauty in mottling of color and ot the fineness of finish of spine and mandible. Looking across the scale in this way the evidence of theism from beauty itself becomes convincing. Beauty becomes a messenger of and from (iod as Iris was to the Greek and the rainbow to the Hebrew (Keel 311).

      This from Amiel s Journal Intiinc, I, 233, sets forth the radical, inexpugnable position of beauty in Nature and in philosophy thereof correctly inter pretative: "To the materialist philosopher the beautiful is a mere accident, and therefore rare. To the spiritualist philosopher the beautiful is the rule, the law, (he universal foundation of things, to which every form returns as soon as the force* of accident, is withdrawn."

      As we accustom ourselves to make larger and larger synthesis in the department of aesthetics, what diapason of t heist ic message may we not hear . Beauty wherever and however expressed is a medium of revelation. It is a bush ever burn ing, never consumed. Before it "put off t liy shoes from off thy feet, for the place whereon thou st andest is holy ground." Thai beaut y should be 1o Ihnl intent, for that end, from everlasting hath wrought the Ancient of Days. C. CAVICHNO

      BEAUTY, bu ti, AND BANDS, bandz (D?: , tii i dm, and Lp52n , hTihh ll ni): The* names given in Zee 11 7.14 to two symbolical staves, the first signifying Jeh s covenant of grace with the peoples, and the second representing the brotherhood of .Judah and Israel. The breaking of the two staves is symbolic of the breaking of .Jeh s covenant, and of the union between Judah and Israel.

      BEBAI, be bfi-I, beb a-I 033 , bi-Muuj; IA \\\\\\\\ Bi^at, nrhtii, "fatherly"):

      (1) Descendants of B. returned with Ezra to Jerus (Ezr 8 11 called Babi; 1 Esd 8 37); one of these is Zechariah, the son of Bebai (Ezr 8 11, Zacharias; 1 Esd 8 37). 623 returned with Zerubbabel to Jerus (Ezr 2 11; 1 Esd 5 13; Neh 7 16 gives the number 628); some of these had married "strange wives" (Ezr 10 2S; 1 Esd 9 29).

      (2) A chief of the people who sealed the covenant with Nehemiah (Neh 10 1~>).

      (3) An unknown town (Jth 15 4). Omitted in B and Vulg.

      BECAUSE, bf -kos (iva, hinn, "in order that"): "The multitude rebuked them, b. [AV; RV "that"] they should hold their pence" (Alt 20 31).

      BECKER, be ker p33 , bckhcr, "the firstborn"; cf II PN, 88) :

      (1) Son of Benjamin ((Jen 46 21; 1 Ch 7 6.8).

      (2) Son of Ephraim whose family is called Be- cherites (AV "Bachrites"), Nu 26 35 (1 Ch 7 20 called Bered). Cf BERED.

      BECHORATH, bn-kor ath. See BECOHATH.

      BECK, bek, BECKON, bek"n (vv(j.a, ncuma): This word from ncud, "to nod," "beckon," "make a sign" by moving the head or eyes (Lk 5 7; Jn 13 24; Acts 21 40; 24 10), occurs only in 2 Mace 8 18, "Almighty (Iod who at a beck can cast down both them that come against us, and also all the world," RV, "able at a beck." So Shak, "troops of soldiers at their beck"; "nod" is now generally used.

      BECOME, be-kutn :

      (1) Gr r/ iHOHiai, used in XT for a change of state, corresponding to Heb hayCih of OT. Cf Mt 18 3 with Dt 27 .).

      (2) For what is fit t inn, suitable, proper, in NT: "prtpei" (Mt 3 ir>; Epli 5 3; 1 Tim 2 10); in OT, rnx:, nn tlinih, "X: , nu<ll>, Ps 93 f>: "Holiness become! h thy house." In this sense, the adv. "becomingly" must be interpreted: "Walk becomingly toward them that are without" (1 Thess 4 12), i.e. in a way that is consistent with your profession.

      BECORATH, be-ko rath (rniDZl , Irk fnlrath, "the first birth"; AV Bechorath): A forefather of Saul of the tribe of Benjamin (1 S 9 1).

      BECTILETH, bek ti-leth (TO ireSiov Ba.iKT6iX.cU0, to pedion Baikteilaith) . A plain which is defined as "near the mountain which is at the left, hand of the upper Cilicia" (Jth 2 21). The name in Syr is Beth K tilulli, "house 1 of slaughter" So far there is no clue to its identification.


      very poor e>f the 1 East, in ancient times as now, the "heel" was and is, as a rule, the bare ground; anel the bede le)the s, the 1 gown, xiniluli, e>r "outer gar ment," worn during the day ("For that is his only covering, it is his garment for his skin: wherein shall he sleep?" [Ex 22 27|; cf Dt 24 13, "Them shalt surely resteire to him the ple dge 1 when the sun gex-th down, that he 1 may sleep in his garment").

      When one 1 was on a je>urney, or watching his flock by night as a she pherd, such a "bed" was the most natural, and e>fte ii a stone would serve as a pillow. (Sen 1 Gen 28 11, where Jacob "took one of the stone s of the 1 plae-e, and put it under his head, and lay down in that plae-e fe> sle-ep.")


      An advance on this custom, which came in due course of time*, or under change e>f circumstances, was the use 1 of a mat on the fleje>r as a beel, with or without covering. At. first it, was lit . laiel em the floor, which was generally of one common level, in

      Bed, Bedstead Beelzebub



      some convenient place near the wall; but later it was put on an elevation, either a raised part of the floor on one side, or a bedstead, which gave rise to the expression going up to the bed" (cf C.en 49 33 EV, "He gathered up his feet into the bed," and Ps 132 3, "go up into my bed").

      With a later development and civilization, "beds" came to be built upon supports and constructed in different forms, which fact is reflected in the variety of names given the "bed" in the Heb and related languages.

      1. OT

      Terms for Bed, and Sleeping

      Mattress with Pillow.

      (1) The following Heb words are used in the Bible for "bed," and, though it is impossible at this remove of time and place and custom to differentiate them sharply, they will repay study: nEE , >nittali*(Cn>n 48 2, "And Israel strengthened himself, and sat upon the bed"; Ex 8 3, "frogs Customs .... shall come into thy bedchamber, of the and upon thy bed"); ISTlhD, mishkabti,

      Hebrews cf (Gen 49 4, Jacob to Reuben: "Be cause thou wentest up to thy father s bed; then defiledst thou it"); to"!? , m-s (Prov 7 10, the "strange woman" says: "I have spread my couch with carpets of tapestry"; cf Ps 41 3, "Thou makest all his bed in his sickness"); , ma^a- (once only, Isa 28 20, "For the bed is shorter than that a man can stretch himself on it; and the covering narrower than that he can wrap himself in it"); and ?W\\\\\\\\ , v/ f u (Job 17 13, "I have spread my couch in the darkness"; 1 Ch 5 1, "He defiled his father s couch"; cf (ien 49 4 where the same "father s bed" is niixh/cdhli; Ps 63 0, "when I remember thee upon my bed"; Ps 132 3, "nor go up into my bed").

      (2) It is a far cry from the simple sleeping cus toms of Dt 24 13 to the luxurious arts and customs of the post-exilic days, when beds of fine wood and ivory are found in use among the Hebrews, as well as pillows of the most costly materials elabo rately embroidered (see Jth 10 21; Est 1 6; cf Cant 3 10); but it all came about as a natural, as well as artificial development, with changed conditions and contacts and increasing civilization


      and luxury. As marking the several stages of that development, we find pictures of the poor, first sleeping upon the ground without mat or mattress, then in a single sleeping-room for the whole family, often without a separate bed, then with "beds" that were simply wadded quilts, or thin mattresses, and mats for keeping them off the ground; then with still better "heels" laid upon light portable, wooden frames, or upon more elevated bedsteads (cf Ps 132 3 and Mk 4 21 RV "under the bed"). The degree of richness depended, of course, upon

      time and place, in a measure, but more upon the wealth and station of the family and the style of the house or tent in which they lived, as it does even with the Bedouin of today. The prophet Amos gives a vivid and significant picture of the luxury of certain children of Israel, "that sit in Samaria in the corner of a couch, and on the silken cushions of a bed" (3 12); and of certain children of luxury "that lie upon beds of ivory, and stretch themselves upon their couches, and eat the lambs out of the nock .... that drink wine in bowls, and anoint themselves with the chief oils; but they are not grieved for the affliction of Joseph" (Am 6 4-6; cf Rev 18 10-13).

      (3) We find that the poor, while sleeping for the most part in their ordinary clothing, often, in cold weather, made their beds of the skins of animals, old cloaks, or rugs, as they do still in the East. The "beds" and "bedding" now in ordinary use among Orientals are much the same, we may be sure, as they wen; in olden times. Bedsteads" of any {^retention were and are rare among the common people; but the richness of "beds" and "bedsteads" among Asiatics of wealth and rank was (mite equal to that of the Greeks and Romans (cf Prov 7 16. 17, "1 have spread my couch with carpets of tapes try, with striped cloths of the yarn of Egypt. I have perfumed my bed with myrrh, aloes, and cinnamon"); Cant 1 10.17: "The beams of our house are cedars, and our rafters are firs ....

      Couch Bed with Head Rest.

      also our couch is green." Cf the " palant/nin" of Solomon, "of the wood of Lebanon," "the pillars thereof of silver," "the bottom of gold," and "the seat of purple" (3 9.10).

      (4) As soon as any family could afford it, a special bedroom would be set apart, and the whole family would sleep in it (see Lk 11 5-8, "My children are with me in bed"). When the house had two stories the upper story was used for sleep ing, or, during very hot w r eather, preferably the roof, or the room on the roof. See HOUSE. When morning came the "bed," a wadded quilt or mattress, used with or without covering accord ing to the season, was rolled up, aired and sunned, and then put aside on the raised platform, or packed away in a chest or closet.

      The words mishkdbh and mif-fah came to have a fig. meaning signifying the final resting-place; and eres used of the"bedstead" of the King of Og (Dt 3 11) is thought by some to mean his sarcophagus (Benzinger, Heb Arch., 123; Nowack, 1, 143). Gen 47 31, "And Israel bowed him self upon the bed s head" is not rightly rendered (see STAFF, and Crit. Comm. in loc.).

      (1) We find several Gr words, K\\\\\\\\ivr), Mine,

      /cpd/3/3aros, krdbbatos, and wiry, koite, used in the

      NT somewhat indiscriminately and

      2. NT rendered EV by "bed," "couch," etc;

      Terms for but, as with the Heb words noted,

      Bed, Their there is little to indicate just exactly

      Meaning, what they severally stand for, or how

      etc they are related to the Heb terms

      rendered "bed" or "couch" in the

      OT. Of one thing we can be sure, reasoning from



      Bed, Bedstead Beelzebub

      what we know of "the unchanging East," the "beds" and sleeping customs of the Hebrews in Christ s time were in the main about what they were in later OT times.

      (2) An interesting case for study is that of the man "sick of the palsy" whom they brought to Jesus "lying on a bed," and who when healed "took up the bed, and went forth before them all" (Mt 9 2.6; Mk 2 4.12; Lk 5 18.19; cf Jn 5 8-12). Here the "bed" on which the sick of the palsy lay was let down from the housetop "through the tiles with his couch into the midst before; Jesus" (Lk 5 18.19); and when the man was healed Jesus commanded him, as Luke says, to "take up [his] couch and go unto [his] house," and IK; "took up that whereon he lay, and departed to his house, glorifying God" (5 24.25). It seems, there fore, that this "bed" was a "pallet" and "couch" combined, a thin mattress upon a light portable frame, such as we have already seen was in use among the ancients. Another kindred case was that of the sick man at the pool of Bethesda (Jn 6 2 ff ) whom Jesus healed and commanded to "take up his bed and walk," and he "took up his bed and walked"; only in this case the "bed" is a "pallet" without the frame, it would seem.

      (3) Jesus in His teaching (Mk 4 21; cf Lk 8 16) asks, in language which is significant in this connection: "Is the lamp brought to be put under .... the bed?" (Lk 8 16: "No man, when he hath lighted a lamp, covereth it with a vessel, or put let li it under abed"). Here, clearly, "the bed" is the "bedstead," bedclothes, draperies and all, under which "the lain})" would be obscured and hindered in its function of "giving light to all in the room." Again (Lk 17 34) Jesus says, "In that night there shall be two men on one bed," which is incidental evidence that the "beds" of that day were not all "pallets" or "couches" for one only (cf Lk 11 7, "My children are with me in bed"; Cant 1 1(5; 3 10; Prov 7 16.18).

      (4) For fig. use in the prophets (e.g. Ezk 23 17) and in the NT (e.g. "Let the bed be undefiled," He 13 4), see commentaries in loc.

      GKO. B. EAC;EU

      BEDAD, be dad (Tj2 , b dhudh, "alone"): Father of Hadad, king of Edom "before then- reigned any king over the children of Israel" (( len 36 35; 1 Ch 1 46).

      BEDAN, be dan (""3 , b dhan, "son of judgment"


      (1) One of the leaders in Israel who with Jerub- baal, Jephthah and Samuel is mentioned as a de liverer of the nation (1 S 12 11). The; text is questioned because LXX, Syr and Arab, read Barak instead.

      (2) A son of Ulam of the house of Manasseh (1 Ch 7 17).

      BEDCHAMBER, bed cham-ber. See BED.

      BEDEIAH, be-de ya (rP"3 , bedh yah, "serv ant of Jeh"): A son of Bani who had married a "strange wife" (Ezr 10 35).

      BEDSTEAD, bed sted. See BED.

      BEE, be (iTVQ~, d*bhorah; cf Arab, dabr, "a swarm of bees," also Arab, debbur, "a wasp," said to be a corruption of zunbur, "a wasp"; all are apparently from the Heb dabhar, "to speak," "arrange," "lead," "follow," or from Arab, dabara, "follow" [cf Arab, dabbara, "arrange"], though the connection in meaning is not apparent) : Honey is mentioned many times in the Bible, esp. in the OT, but the word "bee" occurs only four times, and

      only one of the four times in connection with honey, in the story of Samson (Jgs 14 8). Both wild and domesticated bees are found today in Pal, but it is not clear that bees were kept in Bible times, although it would seem very probable. The frequently recurring phrase, "a land flowing with milk and honey," certainly suggests that the honey as well as the milk is a domestic product. The hives now in use are very primitive and wasteful as compared with hives that are made in Europe and America. Sometimes a large water jar is used. More frequently a cylinder about 3 or 4 ft. long and 6 in. in diameter is constructed of mulberry withes plaited together and plastered with mud or cow dung. A number of these cylinders are placed horizontally, being piled up together under some rude structure which serves as a protection from the direct rays of the sun. In the passage already cited it is related that Samson found a swarm of bees and honey in the carcase of the lion which he had killed on his previous visit. We are not told how much time had intervened, but it does not take long in the dry climate of Pal for scavenging beasts and insects to strip the flesh from the bones and make the skeleton a possible home for a swarm of bees. The other three passages refer to the offensive power of bees. In Dt 1 44, in the speech of Moses he says, "The Amorites .... chased you, as bees do"; in Ps 118 12, the psalmist says, "They com passed me about like bees"; in Isa 7 18, the bee is the type of the chastisement that the Lord will bring from the land of Assyria.


      BEELIADA, be-fi-ll a-da (^^2, , b <dij(Wui\\\\\\\\ "the Lord knows"; ELIADA, which see; cf HPN, 144, 192, n. 1, 202): A son of David (1 Ch 14 7).

      BEELSARUS, be-el sa-rus, be-el-sa rus (B\\\\\\\\- o-dpos, Beelsdros): One who accompanied Zerub- babel in the return from the captivity (1 Esd 5 8), called Bilshan in Ezr 2 2 and Neh 7 7.

      BEELTETHMUS, be-el-teth mus (Bee Xrf 6(105,

      Beellethmos; Balthemus) : One of the officers of King Artaxerxes in Pal (1 Esd 2 Hi. 25). Accord ing to Professor Sayce, the name by etymology means "lord of official intelligence" or "post master." Rendered "chancellor" in Ezr 4 8 and "story -writer" in 1 Esd 2 17.

      BEELZEBUB, bf-el zf-bub (in AV and RV is an error [after Vulg] for Beelzebul [RVm], BeeXi;*- POV\\\\\\\\, Beelzeboul; \\\\\\\\VH, Be^ovX, Bcezcboul) : In the time of Christ this was the current name for the chief or prince of demons, and was identified with SATAN (q.v.) and the DEVIL (q.v.). The Jews committed the unpardonable sin of ascribing Christ s work of casting out demons to Beelzebul, thus ascribing to the worst source the supreme manifestation of goodness (Mt 10 25; 12 24.27; Mk 3 22; Lk 11 15.18.19). There can be little doubt that it is the same name as BAALZEBUB (q.v.). It is a well-known phenomenon in the history of religions that the gods of one nation become the devils of its neighbors and enemies. When the Aryans divided into Indians and Iranians, the Devas remained gods for the Indians, but became devils (daevas) for the Iranians, while the Ahuras remained gods for the Iranians and became devils (asuras) for the Indians. Why Baalzebub became Beelze bul, why the b changed into I, is a matter of con jecture. It may have been an accident of popular pronunciation, or a conscious perversion (Beelzebul in Syr = "lord of dung"), or OT z f bhubh may have been a perversion, accidental or intentional oiz bhul


      Beg, Begging



      ( "house"), so thiit Baalzebul meant "lord of the house." These are the chief theories offered (Cheyne in EB; Hart on in Hastings, ERE).

      T. REES

      BEER, be er ("I S3 , b e er; 4>p a P> /,/,/ra/v Lat puleu* = "well") :

      (1; A station on the march of the Israelites to the X. of the Arnon (Xu 21 Hi). Here it was that they sang round the \\\\\\\\vell this song:

      Spring up () well; greet it with song, Well, that the princes have dug. The nobles of the people have bored, With the sceptre with their staves (Xu 21 16ffj.

      The place is not identified.

      ( _ ) The town to which Jotham fled from his brother Abimelech after declaring his parable from Ml. Gemini (.Igs 9 21). This may be identical with BKKKOTII, which see.

      BEERA, be-e ra, be er-a fS^SZ . b r era , "ex pounder"): A descendant of Asher (1 C h 7 37j.

      BEERAH, be-e ra, be er-a (rnX3 , Ir Trali; "ex pounder"): A prince of the house of Reuben whom Tiglat h-|)iloser carried away captive (1 C h 6 (>). (T 2 K 15 29; 16 7.

      BEER-ELIM, be-er-e lim i-" 1 "!* 183, te er ellm; 4>peap TOV AiXeip., /ihri iir ton Ailiii/i, lit. "well ot K."): Probably lay to the X. of Moab, answering to Kglaim in the S. ( Isa 15 S). It may possibly be ident ical with B KK u ( 1 ) ; but t here is no cert ami y.

      BEERI, be-e ii (" I ^S2 , b r crl, "expounder"!:

      (1) Father of Judith, one of Esau s wives (lien

      26 31).

      (2) Tin- father of the prophet Hosea (IIos 1 1).

      BEER-LAHAI-ROI, be-er-la-hl roi, be-er-la-hl- !(-> i Hip inb 1X2, {> <- r Inhni ro i, "well of the Living One that seeth me"): "A fountain of water in the wilderness," "the fountain in the way to Shur" (den 16 7-11). It was t lie scene of Hagar s theophany, and here Isaac dwelt for some time (den 16 7f; 24 (12; 25 11). The site is in The Negeb between Kadesh and Bered (16 11). Row land identifies the well with the modern Mm M/nlil/i/ii, cir ")() miles S. of Beersheba and 12 miles W. of A in Kitili*. Cheyne thinks that II;igar s native country, to which she was fleeing ;ind from which she took a wife for Ishmael, was not Egypt (/icr/ii/in/ ), but a north Arabian district called by the Assyrians Musri (E B). S. F. HUXTEK

      BEEROTH, bn-e roth, be er- BTjpcoO, Hvroth): One of the cities of the Canaanites whose inhabit ants succeeded in deceiving Israel, and in making a covenant with them (Josh 9 3 if i. Apparently they were Hivites (ver 7). The occa sion on which the Beerothites fled to Clittaim where they preserved their communal identity is not indi cated. The town was reckoned to Benjamin (2 S 4 2 f). Onom places it under (libeon, 7 Rom miles from Jems on the way to Xicopolis (Arnica*). If we follow the old road by way of Gibeon (<7-./7M and Bethhoron, Beeroth would lie probably to the XAV. of cl-Jih. The traditional identification is with cl-Iilri li, about 8 miles from Jerus on the great north road. If the order in which the towns are mentioned (Josh 9 17; 18 2o) is any guide as to position, cl-Blri li is too far to the N.W. The identification is precarious. To Beeroth belonged the murderers of Ish-bosheth (2 S 4 2), and Naharai, Joab s armor-bearer (2 S 23 37; 1 Ch 11 39). ^It was reoccupied after the Exile (Ezr 2 25; Neh 7 29). W. EWI.MJ

      BEEROTH BENE-JAAKAN, ben 0-ja a-kan

      OR?- " l -? PnS?5 , b f cruth b ne ya alfdn; RVni "the wells of the children of Jaakan"): A desert- camp of the Israelites mentioned before Moserah (Dt 10 0). In Nu 33 31.32 the name is given simply "Bene-jaakan," and the situation after Moseroth. See WAXDEUIX<;S OK ISKAEL.

      BEEROTHITE, be-e roth-It, be er-oth-It , BE- ROTHITE pr?, b TTdlfn; 2 S 4 T>.9; 2 S 23 37; shortened form, 1 Ch 11 39). See BKEKOTH.

      BEERSHEBA, be-er-she ba ("3C "IS3 , b- f-r fihchhii ; BTipo-ap, J-irrxdlx c): Allotted originally to Simeon (Josh 19 2), one of "the uttermost cities of the tribe of the children of Jtidah" (Josh 15 2S).

      (1) The most probable meaning of Beersheba is the "well of seven." "Seven wells" is improbable

      on etymological grounds; the numeral

      1. The should in that case be first. In ( len Meaning of 21 31 Abraham and Abimelech took the Name an oath of witness that the former had

      dug the well and seven ewe lambs were offered in sacrifice , "Wherefore he called that place Beer-sheba ; because there they sware both of them." Here the name is ascribed to the Ileb root- "5 i* , shril>lni\\\\\\\\ "to swear," but this same root is connected with the idea of seven, seven victims being offered and to take an oath, meaning "to come under t lie influence of seven."

      Another account is gi ven (C,en 26 23-33), where Isaac takes an oath and just afterward, "the same day Isaac s servants came, and told him concerning the well which they had digged, and said unto him. We have found water. And IK called it Shibah: therefore the name of the city is Beer-sheba unto this day."

      (2) Beersheba was a sacred shrine. "Abraham planted a tamarisk tree in Beer-sheba, and called

      there on the name of Jeh, the Ever-

      2. A Sacred lasting Cod" (den 21 33). Theoph- Shrine anies occurred I here to Hagar (den

      21 17), to Isaac (26 21), to Jacob (46 2j, and to Elijah (1 K 19 5). By Amos (5 o) it is classed with Bethel and dilgal as one of the rival shrines to the pure worship of Jeh, and in another place (8 11) he writes "They shall fall, and never rise up again," who sware, "As the way [i.e. cull u*} of Beer-sheba liveth." The two unworthy sons of Samuel were judges in Beersheba (1 882) and Zibiah, mother of King Jehoash, was born there (2 K 12 1; 2 Ch 24 1).

      (3) Geographically Beersheba marked the south ern limit of Judah, though theoretically this ex

      tended to the "river of Egypt" (Gen

      3. Its 15 18) the modern Wad// r/MmA Position GO miles farther south. It was the

      extreme border of the cultivated land. From Dan to Beersheba (2 S 17 11, etc) or from Beersheba to Dan (1 Ch 21 2; 2 Ch 30 .5) were the proverbial expressions, though necessarily altered through the changed conditions in later years to "from Geba to Beer-sheba" (2 K 23 8) or "from Beer-sheba to the hill-country of Ephraim" (2 Ch 19 4).

      (1) Today Beersheba is Blr es-Seba*inihe Warhj es Seba\\\\\\\\ 28 miles S.W. of Hebron on "the southern

      border of a vast rolling plain broken

      4. Modern by the torrent beds of Wady Khalil Beersheba and Wady Seba" (Robinson). The

      plain is treeless but is covered by verdure in the spring; it is dry and monotonous most of the year. Within the last few years this long-deserted spot a wide stretch of shapeless ruins, the haunt of the lawless Bedouin has been re-occupied; the Turks have stationed there an




      Beg, Begging

      enlightened Kaittierhitan (subgovernor); govern ment offices and shops have been built ; wells have been cleared, and there is now an abundant water supply pumped even to the separate houses. Robinson (B\\\\\\\\V , XVII, 247 ff) has described how he found seven ancient wells there probably still more will yet be found. The whole neighborhood is strewn with the ruins of the Byzantine city which once flourished there; it was an episcopal see. It is probable that the city of OT times stood where Tell ex SV/;a now is, some 2\\\\\\\\ miles to the E.; from the summit a commanding view can be obtained (1>EF, III, 394, Sheet XXIV).

      E. W. C. MASTKKMAX

      BEESHTERAH, be-esh te-ra (Josh 21 27). See ASHTAROTH.

      BEETLE, be t l (RV CRICKET; ?3in , Imrgul; see LoorsT): This name occurs only in Lev 11 22 as one of four winged jumping insects (xlierec hu-*o/)/i) which may be eaten. It certainly is not a beetle and is probably not a cricket. Probably all four an; names of locusts, of which more than 30 species have been described from Syria and Pal, and for which there are at least 8 Arab, names in use, though with lit tie distinct ion of species. Closely allied to hurt/ill are the Arab, /jurjald, a troop of horses or a flight of locusts, from htirjal, "to gallop," and fiarjawan, "a wingless locust."


      BEEVES, bevs (Lev 22 21 AV). See CATTLE.

      BEFORE, be-fdr : The tr of a great variety of Ileb and Clr words. "Ilaran died b. |ERV "in the presence of," lit. "before the face of"] his father Terah" (Gen 11 28). To be "before" ( lod is to enjov His favor (Ps 31 22). "The Syrians be fore" (Isa 9 12 RVm "on the east," as "behind," owing to the position of Canaan, relative to Syria, implies the west ).

      BEG, BEGGAR, BEGGING: It is significant that

      the Mosaic law contains no enactment concerning

      beggars, or bogging, though it makes

      1. No Law ample provision for the relief and care Concerning of "I he poor in the land." Bib. Hob Beggars or seems to have no term for professional Begging in bogging, the nearest, approach to it Israel being the expressions "to ask (or seek]

      bread" and "to wander." This omis sion certainly is not accidental; it comports with the very nature of the Mosaic law, the spirit of which is breathed in this, among other kindred provi sions, that a poor Hebrew who even sold himself for debt to his wealthy brother was allowed to serve him only until the Jubilee 1 (see JTHILKK), and his master was forbidden to treat him as a slave (Lev 25 3 .)). These; laws, as far as actually practised, have always virtually done away with beggars and begging among the Jews.

      Begging, however, came to bo known to the

      Jews in the course of time with the development of

      tin; larger cities, either as occurring

      2. Begging among themselves, or among neigh- Not Un- boring or intermingling peoples, as known to may be inferred from Ps 59 15; cf the Ancient 109 10, where Jeh is besought that Jews the children of the wicked may be

      cursed with beggary, in contra-dis- tinction to the children of the righteous, who have never had to ask bread (Ps 37 25, "I have been young, and now am old; yet have I not seen the righteous forsaken, nor his seed asking [EV "beg ging"] bread." For the Heb expression corre sponding to "begging" see Ps 59 15, "They shall wander up and down for food"; and cf Ps 119 10, "Let me not wander," etc.

      The first clear denunciation of beggary and alms- taking in Jewish lit. is found in Ecclus (Siraeh) 40 28-30, where the Hob for "bog- 3. Begging ging" is to "wander," etc, as in Ps and Alms- 59 15, according to the od of Cowley taking De- and Neubauer, Oxford, 1S97. There nounced in as well as in Tobit, and in the NT, Jewish where beggars are specifically men-

      Literature tioned, the word eleemosune has as sumed the special sense of alms given to the begging poor (cf Tob 4 7.1G.17; 12 8-11; Ecclus [Sir] 3 14.30; 7 10; 16 14; Mt 6 2-4; 20 30-34; Mk 10 4(1-52; Lk 11 41; 12 33; Jn 9 I 41; Acts 9 3(1; 10 2.4.31; 24 17).

      Jerusalem Beggars.

      As to professional beggars, originally, certainly,

      and for a long time, they were a despised class

      among the Hebrews; and the Jewish

      4. Profes- communities are forbidden to support sional Beg- them from the general charity fund gars a ( HH, 9o; Yoreh De*dh, 250, 3). But Despised the spirit of the law is evinced again in Class that it is likewise forbidden to drive a

      beggar away without an alms (ha-Yd-ilfi hti-lln-nkah, I.e. 77).

      Begging was well known and beggars formed a considerable class in the gospel age. Proof of this

      is found in the references to almsgiving

      5. In the in the Sermon on the Mount (Mt 5 7 Gospel Age and parallels), and in the accounts of

      beggars in connection with public places, e.g. the entrance to Jericho (Mt 20 30 and parallels), which was a gateway to pilgrims going tip to Jerus to the great festivals and in the neigh borhood of rich men s houses (Lk 16 20), and esp. the gates of the Temple at Jerus (Acts 3 2). This prevalence of begging was due largely to the want of any adequate system of ministering relief, to the lack of any true medical science and the resulting ignorance of remedies for common dis eases like ophthalmia, for instance, and to the impoverishment of the land under the excessive taxation of the Rom government (Ilausrath, Hist of XT Times, I, 188 [Eng. tr Williams and Norgate], cf Edersheim, Land T of Jeans, II, 178). That begging was looked down upon is incidentally evidenced by the remark of the unjust steward, "To beg I am ashamed" (Lk 16 3); and that, when associated with indolence, it was strongly con demned by public opinion appears from Sir (40 28-30).

      The words used for "beg," "beggar" of EV in the NT differ radically in idea: in those formed from ailed (Mk 10 4(; Lk 16 3; 18 35; Jn 9 S KV) the root idea is


      Bel and Dragon



      that of "asking," while jitiichox (Lk 16 20.22) su^Kests the criiitfintf or crouching of a boggar. Hut sen; Ml 5 ;5 when; thi! word for "humble" is ]>tochnx.

      A marked change has come over Jewish life in modern times, in this as well as in other respects.

      Since the 17th cent, the Jewish poor 6. A in many parts of the world have made

      Change in it a practice, esp. on Fridays and on Modern the eves of certain festivals, to go Times systematically from house to house

      asking alms. In parts of Europe today it, is a full-grown abuse: crowds of Jewish beggars push their way and ply their trade about, the synagogue doors (Abrahams, EH, art. "Alms," 310). So the Jewish beggar, in spite of the spirit, of the law and ancient Jewish custom, has, under modern conditions too well known to require ex planation here, become a troublesome figure and problem in modern Jewish society. For such beggars and begging, see Jem Enc, arts. "Schnorrers," "Alms," etc, and for another kind of begging among modern Jews, and collections for poverty-stricken Jewishsettlers in Pal, see arts. "Halukah," "Charity," etc.

      LITERATURE. Saalschiitz, Arch, ilcr Hebriier, II, ch xviii (Konigsberg, l,S55-5(>); Riohm, Handw&rterbuch zu

      den. Hiirhi-rn ilex AT. s.v. "Almosen"; cf ./<// Km-, IIDH, and Knc It, arts, "Alms"; and Abrahams, J>-irixh L>f, in. the Middle Ay ex, chs xvii. xviii (Philadelphia, 1896); Mackie, Hi hie Mann,r.-< and Ciixtoms; Day, The Social Life of the Hebrews.

      GEO. B. EA<;KK

      BEGGARLY, beg er-li CTTTIOXOS, j>tr>ch< >N): The word has the thought of "to crouch" or "cringe," such as is common with professional beggars. It, is used in Alt, 5 3 and Gal 4 9, and in both cases means complete spiritual destitution. As used in Gal it expresses the contrast between their present, condition and the former estate, toward which he says they are again tending. Paul has in mind both the Jewish and heathen .systems of religion with all their outward show. He therefore hen; emphasizes the immeasurable superiority of the riches and liberty in Christ. He further expresses this same thought, of the law in Rom 8 3 and He

      7 IS. In view of the wretchedness of the condi tion indicated by the word "beggarly," he states his astonishment that they should so little appre ciate the liberty and riches which they now enjoy as even to think of going back tot lie former condition.

      JACOB \\\\\\\\V. KAPP

      BEGIN, bn-gin : To make the first movement to ward a given end (55H , halal; apxo^cu, drchomai). Those who interpret, it in many passages pleonas- tically mean by this, that in such passages as "began to teach" or "began to speak," nothing more is intended than to express vividly and graphically the thought of the dependent infinitive. Alt 4 17; Lk 3 23; Acts 1 1 are so understood. For con trary opinion, see Thayer s Lexicon, and Winer s Grammar of XT Greek.

      The noun, apx^, arche, "beginning," in the writings of John, is used sometimes in an abstract sense, to designate a previous stage (Jn 1 1.2;

      8 25; 1 Jn 1 1; 38) and, sometimes, the Source or First Cause (Rev 3 14; 21 6; 22 13). Often used also, not for the absolute beginning, but, rela tively, for the starting-point, of some important, movement (1 Jn 2 7.24; Acts 11 15; Phil 4 15).

      H. E. JACOBS

      BEGINNING, bfvgin ing (rmpXI , rVshlth; apx*!. archP): The natural meaning of the word is with reference to time. The primitive Gr root means "to be long," "to draw out." Thus it is used to refer to some point of time long drawn out , or long past (Gen 1 1). It is used also to express the in auguration of a particular event, (Ex 12 2). The principal interest in the word centers in the use of

      it in Jn 1 1. It must be interpreted here by that which follows in the statement as to the relation of the Logos to the Eternal God and the use of the word "was." It is true that the word archii cannot be separated from the idea of time, but when time began He already was, and therefore He was from eternity. See TIME; ETEHNITY.

      Figurative: In a fig. sense it is used of that which is most excellent, the chief part (Prov 1 7); of the most eminent person (Col 1 18); the author (Rev 3 14). JACOB W. KAPP

      BEGOTTEN, bf-got"n (1?^ , yaladh; "to bear," "bring forth," "beget"; denotes the physical rela tion of either parent to a child, Gen 3 16; 4 IS): I sed metaphorically of God s relation to Israel (Dt 32 IS) and to the Messianic king (Ps 2 7); (yewdu, genndu, "to beget," or "bear"): gen erally used of a father (Mt 1 1-1(5); more rarely of a mother (Lk 1 13.57); used metaphorically of causing or engendering moral and spiritual relations and states (1 Cor 4 15; Philem 10); of the new birth of the Holy Spirit (Jn 3 3ff). Men who obey and love God as sons are begotten of Him

      ence to His resurrection (cf Rom 1 4). The same passage is cited (He 1 5) as proving Christ s filial dignity, transcending the angels in that "he hath inherited a more excellent name than they," i.e. the name of son; and again (He 6 5) of God conferring upon Christ the glory of the priestly office.

      Commentators differ as to whether the act of begetting the Son in these two passages is (n) the eternal generation, or (b) the incarnation in time, or (r) the resurrection and ascension. The imme diate context of 1 5 (see 1 3) seems to favor the last view (\\\\\\\\Yestcott). The first view would not be foreign to the author s thought: with 6 5 cf 6 20, "a high priest forever" (Alford). The author of He thinks of the eternal and essential sonship of Christ as realized in history in His ascension to the "right, hand of the Majesty" (1 3). And what is emphatic is the fact and status of sonship, rather than the time of begetting. T. REES

      BEGUILE, br-gil : In 2 Pet 2 14 AV (cf Jas 1 14) the word SeXeafw, dcledzd, is tr 1 "beguile," and means particularly to "entice," "catch by bait." Doubtless Peter got this idea from his old business of fishing, baiting the hook to beguile the fish. In Horn 711; 16 18; 1 Cor 3 18 the word is ^dTrardw, cxctpatdo, and means "to cheat" or "to thoroughly deceive." The thought is to be so completely deceived as to accept falsehood for the truth, believing it to be the truth. In Col 2 4.18 AV; Jas 1 22 the word is, paralogizo- inni, and means "to miscalculate," "to be imposed upon." It refers particularly to being beguiled by mere probability. See DECEIT; DELUSION.


      BEHALF, be-hof : "On the part of" (Ex 27 21, i.e. so far as it affects them); "on the side of" (Job 36 2). For hnper, "over," in the sense of furnishing assistance, as in 2 Cor 6 20, "in the interest of Christ" (ver 21); "for our good," "in his cause" (Phil 1 29); also, often in 2 Cor, in general sense of "concerning" (5 12; 7 4; 8 24; 9 2; 12 5). Hnper does not of itself indicate sub stitution, although one who shelters ["is over"] another, suffers "in his stead" (AV 2 Cor 5 20), as well as "in his behalf."

      BEHAVIOR, be-hav yer (DJB , ia*am, "taste," "flavor," hence "intellectual taste," i.e. judgment,




      Bel and Dragon

      reason, understanding) : Of significance as referring to David s feigning madness before Achish, king of Gath, being "sore afraid." Gesenius renders it "changed his understanding," i.e. his mental behavior and outward manner (1 S 21 13, and title to Ps 34).

      Twice used in the NT (AV) of the well-ordered life of the Christian (KOCT^UOS, kosmios, "well- arranged," "modest," i.e. living with decorum: 1 Tim 3 2), defining the blameless life expected of a minister (overseer), "A bishop must be .... of good behavior," RV orderly" (KardffT-rjfMa, katdsterna, "demeanor," "deportment"), includ ing, according to Dean Alford, "gesture and habit" as the outward expression of a reverent spirit (1 Pet 3 1.2). "Aged women .... in behavior as becometh holiness" (Tit 2 3; RV "reverent in demeanor"). DWK;HT M. PKATT

      BEHEADING, b& -hed ing. Wee PUNISHMENTS.

      BEHEMOTH, be he-moth, Irf-he moth b e hcnullh: Job 40 !.">): Apparently the pi. of b e - hemuft, "a beast," used of domestic or wild animals. The same form, b c hcmoth, occurs in other passages, e.g. Dt 28 20; 32 24; Is.-i 18 G; Hab 2 17, where it is not rendered "behemoth" but "beasts." According to some, the word b /icnioth, occurring in Job 40 ir>, is not a Heb word, the pi. of b e he in ah, but a word of Egyp origin signifying "water ox." This etymology is denied by Cheyne and others. The word has by various writers been understood to mean rhinoceros and elephant, but the description (Job 40 15-24) applies on the whole very well to the hippopotamus (Hippopot amus amphibius) which inhabits the Nile and other rivers of Africa. Esp. applicable are the references to its great size, its eating grass, the difficulty with which weapons penetrate its hide, and its frequent ing of streams.

      "lie lieth under the lotus-trees, In the covert of the reed, and the fen. The lotus-trees cover him with their shade; The willows of the brook compass him about."

      The remains of a fossil hippopotamus of appar ently the same species are found over most of Europe, so that it may have inhabited Pal in early historical times, although we have no record of it. There is a smaller living species in west Africa, and there arc several other fossil species in Europe and India. The remains of Hippopotamus nrinulns have been found in enormous quantities in caves in Malta and Sicily.

      For an elaborate explanation of behemoth and leviathan (q.v.) as mythical creatures, see Cheyne, EB, s.v. ALFRED ELY DAY

      BEHOLDING, be-hold ing: Many Heb and C,r words are so rendered in EV, but TroTrTetiaa.i>Tes t epopletisantes, "your good works, which they behold" (1 Pet 2 12); "beholding your chaste behavior" (3 2), and tTr&irTat., epoptai, "We were eyewitnesses of his majesty" (2 Pet 1 10) are peculiar to Peter. The fact that this word is used only by Peter and is used in both epistles is an argument for identity of authorship. The word epoptcs denotes one who had been initiated into the innermost secrets of his faith and who enjoyed the highest religious privileges; but now in contradic tion to the secrecy of all pagan "mysteries" (Eleu- sinian, etc) the apostles would share with all the faithful every spiritual vision which they enjoyed ("we made known unto you").

      In 2 Cor 3 18, for Ka.roirrpL^6iJ.evoi, katoptri- zomenoi, the ERV gives "reflecting (as a mirror) the glory of the Lord," ARV "beholding (as in a mirror," etc). Kdtoptron was a mirror of polished

      metal. We cannot clearly and fully behold the outshining of spiritual grandeur in Christ Jesus, but, in the gospel God accommodates and adjusts the vision as we are able to bear it, and the glory beheld becomes glory imparted to (and reflected by) the beholder.

      John s Gospel gives us, thedomni ("to look closely at"), and Oeupeu, thcdred ("to discern"). "We beheld [etheasdmetha] his glory" (Jn 1 14), "that they may behold [theor&sin] my glory" (17 24). In classic lit., the former word is closely associated with theatrical spectacles, and the latter with ath letic games, and they both convey the idea of unceasing interest, deepening in this connection into love and joy. M. (). EVANS

      BEHOOVE, be-hoov : Used in the NT for two Gr words del (Lk 24 2b ; Acts 17 3) and opheilo (He 2 17); the former referring to a physical, and the latter to a moral, necessity (Bengelon, 1 Cor 11 10). The former means "must," that is, it is required by the order which God has or dained; the latter, "ought," that is, it is required as a debt.

      BEIRUT, ba root . See BERYTUS.

      BEKA, be kii (yf33 , bcka\\\\\\\\ "half") : Half a shekel, the amount contributed by each male of the Israel ites for the use of the Sanctuary (Ex 38 20). Its value varied according to the standard used, but on the ordinary, or Phoen, standard it would rep resent about 122 grains. See WEIGHTS AND MEASURES.

      BEL, bel, bill (bll , bel): Appellative name of a Bab god (cf BAAL), in the OT and Apoc identified with Marduk or Merodach, the tutelary deity of Babylon (cf Isa 46 1 ; Jer 61 44; Bar 6 41). See BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA, THE RELHUON OF.


      OF, X.

      DAM EL, BOOK

      BEL, bel, bal, AND THE DRAGON, drag un (Gr words: 8po,Kwv, dm/con, "dragon," "serpent": KTOS, ektox, "except"; opacris, /wv/.s/.s-, "vision," "prophecy"; 6<JHSf <5p/iis, "serpent"; o-c|>pa-yicrd|ievos, sphragisdmenos, "having sealed"; \\\\\\\\ w P s, chorix, "ex cept." Heb or Aram, words: CPn, hdlhani, "to seal"; HE" 1 !, zephd , "pitch"; Spyf, za dphtT, "storm," "wind"; l^ H! , ndfidxh, "snake"; "p5^> tun inn, "serpent," "sea monster") :


      II. NAME OK BEL AND THE DRAGON (in the Various Recensions, Versions and Codices)


      1. The Bel Story: the God of Bel

      2. The Dragon Story; Meaning of "Dragon"; Serpent-Worship in Babylon


      1. Manuscripts

      2. Recensions or Versions

      (1) (ireek

      (2) Syriac (H) Latin (4) Aramaic

      V. OKICINAI, 1 ^\\\\\\\\ \\\\\\\\<:u A<;E: PRINCIPAL OPINIONS

      1. (ireek

      2. Hebrevy

      3. Aramaic

      4. Reasons for Regarding Hebrew as Likeliest VI. TEACHING

      Little in this work that is distinctly Jewish. God is great, absolute and ever-living; angels inter vene for special ends; the absurdity of idol- worship VII. AUTHOR, PLACE AND DATE OF COMPOSITION

      Probably not in Babylon; perhaps the Heb text originated in Pal about 146 BO or later. The LXX version produced in Egypt about 100 BO, which may bo the date and language of the Book. (Theodotion s version) was produced probably at Ephesus about 180 AD




      Accepted as canonical by the Jews of Kgypt but rejected by the Jews of I al. Accepted as part of the Bible by (lr and Uit church Fathers, by the. Council of Trent and therefore by the Rom church; denied by Protestants to be canonical


      /. Introductory. Bel and the Dragon is the third of the three Apocryphal additions to Daniel, The SONG OP THE THKEE CHILDREN and SUSANNA (q.v.) being the other t\\\\\\\\vo. In the Clr and Lat VSS (see below, "IV. Textual Authorities") these "additions" form an integral part of the canonical Book of Dnl, and they are recognized as such and therefore as themselves canonical by the Council of Trent. But the Song of the Three Children is the only piece, having a necessary connection with the Hob canonical Book of Dnl; in the and Lat texts it follows Dnl 3 24. The other two are appended and appear to have an origin independent of tin- book to which they are appended and also of each other, though in all three as also in the Ileb Book of Dnl the name and fame of Daniel stand out prom inently.

      //. Name. Since in the C.r and Lat recensions or VSS Bel forms a portion of the Book of Dnl it does not bear a special name. But in the only two known MSS of the LXX in . Syro-IIexaplar (see below, "IV. Textual Authorities") these words stand at the head of the "addition" now under con sideration: "From [or "a part of ] the prophecy of Ilabakkuk son of Joshua of the tribe of Levi." That the Bib. writing prophet of that name is meant is beyond question. In 6 this fact is dis tinctly stated (see ver 33); and it is equally beyond question that these- tales could never have come- from the prophet, so called (see below "VIII. Canonicity and Authenticity").

      In codd. A and B of 6 the title is: Homxix 12, i.e. ch 12 of Dnl, canonical Dnl being comprised in 11 chs. In the Vulg, Bel forms ch 14, but, as in the case of the earlier chs, it has no heading.

      In the Syr Pesh (W) the story of Bel is preceded by "Bel the idol," and that of the Dragon by "Then follows the Dragon." Bel and the Dragon is the title in all Protestant, VSS of the Apocrypha, which rigidly keep the latter separate from the books of the Heb canon.

      ///. Contents. The stories of Bel and of the Dragon have a separate origin and existed apart: they are brought, together because they both agree in holding up idolatry to ridicule and in encouraging Jewish believers to be true to their religion. The glorification of Daniel is also another point in which both agree, though while the Daniel of the Bel story appears as a shrewd judge corresponding to the etymology of that name, he of the Dragon story is but"a fearless puritan who will die rather than be faithless to his religion.

      It is evident however that the editor of the "additions" has fused both stories into one, making the Dragon story depend on that which precedes (see vs23f). It seems very likely that, in a Nes- torian list mentioned by Churton (Uncanonical and Apocryphal Scriptures, 3Q1), Bel and the Dragon is comprised under the title, The. Little Daniel.^

      The two stories as told in common by LXX and 6 may be thus summarized:

      There is in Babylon an image of Bel which Daniel

      refuses to worship, though no form of worship is

      mentioned except, that of supplying

      1. The the god with food. The king (Cyrus

      Story of Bel according to 9) remonstrates with the

      delinquent Hebrew, pointing out to

      him the immense amount of food consumed daily

      by Bel, who thus proves himself to be a living god.

      Daniel, doubting the king s statement as to the

      food, asks to be allowed to test the alleged fact.

      His request being granted, lie is shown by ex pressed desire the /< < ! ixteritiu, the sacred tables being covered by food which the god is to consume during the night . The doors are all sealed by arrangement, and after the priests have departed Daniel has tho temple floor strewn with light ashes. When the morning breaks it is found that the doors are still sealed, but the food has disappeared. I pon ex amination the tracks of bare feet are found on the ash-strewn floor, showing that the priests have entered the temple by a secret way and removed the food. Angered by the trick played on him the king has the priests put to death and the image destroyed.

      The word Bel, a short form of Baal, occurs in the OT in Isa 46 1; Jer 50 2; 51 44, where it stands for Merodach or Marduk, chief of the Bab deities. Originally however it denotes any one of the Bab local deit ies, and esp. the principal deity worshipped at Nippur (for similar use of the Heb "Baal" see art. on this word). In 6 Cyrus appears as an abettor of Bel-worship, which is quite in accord ance with the practice of the early Pers kings to show favor to the worship of the countries they conquered. See Century Bible, "E/r, Nell and Est," 40.

      There is in Babylon a great live dragon wor shipped by a large number of the inhabitants, who lavishly feed it. In the present 2. The case the god is or is represented by

      Dragon a living creature which can be fed,

      Story and, indeed, needs feeding. Daniel

      refuses to bow down before the dragon and makes an offer to the king to kill it. Be lieving the god well able to care for himself, the king accepts Daniel s challenge. Daniel makes a mixture of which pitch forms the principal ingre dient and thrusts it down the dragon s throat, so that "it bursts asunder and dies." The people are infuriated at the death of their god and demand that the king shall have the god-murderer put to death, a demand to which the royal master yields by having Daniel cast into a den of lions, as was done to other culprits found guilty of capital charges. But though the prophet remained in the company of 7 lions for (> days lie suffered no injury. On the last day when Daniel, without food, was naturally hungry, a miracle was performed by way of supplying him with food. Ilabakkuk (see above, "II. Name"), when cooking food for his reapers, heard an angel s voice commanding him to carry the food he had prepared to Daniel in the lions don in Babylon. Upon his replying that he did not know where the den, or oven Babylon, was, the angel laid hold of his hair and by it carried the prophet to the very part of the den where Daniel was. Having handed the latter the meal intended for the reapers, he was safely brought back by the angel to his own home. It would seem that Ilabak kuk was protected from the lions as well as Daniel. Seeing all this the king worshipped God, set Daniel free, and in his stead cast his accusers into the lions den, where they were instantly devoured.

      Zockler in his commentary (p. 215) speaks of the "fluidity" of the Dragon myth, and ho has been followed by Marshall and Daubney. But what in reality does the Gr word dmkon, rendered "dragon," mean? In the LXX the word is used generally (15 times) to translate the Heb tannin which de notes a serpent or sea monster. It is this word (tannin) which in the Aram, version of the Dragon story translates the Gr drakon. _ Now in Ex 4^3 and 7 9 the Heb tannin and n ah ash ("serpent") seem identified as are the Gr drakon and_ ophis in Rev 12 9. We may therefore take drakon. in the present story to stand for a serpent. Wo know that in Babylon the god Nina was worshipped in the



      form of a serpent (see Sayee, Hibbtrt Lectures, 281 f), and it is more probable that it is the worship of this god or of some other serpent deity that is here meant, than that there is any allusion to the Bab story according to which Marduk the supreme deity of Babylon engaged in a conflict with Tiamat the monster foe to light and order. (1) The dragon of the present story is a god and not as Tiamat, a kind of devil, and a male, not a female. (2) The dragon in the present story is a serpent, which is not true of Tiamat. (3) Apsu (male) and Tiamat (female) are Bab deities who give birth to the gods of heaven; these gods subsequently led by their mother Tiamat engaged in a fierce contest with Marduk.

      Since Gunkel published his book, Schopfung und Chaos (1895), it lias been the fashion to see reflec tions of the Marduk-Tiamat conflict throughout the OT. But recent investigations tend to show that Bab mythology has not dominated Heb thought to the extent that was formerly thought, and with this statement CJunkel himself now agrees, as the last ed of his commentary on Genesis proves.

      IV. Textual Authorities.

      (1) Creek. There exist in C.r two forms of the text (see below), (a) The LXX text has been pre served in but one; original MS, the cod.

      1. Manu- Christianus (from the Chigi family who scripts owned it, published in Rome in 1772).

      This belongs to about the 9th cent. This text has been printed also in Cozza s Kacrnrum Bibliorum vestustissima fragmenta (iraeca et Luti/m, part iii, Romae, 1877, and in Swete s ed of the LXX side by side with 6. In Tischendorf s LXX it occurs at the close of the ordinary text of the LXX. (b) Of 6 (the text of Theodotion) we have the following important MSS: B, A, Q (cod Marehalianus), r (vs 1.2-4 only) and A (from ver 21 to ver 41).

      (2) Xyriac. There exists in the Arnbrosian Library at Milan, a MS of the 8th cent, of the Syro-Hexaplar version made by Paul of Telia in 617 AD at Alexandria from col vi (LXX) of Origen s Hexapla. This most valuable MS has been edited and published by Ceriani.

      (1) Greek. (a) The LXX: Of this we have but one MS (see above under "Manuscripts") and until

      its publication at Rome in 1772 what

      2. Recen- is now known as 6 was believed to bo sions or the real LXX version, notwithstanding Versions hints to the contrary by early Chris tian writers, (b) O, or the version of

      Theodotion: This version appears to be a revision of the LXX, with the help, perhaps, as in the case of the canonical Daniel, of a Heb (or Aram.) original, now lost. It is much less pedantic than Aquila s Gr tr which preceded it, and its Cr is better. It is also a better tr than the LXX; yet. it has many transliterations of Heb words instead of tr 3 . This version of Daniel displaced that of the LXX at a very early time, for though Origen gave place; to the LXX in his Hexapla, in his writings he almost always cites from 6. In his preface to Daniel Jerome points to the fact that in his own time the church had rejected the LXX in favor of 6, men tioning the defectiveness of the former as the ground. Even Irenaeus (d. 202) and Porphyry (d. 305) pre ferred 6 to the LXX. Field was the first to point out that it is the work of Theodotion (not the LXX) that we have in 1 Esd, etc.

      (2) Kyriac. In addition to the Syro-Hexaplar version (see above, under "Manuscripts") the Pesh version must be noted. It follows 6 closely, and is printed in Walton s Polyglot (in one recension only of Bel and the Dragon) and in a revised text edited by Lagarde in 1861; not as R. H. Charles (Enc Brit, VII, 807) erroneously says in The Book of Tobit by Neubauer.

      (3) Latin. (a) The old Lat version, which rests on 0, fragments of which occur in Sabatier s work, Bibliorum sacrorum Latinae versiones antiquae (1743, etc, 11). (6) The Vulg, which follows Jerome s tr, is also based on Q, and follows it closely.

      (4) Aramaic. For the Aram, version published by M. Caster and claimed to be the text of the book as first written, see below, "V. Original Language."

      V. Original Language. It has been until re cent years most generally maintained that Bel and the Dragon was composed and first edited in the Gr language. So Eichhorn, de Wette, Schrader, Fritzsche, Schiirer and Konig. In favor of this the following reasons have been given: (1) No Sem original with reasonable claims has been discovered. Origen, Eusebius and Jerome distinctly say that no Heb (or Aram.) form of this tract existed or was known in their time. (2) The Hebraisms with which this work undoubtedly abounds are no more numerous or more crucial than can be found in works by Jewish authors which are known to have been composed in the Gr language, such as the con tinual recurrence of kai ( = "and"), kai cipe ("and he said"), etc.

      On the other hand, the opinion has been growing among recent scholars that this work was written first of all either in Heb or Aram. Some of the grounds are the following: (1) It is known that Theodotion in making his tr of other parts of the OT (Dnl) endeavored to correct the LXX with the aid of the MT. A comparison of the LXX and of 6 of Bel and the Dragon reveal differences of a similar character. How can we account for them unless we assume that Theodotion had before him a Sem original? A very weak argument, however, for the translator might have corrected on a priori principles, using his own judgment,; or then; might well have been in his time different recensions of the LXX. Westcott (Dli, I, 397; 2d ed, 714) holds that some of 6 s changes arc due to a desire to give consistency to the facts. (2) Much has been made of the Semiticisms in the work, and it must be admitted that they are numerous and striking. But are these Hebraisms or Aramaisms? The commonest and most undoubted Semiticism is the repeated use of kai and kai eyeneto with the force of the ?m (/ -consecutive and only to be ex plained and understood in the light of that con struction. But the u-a (/--consecutive exists only in classical Heb; Aram, and post-Bib. Heb, including late parts of the OT (parts of Eccl, etc), know nothing of it. It must be assumed then that if the Semiticisms of this work imply a Sem original, that original was Ileb, not Aram.

      The following Hebraisms found in the LXX and in 6 may briefly be noted: (1) The use of the Or kai with all (lie varied meanings of the wvra-consecu- tive (see below, under "VI. Teaching"). The be ginning of a sentence with kai tn ("and there was") (vs 1.3 in LXX; 2 f, etc, in 6) agrees with the Heb ?/Y/ -consecutive construction, but makes poor Gr. In ver 15 kai cc/cncto can be understood only in the light of the Heb for which it stands. (2) The syntactical feature called parataxy (coordination) presents itself throughout the Gr of this piece, and it has been reproduced in the Eng. tr 3 (AV, RV) as any Eng. reader can see. In the classical languages it is hypotaxy that prevails. If, as seems likely, those responsible for LXX and followed a Heb original, they failed to make sufficient allowance for the peculiar force of the wow-consecutive idiom, for this does riot involve hypotaxy to any consider able extent. (3) The constant occurrence of Kurios ("Lord") without the art. implies the Ileb Yahwe; and the phrase the "Lord God" is also Heb. (4) There are difficulties and differences

      Beliai nd



      host explained by assuming ;i Ileb origin. The (ir word sphragisamenos has no sense in ver 14 (LXX) for, retaining it, \\\\\\\\ve should read of a sealing of the temple (of lid; and also of a sealing with signet rings of the doors. The Heh word "shut (ifatlidin) is written much like that for "seal (hatham), and was probably, as Marshal suggests, mistaken for the latter. The temple was "shut" and the doors "sealed." In ver 10 the LXX (c/w/v .s) and O (r/^.s) have 2 words of similar sense, which are best explained as independent renderings of one I leb word.

      Marshall, identifying this dragon story with the Bab creation-myth of Marduk and Tiamat, thinks that instead of "pitch" used in making thoobolus with which Daniel destroyed the dragon, the origi nal Aram, document, has "storm wind," the two words being in Aram, written much alike; (zaf&phd 1 = "stonn wind," and zeplia = pitch). But- the fact is quite overlooked that the obolus contained not only pitch, but also "fat" and "hair" (see ver 27). Besides, in the Aram, version, published by Gaster, to which Marshall attaches great importance as at least ;i real .source, we have four ingredients, viz. pitch (?( /> Hi a ), fat, flax (1,-ittdn) and hair. Dr. Mar shall s suggestion involves therefore not only the confusion of two words spelled differently in Aram., but the substitution of ,1 or 4 terms for one in the original draft. Moreover in Bel and the Dragon the several ingredients are made up into a cake with which the dragon was gorged. Dr. Mar shall s view assumes also an Aram, original which is against the evidence. But the suggestion would not have been made but for a desire to assimilate the dragon story to the Bab creation-myth, though in motive and details both differ so essentially.

      In favor of a >Sem original many writers have cited the fact that forms of the story have been found in Ileb and Aram. In the loth cent. Ray- miuul Martini in his Put/to Ful< i (written against the .lews) quotes Bel and the Dragon from a Ileb Midr on Gen which Neubauer discovered and which is almost n rhati/n identical witli the unique MS con taining Midr Rabba de Rabba (see Neubauer, Tnbit, viii, and Fran/> Ddit/sch, <lc Il/ibucnci, 82). Still other Ileb forms of these; stories have been found. All the additions" to Did "occur in Heb in the remains of Yosippon," the "Ileb .Josephus," as he has been called. He wrote in the 10th cent.

      But most important of all is the discovery by Dr. M. Gaster of the dragon story in Aram., im bedded in the Chronicles of Yerahmed, a work of the 10th cent. Dr. (iaster maintains that in this Aram, fragment we have a portion of the original Bel and the Dragon (see I XHA, 1X94, 2X0 IT [Introd.], 312 [Text] and ISO. ) [for notes and tr]). The present writer does not think Dr. Gaster lias made out his case. (1) If such an Aram, original did really exist at any time we should have learned something definite about it from early writers, Jewish and Christian. (2) Dr. Gaster has dis covered an Aram, form of only two of the three "additions," those of the Song of the Three Children and of the dragon story. What of the rest of the Aram, document? (3) It has already been pointed out that the waw-consecutive constructions implied in the Gr texts go back to a Ileb, not an Aram, original. (4) The Aram, text of the Dragon story not seldom differs both from the LXX and 6 as in the following and many other cases: The two Gr VSS have in ver 24 "The king [said]," which the Aram, omits: in ver 35 the Aram, after "And Hab- akkuk said" adds "to the angel," which the LXX and 6 are without. (5) The compiler of the Yerah- meel Chronicle says distinctly that he had taken the Song of the Three Children and the dragon story from the writings of Thoodotion (see PSBA, 1895,

      2X3), he having, it is quite evident, himself put them into Aram. Dr. Gaster lays stress on the words of the compiler, that what lie gives in Aram. is that which "Theodotion found" (loc. cit.). But the reference can be only to the LXX which this translator made the basis of his own version; it is far too much to assume that the Chronicler means an Aram, form of the stories.

      VI. Teaching. The two stories teach the doc trine of the oneness and absoluteness of Yah we, called throughout, KtirioH ("Lord"), a lit. rendering of the Heb word udhunni ("Lord") which the Jews substituted for Yahwe in reading the Heb as do now-a-day Jews. In the Gr and Lat VSS it is the word read (the lyre />cr/>rlnni}, not that written K"th!bh), which is tr 1 . It would have been more consonant with universal practice if the proper name Yahwe had been transliterated as proper names usually are.

      But very little is said of the character of Yahwe. He is great and the only (true) God (ver 41), the living God in contrast with Bel (ver 57). Of the nature of His demands on His worshippers, ritualistic and ethical, nothing is said. There is no reference to any distinctly Jewish beliefs or practices; nothing about the tornk or about any Divine revelation to men, about sacrifice; or the temple or even a priest hood, except that in the LXX (not in 6) Daniel the prophet is .spoken of as a priest strong evidence of the low place assigned by the writer to the exter nal side of the religion he professed. We do however find mention of an angel, a sort of <lcus ex inachina in Hie Dragon story (vs 34 IT); cf Did 6 22.

      The incident- of the transportation of Habakkuk to Babylon shows that, the writer had strong faith in supernatural intervention on behalf of the pious. Apart from this incident the two stories steer fairlv clear of anything that is supernatural. But vs 33- 39 are a late interpolation.

      VII. Author, Place and Date of Composition. Nothing whatever is known of the author of the book and nothing definite or certain of the place or date; of composition. It has been commonly felt, as by Bissdl, etc, that it reflects a Bab origin. Clay (see ver 7) abounded in Babylon (but- surely not only in Babylon); bronze (ver 7) was often used in that country for the manufacturing of images, and the lion, it is known, was native to the country (but that was the case also in Pal in Bib. and even post-Bib, times). None of the arguments for a Bab origin have; much weight, and there are 1 con trary arguments of considerable force.

      The; anachronisms and inconsistencies are more easily explaine-d on tin; assumption of a non-Bab origin. Besides, the Judaism of Babylon was of a very strict and regulation kind, great attention being given to the law and to matters of ritual. There; is nothing in Be l and the* Dragon regarding these points (see above under "Teaching").

      If we assume a Ileb original, as there are good grounels for doing, it is quito pe>ssible that these legends were written in Pal at a time when the Jewish religion was severely persecuted: perhaps when Antiochus VII (Sidetes, 139-128 BC) re conquered Judah for Syria and .sorely oppresseel the subject people. Yet nothing very dogmatic can be saiel as te) this. We cannot infer much from the style of the Heb (or Aram.?), since no Sern original has come down to us. It is quite clear that these "additions" imply the existence; of the canonical Book of Dni ami belong to a subsequent date, for they contain later developments of tra ditions respecting Daniel. The canonical Be>ok of Dnl is dated by modern scholars about 1(50 BC, so that a date about 136 BC (see above) could not be far amiss.

      If, em the other hand, we take for granted that



      Bel and Dragon Belial

      the LXX is the original text of th<> hook, the date of that recension is the date of the work itself. It seems probable that this recension of Dnl was made in Egypt about 150 BC (see 1 Mace 1 ,">4; 2 o .IJ, and we have evidence that up to that date the "three additions" formed no part of the book, though they exist in all Gr and Syr MSS of Dnl, which have come down to us. Probably the "addi tions" existed as separate compositions for some time before they were joined to Dnl proper, but it is hardly too much to assume that they were united no later than 100 BC. Yet the data for reaching a conclusion are very slight. It may be added that the Gr of the LXX is distinctly Alex in its character, as West cot t, Bissell and others have pointed out. Theodotion s version is supposed to have been made at Ephesus toward the end of the 2d cent. AD.

      VIII. Canonicity and Authenticity. The Alex Jews, recognizing the LXX as their Bible 1 , accepted the whole of the Apoc as canonical. The Pal Jews, on the other hand, limited their canonical Scrip tures to the Heb OT. There is, of course, some uncertainty (largely no doubt because it was origin ally a tr from the Heb) as to whether the LXX at the first included the Apoc in its whole extent or not, but all the evidence points to the fact that it did, though individual books like Dnl existed apart before the} formed a portion of the Gr or Kgyp canon.

      In the early Christian church all the three "addi tions" are quoted as integral parts of Dnl by Gr anil by Lat Fathers, as e.g. by Irenaeus (IV, o, 2 f); Tertullian (l)c iilololtitria, c.LS); Cyprian (Adfortu- natuni, c.llj.

      By a decree of the Council of Trent these "addi tions" were for the Rom church made as much a part of the Bible canon as the Heb Book of Dnl. Protestant churches have as a rule excluded the whole of the Apoc from their Bibles, regarding its books as either "Deutero-canonical" or "non- canonical." In consequence of this attitude among Protestants the Apoc lias until lately been greatly neglected by Protestant writers. But a great change is setting in, and some of the best commen taries by Protestant scholars produced in recent years deal with the Apoc and its teaching.

      Julius Africanus (fl. first half of 3d cent. AD) was the first to impugn the truth of the stories em bodied in the "additions" to Daniel. This he did in a letter to Origen to which the recipient vigor ously replied.

      The improbabilities and contradictions of these three pieces have often been pointed out from the time of Julius Africanus down to the present day. The following points may be set down as specimens: (1) Daniel is called a priest in the LXX (ver lj, and yet he is identified with the prophet of that name. (2) Habakkuk the prophet (he is so called in 6 [see ver 33], and no other can be intended] is made to be a contemporary of Daniel and also of the Pers king Cyrus (see vs 1 and 33 in the Eng. Bible). Now Cyrus conquered Babylon in 53S BC, the principal Jews in Babylon returning to Pal the, following year. The events narrated in Bel and the Dragon could not have occurred during the time Cyrus was king of Babylon, but the LXX speaks of "the king" without naming him. (3) It was not Cyrus but Xerxes who destroyed the image of Bel, this being in 475 BC (see Herod, i.183; Strabo xvi.l; Arrian, Expcd. Alex., vii.l). (4) It is further objected that dragon-worship in Babylon, such as is implied in the dragon story, is contrary to fact. Star-worship, it has been said, did exist, but not animal-worship. So Eichhorn and Frit/sche. But there is every reason for believing that the wor ship of living animals as representing deity, and esp.

      of the living serpent, existed in Babylon as among other nations of antiquity, including the Greeks and Romans (see Her/og, 1st ed, art. "Drache /u Baby lon," by J. C. M tiller), it has already been pointed out (see list of meanings) that the word "dragon" denotes a serpent .

      LITERATURE. Eichhorn, Einleitunn in <!ie apoc. Schri/ten dea Allen Testament* (1795), 4:U IF (remarkable for its time: compares the LXX and e>) ; W. H. Daubnoy, The Three Attritions to Daniel (Cambridge, 190(>; con tains much matter though rather uncritically treated)- the commentaries of Frit/seho (Vol 1: still very rich in material; it forms part of the Kurzt/ffimxte.-i exet/etixches Handbuch); Bissell (in Lange s series, but not a tr); Ball, Speaker s Commentary (this is the best ling, commentary on the Apoc. See also Schiirer, Geschichte 3 , III, :<:i3 and his art. in RE 3 , 1, 639; and the articles b\\\\\\\\- Kamphausenin Kli.\\\\\\\\, 1014; Toy,in Jew Enc,II,G50; K.H.Charles Enc Brit", VII. so/, and esp. that by J. Turner Marshall in 1IDH, 1, 2(>7. Fritzsche, Lihri. Veteris Trstamenti. Graece (1871), and Swete, The Old Testament In Creek III 1.S94 and later editions, give the LXX and (-) on parallel pages! In the ed of the LXX edited by Tischendorf, the. LX.X is given in the text and w in an appendix.

      T. WITT-OX D\\\\\\\\vii;s BELA, be la. See Zo,vit.

      BELA, BELAH, be la (733 , Ma\\\\\\\\ "destruction"; AY Belah, Gen 46 21 j:

      (1 J B., the son of Beor, was the first king of Edom previous to the kingdom of Israel and reigned in the city of Dinhabah (Gen 36 32 f; 1 Ch 1 43 f). LXX A, BaXa/c, Baluk.

      (2) B., the first born son of Benjamin (Gen 46 21 1 Ch 7 6f; 1 Ch 8 1). He was the head of the family of the Belaites (Nu 26 3S), the father of Addar (called Ard, Xu 26 40), Gera, Abihud, Abishua, Naaman, Ahoah, Gera, Shephuphan (cf Shephupham, Nu 26 3!)), Huram (1 Ch 8 3-5 Nil 26 40).

      (3) B., a son of A/a/, of the tribe of Reuben, was a man of great power and wealth. His possessions reached from Nebo to the Euphrates (1 Ch 6 S ff).

      A. L. BKKSLICH

      BELAITES, be k-Its P733 , W7, "belonging to Bela",): The descendants of Bela (Nu 26 38) Cf BI;LA (2).

      BELCH, belsh: The primary idea of this word is "to gush forth" as a fountain. As used in Ps 59 7 the thought is that these enemies had so cherished these evil thoughts and bitter wrath that now the heart is a very fountain of evil, and has taught the tongue how to give utterance thereto. But the previous verse shows that the Psalmist also had in mind tin; howling and barking of the dogs about the city. The imprecations of his enemies are like the snarling, howling, barking of dogs which in an eastern city makes the night hideous with the noise, and is continued until the daybreak.


      BELEMUS, bel e-mus (BrjXefios, Hfinm^; Bal- samus): An officer of King Artaxerxes in Pal asso ciated with Beeltethmus in hindering the rebuilding of the temple (1 Esd 2 10): called Bishlam in Ezr 4 7.

      BELIAL, be li-al, bel yal (5? . ??, I lTi^al; BeXiap, Bcl /ar) : This name, occurring very fre quent ly in the OT, has the sense of "worthlessness" (cf 2 S 23 Om); accordingly in such phrases as "sons of Belial" (Jgs 20 13; 1 S 10 27, etc), "men of Belial" (1 S 30 22; 1 K 21 13, etc), which the ERV usually retains, the ARV more correctly renders, "base fellows" (so "daughter of Belial" 1 S 1 10, "wicked woman"). There is here no suggestion of a proper name. After ward, however, "Belial" became a proper name for Satan, or for Antichrist (thus frequently in the Jewish Apocalyptic writings, e.g. in XII P, Bk Jub, Asc Isa, Sib Or). In this sense Paul used the

      Belie Ben-



      word in 2 Cor 6 15, "What concord hath Christ with Belial?" (lidiar). Bousset thinks that Paul s "mini of sin" in 2 Thcss 2 3, whore some authori ties read "man of lawlessness," is a tr of this term. The sense at least is similar. See ANTICHRIST; MAN OF SIN. JAMES OKH

      BELIE, be-ll : Is the tr of TTJH2 , kahaah, "to he untrue" (Jer 5 12), "They have belied the Lord" (ARV "denied Jeh"), here used as synonym of "give the lie to."

      In Wisd 111 "belie" tr a, kdtupxru.- donini (the kuta prefix referring to the katd in kdta- lalin in the same verse), "A mouth that belieth destroyeth a soul."

      BELIEF, be-lef. See FAITH.

      BELIEVERS, bP-lev ers (in AV and RV of Acts 6 14, for irio-Tevovres, pixtfUdnli-x, K\\\\\\\\ in "believing"; in AV of 1 Tim 4 12 for oi TTIO-TOI, hoi pixlo i, \\\\\\\\{\\\\\\\\ "them that believe") : Equivalent phrases, they (he, she) that believe (for oi irtiriffTfVKbTfs, hoi pcpixltii- kot<x; oi TrtcrretWres, hoi ]>ixl< iiotilt x; TTio-ros [adj.], pistu8, etc) occur frequently as a regular description of those who professed their faith in Christ, and attached themselves to the Christian church. The one essential condition of admission into the Christian community was, that men should believe in Jesus Christ (Acts 16 31). The actual experiences of the men t hus denoted varied wit h all t he possible degrees and modifications of FAITH (q.v.j. Believers are nowhere in the NT distinguished as a subordinate class from the "Christians who know" as in the gnostic antithesis of pistikoi and i/xdxlikoi, "be lievers" and "knowers." T. REES

      BELL (P ; Srn, m silloth, "pE^S , ptfamon): The former of these terms occurs only once (Zee 14 20) where it is thus tr 1 . It is derived from a verb meaning "to tingle" or "dirl" (1 S 3 11), and then- is, therefore, no objection etymologically to render ing the noun by "bells." But the little; bell attached to the harness of horses would hardly be a suitable place for a fairly long inscription, and as buckles shaped exactly like cymbals (see Mrsic) were used as ornaments for horses, "cymbals" is probably a better rendering.

      The other Heb word for bell is found onlv in Ex 28 33 f; 39 25.20, where "bells of gold" are directed to be attached to the hem of Aaron s offi cial robe, that the people may hear him when he enters and quits the sanctuary. Bells were not employed by the Hebrews to summon the congre gation to worship, nor do Mohammedans so use them at the present day. The church bell is a peculiarly Christian institution, said to have been introduced by Bishop Paulinus of Nola in Cam pania, who lived about the end of the 4th cent. Little bells, however, like those attached to the hem of Aaron s robe, frequently form part of the harness of horses, or are fastened to the necks of the he-goats or wethers that lead the flock in eastern lands. JAMES MILLAR

      BELLOWS, bel oz, bel us: The word occurs once only in EV, in Jer 6 29, where the prophet is pre dicting the coming of the destroyer (ver 26), "a great nation" from "the north country" (ver 22), down upon Israel, because "all of them deal cor ruptly" (ver 28). "The bellows blow fiercely; the lead is consumed of the fire." Here the imagery is drawn from the refiner s art, and the "bellows" are those used to make the refiner s fires burn fiercely. See CUAFTS, II, 10.

      BELLY, bel i: "ina, gahon = "the external ab domen" (Gen 3 14; Lev il 42). fOp, kobhdh

      = "the abdominal cavity" (Nu 25 8 ARV "body"). "I?3 , beten = "ihe internal abdomen," "the womb (1 k 7 20; Job 15 2.3/5 AV; 20 1/5.23; 40 10; Ps 17 14; Prov 13 25; 18 20; Jer 1 5; Ezk 3 3); also fig. "(.he internal regions," "the body of any thing" (Jon 2 2). r\\\\\\\\S"Q , >nti*i h = "intestines," "ab domen" (Dnl 2 32; Jon 1 17; 2 1.2). In the NT Koi\\\\\\\\ia, koilla = "n cavitv," esp. the abdominal (Mt 12 40; 15 17; Mk 7 li)); the seat of appe tite and of the carnal affections (Rom 16 IS; 1 Cor 6 13; Phil 3 1<); Rev 10 <).10); the inner most of the soul (ARVm Jn 7 38).


      Egyptian Hollows.

      BELMAIM, bel ma-im, AV Belmen (BX(icu>, liflnidini, Jth 7 3; Bai\\\\\\\\(iaiv, lidilnitihi, 4 4): A place in t he neighborhood of Dot lian (7 3), to which warning was sent to prepare for the invasion of Holofernes (4 4). It probably answers to the modern Itlr Iti Tumcfi (Ibleam), a ruined site about half a mile S. of Ji-nltt.

      BELMEN, bel men, BELMON, bel mon. See BELMAIM.

      BELOMANCY,bel o-man-si. See AUGURY, IV, 2.

      BELOVED, bf -luv ed, be-luv d (d-yairr]T6s, di/a- y.r/w>): A term of affectionate endearment common to both Testaments; in the OT found, 26 out of 42 times, in Solomon s Song of Love. Limited chiefly to two Heb words and their derivatives: nnSt, ahf bh, "to breathe" or "long for," hence to love, corresponding to the NT, ayaTrdu, agapdd, "to prefer," i.e. a love based on respect and benevo lent regard; "IT 7 ! , dddh, "love," chiefly love between the sexes, based on sense and emotion, akin to (pi\\\\\\\\fa, pfiilcd (Lat amdre). I sed occasionally, in their nobler sense, interchangeably, e.g. the former of a husband s love for his wife (Dt 21 1/5.10); twice of a lover (Cant 1 14.16), thus lifting the affection of the Song of Sol out of mere amorous ness into the realm of the spiritual and possibly Messianic. Both words used of God s love for His chosen: e.g. Solomon, "b. of his God" (Neh 13 26); Benjamin "b. of Jehovah" (Dt 33 12); so even of wayward Israel (Jer 11 15).

      In the NT "beloved" used exclusively of Divine and Christian love, an affection begotten in the community of the new spiritual life in Christ, e.g. "b. in the" Lord" (Rom 16 8). The beauty, unity, endearment of this love is historically unique, being peculiarly Christian. "Brethren" in Christ are "beloved" (1 Thess 1 4; 1 Cor 15 58; Jas 1 16; 2 5). Many individuals are specified by name: Timothy (2 Tim 1 2); Philemon (Philem ver 1); Amplias, Urbane, Stachys, Persis (Rom 16 8.9.12), etc. The aged John is the conspicuous NT illus-



      Belie Ben-

      tration of the depth and tenderness of Christian love. In his epistles alone he addresses his dis ciples 12 times as "beloved." Paul terms God s elect" "holy and beloved" (Col 3 12).

      The term rises to still Diviner significance as an epithet of Christ, whom Paul, grateful for His "freely bestowed" grace, terms "the Beloved." This is the word used repeatedly to express Clod the Father s infinite affection for Jesus His "beloved Son" (Mt 3 17; 12 IS; 17 5; Mk 1 11; 9 7; Lk 3 22; 20 13).

      Agapclos rendered as above 47 times is 9 limes "dearly beloved" (RV uniformly omits "dearly") and 3 times "well beloved" (RV omits "well"). The former rendering found only once in the OT (r^T 1 1 ?, jfdhldhulh, "something beloved"), portraying Clod s tender love for His people: "dearly beloved of my soul" (Jer 12 7). Thrice is Daniel spoken of as "greatly beloved" of Gabriel and of God (rm^Qn , hamudhoth, "precious," i.e. delight = beloved; Dnl 9 23; 10 11.19). Through the apostles the word has become familiar in pastoral and sermonic address. Few NT words better illustrate the power and impress of the Christian spirit on succeeding centuries than this. D\\\\\\\\VK;HT M. PKATT

      BELSHAZZAR, bel-shaz ar

      BaX.Ta.o-dp, Jjaltasdr, Bab Bel-shar-usur): Accord

      ing to Dnl 5 30, he was the Chaldaean king

      under whom Babylon was taken by Darius the

      Mede. The Bab monuments speak a number of

      times of a Bel-shar-usur who was the "firstborn

      son, the offspring of the heart of" Nabunaid, the

      last king of the Bab empire, that had been founded

      by Nabopolassar, the father of Nebuchadnezzar,

      at the time of the death of Ashurbanipal, king of

      Assyria, in 026 BC. There is no doubt that this

      Belshazzar is the same as the Belshazzar of Dnl.

      It is not necessary to suppose that Belshazzar was

      at any time king of the Bab empire in the sense

      that Nebuchadnezzar and Nabunaid were. It is

      probable, as M. Pognon argues, that a son of

      Nabunaid, called Nabunaid after his fat her, was king

      of Babylon, or Bab king, in Harran (Haran), while

      his father was overlord in Babylon. This second

      Nabunaid is called "the son of the offspring of the

      heart" of Nabunaid his father. It is possible that

      this second Nabunaid was the king who was killed

      by Cyrus, when lie crossed the Tigris above Arbela

      in the 9th year of Nabunaid his father, and put to

      death the king of the country (see the Nabunaid-

      Cyrus Chronicle, col. ii, 17); since according to the

      Eshki-Harran inscription, Nabunaid the Second

      died in the 9th year of Nabunaid the First . Bel

      shazzar may have been the son of rhe king who is

      said in the same chronicle to have commanded the

      Bab army in Accad from the (>th to the llth year

      of Nabunaid I; or, possibly longer, for the annals

      before the (5th and after the llth year are broken

      and for the most part illegible. This same son of

      the king is most probably mentioned again in the

      same chronicle as having died in the night in which

      Babylon was captured by Gobryas of Cut him. As

      Nabunaid II, though reigning at Harran under the

      overlordship of his father, is called king of Babylon

      on the same inscription on which his father is called

      by the same title; so Belshazzar may have been

      called king of Babylon, although he was only crown

      prince. It is probable, also, that as Nabunaid I

      had made one of his sons king of Harran, so he had

      made another king of Chaldaea. This would account

      for Belshazzar s being called in Dnl 5 30 the

      Chaldaean king, although, to be sure, this word

      Chaldaean may describe his race rather than his

      kingdom. The 3d year of Belshazzar, spoken of

      in Dnl 8 1, would then refer to his 3d year as sub-

      king of the Chaldaeans under his father Nabunaid, king of Babylon, just as Cambyses was later sub- king of Babylon, while his father Cyrus was king of the lands. From the Book of Dnl we might infer that this subkingdom embraced Chaldaea and Susiana, and possibly the province of Babylon; and from the Nabunaid-Cyrus Chronicle that it extended over Accad as well. That the city of Babylon alone was sometimes at least governed by an official called king is highly probable, since the father of Nergal-shar-usur is certainly, and the father of Nabunaid 1 is probably, called king of Babylon, in both of which cases, the city, or at most the province, of Babylon must have been meant, since we know to a certainty all of the kings who had been ruling over the empire of Babylon since 620 BC, when Nabopolassar became king, and the names of neither of these fathers of kings is found among them.

      In addition to Nabunaid II, Belshazzar seems to have had another brother named Nebuchadnezzar, since the two Bab rebels against Darius Hystaspis both assumed the name of Nebuchadnezzar the son of Nabunaid (see the Behistun Inscription, 1, 8/>, 89, 95). lie had a sister also named Ina-esagila- remat, and a second named probably Ikabu - shai -na.

      Belshazzar had his own house in Babylon, where he seems to have been engaged in the woolen or clothing trade. He owned also estates from which lie made large gifts to the gods. His father joins his name with his own in some of his prayers to the gods, and apparently appointed him commander of the army of Accad, whose especial duty it was to defend the city of Babylon against the attacks of the armies of Media and Persia.

      It would appear from the Nabunaid-Cyrus Chronicle, that Belshazzar was da Judo king of the Bab empire, all that was left of it, from the 4th to theSth month of the; 17th year of the reign of his father Nabunaid, and that he died on the night in which Babylon was taken by Gobryas of Gutium (that is, probably, DAKITS THE MEDE [q.v.]).

      The objection to the historical character of the narrative of Dnl, based upon the fact that Belshaz- /ar in 5 11. IS is said to have been (lie son of Nebu chadnezzar, whereas the monuments state that he was the son of Nabunaid, is fully met by supposing that one of them was his real and the other his adoptive father; or by supposing that the queen- mother and Daniel referred to the greatest of his predecessors as his father, just as Omri is called by the Assyrians the father of Jehu, and as the claimants to the Medo-Pers throne are called on the Behistun Inscription the sons of Cyaxares, and as at present the reigning sheikhs of northern Arabia are all called the sons of Rashid, although in reality they are not his sons.

      LITERATURE. The best sources of information as to (lie life and times of Iiolsha/y,ar for Kiiglish readers arc: Tin Iteconlx of the I nxt: Pinches, The (>1<I Testament ill tin I.ii/ht of the Ilixtiirirul. Id-ronix of .1 ..//r/a and liahi/- lonia; Sayce,, The /lit/ln-r Criticism ami tin- Monuments; and W. W. Wright s two great works, Daniel ami His I ropheries and Daniel and Ilia Critics.


      BELTESHAZZAR, bel-te--shaz ar bcltxhd wir; Bab Kalat-tiharnsur, "protect his life"; Dnl 4 S): The Bab name given to Daniel (Dnl 1 7; 2 20; 5 12). Not to be confounded with Belshazzar.

      BELUS, be lus, TEMPLE OF. See BAHKL.

      BEN-, ben (prefix) (sing. "(S , ban, "son of "; pi. "^S, b r nc, "sons of" = Aram. "13, bar): This word is used in sing, or pi. to express relationship of almost

      Ben Benhadad



      any kind: (1) to a person; as such it is found as part of many compound names like Benjamin, lien- bur, etc (ef Bar); ( 2) to a elan; in this connection it is found in the pi. only: "children of Israel," "children of Ammon," etc; (3) to a town; perhaps as place of birth ("son of Jabesh"; 2 K 15 lOi f); (4) to occupation, state of lite, age, character, quality even of things; (.">) peculiarly employed in the sense of "scholar," "disciple" ("son of prophet"), or in phrases like "son of death," etc; ((>) in poetry, "sons of flame" for "sparks" (Job 6 7m), etc. The frequent metaphorical use of the word indicates that it was rarely used to express the relation of father to son like 1 the Vrab Ibn Cf HPN, 04 ff. A. L. BKESLICH

      BEN, ben ("3, l>t~n, "son"}: A Levite appointed to assist as musician in the temple service (1 ( h 15 IS). The text seems to be doubtful, since the name is omitted in ver 20 and not mentioned at allinthcLXX.

      BEN-ABINADAB, ben-a-bin a-dak ben-ab-i- na dab (2~: n 3X~ Z , h,n dbhlnadhdbh, "son of Abinadab") : ( )ne of t he "captains" of Solomon who provided for the king and his household, each for a month in the year (1 K 4 11). His district was the region of Dor. In AV he is called "the son of Abinadab." His wife was Tappath, the daughter of Solomon.

      BENAIAH, be-na ya, be-nl a (H^S , b -xdydti, ^rriZ, Intdyahri, ",Jeh has built." Cl HPN IS 26">, 268) :

      (1; B., the son of Jehoiada of Kabzeel (cf Josh 15 21), was a man of "mighty deeds" and was more honorable than any of the mighty men of David except the three chiefs. Therefore David made him his chief counselor (2 S 23 23m; cf 1 Ch 27 34 where the order of names seems to be reversed) and set him over the Cherethites (cf Carites, 2 K 11 4 IT and in) and Pelethites and he was made the 3d captain of the host, and chief over the course of the lid month (1 Ch 27 of; 2 S 8 IS 20 23"

      1 Ch 18 17; 2 S 23 20 (T; 11 22 ff). Being a true friend of David (cf 2 S 15 IS) he did not take part, in the usurpation of Adonijah (1 K 1 S.IO. 26), and was therefore with others chosen by the king to proclaim Solomon king over Israel (f K 1 32 i f) and later by Solomon to execute- Adonijah (1 K 2 2.-,), Joab (I K 2 2!) ff), and Shimei (I K 2 4li). In recognition of his services Solomon appointed him over the host in Joab s place (I K

      2 3.-,; 4 4).

      (2) B., a Pirathonite (cf Jgs 12 13. If)), was one of David s 30 mighty men (2 S 23 30; 1 Ch 11 31). lie was captain over t he course of the llth month numbering 21,000 (1 Ch 27 14).

      (3) A ruler of the house of Simeon (1 Ch 4 3(5).

      (4) A Levite of second degree appointed as singer (1 Ch 15 IS) with "psalteries set to Ala- moth" (1 Ch 15 20; 16 ">).

      (5) A priest, appointed "to blow the. trumpet before the ark of Clod" (1 Ch 15 24; 16 (>).

      ((>) The father of Jehoiada (1 Ch 27 34), but see (1) above.

      (7) An ancestor of Jahaziel of the house of \\\\\\\\sanh (2 Ch 20 14).

      (S) An overseer in tin; service of He/ekiah (2 Ch 31 13).

      (9, 10, 11, 12) Four different men of Israel who had taken "strange wives" (E/r 10 2o.30.3o.43).

      (13) The father of Pelatiah who was seen bv Ezekiel in his vision (E/k 11 1.13).

      A. L. RiM-:surii

      BEN-AMMI, ben-am I fES? "J3, be.n amtnl, "son of my kinsman," Gen 19 38): The progenitor of the Ammonites was a son of Lot s younger daughter, born after the destruction of Sodom. The account of his birth as well as that of Aloab was commonly regarded as an expression of Israel s intense hatred and contempt toward these two nations. However, this idea is rather unwarranted, in view of the fact that the origin of the tribe of Judah (which is held in especial honor by J) is accounted for in a similar way ((Jen 38). Gunkel (Hcliopfuny vitd (7/mo.s, 100) suggests that the narrative (19 30-3S) was originally a Moabitic account tracing the common origin of Moab and Ammon to Lot. It presupposes a universal catastrophe such as the conflagration of Sodom and Gomorrah, Admah and Zeboim .sug gests in which all the human race, save Lot and his two daughters, perished. In order to avert the extinction of the race, his daughters resorted to in cestuous practices. In this case we have here a Moabite parallel to the Deluge story (Skinner, f/Vm.s/.s, 313-14). While the common origin of the two brother tribes is undoubtedly a fact (Jgs 10 fi ll 1.11S.2.-,; Dt 2 19; 2 Ch 20, etc), the folk- etymology of their names is rather suspicious. The name Ben-Ammi is probably derived from the deity "Emu," which is the name for Nergal among the Shuhites on the W. of the Euphrates, a land which corresponds to the position of the B nc- Anu>io, "children of his people" (Nu 22 . r >). The chief god of the Kataban Arabs was called Ammi (flout., ZDMC, V, <.">, f>2.">, n. 1). In cuneiform inscriptions this name appears as part of the title of the Am monite rulers (IIDH}. Neubauer (Sti/ilin Hiblint, 1-2(1) suggests that the name Balaam is a compound of Bel -f- Am, that is, "Am is Lord." For other compounds with Ammi see (Jray, ///\\\\\\\\V, 4 !-(>().

      BENCH (TZhj:, rw</0: Found only in EV in Ezk 27 (i, in the prophet s "lamentation over Tyre": "They have made thy benches of ivory inlaid in boxwood, from the isles of Kittim," where the word evidently stands for the "benches" of the boat whose "mast" (ver f>) and "oars" (ver (5) have just been described, in the vivid figs, of speech in which the city itself is pictured as a merchant- ship. Cf ver S, "Thy wise men, O Tyre, were in thee, they were thy pilots." See SKAT.

      BEN-DEKER, ben-de ker (1^~]3 , b< "son of Deker," AV "son of Dekar") : The word is derived from a Heb root meaning "to pierce" Cf 1I1>.\\\\\\\\, 1)9. One of the 12 officers who provided victuals for King Solomon and his household (1 K 4 9).

      BENEATH, bcMif-th : The adv. for "under" (kdto). In .In 8 23, the words "ye are from be neath," suggest hell in contrast to heaven. But the succeeding clause, "ye are of this world," gives the key for the interpretation. Earth, not hell, is expressed, although "that more awful meaning surely is not excluded" (Alford).

      BENE-BERAK, ben-e-be rak (p~Q 1:3, b>ne b ruk: BavT]papa.K, lidncbardk): A town in the territory of Dan (Josh 19 4o), represented by the modern village Ibn Ihrti 1 :, about an hour S.E. of Jaffa.

      BENEDICTION, ben-f-dik shun: From the earliest times the records bear testimony that pro nouncing the benediction or giving the blessing was a common practice. In the temple service, this duty was assigned to the Aaronites and was made an impressive part of the service. The form of the benediction used is given in Nu 6 22-27. Refer-

      43, )


      Ben Benhadad

      ences to this practice may be found in Lev 9 22; Dt 10 8; 2 Ch 30 27. After a time, minute directions were given concerning it and careful preparation was made for this part of the service. All Aaronites, of proper age, were entitled to per form this service, except those who by previous conduct or on account of physical defect were dis qualified. One who had killed another, whether intentionally or otherwise, or who had violated the marriage vows, had given himself excessively to wine drinking or other excesses, or indeed had been guilty of unrighteous conduct or life, was not only prohibited from pronouncing the blessing, but was required to withdraw before this part of the service was performed. If one was blind even of one eye, or had a defect in his hands or speech, or was a hunchback, he was also excluded. Before the priest could engage in this service he was re quired to wash his hands. Then, with uplifted hands, while the people stood, he uttered the words of blessing. The main idea was that thus the name of Jeh was put on the people. Later it came to be regarded as having some special blessing in and of itself, a result against which the more spiritual of the priests protested.

      It was common not only to pronounce the bene diction in the public worship but also in the family. We have such instances in Gen 9 20.27; 27 27-30. This practice prevailed also on many other occa sions not only in Israel, but among the heathen as well. \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\"e may readily see, therefore, that from the very beginning of the Christian church the use of the benediction was common. In the course of time an extensive lit. developed on this subject and it may be said that there are now three distinct ideas in the church as to the benediction. That section of the church which regards the minister as clothed with sacerdotal powers, holds that the blessings pronounced are actually conferred in the act of the utterance of the words, because of the powers conferred upon him when he was set aside for the sacred office. On the other hand it is held that it is merely a prayer that ( !od may bestow certain blessings on the people. From this position others dissent, and teach that it is the declaration of the special privileges and relations in which those stand who have entered into covenant fellowship with Christ; that the blessings now declared are theirs by right of that relation, and are conferred upon them by the Holy Spirit. The Gr and Rom Catholic churches take the first position, and therefore we find among them much of detail and minutiae as to the manner in which it should be pronounced. In the Gr church the priest raises his hand with the thumb touching the third finger, signifying 1 he procession of t he Holy ( Jhost from t he Father alone; or according to others to form the sacred name IHS. In the Rom church the form is, the thumb, first and second fingers are to be open, to symbolize the Trinity. In this church too, the benediction is pronounced in a multitude of cases and in each case the thing so blessed by the priest is made sacred. Crosses, church vessels, houses, paschal eggs, churchyards, arc thus blessed. Every parish has a collection of these forms of blessing in what is known as the "Benedictionale." The authority for this is based on some documents claiming to reach back to early church history, but as they belong to the forged decretal class, the position of the Rom church on this subject is untenable.

      Apostolic benedictions, as we find them in the epistles, present considerable variety. One of the striking features is that in a number of cases there is the omission of the Holy Ghost. The best ex planation seems to be that the Father and the Son effect the redemption of the world and the

      Holy Ghost applies the blessing so wrought out. "Grace, mercy and peace" may then be said to be sent from the Father and the Son through the Holy Ghost to be the possession of all who have come into the kingdom. The third person of the Trinity, being thus in the act of applying the bless ing, is not mentioned. The fact that in other cases Father, Son and Holy Ghost are mentioned, proves that the writers knew y the character and office of the Holy Ghost. The most common form used today is that in 2 Cor 13 14. Occasionally some changes are introduced by ministers, but it would seem best to adhere strictly to the Scriptural forms. See BLKSSI\\\\\\\\<;; SALUTATION.


      BENEFACTOR, ben-e-fak ter (Gr eucnjelcs, Lk 22 2o) : There is here a probable allusion to two kings of Egypt (Ptolemy 111 and \\\\\\\\ Tlj, who had the surname "Euergetes," of whom the period of the first was 247-242 BC, and of the second, 147-117 BC. Jesus draws the contrast between worldly kingdoms, in which the title "benefactor" is given those who rule with all the splendor of earthly display and luxury, and His kingdom, in which it belongs only to those whose work is that of humble, obscure and often menial service.

      BENEFIT, ben r-fit (bTO3 , g f niul = "i\\\\\\\\, deed," 2 Ch 32 2.-)); HIP, yulahh= (causal.) "to make well," "to do good" (Jer 18 10). The pi. of r"23, (Tmnl, is found in Ps 103 2. Ps 68 19 (AY) should be tr 1 "Blessed be the Lord. Daybydayhe sustains us; God is our salvation." x^-P ts > chdris = "gift"; "grace 1 " (2 Cor 1 l.~>, "a second benefit": that is, two visits in the same journey), fvepyeaia, euergcsia = "good deed done" (1 Tim 6 2: "be cause they that partake of the benefit [of their service] are believing and beloved"); dya66s, w/a// = "good" (Philem ver 14 AV; RY "good ness"). FRANK E. HIRSCH

      BENE-JAAKAN, ben-e-ja a-kan, be-ne-ja a-kan (1~"1 1:3, Irnc yn nkan: Nu 33 31.32). See

      1 \\\\\\\\ K K ROTH B 1 \\\\\\\\ I XI A A K A N .

      BENEVOLENCE, be-nev 6-lens: AV tr of phrase in TRof 1 Cor 7 3, rejected by RV which following

      \\\\\\\\YH translates Gr n/thcilf , "due." This refer ence to the marriage relation is explained in ver 4. Cf Ex 21 10.

      BEN-GEBER, ben-ge ber (133""Il , l>< n-(/< hh<r, "son of Geber"; AV son of Geber; the word is derived from a Ileb root- meaning "to be strong." Cf HPN, 00, 0!)): One of the twelve commissariat officers in the service; of Solomon (1 K 4 13).

      BENHADAD, l)en-ha dad(1"n-;3,^r LXX vios ASe p, liuioti Ifddcr):

      The Name I. BEN HAD vi) F

      1. The Kingdom of Syria Founded

      2. Syria and Juduli

      .1. Shortsightedness of Asa II. BENHVDAD II

      1. Iladad- idri of the Monuments

      2. Expeditions against Israel

      3. Alliance with Aha!)

      4. Biblical History Confirmed by the Monuments

      5. Alliance Broken OIF

      6. Benhadad and Elisha

      7. Panic of Syrians at Samaria

      8. Murder of Benhadad III. BENHADAD III

      1. His Contemporaries

      2. The Assyrians in the, West

      3. Downfall of Damascus before Kamman- Xirari III

      4. Breathing Space for Israel

      The name of three kings of Syria mentioned in the historical books. Hadad is the Syrian god




      of storms, and is apparently identical with Rim- mon (2 K 5 IS), the Assyr Rammanu, "the Thun derer," whose temple was in Damascus. The Name The name Benhadad, "son of Hadad," accords with the custom which ob tained in Sem mythology of calling a king or a nation the son of the national god, as we have Mesha , son of Chemosh, and the Moabites, children of Chemosh. Benhadad seems to have become a general designation for the kings of Syria (Am 1 4; Jer 49 27).

      /. Benhadad I was the son of Tabrimmon, who

      is called (L iv 15 IS) "the son of He/ion, king of

      Syria, that dwelt at Damascus."

      1. The Hezion has been with some plausi- Kingdom bility identified with Re/on (1 K 11 of Syria 23.2.">) who founded the kingdom of Founded Damascus and imparted to Syria

      that temper of hostility to Israel which became hereditary. Meanwhile the Ara maeans had shaken themselves free from the rule of the Hittites, and witli Damascus for a center had planted strong settlements in the plains west ward from the Euphrates. By the time that Benhadad entered into this succession, Syria was the strongest power in this region of Western Asia, and ready to take advantage of every opportunity of increasing her dominions.

      Such an opportunity presented itself in the appeal

      of Asa, king of Judah, for help against Baasha,

      king of Israel. The two Ileb king-

      2. Syria doms had been at feud ever since their and Judah disruption. Baasha had pushed his

      frontier southward to Ramah, within 5 miles of Jerus, and this commanding eminence he proceeded to fortify. The danger of a hostile fortress overlooking his capital, and the humiliation of his rival s presence so near, were more than Asa could bear. It was at this juncture that he be thought him of Benhadad. Taking all the silver and the gold that were left in t he treasury of the house of the Lord, and the treasury of the king s house, he sent them to Benhadad with a request for an alliance, begging him at the same time to break off the league he had with Baasha and thus enable Asa to dislodge his enemy. Benhadad saw an opening for the aggrandizement of his kingdom and broke off the alliance he had had with Jeroboam and Baasha. By an invasion of Northern Israel he obliged Baasha to withdraw from Ramah and confine himself to the neighborhood of his own capital (1 K 15 Hi if). Judah obtained relief, but the price paid for it was too great. Asa had surrendered his treasures, and very likely some of his independence.

      For his shortsightedness in laying himself under

      obligation to Benhadad and relying upon the help

      of Syria rather than upon the Lord

      3. Short- his God, Asa was rebuked by the sightedness prophet Hanani (2 Ch 16 1 ff). Ben- of Asa hadad had extended his territories

      by the transaction and seems to have exercised henceforward some sort of sovereignty over both the Heb kingdoms.

      LITERATURE. McCurdy, HPM, I, 25G; H. P. Smith, OT History, 186.

      //. Benhadad II was in all probability the son of Benhadad I. He is the Hadad-ezer, or Hadad-

      idri, of the monuments. He comes 1. Hadad- first upon the scene of the Bib. history idri of the invading the land of Israel with a large Monuments host, in which were 32 tributary kings,

      and horses and chariots. He had penetrated as far as Samaria, the newly built city of Oinri, now the capital of his son Ahab. Benhadad and his Syrian host had laid siege to Samaria and

      Ahab had been summoned to surrender. Ahab was disposed to come to terms, but the intolerable proposals made by Benhadad drove him to resist ance. Encouraged by the elders of the people, and acting on the counsel of a prophet, Ahab made a sortie and falling upon the carousing Syrians put them so completely to rout that Benhadad himself only escaped on a horse with the horsemen.

      Sssss&sr: v-p ?;^*??ss**^

      2sg^ 5i?3t;2Iife*;!S5> --^ <;&. .-fri5&

      Monolith of Shalmaneser II.

      Next year the Syrians resolved to retrieve their defeat saying of the Israelites, "Their God is a

      god of the hills; therefore they were 2. Expedi- stronger than we: but let us fight tions against them in the plain, and surely

      against we shall be stronger than they." Ahab

      Israel had been warned to expect the return

      of the Syrians and was prepared for the fresh attack. For seven days the two armies faced each other, the Israelites "like two little flocks of kids" before a host that filled the country. On the seventh day they joined battle near to Aphek, and the Syrians met again an overwhelming defeat. Jeh was proved to be God both of the plains and of the hills. Benhadad was taken prisoner, and appeal ing to the clemency of the victor, he persuaded




      Ahab to spare his life. A treaty was agreed upon

      between the two monarchs under which Ahab s

      people were to have bazaars of their

      3. Alliance own in Damascus, as it would appear with Ahab Benhadad I had had for his subjects

      before in Samaria (1 K 20 1-34). The treaty was denounced by a prophet, and Ahab was warned that this man whom God had devoted to destruction would be the destruction of himself and his people. I nder the treaty, however, there were three years without war between Syria and Israel.

      The treaty and the resulting period of peace receive striking confirmation from the monuments.

      From the monolith inscription of

      4. Biblical Shalmaneser II we learn that this History Assyr king in the 6th year of his reign Confirmed (854 BC) hud crossed the Tigris and by the made his way across the Euphrates Monuments on boats of sheepskin into Syria to

      Halman (Aleppo). At Karkar he encountered the combined forces of Damascus, Ilamath, Israel and the states which had united to oppose his progress westward. Ahabbu Sir- lai, Ahab of Israel and Dad idri, Hadadezer (Ben hadad II) of Damascus are named in the inscription with chariots, horsemen and infantry, making common cause against Shalmaneser and fighting on the same side. It was Benhadad, as we gather, that bore the brunt of the assault, but the result of the battle was the complete rout of the allies with the loss of 14,000 men. That the assistance of Israel on the occasion was the outcome of the treaty between Ahab and Benhadad, and that the com bination against Shalmaneser took place during tin- three years of peace, are in the highest degree prob able.

      The disaster to the allies, however, seems to have broken up the confederacy. When the king of

      Syria is next mentioned in Bib. history.

      5. Alliance it is defending the city of Ramoth- Broken Gilead against the attack made upon Off it by Ahab, who is found now in

      alliance with Jehoshaphat , the king of Judah, attempting unsuccessfully and with fatal results to himself, to recover this city of Israel from the weakened power of Damascus. At Ramoth- Gilead Benhadad is not said to have 32 tributary kings in his train, but 32 military commanders who have taken their place (1 K 22 2.29-31).

      The peace between Israel and Syria having been

      broken, there was frequent, if not continuous, war

      between the kingdoms, in which the

      6. Benha- prophet Elisha is a prominent figure. dad and He healed of his leprosy Xaaman, Elisha Benhadad s commander-in-chicf. He

      disclosed to the king of Israel the places wherever Benhadad pitched his camp. He smote with blindness a great host whom Benhadad had sent with horses and chariots to seize him at Dothan, and led them into Samaria where he saw them treated kindly and sent back to their master (2 K 6 8-23).

      Some time after Benhadad again assembled all

      his host and laid siege to Samaria. So great was

      the famine that women ate their own

      7. Panic of children. The king of Israel sent Syrians at one of his men to put Elisha to death, Samaria but Elisha closed his house against

      him and announced that on the morrow there would be great plenty in the city. And so it happened. Certain lepers, despairing of relief, had gone into the Syrian camp and learned that the Syrians had abandoned their camp in a panic, believing that the king of Israel had hired the kings of the Musri and the northern Hittites to raise the siege (2 K 6 24 7 20; cf Burney s note, 7 6).

      Still another notice of Benhadad II is found in the Annals of Shalmaneser, who records that in the

      llth year of his reign he defeated a 8. Murder combination of 12 kings of the Hittites of Ben- with Benhadad at their head, and

      hadad slew 10,000 men. Of this there is no

      record in Bib. history, but it must have been short ly before < he t ragedy which ended t he career of the Syrian king. Benhadad had fallen sick and sent his cominander-in-chief, Ilazael, to in quire as to the issue of his sickness of the prophet Elisha, who was visiting Damascus. Elisha fore told the king s death, and wept as he read to Hazael the cruel purpose which the Syrian commander was even then maturing. Ilazael professed to be in credulous, but he departed from Elisha and the very next day in cold blood put his master to death and ascended the throne (2 K 8 7-15). Thus ingloriously ended the reign of one of the most powerful of the Syrian kings.

      LITERATURE. McCurdy,7/PM, 1,267 ff; Sehrader.COr, I, 17!) ir; \\\\\\\\Yinckli-r, <;<*ckickt.e Israels, 1, 133-55.

      ///. Benhadad HI was the son of the usurper

      Ilazael, and though not in the dynastic succession,

      assumed on the death of his father the

      1. His Con- dynastic name. He was cont em- temporaries porary with Amaziah, king of Judah;

      Jehoahaz, the son of .Jehu, king of Israel; and Ramman-Xirari III, king of Assyria. The fortunes of Israel had fallen low in the days of Jehoahaz, and Ilazael and Benhadad III were the instruments of Jeh s displeasure with the nation. At this time Jehoahaz had no more than 53 horse men and 10 chariots and 10,000 footmen; for the king of Syria had destroyed them and made them like the dust in threshing (2 K 13 7). It was when the fortunes of Israel were at the lowest ebb by reason of the oppression of the king of Syria by this time Benhadad that help came to them and Jeh gave Israel a savior, so that Israel went out from under the hands of the Syrians, "and the children of Israel dwelt in their tents [in their homes] as before! ime" (2 K 13 5). The "saviour" of the Bib. narrative- is the one allusion in Scripture to the king of Assyria of that day, Ramman-

      Xirari III, whose inscriptions record

      2. The his victorious expedition to the West. Assyrians "From the Euphrates to the land of in the the Hittites," runs an inscription, West "the west country in its entire com pass, Tyre, Zidon, the land Omri,

      Edom, Philistia as far as the Great Sea of the sun- setting, I subjected to my yoke; payment of tribute I imposed upon them. Against Syria of Damascus I marched; Mari, the king of Syria, in Damascus his royal city I besieged." He then proceeds to tell of the subjugation of the monarch and of the spoils obtained from his capital. That Mari, which means in Aramaic "lord," is Benhadad III, the son of Ilazael, is now generally believed.

      With the capture of Damascus and tin- collapse

      of the Syrian power under Mari (Benhadad III),

      an era of recuperation and prosperity

      3. Downfall became possible to Israel and Judah. of Damas- So it came to pass that "Jehoash the cus before son of Jehoahaz took again out of the Ramman- hand of Benhadad the son of Ilazael Nirari III the cities which he had taken out of

      the hand of Jehoahaz by war. Three times did Joash smite him, and recovered the cities of Israel" (2 K 13 25). Israel was able to breathe

      freely for a time and Jeroboam II

      4. Breath- restored the Northern Kingdom to its ing Space former extent and glory. But the flame for Israel of war which had been sent into the

      house of Hazael and which devoured the palaces of Benhadad (Am 1 4 ff ) was only

      Ben-hail Beriah



      waiting the time when the Assyrians would he free to renew their expeditions to the West and carry Samaria and Israel "into captivity beyond Damas cus" (Am 6 27).

      LITERATURE. McCurdy, 11PM, I, 291 IT; Sehradcr, COT, 1, L l)l> tr.

      T. Xiroi,

      BEN-HAIL, ben-ha il (5irT]2 , bcn-hmjil, "son of strength"; cf III\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\, Go, 231): One of the princes who was sent l>v Jelioshaphat "to teach in the cities of.Judah" (2 Ch 17 7).

      BEN-HANAN, ben-ha nan (i:n~ 2 , bcn-lianun, "son of grace"): A son of Shimon of the house of Judah (1 Ch 4 20;.

      BEN-HESED, ben-he sed (-Cn~-Il , b, n-lj^lh, "son of Ilesed"; A\\\\\\\\ son of Hesed; the word is derived from a Heb root moaning "to be kind"): A commissariat officer in the service of Solomon (1 K 4 10).

      BEN-HUR, ben-hur (TirT^ . bnt-ljilr, "son of Hur" ; A\\\\\\\\ son of Hur; from a He!) root moaning "to be white." Cf /// A , (it), a.3): Oneof the twelve commissariat officers in the service of Solomon (1 K 4 S).

      BENINU, be-m nu ("Z n :2 , b- nunl, "our son"): A Levite wlio with Nehemiah sealed the covenant (Xeh 10 13).

      BEN-JAAKAN,ben-ja a-kan. See BKNK-.IA AK \\\\\\\\.\\\\\\\\.

      BENJAMIN, bon ja-min Cp^S , bimjdiinti, or ""2^12 , binijainin; Btviaeiv, Hcniiu in, Bvia(iiv, Beniamiri) :

      (1) The youngest of Jacob s sons. His mother Rachel died in giving him birth. As she fell death

      approaching she called him Beiioni,

      1. The Pa- "son of my sorrow." Fearing, prob- triarch ably, that this might bode evil for

      the child for names have always pre served a peculiar significance in the East -Jacob called him Benjamin, "son of the right hand" (den 35 17 fT). He alone of Jacob s sons was born in Pal, between Bethel and Ephralh. Later in the oh, in the general enumeration of the children born in Paddan-aram, the writer fails to except Benjamin (ver 24). Joseph was his full brother. In the history where Benjamin appears as an object of solicitude; to his father and brothers, we must not forgot that he was already a grown man. At the time of the descent of Israel to Egypt, Joseph was about, 40 years of age. Benjamin was not much younger, and was himself the father of a family. The phrase in Clen 44 20, "a little; one," only describes in oriental fashion one much younger than the speaker. And as the youngest of the family no doubt he was made much of. Remorse; over their heartless treatment of his brother Joseph may have made the other brothers especially tender toward Benjamin. The conduct of his brethren all through the trying experiences in Egypt places them in a more attractive light than we should have expected; and it must have been a gratification to their father (Gen 42 ff ). Ten sons of Benjamin are named at the time of their settlement in Egypt (Gen 46 21).

      (2) At the Exodus the number of mm of war in the tribe is given as 35,400. At the second

      census it is 4/5, GOO (Nu 1 37; 26 41).

      2. The Their place in the 1 host was with the Tribe standard of the camp of Ephraim on

      the west of the tabernacle, their prince being Abidan the son of Gideoni (Nu 2 22f). Ben jamin was represented among the spies by Palti the

      son of Raphu; and at the division of the land the prince of Benjamin was Elidad the son of Chislon (Nu 13 9; 34 21).

      (3) The boundaries of the lot that fell to Benja min are pretty clearly indicated (Josh 18 11 ff). It lay between Ephraim on the X.

      3. Territory and Judah on the S. The northern

      frontier started from the Jordan over against Jericho, and ran to the north of that town up through the mountain westward past Beth- aven, taking in Bethel. It then went down by Ataroth-addar to Beth-horon the nether. From this point the western frontier ran southward to Kiriath-jearim. The southern boundary ran from Kiriath-jearim eastward to the fountain of the waters of Xetophah, swept, round by the south of Jerus, and passed down through the wilderness by Geliloth and the stone of Bohan, to the northern shore of the Dead Sea at the mouth of the Jordan. The river formed the eastern boundary. The lot was comparatively small. This, according to Jos, was owing to "the goodness of the land" (Ant, V, i, 22); a description that would apply mainly to the plains of Jericho. The uplands are stony, mountainous, and poor in water; but there is much good land on the western slopes.

      It will be seen from the above that Benjamin held the main avenues of approach to the high lands from both E. and W.: that by

      4. Impor- which Joshua led Israel past Ai from tance of Gilgal, and (he longer and easier Position ascents from the W., notably that

      along which the tides of battle so often rolled, the Valley of Aijalon, by way of the Beth-horons. Benjamin also sat astride the great highway connecting X. and S., which ran along the ridge of the western range, in (he district where it- was easiest of defense. It was a position calling for occupat ion by a brave and warlike tribe such as Benjamin proved to be. His warriors were skilful archers and slingers, and they seem to have culti vated the use of both hands, which gave; (hem a groat advantage in battle (Jgs 20 1G; 1 Ch 8 40; 12 2, etc). These characteristics are reflected in the Blessing of Jacob (Gen 49 27). The- second deliverer of Israel in the period of (he Judges was Ehud, (he left-handed Benjamite (Jgs 3 lo).

      The Bonjamites fought against Sisera under Deborah and Barak (Jgs 5 14). The story (old

      in Jgs 20 21 presents many difficulties 6. History which cannot be dise-ussod here . It

      is valuable as preserving certain foa- turosof life in these lawless times when there was ne> king in Israel. Whatever may be said of the details, it certainly reflects the 1 memory of some atrocity in which the Bonjamites were involve-d and for which they suffered terrible punishment. The election of Saul as first king over unite el Israel naturally lent a certain prestige te> the tribe . After the 1 death e>f Saul the y formeel the backbone of Ish-bosheth s party, and most, unwillingly conceded precedence to Judah in the person of David (2 S 2 lf).2. r >; 3 17 ff). It was a Benjamite who heaped curses upon Daviel in the hour of his deep humilia tion (2 S 16 />); and the jealousy of Benjamin led to the revolt on David s return, which was so effectually stamped out by Joab (2 S 19 f). Part of the tribe, probably the larger part, went against Judah at the 1 disruption of (he kingdom, taking Bethel wi(h them. 1 K 12 20 nays that nemo followed (he; house 1 of Daviel but the house 1 of Judah only. But (he 1 next verse tolls us that Re-hoboam gathered the 1 men of Judah and Benjamin te> fight against Jeroboam. Il seems probable (hat as Jorus had now become the royal city e>f (he> house 1 of David, (he 1 adjoining parts of Benjamin proved loyal, while 1 Iho more distant joined the Northern



      Ben-hail Beriah

      Kingdom. After the downfall of Samaria Judah assumed control of practically the whole territory of Benjamin (2 K 23 15.19, etc). Nehcmiah gives the Valley of Ilinnom as the south boundary of Benjamin in his time (Neh 11 30), while westward it extended to include 1 Loci and Ono. Saul of Tarsus was a member of this tribe (Phil 3 5).

      (4) A great-grandson of Benjamin, son of Jacob (1 Ch 7 10).

      (5) One of those who had married a foreign wife (Ezr 10 32, and probably also Neh 3 23; 12 34).


      BENJAMITE, bon ja-mlt : One belonging to the tribe of Benjamin, such as Ehud (Jgs 3 15), Saul (1 S 9 1.2), Sheba (2 S 20 1), Shimei (1 K 2 8), etc.

      BENO, bc no ("3, b nri, "his son"): The son of Jaaziah of the house of Levi (1 Ch 24 20.27).

      BEN-ONI, bon-o n! p:^"")!! , bcn-rn; vios o8vvT|s |j.ov, Ini inn <>(! line* tutu/, son of my sor row") : The name given by t he dying Rachel to her new-born son; changed by his father Jacob to BEN- JAMIX ((!en 35 IX; cj.v.

      BEN-ZOHETH, ben-zd hoth (rrnT";3 , ben-zo- heth, "son of Zoheth," from a Ileb root meaning "to be strong)?)" i : A son of Ishi of the house of Judah (1 Ch 4 20).

      BEON, be on (Nu 32 3). See BAAL-MEO.N.

      BEOR, be or (~n"3 , h - dr, "destroyer") . ]):

      (1) Father of Bela," t he first king of Edom (don 36 32; 1 Ch 1 43).

      (2) The father of the seer Balaam (Nu 22 5: 24 3.15; 31 S; Dt 23 4; Josh 13 22; 24 9, omitted in LXX; Mic 6 5; 2 Pet 2 15, AY and RVm "Bosor").

      BERA, bo ra Ona , fcmi , "gift "[ . I; < f Ifl X, 71 n.): King of Sodom (den 14 2) who in t lie bat tie of Siddim was subdued by Chedorlaomer.

      BERACAH, br-ra ka (""3, h-rtU-lnlh, "bless ing," A\\\\\\\\ Berachah) : A Ben jamite who joined David at Ziklag (1 Ch 12 3).

      BERACAH, br-ra ka, ber a-ka, VALLEY OF (AY Berachah; <~C"}3 P C" , <"///,- h Tdkhuh ; KoiAds ii\\\\\\\\o-yias, koildx ciilot/iiix): After the victory of Jehoshaphat and his people over Moab and Am- mon, "On the fourt h day t hey assembled t hemselves in the valley of Beracah; for there they blessed Jeh: therefore the name of that place was called The valley of Beracah [i.e. of blessing) unto this day" (2 Ch 20 20). In the Wad// \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\rruh there is a ruin called Jircikut and the valley in its proximity receives the same name. This is on the main road from Hebron to Jerus and not far from Tekoa; it suits the narrative well (see I>EI<\\\\\\\\ III, 352).

      E. \\\\\\\\V. (1. MASTKRMAN

      BERACHIAH, ber-a-kl a. See BERECHIAH.

      BERAIAH, bo-rl a (rTJO2, b Ta^jdh, "Jeh hath created"): A son of Shimei of the house of Benja min (1 Ch 8 21).

      BEREA, be-re a. See BKRCEA.

      BEREAVE, bn-rev , BEREAVER, br-rev er, BEREFT, be-rei t : Bereave is frequent ly usei lint he OT in tlie (now almost obsolete) meaning of "to deprive," "to take away," csp. with reference to

      loss of children. The Hob word used here is bblp, shdkhol, "to be childless," or in the Piel "to make childless" (of (ion 42 3(5 et al.). In AY Keel 4 S (from the Hob "ICn, haxcr, "to lack") we read "and bereave my soul of good" (RY "deprive"), and inEzk 36 14 (from Ileb 5 TT2 , kuxh/il, "to stumble" >, "neither bereave thy nations any more" (RVm "cause to stumble").

      Bereaver, otherwise very rare, is found RY Ezk 36 13 (from Hob bb tT , *hkhr,l, "to be childless ), "a bereaver of thy nation" (AV "hast bereaved").

      Bereft is found in 1 Tim 6 5 (from the dr <!i>ox/cm~>, "to rob") "bereft of the truth" (AV "destitute"). The expression licn-aram nt (RV Isa 49 20) in the phrase "the children of thy b." means "the children born to 1 hoc in the time when (!od had afflicted thee." A. L. BKKSUCII

      BERECHIAH, bor-e-kl a 0~P:n2, VPD 1 ?:!, bcrckli i/ali, bcrckhijaha, "Jeh blesses," 1/I X. 210, 2X7) :

      (1) A descendant of David (1 Ch 3 20).

      (2) The fat her of Asaph, the singer (1 Ch 6 39 AV "Berachiah"; 15 17).

      (3) A former inhabitant of Jerus, a Levite (1 Ch 9 10).

      (4) A doorkeeper for the ark at David s time (1 Ch 15 23).

      (5) One of the heads of the children of Ephraim 1 2 Ch 28 12).

      (0) The father of Moshullam the builder (Neh 3 4.30; 6 IS).

      (7) The father of the prophet Zoohariah (Zee 1 1.7). A. L. BHESI.LCH

      BERED, be rod ("72. b<rcdh, "hail," from a Hob root meaning "to be cold"): The son of Shuthelah of the house of Ephraim (1 Ch 7 20). Cf BECIIKK.

      BERED, be rod (~H2 , bircd//; BapdS, ttdrtid): A place in the Negeb mentioned in the story of Ilagar ((Ion 16 14;. The well Boor-lahai-roi was "between Kadesh and Bored." The Onkelos Tg renders it llntjItrtT, which is the usual equiva lent of Shur, while the Jerus Tg renders it Haluqdh which is also Shur (Iv\\\\\\\\ 15 22). Ilul/lra/i is clearly the city of Elusu mentioned by Ptolc iny and from the llh lo the 7th cents, by various ecclesiastical writers. It was an important town on the road from Pal to Kadesh and Ml. Sinai. This is without doubt the very large and important ruin K/i. K/Kildxfi, some 70 miles S. of Jerus on the road from Beerslieba and Rehoboth. "These ruins cover an area of 15 to 20 acres, t Immghoul which I he founda- tions and inclosiiros of houses are distinctly to be traced ..... We judged that here there must have boon a, city with room enough for a popula tion of 15,000 to 20,000 souls" (Robinson, lilt, I, 201). E. \\\\\\\\V. d. MASTKKMAN

      BERENICE, ber o-nes. See BEHMCK.

      BERI, bo n (" ~ 3 , ben, "wisdom"): A descend ant of Asher (1 Ch 7 30).

      BERIAH, br-rl a, BERIITES, br-rl Ils l> n { (ltt, "in shouting." prob. derived from a Hob root meaning "to make noise," or "in evil," from another Hob root) :

      (1 ) A son of Asher and father of Heber and Mal- chiol (den 46 17; 1 Ch 7 30.31; the head of the family of the Beriites, Nu 26 44 IT).

      (2) A son of Ephraim, called B. by his father because "it went evil with his house" (1 Ch 7 23).

      (3) A descendant of Benjamin (1 Ch 8 13.16). (1) A Levite in the lino of dershon (1 Ch 23

      10 fi.

      Berites Beth



      BERITES, be rlts (Q"H3, berim; according to Klostermann and others, C"HD2, bikhrlm): The word is found only once in the OT (2 S 20 14). The passage seems to he doubtful. The suggestion of Klostermann does not improve matters any; the other proposed reading, D"Hn3, bnhftnm (Vulg viri elccti), "choice young men," is to be preferred.

      BERITH, be rith (FV See BAAL-BERITH.

      b rlth, "covenant")

      BERNICE, ber-nl se (Bcpvdoi, Bernlkc, "vic torious"): One of the shameless women of the Bible, mentioned in Acts 25 13.23; 26 30. She was the eldest daughter of Herod Agrippa I (Acts 12 who ruled from 38-45 AD. Her whole life from the Jewish standpoint was inces tuous. Its story is told by Jos (Ant, XIX, v, 1 ; XX, vii, 1-3), also by Juvenal (0, 150). Her first hus band was her own uncle, Herod of Calchis. After his death she consorted with her own brother Agrip pa II, with whom she listened to the impassioned defense of Paul at Caesarea before Felix. For a while she was married to King Ptolemy or Polemo of Sicily, who for her sake embraced Judaism, by the rite of circumcision. But she left him soon to return to Agrippa. Later on she figures shame fully in the lives of Vespasian and Titus, father and son. If heredity stands for anything, its lessons are forcibly taught in the history of the Herodian family. HENHY E. DOSKKH

      BERODACH-BALADAN, be-rd dak-bal a-dan. See MERODACH-BALADAN.

      BERCEA, be-re a (Btpova or Bppoia, Beroia) : (1) A town of southwestern Macedonia, in the district of Emathia. It lay at the foot of Alt. Ber- mius, on a tributary of the Haliacmon, and seems to have been an ancient town, though the date of its foundation is uncertain. A passage in Thucydides (i.61) relating to the year 432 BC probably refers to another place of the same 1 name, but an inscription (I user Grace, II, 5, 2\\\\\\\\)in) proves its existence at the end of the 4th cent. BC, and it is twice mentioned by Polybius (xxvii.S; xxviii.S). After the battle of Pydna in 168 BC Beroea was the first city to surrender to Rome and fell in the third of the four regions into which Macedonia was divided (Livy xliv.45; xlv.29). Paul and Silas came to Bercta from Thessalonica, which they had been forced by an uproar to leave, and preached in the synagogue to the Jews, many of whom believed after a candid examination of the apostolic message in the light of their Scriptures (Acts 17 10.11). A number of "Or women of honorable estate and of men" also believed, but the advent of a body of hostile Jews from Thessalonica created a disturbance in conse quence of which Paul had to leave the city, though Silas and Timothy stayed there for a few days longer (Acts 17 12-15). Perhaps the Sopater of Beroea who accompanied Paul to Asia on his last journey to Jems was one of his converts on this visit (Acts 20 4). Bercea, which was one of the most populous cities of Macedonia, early became a bishopric under the metropolitan of Thessalonica and was itself made a metropolis by Andronicus II (1283-1328): there is a tradition that the first bishop of the church was Onesimus. It played a prominent part in the struggles between the Greeks and the Bulgarians and Serbs, and was finally con quered by the Turks in 1373-74. The town, which still bears among the Greeks ita ancient name (pro nounced Vcrria} though called by the Turks Knra- feria, possesses but few remains of antiquity with the exception of numerous inscriptions (Leake, Travels in Northern Greece, III, 290 ff; Cousinery,

      Voyage dans la Macedoine, I, 57 ff; Dimitsas, Makedonia, in Greek, 57 ff). MAKCUS N. TOD

      (2) The place where Menelaus the ex-high priest was executed by order of Antiochus Eupator, the victim, according to local custom, being cast from a tower 50 cubits high into a bed of ashes (2 Mace 13 3ff). It was the ancient city of IJalab, lying about midway between Antioch and Hierapolis. Seleucus Nicator gave it the name Bertca. It was a city of importance under the Moslems in the Middle Ages, when the old name again asserted it self, and remains to the present time.

      The name "Aleppo" came to us through the Vene tian traders in the days before the great overland route to India via Aleppo lost its importance t hrough t he discovery of the passage round t he Cape. Aleppo is now a city of nearly 130,000 inhabitants. The governor exercises authority over a wide dis trict extending from the Euphrates to the; Med iterranean.

      (3) (Bcpm, Bcrea): A place mentioned in 1 Mace 9 4. It may be identical with BKEKOTH (q.v.) in Benjamin, a Hivitc town, 8 miles N. of Jerus, or with the modern tiircz-Zait, \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ miles N.W. of Jifiu h. W. EWING

      BEROTH, be roth (1 Esd 5 19). See BEKROTH.

      BEROTHAH, bf--ro tha (Ezk 47 16: nni-fl, bcnllhdh; LXX B, ASe^pd, Abthcrn;m BEROTHAI, 2 S 8 8; TTI3, hcrdt/iai, where for Tha 1 ? , jtiih- bcrolhni, LXX reads ck ton cklcklon polcon, "from the select cities"): Probably two forms of the same name. Ezk 47 10 places it on the ideal northern frontier of Israel, between Damascus and Hamath. According to 2 S 8 8 it was a city of Hadadezer, king of Zobah. In the passage (1 Ch 18 8) Cun is given in place of Berothai. Its site is unknown. Kwald connected it with Beirut (so^also apparently II. P. Smith, ICC, "Samuel," 307), but Ezekiel s description excludes this view. Others have sought it in the Wady Brissa, in the E. slope of Lebanon, N. of Baalbec. A more plausible conjecture identifies it with Bereitan (Brit hen), a village somewhat S. of Baalbec (Baedeker, Pal 3 , 309). Possibly, however, the ideal northern frontier line should be drawn farther south. See HETHLOX; ZKDAD; ZOHAH. C. II. THOMSOX

      BEROTHITE, be roth-It. See BKEROTHITE.

      BERRIES, ber is: Occurs in Jas 3 12 (AV) in the phrase "olive berries" (f \\\\\\\\aTat, The RV reads simply "olives."

      BERYL, ber il. See STONES, PRECIOUS.

      BERYTUS, ber i-tus, bn-n tus (B^pvros, Bcru- (6s; Arab. ^J.^AJ ; mod. Beirut, Beyrout, Bey routh): An ancient Phoen city situated on the N. side of a promontory jutting out from the base of Lebanon to the W. into the Mediterranean and forming a bay on the N. connected with the fable of St. George and the Dragon, and hence called St. George s Bay. The city is about 25 miles N. of Sidon and about 12 S. of the famous Lycus, or Dog River, at the mouth of which are found the sculptured rocks bearing the monuments of the ancient kings of Egypt, Babylonia and Assyria.

      The city has been thought by some to be the Berothai of 2 S 8 8 or the Berothah of Ezk 47 16, but the connection in which these cities are men tioned seems to preclude the identification. The town is, however, an ancient one, for it occurs in Am Tab as Beruti where it is closely connected with Gebal of w T hich it may have been a dependency.



      Berites Beth

      Though not mentioned in OT or NT it appears m the history of Herod the Great as an important town where was assembled a court of 150 judges, presided over by Saturninus, a former Rom consul, to try the case which Herod brought against his two eons, Alexander and Aristobulus, who^ were con demned there by the Rom court (Ant, XVI, xi, 2). Beirut was a Rom colony at this time where many veterans settled and it afterward became the seat of a great Rom law school which was attended, in the days of Justinian, by thousands of students. It was utterly destroyed by an earthquake in 551 AD, and for a time was abandoned. Many remains of temples and public buildings of the Rom period remain. It rose to some importance during the Crusades and is at present the chief seaport of Syria, and has the only harbor on the coast. It is a town of about 125,000 inhabitants.

      II. PORTER BERZELUS, ber-ze lus. See ZORZELLEUS.

      BESAI, be sl P02, bH?ay, "downtrodden"): The descendants of B. (Nethinim) returned with Zerub- babel to Jems (Ezr 2 49; Neh 7 52 = Basthai, 1 Esd 6 31).

      BESET, b5-set (cvirepto-Taros, euperlstatos): The most common sense of this word is "to surround." This is the thought in Ps 139 5, and teaches the omnipresence of God. Often wicked men find that the things which they have done so envelope them that they cannot escape ruin (Hos 7 2). The ref erence in He 12 1 is first of all against the sin of apostasy against which repeated warning is given in this book. But the warning is also against any sin that is esp. dangerous to us. It, again and again, surrounds us like a besieging army. To sur render would be traitorous and disgraceful, since the Captain of the Lord s host is with us.


      BESIDE, bf-sld : Near to, or close to (Ps 23 2). It is often used to refer to the mental state, to the derangement of the mind (t^iffrijp.i, ex miemi, Mk 3 21; Acts 26 24 AV). Or it may refer to the condi tion of being out of the ordinary course of the life. A life consecrated to God and spent in the interest, of humanity is so designated (2 Cor 6 13). It has the sense also of a state; of being out of one s usual mind, but not of mental derangement, occasioned by something that causes amazement or astonish ment (Mk 5 42). Or it may refer to a state in which one is not conscious of present conditions, but is rapt in vision (Acts 10 10).

      Besides is used in the sense of in addition to or that which is over and above what has been said or is possessed (Lk 16 20; seeARVm"in"; Philem vcr 19). JACOB W. KAPP

      BESIEGE, bfe-sej . Sec SIEGE.

      BESODEIAH, bes-6-de ya, bes-6-dI a (rPT!C3, b sodh yah, "in the confidence or counsel of Jeh"; c-f jer 23 18.22; and HPN, 207, 221, 286): Father of Meshullam, the builder (Neh 3 6).

      BESOM, be zum: Occurs only once in Scripture: "I will sweep it with the besom of destruction" (Isa 14 23). Refers to what was in store for Baby lon. The Heb word mat Me , rendered "besom," is close of kin to the one (tl te thlha) rendered "sweep." In early Eng. "besom" was synonymous with "broom," and is still so used in some parts of Eng land.

      BESOR, be sor, THE BROOK 01123 bn; , nahal b sor; A, B\\\\\\\\Pi llechor, B, Bcavd, Beand; 1 S 30 9.10.21; Jos, Ant, VI, xiv, 6): A torrent-

      bed (nahal) mentioned in the account of David s pursuit of the Amalekites. Thought to be Wady Ghazza, which enters the sea S.W. of Gaza.

      BEST: Of five Heb originals the chief is IHI2, tobh, "good," expressing quality, character. Vari ously used of objects pleasing to the senses, feelings, mind, moral sense, e.g. "best of the land" (Gen 47 6); "of sheep" (1 S 15 9); of persons "married to whom they think best" (Nu 36 6); of abode, "where it liketh [RV "pleaseth"] him best" (Dt 23 16).

      In Nu 18 12 the revenues of the priests were to

      be "holy gifts," e.g. the "best of the oil," etc (15H, helebh, "fat"); also vs 29.30.32, the gifts of the heave-offering were to be "of all the best," indicat ing that the richest elements of life were to go into the support and service of the sanctuary. So "the choice [best] fruits" (rnpT, zimrdh, lit. "the song of the land"), a beautifully poetic ex pression for the most celebrated fruits (Gen 43 11); equally choice is TTE , pazaz, "separate," "the finest [best] gold," hence "purified" (1 K 10 18).

      Used but twice in the NT: (1) of spiritual gifts (KPCLTTOV, kreitlon, "better" [RV "greater"]; 1 Cor 12 31); (2) of raiment (Trpwros, protos, "first"), "best robe" (Lk 16 22), of special signifi cance as expressing the Father s lavish love for the repentant and returning sinner.


      BESTEAD, bP-sted ("TL^: , niksheli, "caught in a snare," "entrapped"; as Judah hard pressed in their own land by the Assyrians [Isa 8 21 AV]): Found only here. OE word slcdcn meaning "place," hence "set," "beset"; usually with "ill," "sorely bested." In RV rendered "sore distressed."

      BESTIALITY, bes-ti-al i-ti. See CRIMES.

      BESTOW, bf-sto : The seven Heb words ren dered by this term variously mean "to put" or "place," "to give"; "do," "deposit," as e.g. to locate chariots and horsemen in cities (1 K 10 26); or give a blessing (Ex 32 29). Four Gr words so tr 1 signify "to give," "to labor," "to feed," "to place around"; as <rwdyu, sundgo, "to stow away goods" (Lk 12 17); or V""A"T<", psomizo, "give away" (1 Cor 13 3). The term has richest significance in expressing God s abundant gift of grace and love, 8i5w/ju, dido mi (2 Cor 8 1 AV; 1 Jn 3 1).

      BET AH, be ta (2 S 8 8). See TIBHATH.

      BETANE, bet a-ne" (Batravr], Baitdne) : A place named in Jth 1 9, among those to which the mes sengers of Nebuchadnezzar were sent. From the order in which they are named we should seek for it S. of Jems. It may be identical with licit Ainun, about 3 miles N. of Hebron.

      BETEN, be ten (]t?2, betcn; Barvt, Batne): A city of Asher mentioned between Hali and Achshaph (Josh 19 25). Onom places it 8 Rom miles E. of Ptolemais, giving it the name Bethseten. It may be identical with the modern village cl-B*aneh, but no certainty is possible.

      BETH, bath (1) : The second letter of the Heb alphabet. With the daghesh it is transliterated in this dictionary as b, and, without, as bh ( = v). It came also to be used for the number two (2) and with the dieresis for 2,000. For name, etc, see ALPHABET; BAYITH.

      BETH, beth (in proper names; Gr transliteration in LXX, $r\\\\\\\\9, beth, baith, or beth) : This is the Eng.

      Bethabara Bethel



      He!) rP5, Ix lii, meaning

      transliteration for the

      "house," "tent," "place." I( occurs in manv com pound proper names formed similarly to the method of compounding words in the German language, as shown in the arts, immediately following. Thus we have bilh \\\\\\\\uidtti or *nnulh = "house of replies" (Josh 19 3S; Jgs 1 33); /,r7/,W = "house of God" (( .en 12 S; 13 3), etc. We also find the word in hybrid formations, e.g. lirjt)<f> a y^, Bethphagf = Beth- phage = "fig house" (Ml 21 1 1.

      FRANK E. Iliusm beth-ab a-ra (T\\\\\\\\^y r^3 , bflh j;rt/i/ilinr>i, "house of the ford"): According to AV (following Tit) the place where John baptized (.In 1 2,S). in (with Tisch WII following X*BAC*) reads BETHAXY. It is distinguished from the Bethany of Lazarus and his sisters as being "beyond the Jordan." Tin- reading "Bethabara" became current owing to the advocacy of Origen. Various suggestions have been made to explain the readings. (i. A. Smith (IK1I1L) suggests that Bethanv ("house of



      ered a well-known ford near Beisan called Abarah near the mouth of the valley of Jezreel. This is 20 miles from Cana and 00 miles from Bethany, and all the conditions of the place fit in with the history." See also BKTHANV (2).

      S. F. HUNTER

      BETH-ANATH, beth-a nath (r,:? m* , beth dnath; Baiva9de, Jidinatfuittt) : A city in the terri tory of Naphtali, named with Horem and Beth- shemesh (Josh 19 3S; Jgs 1 33). It is represent ed by the modern village Ainathn, about, 12 miles N.W. ofSafed. The name signifies the "house" or "temple" of Anath, a goddess of t he Canaanites.

      BETH-ANOTH, beth-fi noth (Di:? IMS, bcth anotli; Bai9avd|i, Bdilhandm, probably "House of Anath" i god; .Josh 15 59): The ruin of lint Ainiin, 1! miles S.E. of Ihilfn d, in the neighbor hood also of Bethzur and Gedor places mentioned in association with it as towns in the hill country of Judah -appears to be a probable site. The present surface ruins belong to later ai>;e>.


      the ship") and Bethabara ("house of the ford") are names for the same place. Bethabara has also been identified with Bethbarah, which, however, was probably not on the Jordan but among the streams flowing into it (Jgs 7 24). It is interesting to note that LXX B reads Bnit/ialmm for MT Beth-^&rabhah, one of the cities of Benjamin (Josh 18 22). If this be correct, the site is in Judaea.

      Another solution is sought in tin- idea of a cor ruption of the original name into Bethany and Bethabara, the name having the consonants //, hand r after Beth. In Josh 13 27 (LXX i; ) we find Bailhanabra for Bethnimrah (MT), and Sir George Grove in DB (arts. "Bethabara" and "Beth nimrah") identifies Bethabara and Beth-nimrah. The site of the latter was a few miles above Jericho (see BETH-NIMRAH), "immediately accessible to Jerus and all Judaea" (cf Alt 3 />; Mk 1 o and see art. "Bethany" in EB). This view has much in its favor.

      Then, again, as Dr. G. Frederick Wright ob serves: "The traditional site is at the ford east of Jericho; but as according to Jn 1 293543 it was only one day s journey from Cana of Galilee, while according to Jn 10 40; 11 3.0.17 it was two or three days from Bethanv, it must have been well up the river toward Galilee. Conder discov-

      BETHANY, beth a-ni (B^Oavia, BrltHiHiu): (1) A village, !."> furlongs from Jerus (Jn 11 IS), on the road to Jericho, at the Mount of Olives (Mk 11 1; Lk 19 2!)), where lived "Simon the leper" (Mk 14 3) and Mary, Martha and Lazarus (Jn 11 ISf). This village may justifiably be called the Judaean home of Jesus, as He appears to have preferred to lodge there rather than in Jerus itself (Ml. 21 17; Mk 11 11). Here occurred the inci dent of the raising of Lazarus (Jn 11) and the feast at the house; of Simon (Mt 26 1-13; Mk 14 3-9 Lk 7 30-50; Jn 12 1-S). The Ascension as re corded in Lk 24 50-51 is thus described: "He led them out until they were over against Bethany: and he lifted up his hands, and blessed them. And it came to pass, while he blessed them, he parted from them, and was carried up into heaven."

      Bethany is today el Azareyeh ("the place of Lazarus" -the L being displaced to form the art.). It is a miserably untidy and tumble-down village facing E. on the S.E. slope of the Mount of Olives, upon the carriage road to Jericho. A fair number of fig, almond and olive trees surround the houses. The traditional tomb of Lazarus is shown and there are some remains of mediaeval buildings, besides rock-cut tombs of much earlier date (PEF. Ill, 27, Sheet XVII).



      Bethabara Bethel

      (2) "Bethany beyond the Jordan" (Jn 1 2,8; AV Bethabara; B^0apapd, Bethabara, u reading against the majority of the MSS, supported by Origen on geographical grounds) : No such place is known. Grove suggested that the place intended is BETH-NIMRAH (which see), the modern Tell nimrin, a singularly suitable place, but hard to fit in with Jn 1 28; cf 2 1. The traditional site is the ford E. of Jericho. E. \\\\\\\\V. G. MASTERMAN

      BETH-ARABAH, both-ar a-ba (HlP^n ITS , beth hd- f drdbhdh; Ba.i0a.papd, Baitharabd, "place of the Arab ah") :

      (1) One of the 6 cities of Judah "in the wilder ness" ( 15 01), on the borders of Benjamin and Judah (Josh 15 0; 18 18 LXX). "The wilderness of Judah" is the barren land W. of the Dead Sea. Beth-arabah is not yet identified.

      (2) One of the cfties of Benjamin (Josh. 18 22). LXX B reads Baithabara, and this may be correct. Tli> names are easily confounded. See BETHABARA.

      BETHARAM, beth-a rarn (Z^n n^Z , bi-th hn- ruin). See BETH-HAHA.M.

      BETH-ARBEL, beth-ar bol (bxznS ma, belli arbel): The scene of a terrific disaster inflicted on the inhabitants by Shalman (Hos 10 14). If the place intended was in Pal, and was not the famous city of that name on the Euphrates, then probably it should be identified either with Irbid (or Irbil) in Galilee, or with Irbid, which corresponds to Arbela of the Onom, E. of the Jordan, about 12 miles S.E. of Gadara. If, as Schrader thinks (COT, II, 140), Shalman stands for the Moabite king, Shalamanu, a tributary of Tiglath-pileser, the eastern town would be the more natural identification. Possibly however the reference is to Shalmaneser III or IV. For the Galilean site, see ARBEL; see also DB, s.v.

      \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ . Ewix<;

      BETHASMOTH, beth-az moth (AV Bethsamos; Bai0ao-|Au>0, Baithasiiwth [1 Esd 5 IS]; corresponds to Beth-azmaveth in Xeh 7 28): A town in the territory of Benjamin, and may be identified with the modern el-IIizmck. See AZMAVETH.

      BETH-AVEN, belh-a ven H X rV3 , beth awen; BaiGcov, Baithon, Bai0av>v, Btiitltaiin): A place on the northern boundary of the territory of Benja min (Josh 18 12) E. of Bethel, near Ai (Josh 7 2), W. of Michmash (1 S 13 f>; 14 2:5). Beth-aven, "house of vanity," i.e. "idolatry," may possibly represent an original beth- on, "house of wealth." Wilson (PEFH, 180!), 120) suggests Khirbet An, W. of Michmash. The name is used in mockery for Bethel by Hosea (4 15; 10 5.8, etc; cf Am 5 f>).

      BETH-AZMAVETH, beth-az-ma veth (Neh 7 28). See AZMAVETII.

      BETH-BAAL-MEON, beth-ba-al-me on (Josh 13 17). See BAAL-.MEOX.

      BETH-BARAH, befh-ba ra (rP3 1^2, beth bardh; BaiOrjpd, Bait herd): PerhapV Beth- dbhdru, the guttural being lost in copying. It is a ford which the Midianites were expected to pass in fleeing from Gideon. Messengers were therefore sent by Gideon to the Ephraimites bidding them "take before them the waters, as far as Beth- barah, even [RVrn "and also"] the Jordan" (Jgs 7 24). "The waters" were the streams emptying themselves into the Jordan: "even the Jordan" is a gloss on "the waters." Between the Jordan and the modern Wadij Fari^ah an enemy could be en trapped; it is therefore probable that Beth-barah was on that stream near its entrance into the Jor dan. See BETHABARA. S. F. HUNTER

      BETHBASI, beth-ba sl (Bai0pao-l, Baithbasi): The name may mean "place of marshes" =Heb beth-b e,l. According to G. A. Smith there is a Wadij el-Bassah E. of Tekoa in the wilderness of Judaea. The name means "marsh," which Dr. Smith thinks impossible, and really "an echo of an ancient name." Jonathan and Simon repaired the ruins of the fortified place "in the desert" (1 Mace 9 02.04). Jos reads Bethalaga, i.e. Beth-hoglah (Ant, XIII, i, 5). Pesh VS reads Beth-Yashan (see JESHANAH), which Dr. Cheyne thinks is prob ably correct. Thus the origin of the name and the site of the town are merely conjectural.

      S. F. HUNTER

      BETH-BIRI, beth-bir I (AV Beth-birei, beth- bir e-I) " 1 X"12~rP21 , bcth bir i.; OKOS Bpaov(j.o-twp6(x, oikos Braoumseoreim; 1 Ch 4 31 [called in Josh 19 0, Beth-Iebaoth, "abode of lions"]): A site be longing to Simeon in the Negeb unidentified.

      BETH-CAR, belh kar ("I3TP3, beth-kar; Bai0- Xp. Baithchur, B\\\\\\\\X<>P. Belchor): "And the men of Israel went out of Mizpah, and pursued the Philis, and smote them, until they came under Beth-car" (IS 7 11). *Ain Kdrem has been suggested; if Mi/pah is nebi 8nmwll then this identification is probable, as the pursuit would be along the deep Wad (/ b/ it Ildniuneh a natural line of retreat for the Philis to take. See BETH-HACCHEREM.

      BETH-DAGO N, beth-da gon OirnTVa, beth- ili~i j/i<ln ; B^OSa-yiv, Bethdagdn):

      (1) A town in the Shephelah of Judah named with Gederoth. Xaamah, and Makkedah (Josh 16 41). It may be represented by the modern Beit Dijan, about miles S.E. of Jaffa. This however is a modern site, and not in the Shephelah. Nearly 2 miles to the south is Khirhit Dnjun, a Rom site. The connection in which it occurs leads us to expect a position farther S.E.

      (2) A city on the border of Ashcr (Josh 19 27) which Conder would identify with Tell D uuk, near the mouth of the Bolus, in the plain of Acre.

      The name seems to have been of frequent occur rence. There is a Beit Dijnn about miles E. of Ndblus, and Jos speaks of a fortress called Dagon above Jericho (A>,t, XII, viii, 1; BJ , I, ii, 3). This woul 1 seem to indicate a widespread worship of Dagon. But the name; may mean "house of corn." \\\\\\\\V. EWING

      BETH-DIBLATHAIM, beth-dib-la-tha im S^P Il , bcth dibhlathayim; O!KOS Ap\\\\\\\\a oikos I)eblail//<iun, lit. "house of D."): A town in Moab mentioned with Dibon and Nebo (Jer 48 22). It is probably identical with Almon- diblathaim (Xu 33 40 f). Mesha claims to have fortified it along with Mehedeba and Ba\\\\\\\\il-me l on (see MOABITE STONE). The place is not vet iden tified.

      BETH-EDEN, beth-e den (Am 1 5 AVm; EV "house of Eden"). See CHILDREN OF EDEN.

      BETHEL, beth el (5~ni2, beth- el; Bai0^\\\\\\\\, Baithel and O!KOS 0eov, oikos theou, lit. "house of God"):

      (1) A town near the place where Abraham halted

      and offered sacrifice on his way south from Shechern.

      It lay W. of Ai (Gen 12 8). It is

      1. Identifi- named as on the northern border of

      cation and Benjamin (the southern of Ephraim,

      Description Josh 16 2), at the top of the ascent

      from the Jordan valley by way of

      Ai (Josh 18 13). It lay S. of Shiloh (Jgs 21 19).

      Onom places it 12 Rom miles from Jerus, on the

      Bethel Beth-hanan



      road to Neapolis. It is represented hy the modern Bi itln, a village of sonic 400 inhabitants, which stands on a knoll E. of the road to Nablus. Then; are four .springs which yield supplies of good water. In ancient times these were supplemented by a reservoir hewn in the rock 8. of the town. The surrounding country is bleak and barren, the hills being marked by a succession of stony terraces, which may have suggested the form of the ladder in Jacob s famous dream.


      The town was originally called Lux, (den 28 I .l,

      etc). When Jacob came hither on his way to

      Paddan-aram we are told that he

      2. The lighted upon "the place" (Gen 28 11, Sanctuary Heb). The Ileb indkom, like the

      cognate Arab, makdm, denotes a sacred place or sanctuary. The majfdm was doubtless that at which Abraham had sacrificed, E. of the town. In the morning Jacob set up "for a pillar" the stone which had served as his pillow (Gen 28 IS; see PILLAR maffebhah), poured oil upon it and called the name of the place Bethel, house of God"; that is, of God whose epiphany was for him associated with the pillar. This spot became a center of great interest, lending growing importance to the town. In process of time the name Luz disappeared, giving place to that of the adjoining sanctuary, town and sanctuary being identified. Jacob revisited the place on his return from Paddan-aram; here Deborah, Rebekah s nurse, died and was buried under "the oak" (Gen 35 6 f). Probably on rising ground E. of Bethel Abraham and Lot stood to view the uninviting highlands and the rich lands of the Jordan valley (Gen 13 9 fT).

      Bethel was a royal city of the Canaanites (Josh 12 16). It appears to have been captured by

      Joshua (8 7), and it was allotted to

      3. History Benjamin (Josh 18 22). InJgs 1 22 IT

      it is represented as held by Canaanites, from whom the house of Joseph took it by treachery (cf 1 Ch 7 28). Hither the ark was brought from Gilgal (Jgs 2 1 LXX). Israel came to Bethel to consult the Divine oracle (20 IS), and it became an important center of worship (1 S 10 3). The home of the prophetess Deborah was not far off (Jgs 4 5). Samuel visited Bethel on circuit, judging Israel (1 S 7 16).

      With the disruption of the kingdom came Bethel s greatest period of splendor and significance. To counteract the influence of Jerus as the national religious center Jeroboam embarked on the policy which won for him the unenviable reputation of having "made Israel to sin." Here he erected a temple, set up an image, the golden calf, and estab lished an imposing ritual. It became the royal sanctuary and the religious center of his kingdom

      (1 K 12 29 ff; Am 7 13). He placed in Bethel the priests of the high places which he had made (1 K 12 32). To Bethel came the man of God from Judah who pronounced doom against Jeroboam (1 K 13), and who, having been seduced from duty by an aged prophet in Bethel, was slain by a lion. According to the prophets Amos and Hosea the splendid idolatries of Bethel were accompanied by terrible moral and religious degradation. Against the place they launched the most scathing denun ciations, declaring the vengeance such things must entail (Am 3 14; 4 4; 5 llm; 9 1; Hos 4 15; 5 8; 10 f).8.13). With the latter the name Bethel gives place in mockery to Beth-aven. Bethel shared in the downfall of Samaria wrought by the Assyrians; and according to an old tradition, Shal- maneser possessed himself of the golden calf (cf Jer 48 13). The priest, sent by the Assyrians to teach the people whom they had settled in the land how to serve Jeh, dwelt in Bethel (2 K 17 28). King Josiah completed the demolition of the sanctuary at Bethel, destroying all the instruments of idolatry, and harrying the tombs of the idolaters. The monument of the man of God from Judah he allowed to stand (2 K 23 4.15). The men of Bethel were among those who returned from Baby lon with Zerubbabel (E/r 2 28; Nell 7 32), and it is mentioned as reoccupied by the Benjamites (Xeh 11 31). Zechariah (7 2) records the send ing of certain men from Jerus in the 4th year of King Darius to inquire regarding particular reli gious practices. Bethel was one of the towns forti fied by Bacchides in the time of the Maccabees (1 Mace 9 50; Ant, XIII, i, 3). It is named again as a small town which, along with Ephraim, was taken by Vespasian as he approached Jerus (/> ./, IV, ix, 9).

      (2) A city in Judah which in 1 S 30 27 is called Bethel; in josh 19 4 Bethul; and in 1 Ch 4 30 Bethuel. The site has not been identified. In Josh 15 30 LXX gives Baithcl in Judah, where the Heb has A" .sT/ probablv a scribal error.

      W. EWING

      BETHELITE, beth el-It: The term applied to a man who in the days of Ahab rebuilt Jericho (1 K 16 34). See HIEL.

      BETHEL, MOUNT (bST^S 1H, bar beth- cl; Bcu0T|X \\\\\\\\ovta, Bdithtl Inuza [1 S 13 2, RV "the mount of Bethel"; Josh 16 1]): The hill which stretches from the N. of the town to Tell Asiir. The road to Shechem lies along the ridge. An army in possession of these heights easily com manded the route from north to south.

      BETH-EMEK, beth-e mek (pttrn mjl, bcth ha- cnick; Rr\\\\\\\\Qaf\\\\\\\\i.tK, Belhaemek, "house of the valley"): A town in the territory of Zebulun (Josh 1927). It has not been identified, but must be sought somewhere E. of Acre, not far from Kabul, the ancient Cabul.

      BETHER, be ther ("IP3, belher): In Cant 2 17 mention is made of "the mountains of Bether. It is doubtful if a proper name is intended. The RVm has, "perhaps, the spice malobathron." A Bether is prominent in late .Jewish history as the place where the Jews resisted Hadrian under Bar Cochba in 135 AD. Its identity with Bittlr, 7 miles S.W. of Jerus, is attested by an inscription.

      BETHESDA, bc-thez da (Bii0o-Sd, Bethesdd; TR, Jn 5 2 [probably X^CH n">3, bcth hisda , "house of mercy"]; other forms occur as Bethza- thd and Bethsaidd) :

      (1) The only data we have is the statement in Jn 5 2-4: "Now there is in Jerus by the sheep



      Bethel Beth- hanan

      (/ate a pool, which is culled in Hebrew Bethesda, hav ing five porches. In these lay a multitude of them that were sick, blind, halt, withered." Many ancient authorities add (as in RVm) "waiting for the moving of the water: for an angel of the Lord went down at certain seasons into the pool, and troubled the water," etc.

      Pool of Bethesda.

      The name does not help as to the site, no such

      name occurs elsewhere in .Jerus; the mention of the

      slice)) gale is of little assistance because

      1. The the word "gate" is supplied, and even Conditions were it there, its site is uncertain. of the Sheep "pool" or "place" is at least Narrative: as probable; the tradition about the Jn 5:2 "troubling of the water" (which may

      be true even if the angelic visitant may be of the nature of folk-lore) can receive no rational explanation except by the well-known phenomenon, by no means uncommon in Syria and always considered the work of a supernatural being, of an intermittent spring. The arrange ment of the five porches is similar to that demon strated by Dr. F. Bliss as having existed in Rom times as the "Pool of Siloam"; the story implies that the incident occurred outside the city walls, as to carry a bed on the Sabbath would not have been forbidden by Jewish traditional law.

      (2) Tradition has varied concerning the site. In the 4th cent., and probably down to the Crusades, a pool was pointed out as the true site, a little to the N.W. of the present St. Stephen s Gate; it was part of a twin pool and over it were erected at two successive periods two Christian churches. Later on this site was entirely lost and from the 13th cent, the great Birkct Ixrad, just N. of the Temple area, was pointed out as the site.

      Within the last quarter of a cent., however, the

      older traditional site, now close to the Church of

      St. Anne, has been rediscovered, ex-

      2. The cavated and popularly accepted. This Traditional pool is a rock-cut, rain-filled cistern, Site 55 ft. long X 12 ft. broad, and is

      approached by a steep and winding flight of steps. The floor of the rediscovered early

      Christian church roofs over the pool, being support ed upon five arches in commemoration of the five porches. At the western end of the church, where probably the font was situated, there was a fresco, now much defaced and fast fading, representing the angel troubling the waters.

      (3) Although public opinion supports this site, there is much to be said for the proposal, promul gated by Robinson and supported 3. A More by Conder and other good authorities, Probable that the pool was at the "Virgin s Site Fount" (see GIHON), which is today an

      intermittent spring whose "troubled" waters are still visited by Jews for purposes of cure. As the only source of "living water" near Jerus, it is a likely spot for there to have been a "sheep pool" or "sheep place" for the vast flocks of sheep coming to Jerus in connection with the temple ritual. See B\\\\\\\\Y, XXV, SOff. E. W. G. MASTKUMAN

      BETH-EZEL, beth-e zcl (5n IT 1 }, belli Im- rrl; olK09 x6|j.6vos avTijs, oikos cchomenox antf x; lit. adjoining house"): A place named along with other cities in the Phili plain (Mic 1 11). The site has not been identified. By some it is thought id be the same as Azel of Zee 14 5; but see A/.IOL.

      BETH-GADER, beth-gfi der Ol rrPn , br-th- gnil/icr; BcuS-yeScop, Baithgeddr, or Bat,0-ycu6tov iB), Baithgaiddil): The name occurs between those of Bethlehem and Kiriath-jearim in 1 C h 2 51. It is possibly identical with Geder of Josh 12 13.

      BETH-GAMUL, beth-ga mul (blT23 1^2, bnh (jam ill; olnos rai(j.w\\\\\\\\, oil.ox (lai/nol; S? , Fap-toXd, Gamola): A city in Moab named with Dibon, Kiriathaim and Beth-meon (Jer 48 23). Conder places it at ( nun el-Jamal, toward E. of the plateau, S. of Medeba (III)B, s.v.). Others (Guthe, Kurz.bih. Wrirtt-rbucli, s.v.; Buhl, CA1 1 , 2(>S, etc) favor Joncil, a site G miles E. of Dhlban. Since the town is not mentioned among the cities of Israel Buhl doubts if it should be sought N. of the Arnon.

      BETH-GILGAL, beth-gil gal (bab-in rP3 , beth fiti-i/ili/dl; BTiOa-y-yaA-ydX, Bethaggalgdl; AV house of Gilgal) : The Gilgal which lay in the plain E. of Jericho (Neh 12 2 ( J). See GILGAL.

      BETH-HACCHEREM, beth-ha-ke rem, beth- hak e-rem (AV Beth-haccerem; C^SH P" 1 }, bi th Im-kcron; B-r]9axx a P( x l > Bethachcharmd [see DB], "place of the vineyard"): A district (in Neh 3 14) ruled over by one, Malchijah; mentioned in Jer 6 1 as a suitable signal station. From its associa tion with Tekoa (Jer 6 1) and from the statement by Jerome that it was a village which he could see daily from Bethlehem, the Frank mountain (Ilero- dium) has been suggested. It certainly would be a unique place for a beacon. More suitable is the fertile vineyard country around l Ain Karon (the "spring of the vineyard"). On the top of Jchcl .I//, above this village 1 , are some remarkable cairns which, whatever their other uses, would appear to have been once beacons. M/// Karon appears as Cm-cm in the LXX (Josh 15 /"> .)). See BETH-CAK. E. W. G. MASTKUMA.V

      BETH-HAGGAN, beth-hag an ( an rP3 , bfth- ]iti-(/a/t, "house of the garden"). The place where Ahaziah was slain by Jehu (2 Iv 9 27). The words are rendered in EV "the garden house," but some take them to be a proper name. The location is doubtful.

      BETH-HANAN, beth-ha nan (1 K 4 9), ELON- BETH-HANAN. See ELOX.

      Beth-haram Beth-horon



      BETH-HARAM, beth-ha ram (S^H P^2 , hi-//, fiiirdin; Bcu0apdv, Baithardn; A, BcuOappd, lidilh- urni; \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ wrongly, Beth-Aram): An Ainoritc city taken and forlifi(>(l by (ho Gadites (Josh 13 27; Nu 32 ;W; in the latter passage the name appears as Beth-haran, probalily the original form). It corresponds to Bethramphtha of Jos (Ant, XVIII, ii, 1 ), which, according to Kusebius, was t he name used bv the Syrians. Here was a palace of Herod (Ant, XVII, x, 0; /> ./, II, iy, 2). Omnn says it was called Liyias. Jos says it was fortified by Herod Anlipas, who called it Julias for the wife of Augustus (Ant. XVIII, ii, 1; HJ , II, ix, 1). The name would be changed to Julias when Livia, by the will of the emperor, was received into the (lens Julia. It is represented by Tell er-Raineh in Watty Hi xliun, about miles E. of Jordan. \\\\\\\\V. Kwi\\\\\\\\<;

      BETH-HARAN, beth-ha ran C!"in 1^2, beth haran): A fenced city E. of the .Jordan (Nu 32 :>!>) identical with BIOTH-HAKA.M, which see.

      BETH-HOGLAH, beth-hog la (nbjn IT S, belh- hoghldh; LXX. BcuOa-yXadfA, Baithagladm, "house of partridge"): Mentioned in Josh 15 (>; 18 ! ., identified with A in, llojluh ("partridge spring") lying between Jericho and (he Jordan, where in 1x71 there was still a ruined (!r monastery called K<mr Jldjlti/i, dating from the 12th cent. The ruins are now destroyed. In Josh 15 f>; 18 1!) it is said (o be at the mouth of the Jordan on a Tongue (Lixa/t) of the Salt Sea. Hut it is now several miles inland, probably because the Jordan has silted up a delta to that extent. See I)I-:AI>SKA. GKOIKJK FHKDKRICK \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ UI<;HT

      BETH-HORON, beth-hd ron (fT.mra, betli- horon [other Heb forms occur) ; Bi^upciv, Brthtirfin, probably 1 ho "place of the hollow"; of Iliinrnn, "the hollow") :

      (1) The name of (wo towns, Beth-horon the Tpper (Josh 16 ;">) and Heth-horon the Lower

      (Josh 16 :i), said to have been built

      1. The (1 Ch 7 24) by Sheerah, the daughter Ancient of Heriah. The border line between Towns Benjamin and Ephraim passed bv (ho

      Beth-horona (Josh 16 .">; 21 22) , (he cities belonging to the latter tribe and therefore, later on, to t he Xort hern Kingdom. Solomon "built Beth-horon the upper, and Beth-horon the nether, fortified cities, with walls, gates, and bars" (2 Ch 8 f>; 1 K 9 17).

      From Egyp sources (Miiller, .l.s. nnd Euro/in, etc) it appears that Beth-horon was one of the places conquered by Shishak of Egypt from Rehoboam. Again, many cents, later, Bacchides repaired Belh- horon, "with high walls, with gales and with bars and in (hem he set a garrison, that they might work malice upon ["vex"] Israel" (1 Mace 9 .">(). r>l), and at another time the Jews fortified it against Holofornes (Jth 4 4.">).

      (2) Those; two towns are now known as Beit Ur < I foka (i.e. "the upper") arid Beit Ur el tn/jttt

      (i.e. "the lower"), two villages orown-

      2. The ing hill tops, less than 2 miles apart; Modern the former is some SOOft. higher than Beit Ur el the latter. Today these villages are foka and sunk into insignificance and are off el tahta any important lines of communication,

      but for many cents, the towns occupy ing their sites dominated one of the most historic roads in history.

      (3) When (Josh 10 10) Joshua discomfited the kings of the Amorites "he slew them with a great slaughter at Gibeon, and chased them by the way of the Ascent of Beth-horon. " When the Philis were opposing King Saul at Michmash they sent a

      company of their men to hold "the way of Beth- horon." This pass ascends from 1 he plain of Ajalon (now Kd/o) and climbs in about I hr. to 3. The Pass Beit, (// el, tuhla (1,210 ft.); it then of the ascends along the ridge, with valleys

      Beth-horons lying to north and south, and reaches _ Beit ( / dfoka (2,022 ft .), and pursuing the same ridge arrives in another 4^ miles at the plateau to (he N. of el Jib (Giboon). At intervals along this historic route traces of the ancient Rom paving are visible. It was the great highroad into the heart of the land from the earliest times until about three or four cents, ago. Along this route came Canaanilos, Israeli! os, Philis, Egyptians, Syrians, Romans, Saracens and Crusaders. Since the days of Joshua (Josh 10 10) it has frequently been the scone of a rout. Hero the Syrian general Seron was defeated by Judas Maccabaous (1 Mace; 3 lo 24), and six years later Nicanor, retreating from Jems, was hero defeated and slain (1 Mace 7 :*! .) If; Jos, Ant, XII, x, 5). Along this pass in 00 AD the Rom general Cost ins Callus was driven in headlong flight before the Jews.

      Now the changed direction of the highroad to Jerus has left (he route forsaken and almost for gotten. See rEF, III, SO, Sh XVII.

      E. \\\\\\\\V. (1. MASTKKMAX


      1. The Political Situation 2. Joshua s Strategy

      :{. Joshua s Command to the Sun and Moon 4. The Astronomical Relations of the Sun and Moon to Each Other and to tin; Neighborhood of the Field of Hat tie

      ">. The "Silence" of the Sun r. "Jehovah Fought for Israel" 7. The Afternoon s March

      s. The Chronicle and the Poem Independent Witnesses 9. I)ateof the K vents 10. The Records Are Contemporaneous with the Events

      The battle which gave (o the Israelites under Joshua the command of southern Pal has always excited interest because of the as- 1. The tronomical marvel which is recorded

      Political to have then taken place. Situation In invading Pal the Israelites were

      not attacking a single coherent state, but a country occupied by different races and di vided, like Greece at a later period, into a number of communities, each consisting practically of but a single city and the cultivated country around it. Thus Joshua destroyed the two cities of Jericho and Ai without any interference from the other Amorites. The destruction of Jericho gave him full possession of the fertile valley of the Jordan; the taking of Ai opened his way up to the ridge which forms the backbone of the country, and ho was able to load the people unopposed to the moun tains of Ebal and Gemini for the solemn reading of the Law. But when the Israelites returned from this ceremony a significant division showed itself amongst their enemies. Close to Ai, Joshua s most recent conquest, was Beeroth, a small town in habited by llivitos; and no doubt because in the natural order of events Beeroth might look to be next attacked, the Hivites determined to make terms with Israel. An embassy was therefore sent from Gibeon, their chief city, and Joshua and (he Israelites, believing that it came from a distant land not under the Ban, entered into the proposed alliance.

      The effect on the political situation was imme diate. The Hivites formed a considerable state, relatively speaking; their cities were well placed on the southern highland, and Gibeon, their capital, was one of the most important fortresses of that district, and only miles distant from Jerus, the chief Amorite stronghold. The Amorites recog nized at once that, in view of this important defec-



      Beth-haram Beth-horon

      lion, it was imperative for them to crusli the Gibeonites before the Israelites could unite with them, and this they endeavored to do. The Gibeonites, seeing themselves attacked, sent an urgent message to Joshua, and he at the head of his picked men made a night march up from Gilgal and fell upon the at Gibeon the next day and put them to flight.

      exposed to a great danger, for the Amorites might have caught him before he had gained a footing on the; plateau, and have taken him at a complete dis advantage. It was thus that the eleven tribes suffered such terrible loss at the hands of the Benjamites in this very region during the first inter-tribal war, and probably the military sig nificance of the first repulse from Ai was of the

      B ATT i. io OF BETH-HORON.

      We are not told by which route he marched, but it is significant that the Amorites fled by the way

      of Beth-horon; that is to say, not 2. Joshua s toward their own cities, but away from Strategy them. A glance at the map shows

      that this means that Joshua had suc ceeded in cutting their line of retreat to Jerus. He had probably therefore advanced upon Gibeon from the south, instead of by the obvious route past Ai which he had destroyed and Beeroth with which he was in alliance. But, coming up from Gilgal by the ravines in the neighborhood of Jerus, he was

      same character; the forces holding the high ground being able to overwhelm their opponents without any fear of reprisals.

      It would seem possible, therefore, that Joshua may have repeated, on a larger scale, the tactics he employed in his successful attack upon Ai. He may have sent one force to draw the Amorites away from Gibeon, and when this was safely done, may have led the rest of his army to seize the road to Jerus, and to break up the forces besieging Gibeon. If so, his strategy was successful up to a certain point. He evidently led the Israelites

      Beth-horon Bethlehem



      without loss up to Gibeon, crushed the Amoritrs there, and cut off their retreat toward Jerus. lie failed in one thing. In spite of the prodigious efforts which lie and his men had made, the greater part of the Amorite army succeeded in escaping him and gained a long start in their flight-, toward the northwest, through the two Beth-borons.

      It was at this point that the incident occurred

      upon which attention has been chiefly fixed. The

      Hook of Jashar (which seems to have

      3. Joshua s been a collection of war songs and Command other ballads) ascribes to Joshua the


      Sun, be thou silent upon O ) Gibeon [of KVm]; And thou, Moon, in (f-) the valley of Aijalon. And the Sun was silent , And the Moon stayed.

      Until the nation had avenged themselves of their enemies (Josh 10 12. U).

      And the prose narrative continues, "The sun stayed in the midst of heaven, and hasted not to go down about a whole day."

      In these two, the ballad and the prose chronicle,

      we have several distinct astronomical relations

      indicated. The sun to Joshua was

      4. The associated with Gibeon, and the sun Astronom- can naturally be associated with a ical locality in either of two positions: it Relations may be overhead to the observer, in

      which case he would consider it as being above the place where he himself was stand ing; or on the other hand, he might see the locality on the skyline and the sun rising or setting just behind it. In the present instance there is no ambiguity, for the chronicle distinctly states that the sun was in "the midst of heaven"; lit. in the halving of the heaven, that is to say overhead. This is very important because; it assures us that Joshua must have been at (Jibeon when he spoke, and that it must have been noonday of summer when the sun in southern Pal is only about 8 or 12 from the exact zenith. Next, the moon ap peared to be associated with the valley of Aijalon; that is, it must have been low down on the horizon in that direction, and since Aijalon is N.W. of Gibeon it must have been about to set, which would imply that it was about half full, in its "third quarter," the sun being, as we have seen, on the meridian. Thirdly, "the sun hasted not to go down," that is to say, it had already attained the meridian, its culmination; and henceforward its motion was downward. The statement that it was noonday is here implicitly repeated, but a further detail is added. The going down of the sun ap peared to be slow r . This is the work of the after noon, that is of half the day, but on this occasion the half-day appeared equal in length to an ordinary whole day. There is therefore no question at all of the sun becoming stationary in the sky: the statement does not admit of that, but only of its slower progress.

      The idea that the sun was fixed in the sky, in other words, that the earth ceased for a time to rotate on its axis, has arisen from the 6. The unfortunate rendering of the Heb vb.

      "Silence" dum, "be silent," by "stand thou of the Sun still." It is our own word "dumb," both being onomatopoetic words from the sound made when a man firmly closes his lips upon his speech. The primary meaning of the word therefore is "to be silent," but its secondary meaning is "to desist/ "to cease," and therefore in some cases "to stand still."

      From what was it then that Joshua wished the sun to cease: from its moving or from its shining? It is not possible to suppose that, engaged as he was in a desperate battle, he was even so much as

      thinking of the sun s motion at all. But, its shining, its scorching heat, must have been most seriously felt by him. At noon, in high summer, the high land of southern Pal is one of the hottest countries of the world. It is impossible to suppose that Joshua wished the sun to be fixed overhead, where it must have been distressing his men who had already been 17 hours on foot. A very arduous pursuit lay before them and the enemy not only had a long start but must have been fresher than the Israelites. The sun s heat therefore must have been a serious hindrance, and Joshua must have desired it to be tempered. And the Lord hearkened to his voice and gave; him this and much more. A great hailstorm swept up from the west, bringing with it a sudden lowering of temperature, and no doubt hiding the sun and putting it to "silence." And "Jehovah fought for Israel," for the storm burst with such violence

      6. "Jeho- upon the Amorites as they fled down vah Fought the steep descent between the Bet li fer Israel" horons, that "they were more who

      died with the hailstones than they whom the children of Israel slew with the sword" (ver 11). This was the culminating incident of the day, the one which so greatly impressed the sacred historian. "There was no day like that before it or after it, that .Jehovah hearkened unto the voice of a man" (ver 14). It was not the hailstorm in itself nor the veiling of the sun that made the day so remarkable. It was that Joshua had spoken, not in prayer or supplication, but in command, as if all Nature was at his disposal; and the Lord had heark ened and had, as it were, obeyed a human voice: an anticipation of the time when a greater Joshua should command even the winds and the sea, and they should obey Him (Mt 8 23-27).

      The explanation of the statement that, the sun

      "hasted not to go down about a whole day" is

      found in ver 10, in which it is stated

      7. The that the Lord discomfited the Amor- Afternoon s ites before Israel, "and he slew them March with a. great slaughter at Gibeon, and

      chased them by the way of the ascent of Beth-horon, and smote them to Azekah, and un to Makkedah." The Israelites had of course no time-keepers, no clocks or watches, and the only mode; of measuring time available to them was the number of miles they marched. Now from Gibeon to Makkedah by the route indicated is some 30 miles, a full day s march for an army. It is possi ble that, at the end of the campaign, the Israelites on their return found the march from Makkedah to Gibeon heavy work for an ent ire day. Measured by the only means available to them, that after noon seemed to be double the ordinary length. The sun had "hasted not to go down about a whole day."

      Joshua s reference to the moon in connection

      with the Valley of Aijalon appears at first sight

      irrelevant, and has frequently been

      8. The assumed to be merely inserted to corn- Chronicle plete the parallelism of the poem, and the But when examined astronomically Poem Inde- it becomes clear that it cannot have dependent been inserted haphazard. Joshua must Witnesses have mentioned the moon because he

      actually saw it at the moment of speaking. Given that the sun was "in the midst of heaven," above Gibeon, there was only a very restricted arc of the horizon in which the moon could appear as associated with some terrestrial object; and from Gibeon, the Valley of Aijalon does lie within that narrow arc. It follows there fore that unless the position assigned to the moon had been obtained from actual observation at the moment, it would in all probability have been an



      Beth-horon Bethlehem

      impossible one. The next point is esp. interest ing. The ballad does not expressly state whether the sun was upon Gibeon in the sense of being upon it low down on the distant horizon, or upon it, in the sense of being overhead both to Joshua and to that city. But the moon being above the yalley of Aijalon, it becomes clear that the latter is the only possible solution. The sun and moon cannot both have been setting though this is the idea that has been generally held, it being supposed that the day was far spent and that Joshua desired it to be prolonged for then sun and moon would have been close together, and the moon would be invisible. The sun cannot have been setting, and the moon rising; for Aijalon is W. of Gibeon. Nor can the sun have been rising, and the moon setting, since this would imply that the time of year was either about October . 30 of our present calendar, or about February 12. The month of February was already past, since the Israelites had kept the Feast of the Passover. October cannot have come; for, since Beeroth, Gibeon and Jems were so close together, it is certain that the events between the return of the Israelites to Gilgal and the battle of Beth-horon cannot have been spread over several months, but must have occupied only a few days. The poem therefore contains implicitly the same fact that is explicitly stated in the prose narrative that the sun was overhead but the one statement cannot, in those days, have been inferred from the other.

      A third point of interest is t hat the position of the moon gives an indication of the time of the year. The Valley of Aijalon is 17 N. of \\\\\\\\V . 9. Date of from Gibeon, of which the latitude is the Events 31 ~>1" N. With these details, and assuming the time to be nearly noon, the date must have been about the 21st day of the 4th month of the Jewish calendar, corresponding to July 22 of our present calendar, with a possible uncertainty of one or two days on either side. The sun s declination would then be about 21 N., so that at noon it was within 11 of the zenith. It had risen almost exactly at o AM and would set almost exactly at 7 I M. The moon was now about her third quarter, and in N. hit. about .5. It had risen about 11 o clock the previous night, and was now at an altitude of under 7, and within about half an hour of setting. The conditions are not sufficient to fix the year, since from the nature of the luni-solar cycle there will always be one or two years in each cycle of 19 that will satisfy the con ditions of the case, and the date of the Meb inva sion of Pal is not known with sufficient certainty to limit the inquiry to any particular cycle.

      It will be seen however that the astronomical conditions introduced by the mention of the moon are much more stringent than might 10. The have been expected. They supply Records therefore proof of a high order that the Contempo- astronomical details, both of the poem raneous and prose chronicle, were derived from with the actual observation at the time and Events have; been preserved to us unaltered.

      Each, therefore, supplies a strictly con temporaneous and independent record.

      This great occurrence appears to be referred to in one other passsage of Scripture the Prayer of Habakkuk. Here again the rendering of the Eng. VSS is unfortunate, and the passage should stand:

      The sun and moon erased [to shine] in their habitation; At the light of Thine arrows they vanished, And at the, shining of Thy glittering spear. Thou didst march through the land in indignation, Thou didst thrash this nations in anger (Hah 3 11.1- ).

      E. W. MAUNDKK

      BETHINK, be-think pb bx l^TZJn, hexfnbh el lebh, "to lay to heart," hence "recall to mind"):

      Anglo-Saxon word used only in seventh petition of Solomon s prayer at the dedication of the Temple. If the people, carried into captivity, because of sin, should take it to heart," then God (he prayed) would hear and forgive (1 K 8 47; 2 Ch 6 37). A choice illustration of the mental and heart proc ess in reflection, repentance and conversion.

      BETH-JESHIMOTH, beth-jesh i-moth (IT 1 ? n^Tirn, belli /;-//,s/iI///.*>//i; B, Ai<ri.[xu>e, llnifsi- motli; A, A<ri(juo0, Asimoth, and other variants [see DB, s.v.]): Mentioned as the point in the south from which the camp of Israel stretched to Abel- shittim in the plains of Moab (Nu 33 49). In Josh 12 3 the way to Beth-jeshimoth is described as S. of the Arabah, near the Dead Sea. It was in the lot assigned to Reuben (Josh 13 20), At what times and how long it was actually held by Israel we do not know; but it appears in Ezk 25 9 as be longing to Moab. It may be indent ical with Khirhct ex-timreinu li, where there are some ruins and a well, about 3 miles E. of the mouth of the Jordan.

      W. EWING

      BETH-LE- APHRAH,beth-le>af ra (nns?b n^3, belli i *ai>lirul<; LXX O!KOV Kara -yeXcora, exo ikou kali i (jclutu, "house of dust"): The name of a place found only in Mic 1 10. From the connection in which it is used it was probably in the Phili plain. There seems to be a play upon the name in the sentence, "at Beth le- u jihrak have 1 rolled myself in the duxl," *a/>lir<l/i meaning "dust," and possibly another on Pliili^line in rolled, ^PttJSSrn y hith- pallanliitln (see G. A. Smith, The Book of the Twelve Prophets, called Minor, in loc.).

      BETH-LEBAOTH, bolh-tf-bfi oth, beth-lel/a- oth (niXnb n" 1 -!, beth l- bhadth; Bai9a\\\\\\\\pde, Baith- tilbdtfi, "house of lionesses"): A town in the territory of Simeon (Josh 19 0). In 1 Ch 4 31 the name is given as Beth-birei: liV BETII-BIKI (q.v.).

      BETHLEHEM, beth le-hem (2nb~rP3, beth- IC/HIH; Bai0X.p., Baitldi ( in, or BT)9\\\\\\\\(i,, "house of David," or possibly "the house of Lakh- mu," an Assyr deity) :

      /. Bethlehem Judah, or EPHRATH or EPHRATHAH (q.v.) is now Beit Lahin (Arab. = "house of meat"), a town of upward of 10,000 inhabitants, 5 miles S. of Jerus and 2,3.">() ft. above sea level. It occu pies an outstanding position upon a spur running E. from the watershed with deep valleys to the N.E. and S. It is just off the main road to Hebron and the south, but upon the highroad to Tekoa and En-gedi. The position is one of natural strength; it was occupied by a garrison of the Philis in the days of David (2 S 23 14; 1 Ch 11 10) and was fortified by Rehoboam (2 Ch 11 6). The sur rounding country is fertile, cornfields, fig and olive; yards and vineyards abound. Bethlehem is not naturally well supplied with water, the nearest spring is 800 yds. to the S.E., but for many cents. the "low level aqueduct" from "Solomon s Pools" in the Artas valley, which has here been tunneled through the hill, has been tapped by the inhabitants; there are also many rock-cut cisterns.

      In 1 Ch 2 51 Salma, the son of Caleb, is described

      as the "father of Bethlehem." In Gen 35 19;

      48 7 it is recorded that Rachel "was

      1. Early buried in the way to Ephrath (the same

      History is Beth-lehem)." Tradition points

      out the site of Rachel s tomb near

      where the road to Bethlehem leaves the main road.

      The Levites of the events of Jgs 17, 19 were

      Bethlehernites. In the list of the towns of Judah

      Bethlehem Bethsaida



      the name Bethlehem occurs, in the 1 LXX vc only in Josh 15 57.

      Ruth, famous chiefly as the ancestress of David, and of the Messiah, settled in Bethlehem with

      her second husband Boaz, and it is 2. David noticeable that from her new home the Beth- she could view the mountains of Moab, lehemite her native land. David himself "was

      the son of that Ephrathite of Bethle- hem-judah, whose name was Jesse" (1 S 17 12). To Bethlehem came Samuel to anoint a successor to unworthy Saul ( 1 S 16 4j: "David went to and fro from Saul to feed his father s sheep at Bet h- lehem" (1 S 17 15j. David s "three mighty men"

      The Shepherd s Field and Field of I {on/,.

      "brake through the host of the I hilis. and drew water out of the well of Bel h-lehem, I hat was by t he gat e, and took it, and brought it to David" (2 S 23 11. 16). Tradition still points out the well. From this town came those famous "sons of Zeruiah," David s nephews, whose loyalty and whose ruth less cruelty became at once a protection and a menace to their royal relative: in 2 S 2 32 it is mentioned that one of them, Asahel, was buried in the sepulchre of his father, which was in Beth lehem."

      After the time of David, Bethlehem would appear

      to have sunk into insignificance. But its future fame

      is pointed at by Micah (6 2): "But

      3. Later thou, Bet h-lehem Kphrathah, which Bible art little to be among the thousands History of Judah, out of thee shall one come

      forth unto me that is to be ruler in Israel; whose goings forth are from of old, from everlasting."

      In the return of the Jews captive Bethlehe- mites re-inhabited the place (Ezr 2 21; Xeh 7 2(5 "men"; 1 Esd 5 17 "sons").

      In the XT Bethlehem is mentioned as the birth place of the Messiah Jesus (Mt 2 1.5; Lk 2 4.15) in consequence of which event oc-

      4. The curred Herod s "massacre of the inno- Christian cents" (Mt 2 8.1(5). Inasmuch as Ha- Era drian devastated Bethlehem and set up

      there a sacred grove to Adonis (.Jerome, EI>. ml Paul, lviii.3) it is clear that veneration of this spot as the site of the Nativity must go baek before 132 AD. Constantino (cir 330) founded a basilica over the cave-st able which t radit ion point ed out as the scene of the birth, and his church, un changed in general structure though enlarged by Justinian and frequently adorned, repaired anil damaged, remains today the chief attraction of the town. During the Crusades, Bethlehem became of great importance and prosperity: it remained in Christian hands after tin 1 overthrow of the Lat kingdom, and at the present day it is in material things one of the most prosperous Christian centers in the Holy Land.

      //. Bethlehem of Zebulun (Josh 19 15) was probably the home of Ibzan (Jgs 12 S.10) though Jewish tradition is in support of (1). See Jos, Ant, V, vii, 13. This is now the small village of

      licit Laf/nt, some 7 miles N.\\\\\\\\V. of Nazareth on the edge of the oak forest. Some antiquities have been found here recently, showing that in earlier days it was a place of some importance. It is now the site of a small German colony. See I EF, I, 270, Sh V. E. W. G. MASTKUMAN-

      BETH-LEHEMITE, beth ie-hem-It p Srftn rP3, Ix lfi ha-latu/tl}: An inhabitant of Bethlehem, a town in Judah, 5 miles S. of Jerus. Jesse is so named in 1 S 16 IS; 17 5X. and Elhanan in 2 S 21 19. The children of Bethlehem are referred to in Ezr 2 21; Neh 7 2(5; 1 Esd 5 17.


      BETH-LOMON, beth-lo mon (BaieXo^wv, liaitfi- li tinnn; B, Pa-y0\\\\\\\\a>|iu)v, Ifhai/i t/ililinon): The in habitants of this city are mentioned as returning with Zerubbabel from Babylon (1 Esd 5 17). It is the eitv of Bethlehem in Judah, the modern licit La hut (Ezr 2 21).

      BETH-M AACAH, bet h-ma a-ka . BETH-MAACAH.

      See AHKL-

      BETH-MARCABOTH, beth-mar ka-both (H"?

      r3r~i^2n, Ix ik ha-markabhdth;I&Gu9ii.a,\\\\\\\\tpt$, liaith- tnarf/<T( l>, "the house of chariots"): Mentioned along with Hazar-susah, "the station of horses" (Josh 19 5; 1 Ch 4 31) as cities in the Negeb near Ziklag. It is tempting to connect these stations with "the cities for his chariots, and the cities for his horsemen" which Solomon built (1 Iv 9 19; cf 1 K 10 2(5). The site of Beth-nmrcaboth has not been identified, but Guerin (La ! < rre Xainte. ,/crnx (I If Xonl </c In Juilcc, II, 230) suggests Khan. Yinnis, S.W. of Gaza, as a suitable chariot city.

      E. \\\\\\\\V. (i. MASTEHMA.V

      BETH-MEON, beth-me on: A city of Moab (Jer 48 23), identical with BAAL-MEON (q.v.).

      BETH-MERHAK, beth-mer hak (prnEn P^, beth ha-merhdfa; tv OI KU> ri (laKpdv, en oiko to nniknin, lit. "a place (house) that was far off" [2 S 15 17 RVm "the Far House")): A place men tioned in the account of David s flight from Absa lom. No town of this name is known on the route which he followed. Some scholars think the name denotes simply the outermost of the houses of the city.

      BETH-MILLO, beth-mil o. See JERI-SALEM.

      BETH-NIMRAH, beth-nim ra (rPT2: P^ , bcth niinrdti, "house of leopard," Nu 32 3(5, but in ver 3 it is simply Nimrah): In Josh 13 27 the full name appears. In Isa 15 (5 the name appears as Nimrim, identified as Tell Nimrim, between Jericho and the mountains on the east, where there is a fountain of large size. The city was assigned to Gad. In the 4th cent. AD it was located as five Rom miles N. of Livias. Eusebius calls it Betham- naram (SKI*, I, Tell Nimrin).

      BETH-PALET, beth-pa let. See BETH-PELET.

      BETH-PAZZEZ, beth-paz ez />ti(Ti~(-; Br]pcra4)TJs,

      r iI2 P"^, bcth , tO^pao-TJe, Baith-

      />/iraxfc): A town in the territory of Issachar, named with En-gannim and En-haddah (Josh 19 21). The site has not been discovered; it probably lay near the modern Jenln.

      BETH-PELET, bet h-pe let (EbETP3 , l>cth- t n>lcl; Bai64>aX 6, BaithphaUth, "house of escape"; AV Beth-palet; Josh 15 27, Beth-phelet, AV


      Bethlehem Bethsaida

      Neh 11 26): One of "the uttermost cities of the tribe of the children of Judah toward the border of Edoin in the [Negeb] South" (Josh 15 21.27). Site unknown.

      BETH-PEOR, belh-pe or ("H"? rP3 , hctfi p Tjr; OIKOS ^o-ywp, o lfiit.-i I hoijdr; in Josh (B), Bai9<j>o-ycop, B(iithl>lnHjdr, or |3e0-, beth-): "Over against Beth- peor" the Israelites were encamped, "beyond the Jordan, in the valley," when Moses uttered the speeches recorded in Dt (Dt 3 29; 440). "In the valley in the land of Moab over against Beth- peor" Moses was buried (Dt 34 6). Beth-peor and the slopes of Pisgah (AV "Ashdoth-pisgah") are mentioned in close connection in Josh 13 20. Ac cording to Onvm, Beth-peor was situated near Mt. Peor (Fogor) opposite Jericho, miles above Livias. Alt. Peor is the "top" or "head" of Peor (Nu 23 2S). Some height commanding a view of the plain E. of the river in the lower Jordan valley is clearly intended, but thus far no identification is possible . "The slopes of Pisgah" are probably the lower slopes of the mountain toward Wady *Ayun- Milmi. Somewhere N. of this the summit we are in search of may be found. Conder suggested the cliff at Mini/eh, S. of \\\\\\\\Vddij Jcdeideh, and of Pisgah; and would locate Beth-peor at cl-Mareit/hut, "the smeared things," evidently an ancient place of wor ship, with a stone circle and standing stones, about 4 miles E., on the same ridge. This seems, however, too far S., and more difficult to reach from Shittim than we should gather from Nu 25 1 ff.

      W. EWIXG

      BETHPHAGE, beth fa-je, beth faj (from iT^i "! , beth f>n//fnlh; Be04>a-yr|, lit tfi/i/i <njf\\\\\\\\ or Br]04>a-yT|, Bct/!i>h(i(/e; in Aram, "place of young figs"): Near the Mount of Olives and to the road from Jems to Jericho; mentioned together with Bethany (Mt 21 1; Mk 11 1; Lk 19 29). The place occurs in several Talmudic passages where it may be inferre I


      thai it was near but outside Jerus; it was at the Sabbatical distance limit E. of Jerus, and was sur rounded by some kind of wall. The mediaeval Bethphage was between the summit and Bethany. The site is now inclosed by the Roman Catholics. As regards the Bethphage of the NT, the most prob able suggestion was that it occupied the summit itself where Kefr ct Tiir stands today. This village certainly occupies an ancient site and no other name is known. This is much more probable than the suggestion that the modern Abu Dis is on the site of Bethphage. E. W. G. MASTERMAN

      BETH-PHELET, beth-fe let. See BETH-PELET.

      BETH-RAPHA, beth-ra fa (XE^ P" 1 ?, beth rdpha ; B, 6 Ba.0po.ia, ho Bathraia, Ba0p<j>d, Balh- rephd): The name occurs only in the genealogical list in 1 Ch 4 12. It does not seem possible now to associate it with any particular place or clan.

      BETH-REHOB, beth-re hob (3nrTl"rP3, bclh- r -hobh; 6 olKos Padp, ho oikos Rhadb) : An Aramaean town and district which, along with Zobah and Maacah, assisted Ammon against David (2 S 10 6.8, Re-hob). It is probably identical with Rehob (Nu 13 21), the northern limit of the spies journey. Laish-Dan (probably Tell el-Kadi) was situated near it, (Jgs 18 28). The site of the town is un known. It has been conjecturally identified with Hunin, W. of Banias, and, more plausibly, with Banias itself (Thomson, The Land and the Book 2 , 218; Buhl, Geoij., 240; Moore, ICC, Jgs, 399).

      C. II. THOMSON

      BETHSAIDA, beth-sii i-da iBr^o-aiSo., Belhxu idd, house of fishing") :

      (1) A city E. of the Jordan, in a "desert place" (that is, uncultivated ground used for grazing) at which Jesus miraculously fed the multitude with five loaves and two fishes (Mk 6 32 ff; Lk 9 10). This is doubtless to be identified with the village of Bethsaida in Lower Gaulonitis which the Te- trarch Philip raised to the rank of a city, and called Julias, in honor of Julia, the daughter of Augustus. It lay near the place where the Jordan enters the Sea of Cennesaret (Ant, XVIII, ii, 1; B.I, II, ix, 1; III, x, 7; Vita, 72). This city may be located at ct-Tell, a ruined site on the E. side of the Jordan on rising ground, fully a mile from the sea. As this is too far from the sea for a fishing village, Schumacher (The Janldti, 246) suggests that cl-^Aruj, "a large, completely destroyed site close to the lake," connected in ancient times with et- Tdl "by the beautiful roads still visible," may have been the fishing village, and ct-Tcll the princely residence. He is however inclined to favor el- Mes*adiyeh, a ruin and winter village of Arab et- Telldiriyeh, which stands on an artificial mound, about a mile and a half from the mouth of the Jordan. It should be noted, however, that the name is in origin radically different from Bethsaida. The substitution of sin for Mid- is easy: but the in sertion of the guttural ui/i is impossible. No trace of the name Bethsaida has been found in the dis trict; but any one of the sites named would meet the requirements.

      To this neighborhood Jesus retired by boat with His disciples to rest, awhile. The multitude follow ing on foot, along the northern shore of the lake would cross the Jordan by the ford at its mouth which is used by foot, travelers to this day. The "desert" of the narrative is just the barrlych. of the Arabs where the animals are driven out for pasture. The "green grass" of Mk 6 39, and the "much grass" of Jn 6 10, point to some, place, in the plain of el-Batcihah, on the rich soil of which the grass is green and plentiful compared with the scanty herbage on the higher slopes.

      (2) Bethsaida of Galilee, where, dwelt Philip, Andrew, Peter (Jn 1 44; 12 21), and perhaps also James and John. The house of Andrew and Peter seems to have been not far from the synagogue in Capernaum (Mt 8 14; Mk 1 29, etc). Unless they had moved their residence from Bethsaida to Capernaum, of which there is no record, and which for fishermen was unlikely, Bethsaida must have lain close to Capernaum. It may have been the fishing town adjoining the larger city. As in the case of the other Bethsaida, no name has been recovered to guide us to the site. On the rocky promontory, however, E. of Khan Minyeh we find Sheikh Aly es-Haiyadln, Sheikh Aly of the Fisher men," as the name of a ruined -weley, in which the second element in 1 he name Bel hsaida is represent ed. Near by is the site at Mm et-Tdbi-(/ha, which many have identified with Bethsaida of Galilee. The warm water from copious springs runs into a little

      Bethsaida Bethuel



      bay of the sea in which fishes congregate in great numbers. This has therefore always been a favor ite haunt of fishermen. If Capernaum were at Khan. Minyeh, then the two lay close together. The names of many ancient places have been lost, and ot hers have st rayed from their original localit ies. The absence of any name resembling Bethsaida need not concern us.

      Many scholars maintain that all the NT refer ences to Bethsaida apply to one place, viz. Beth saida Julias. The arguments for and Were There against this view may be summarized Two as follows:

      Bethsaidas? (a) (ialilee ran right round the lake, including most of the level coast- land on the E. Thus Gamala, on the eastern shore. was within the jurisdiction of Jos, who commanded in Galilee (BJ, II, x\\\\\\\\, 4). Judas of Gamala (Ant, XVIII, i, 1) is also called Judas of (ialilee (ib, i, (>). If Gamala, far down the eastern shore of the sea, were in (ialilee, a fortiori Bethsaida, a town which lay on the very edge of the Jordan, may be described as in Galilee.

      But Jos makes it plain that Gamala, while added to his jurisdiction, was not in Galilee, but in Gaulo- nitis (BJ, II, x\\\\\\\\, <>). Even if Judas were born in Gamala, and so might properly be called a Oaulon- ite, he may, like others, have come to be known as belonging to the province in which his active life was spent. "Jesus of Nazareth" was born in Bethlehem. Then Jos explicitly says that Beth saida was in Lower Gaulonitia (lij , II, ix, 1). Further, Luke places the country of the Gerasenes on the other side of the sea from Galilee (8 20) anliperatts CudilaniK ("over against Galilee").

      (b) To go to the other side r/.s 16 /n ran. (Mk 6 45) does not of necessity imply passing from the E. to the \\\\\\\\V . coast of the lake, since Jos uses the vb. diaperaidd of a passage from Tiberias to Tarichaea ( Vita, 59). But (a) this involved a passage from a point on the \\\\\\\\V. to a point on the S. shore, crossing over" two considerable bavs; whereas if the boat, started from any point in el-Bateihah, to which we seem to be limited by the "much grass," and by the definition of the district as belonging to Bethsaida, to sail to ct-Tdl, it was a mat t er of coast ing not more t han a couple of miles, with no bay to cross. (|3) No case can be cited where the phrase r / ., to /icrnn certainly means any thing else than "to the other side." (-y) Mark says that the boat started to go unto the other side to Bethsaida, while John gives the direction "over the sea unto Capernaum" (<i 17). The two towns were therefore practically in the same line. Now there is no quesion that Capernaum was on "the other side," nor is there any suggestion that the boat was driven out of its course; and it is quite obvious that, sailing toward Capernaum, whether at Tell Hum or at Khan Minyeh, it would never reach Bethsaida Julias. (8) The present writer is familiar with these waters in both storm and calm. If the boat was taken from any point in cl-Batdhah towards ct-Tdl, no east wind would have distressed the rowers, protected as that part is by the moun tains. Therefore it was no contrary wind that- carried them toward Capernaum and the "land of Gennesaret. On the other hand, with a wind from the W., such as is often experienced, eight or nine hours might easily be occupied in covering the four or five miles from el-Bateihah to the neighbor hood of Capernaum.

      (c) The words of Mark (6 45), it is suggested (Sanday, Sacred Sites of the (lospds, 42), have been too strictly interpreted: as the Gospel was written probably at Rome, its author being a native, not of Galilee, but of Jerus. Want of precision on topo graphical points, therefore, need not surprise us.

      But as we have seen above, the "want of precision" must also be attributed to the writer of Jn 6 17. The agreement- of these two favors the strict interpretation. Further, if the Gospel of Mark embodies the recollections of Peter, it- would be difficult to find a more reliable authority for topo graphical details connected with the sea on which his fisher life was spent.

      (d) In support of the single-city theory it is further argued that (a) Jesus withdrew to Beth saida as being in the jurisdiction of Philip, when he heard of the murder of John by Antipas, and would not have sought again the territories of the latter so soon after leaving them. (0) Mediaeval works of travel notice only one Bethsaida. (y) The E. coast of the sea was definitely attached to Galilee in AD X4, and Ptolemy (cir 140) places Julias in Galilee. It is therefore significant that only the Fourth Gospel speaks of "Bethsaida of Galilee." (8) There could hardly have been two Bethsaidas so close together.

      But: (a) It is not said that Jesus came hither that he might leave the territory of Antipas for that of Philip: and in view of Mk 6 30 (T, and Lk 9 10 ff, the inference from Mt 14 13 that he did so, is not warranted. ((3) The Bethsaida of mediaeval writers was evidently on the \\\\\\\\V. of the Jordan. If il lay on the E. it is inconceivable that none of them should have mentioned the river in this connection. (y) If the 4th Gospel was not written until well into the 2d cent., then the apostle was not the author; but this is a very precarious assumption. John writing after S4 AD, would hardly have used the phrase "Bethsaida of (ialilee" of a place only recently attached to that province, writing, as he was, at a distance from the scene, and recalling the former familiar conditions. (8) In view of the frequent repetition of names in Pal the near ness of the two Bethsaidas raises no difficulty. The abundance of fish at each place furnished a good reason for the recurrence of the name

      W. Kwrxc! BETHSAMOS, beth-sa mos. See BKTHASMOS.

      BETH-SHEAN, beth-she an, BETH-SHAN,

      beth shan CjCTPn or IXTTT" 1 ? , bvth-ahnn, or hfth-ftfr an ; in Apoc Bcu0crdv or Bt9o-d, Bait/man or Bdhxd): A city in the territory of Issachar assigned to Manasseh, out of which the Canaanites were not driven (Josh 17 11; Jgs 1 27); in the days of Israel s strength they were put to taskwork (Jgs 1 28). They doubtless were in league with the Philis who after Israel s defeat on Gilboa exposed the bodies ot\\\\\\\\Saul and his sons on the wall of the city (1 S 31 7 ff ), whence they were rescued by the men of Jabesh, who remembered the earlier kind ness of the king (1 S 31 7 ff ; 2 S 21 12). In 1 Iv 4 12 the name applies to the district in which the city stands. It was called Scythopolis by the Greeks. This may be connected with the invasion of Pal by the Scythians who, according to George Syncellus, "overran Pal and took possession of Bei.san." This may be the invasion noticed by Herodotus, cir 600 BC (i. 104-6). Here Tryphon failed in his first attempt to take Jonathan by treachery (1 Mace 12 40). It fell to John Hyr- canus, but was taken from the Jews by Pompey. It was rebuilt by Gabinius (Ant, XIV, v, 3), and became an important member of the league of the "ten cities" (BJ, III, ix, 7). The impiousness of the inhabitants is painted in dark colors by Jos (Vit<i, 6; BJ, II, xviii, 3); and the Mish speaks of it as a center of idol worship ( Abhodhah Zarah, i.4). Later it was the seat of a bishop.

      It is represented by the modern Beisan, in the throat of the Vale of Jezreel where it falls into the



      Bethsaida Bethuel

      Jordan valley, on the southern side of the stream from *Ain Jalud. The ruins of the ancient city are found on the plain, and on the great mound where probably stood the citadel. Between the town and the stretch of marsh land to the S. runs the old road from E. to W. up the Vale of Jezreel, uniting in Esdraelon with the great caravan road from N. to

      S. \\\\\\\\V. EWING

      BETH-SHEMESH, bet h-she mesh, beth she- mesh (TL ; pT!p~rr3 , bcth-shemcsh; Bat0(rdjj.vs, liaith- sdmus, "house of the sun"J: This name for a place doubtless arose in every instance from the presence of a sanctuary of the sun there. In accordance with the meaning and origin of the word, it is quite to be expected that there should be several places of this name in Bible lands, and the expectation is not disappointed. Analysis and comparison of the passages in the Bible where a Beth-shemesh is mentioned show four places of this name.

      The first mention of a place by this name is in the description of the border of the territory of Judah (Josh 15 10) which "went 1. Beth- down to B." This topographical shemesh of indication "down" puts the place Judah toward the lowlands on the K. or

      W. side of Pal, but does not indicate which. This point is clearly determined by the account of the return of the ark by the Phili lords from Ekron (1 S 6 9-19). They returned the ark to Beth-shemesh, the location of which they indicate! 1 by the remark that if their affliction was from Jeh, the kine would bear the ark "by the way of its own border." The Philis lay along the west ern border of Judah and the location of B. of Judah is thus clearly fixed near the western lowland, close to the border between the territory of Judah and that claimed by the Philis. This is confirmed by the account of the twelve officers of the commissariat of King Solomon. One of these, the son of Dekar, had a Beth-shemesh in his territory. By excluding the territory assigned to the other eleven officers, the territory of this son of Dekar is found to be in Judah and to lie along the Phili border (1 K 4 9). A Phili attack upon the border-land of Judah tes tifies to the same effect (2 Ch 28 18). Finally, the battle between Amaziah of Judah and Jehoash of Israel, who "looked one another in the face" at Beth-shemesh, puts B. most probably near Hu b-order between Judah and Israel, which would locate it near the northern part of the western border of Judah s territory. In the assignment of cities to the Levites, Judah gave Beth-shemesh with its suburbs (Josh 21 l(i). It has been iden tified with a good degree of certainty with the modern Ain Shrms.

      It may be that Ir-shemesh, "city of the sun, and Har-hercs, "mount of the sun," refer to Beth- shemesh of Judah (Josh 15 10; 19 41-43; 1 K 4 9; Jgs 1 33.35). But the worship of the sun was so common and cities of this name so many in num ber that it would be hazardous to conclude with any assurance that because these three names refer to "the same region they therefore refer to the same place.

      In the description of the tribal limits, it is said

      of Issachar (Josh 19 22), "And the border reached

      to Tabor, and Shahazumah, and Beth-

      2. Beth- shemesh; and the goings out of their

      shemesh of border were at the Jordan." The de-

      Issachar seription indicates that Beth-shemesh

      was in the eastern part of Issachar s

      territory. The exact location of the city is not


      A Beth-shemesh is mentioned together with Beth-anath as cities of Naphtali (Josh 19 38).

      There is no clear indication of the location of this

      city. Its association with Beth-anath may indicate

      that they were near each other in the

      3. Beth- central part of the tribal allotment. shemesh of As at Gezer, another of the cities of Naphtali the Levites, the Canaanites were not

      driven out from Beth-shemesh. A doom is pronounced upon "Beth-shemesh, that is in the land of Egypt" (Jer 43 13). The Seventy identify it with Hcliopolis. There is

      4. Beth- soiiK 1 uncertainty about this identifi- shemesh cation. If Beth-shemesh, "house of "that is the sun," is here a description of in the Heliopolis, why does it not have the Land of art .? If it is a proper name, how does Egypt" it come that a sanctuary in Egypt is

      called by a Heb name? It may be that the large number of Jews in Egypt with Jere miah gave this Heb name to Heliopolis for use among themselves. B. being a 1r of Egyp I crra as suggested by Griffith. Otherwise, B. cannot have been Heliopolis, but must have been some other, at present unknown, place of Sem worship. This latter view seems to be favored by Jeremiah s double threat : "He shall also break the pillars of Beth-shemesh, that is in the land of Egypt; and the houses of the gods of Egypt shall he burn withfire" (ib). If B. were the "house of the sun," then the balancing of the statement would be only between "pillars" and "houses," but it seems more naturally to be between Beth-shemesh, a Sem place of wor ship "that is in the land of Egypt" on the one hand, and the Egyp place of worship, "the houses of the gods of Egypt," on the other.

      But the Seventy lived in Egypt and in t heir inter pretation of this passage were probably guided by accurate knowledge of facts unknown now, such as surviving names, tradition and even written his tory. I ntil there is further light on the subject, it is better to accept their interpretation and identify this Beth-shemesh with Heliopolis. See ()\\\\\\\\.

      M. CJ. KYLE

      BETH-SHEMITE, beth-she mlt lirtti-Khinixtn [1 S 6 14.18]): An inhabitant of Beth- shemesh in Judah (cf BETH-SHEMESH 1).

      BETH-SHITTAH, beth-shit a (rTOCn rV3, belli ha-xliittnli, "house of the acacia"): A place on the route followed by the Midianites in their flight before Gideon (Jgs 7 22). It is probably identical with the modern Shuttci, a village in the Vale of Jezreel, about () miles N.W. of licixtln..

      BETHSURA, beth-su ra (Bcu0<rovpa, ttaithsoura [1 Mace 4 29, etc]), BETHSURON (2 Mace 11 5 RV): The Gr form of the name BETH-ZUR (q.v.).

      BETH-TAPPUAH, beth-tap ii-a (rPEnTPa, beth-tappu a h; Be00a/Tr<J>oW, Beththapphou6, "place of apples" [see however AFPLIO]): A town in the hill country of Judah (Josh 15 53), probably near Hebron (cf Tappuah, 1 Ch 2 43), possibly the same as Tephon (1 Mace 9 50). The village of Tiiffuh, 3| miles N.W..of Hebron, is the probable site; it stands on the edge of a high ridge, sur rounded by very fruitful gardens; an ancient highroad runs through the village, and there are many old cisterns and caves. (See PEF, III, 310/379, Sh XXI.) E. W. G. MASTERMAN

      BETHUEL, be-thu el (bXTia, b th ii cl; "dweller in God"): A son of Nahor and Milcah, Abra ham s nephew, father of Laban and Rebekah (Gen 22 23; 24; 25 20; 28 2.5). In the last-named passage, he is surnamed "the Syrian." The only place where he appears as a leading

      Bethuel Between Tests.



      character in the narrative is in connection with Rebekah s betrothal to Isaac; and even here, his son Laban stands out more prominently than he a fact explainable on the ground of 1 he custom which recognized the right of the brother to take a special interest in the welfare of the sister (cf Gen 34; 2 S 13 20.22). Ant, I, xvi, 2 states that Bethuel was dead at this time.


      BETHUEL, be-thu el, beth fi-el (bsnrO , b thu iil, "destroyed of (!od"j: A town of Simeon (1 Ch 4 30), the same as Bethul (Josh 19 4), and, probably, as the Beth-el of 1 S 30 27.

      BETHUL, beth ul, be thul ( "T2 , b lhiil): See BETHTKL; CIIESIL.

      BETHULIA, be-thfi li-a (Bai9ov\\\\\\\\oud, Hnithon- loud): A town named only in the Book of Jth (4 (i; 6 lOfT; 7 1 if; 8 3;" 10 6; 12 7; 15 3.0;

      16 21 IT). 1 Yom these references we gather that it stood beside a valley, on a rock, at the foot of which was a spring, not far from Jenln; and that it guarded the passes by which an army might march to the S. The site most fully meeting these con ditions is that of Sdmlr. The rock on the summit of which it stands rises sheer from the edge of Merj el-Gharifc, on the main highway, some 7 miles S. of Jcn in. Other identifications are suggested: Cornier favoring M ithil 1 ijch, a little farther north; while the writer of the article "Bethulia" in Eli argues for identification with Jems. W. Ewix<;

      BETH-ZACHARIAS, beth-/ak-a-H as (Bcu0- axapia, Baith-zacharid) ; Here Judas Maccabaeus failed in battle with Antiochus Eupator, and his brother Eleazar fell in conflict with an elephant (1 Mace 6 32 ff; AV "Bath/acharias" ). It was a position of great strength, crowning a promontory which juts out between two deep valleys. It still bears the ancient name with little change, licit ZiiL drifl. It lies about 4 miles S.W. of Bethlehem (BR, III, 2S3 ff; Ant, XII, ix, 4).

      BETH-ZUR, beth /ur (-P3rm3, belh-cilr; Bai0- (Tovp, litiith-Hoiir, "house of rock"; less probably "house of the god Zur ) :

      (1) Mentioned (Josh 15 5S) as near Halhul and Gedor in the hill country of Judah; fortified by Rehoboam (2 Ch 11 7)/ In Neh 3 Hi mention is made of "Nehemiah the son of A/buk, the ruler of half the district of Beth-xur." During the Maccabean wars it (Bethsura) came into great importance (1 Mace 4 29.61; 6 7.26.31 .40.50; 9 52; 10 14; 11 65; 14 7.33j. Jos describes it as the strongest place in all Judaea (Ant, XIII, v. 6). It was inhabited in the days of Eusebius and Je rome.

      (2) It is the ruined site Beit Sur, near ihe main road from Jems to Hebron, and some 4 miles N. of the latter. Its importance lay in its natural strength, on a hilltop dominating the highroad, and also in its guarding the one southerly approach for a hostile army by the Yale of Elah to the Judaean plateau. The site today is conspicuous from a distance 1 through the presence of a ruined mediaeval tower. (See PEF, III, 311, Sh XXI).

      E. W. G. MASTERMAN

      BETIMES, be-tlm//: In the sense of "early" is the tr of two Heb words: (1) D?Tp, shdkfuwi, arooL meaning "to incline the shoulder to a load," hence "to load up," "start early": in Gen 26 31 "they rose up betimes in the morning," also in 2 Ch 36 15 (ARV "early"); (2) of "inttj , shdhar, a root meaning "to dawn" in Job 8 5; 24 5, ARV "diligently," and in Ps 13 24, "chasteneth him betimes."

      In the Apoc (Sir 6 36) "betimes" is the tr of 6p6i$u, ort/iizu, lit. "to rise early in the morning," while in Bel ver 16 the same word is tr d "betime."

      In other cases the AV "betimes" appears as "before the time" (Sir 51 30); "early" (1 Mace 4 52; 11 67); "the morning" (1 Mace 5 30).

      J. KlXSELLA

      BETOLION, bp-td li-on (BroX.ui [A], BT]TO\\\\\\\\IC& [B], Betolio or Betolio; AV Betolius, be-td -li-us) : A town the people of which to the number of 52 returned from Babylon with Zerubbabel (1 Esd 5 21). It corresponds to Bethel in Ezr 2 28.

      BETOMESTHAIM, be-td-rnes thfi-im, AV Be- tomestham, be-td-mes tham (BcTop.6o-0di(A, Beto- mrxtl,<iini [Jth 4 6j): BETOMASTHAIM, AV Be- tomasthem (BaiTonao-6dl>, Baitomasthaim [Jth 15 4]): The place is said to have been "over against Je/reel, in the face of [i.e. east ward of] the plain that is near Dothan." It can hardly be Deir Maxx7n, which lies \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ . of the plain. The district is clearly indicated, but no identification is yet possible.

      BETONIM, bet d-nim, be-td nim (S^ba , b e tdnlin; Boravei, Botunei or Botunin): A town E. of the Jordan in the territory of Gad (Josh 13 26). It may be identical with Batneh, about 3 miles S.W. of ex-Salt.

      BETRAY, be-trii (rPjn , rdinah; irapaSiSwfxi, jiar/ididonti): In the OT only once (1 Ch 12 17). David warns those who had deserted to him from Saul: "If ye be come to betray me to mine adver saries .... the God of our fathers look thereon." The same Heb word is elsewhere tr 1 "beguile" (Gen 29 25; Josh 9 22), "deceive" ( 1 S 19 17; 28 12; 2 S 19 26; Prov 26 !.; Lam 1 10).

      In the XT, for paradidomi: 36 times, of the be trayal of Jesus Christ, and only 3 times besides (Mt 24 10; Mk 13 12; Lk 21 16) of kinsmen delivering up one another to prosecution. In these three places RV translates according to the more general meaning, "to deliver up," and also (in Mt 17 22; 20 IS; 26 16; Mk 14 10.11; Lk 22 4^.6) where it refers to the delivering up of Jesus. The Hevisers idea was perhaps to retain "betray" only in direct references to Judas act, but they have not strictly followed that rule. Judas act was more t han that of giving a person up to the author ities; he did it under circumstances of treachery which modified ils character: (a) he took advan tage of his intimate relation with Jesus Christ as a disciple to put Him in the hands of His enemies; (b) he did it stealthily by night, and (c) by a kiss, an act which professed affection and friendliness; (d) he did it for money, and (e) he knew that Jesus Christ was innocent of any crime (Mt 27 4).

      T. REES

      BETRAYERS, be-trfi ers (TrpoSoTcu, prodotai, "betrayers," "traitors"): Stephen charged the Jews with being bet ravers of the Righteous One (Acts 7 52) i.e. as having made Judas act their own; cf Lk 6 16: "Judas Iscariot, who became a traitor"; 2 Tim 3 4, "traitors."

      BETROTH, be-troth , he-troth (Tim , dras) : On betrothal as a social custom see MARRIAGE. Hosea, in his great parable of the prodigal wife, surpassed only by a greater Teacher s parable of the Prodigal Son, uses betrothal as the symbol of Jeh s pledge of His love and favor to penitent Israel (Hos 2 10.20). In Ex 21 8.9 the RV renders "espouse" for the "betroth" of AV, the context implying the actual marriage relation.



      Bethuel Between Tests.




      2. Greece

      3. Rome

      4. Asia


      1. The Pe-rsian Perioel

      2. The Alexandrian Period

      3. The KK.vptian Period

      4. The Syrian Period

      />. The Maccabcan Period 6. The Roman Period


      (a) Thei Apocrypha

      (h) Pseudepigrapha

      (r) The! Septuagint

      2. Spiritual Conditions

      3. Parties

      4. Preparation for Christianity

      As the title- indicates, the- historical periexl in 1 he- life of Israel extenels from the- e-essation of OT prophecy to the beginning of the- Christian era..

      /. The Period in General. The Exile- left its ineffaceable stamp em Judaism as we-11 as on the Jews. Their return te> the- lanel of the-ir fathers was markeel by the- last rays of the declining sun e)f prophecy. With Malachi it set. Modern his torical criticism has projected some of the canonical books of the Bible far inte> this post-e-xilie- pe-riexl. Thus Kent (IMP, 1X00), following the- le-ad of the Wellhausen-Kuenen hypothesis, with all its later leaele-rs, has charte-el the- pe-rioel be-twe-e-n 000 BC, the elate- of the first captivity, te> 100 BC, the beginning e>f the- Hasmone-an pe-riexl of Jewish his tory, in comparative conte-mporane-ems bleicks of double de-e-ades. Following the- path of Keiste-r, the histeirical |)ositie>n of Exr and Ne-h is inverted, and the- fe)rme-r is place-el in the pe-riod 400-3X0 BC, contemporaneously with Artaxe-rxe-s II; Je>e-l is as- signenl te> the- same- pe-riexl; portions of Isa (e-hs 63-66, 24-27) are place-d about 350 BC; Zee is as- signed to the- period 200 240, and Did is she>t way down the- line- intei the- reign of the- Seleue-idae-, be-- twe>e-n20()and 100 BC. Now all this is very striking anel no dembt very critie-al, but the greiund of this historie-al readjustment is whe>Ilv subjective, and has the weight only of a hype>thetical e-onjecture. Whate-ve-r may be our attitude to the- critical hypoth esis of the late- origin of seime of the- OT lit., it seems improbable- that any portiem of it e-ould have re-ache-d far into the posi-e-xilie- period. The- inter val bet we-en the- Old and the- Ne-w Testame-nts is t he- dark pe-rie)d in the- history of Israe-1. It stretches itse-lf out eiver abe>ut four e-ents., during which 1 he-re was neither preiphet nor inspire-d writer in lsrae-1. All we know of it we- owe- 1e> Jos, to semie- of the- apex-ryphal books, and to se-atte-re-d n-fe-rences in Gr and Lat historians. The- se-at of empire- passe-d over from the- East to the- West, from Asia te> Europe. The Pers Empire e-e>Ilapseel, under thefie-rce attacks of the Mae-e-demians, anel the Gr Empire in turn gave way te> the Re>m rule.

      //. A Glance at Contemporaneous History. Fe>r the- bette-r understanding e>f this pe-riexl in the history of Israe-1, it may be we-11 to pause- for a mome-nt 1e> glance at the wider field of the- history of the- world in the cents, uneler contemplation, for the weirds "ful ness of time" eleal with the all-embracing history of mankind, for whose- salvatiem Christ, appeared, and whe>se- eve-ry me>vetne-nt led to its realization.

      (1) In the- femr e-e-nts. pre-evding Christ, the

      Egyp empire, the- olde-st anel in many respee-ts the-

      most pe-rfectly developed civilization

      1. The e>f antie|uity, was tottering to its ruins.

      Egyptian The- 20th eir Me-nele-sian Dynasty,

      Empire made plae-e-, in 3X4 BC, fe>r the- 301 h or

      Sebennitic Dynasty, whie-h was swal-

      lowe-d up, half a century later, by the Pe-rs Dynasty.

      The Macedonian or 32d replaced this in 332 BC, only to give way, a decade later, to the last or 33d, the Ptolemaic Dynasty. The whole history of Egypt in this period was therefore one of endless and swiftly succeeding changes. In the Ptolemaic Dynasty there was a faint revival of the old glory of the past, but the star of empire had set for Egypt, and the mailed hand of Rome finally smote down a civilization whose beginnings are lost in the dim twilight of history. The Caesarian conquest of 47 BC was followed, 17 years later, by the annexa tion of Egypt to the new world-power, as a Rom province. Manetho s history is the one great literary monument of Egyp history in this period. Her priests had been famous for their wisdom, to which Lycurgus and Solon, the Cr legislators, had been attracted, as well as Pythagoras and Plato, the world s greatest philosophers.

      (2) In Greece also the old glory was passing away. Endless wars sapped the strength of the

      national life. The- strength of Athens

      2. Greece and Sparta, of Corinth and Thebes

      had departed, and when about the beginning of our period, in 337 BC, the congress of Gr states had elected Philip of Macedon to the hegemony of united Greece, the knell of doom sounded for all Gr liberty. First Philip and after him Alexander wiped out the last remnants of this liberty, and Greece became a lighting machine for the conquest of the world in the meteoric career of Alexander the Great. But what a galaxy of il lustrious names adorn the pages of Gr history, in this period, so dark for Israel! Think of Aristoph anes and Hippocrates, of Xenophonand Democritus, of Plato and Apt-lies, of Aeschines and Demosthenes, of Aristotle and Praxiteles and Archimedes, all figur ing, amid the decay of ( !r liberty, in the 4th and 3d cents, before Christ ! Surely if the political glory of Greece had left its mark on the ages, its intellectual brilliancy is their pride.

      (3) Rome meanwhile- was strengthening he-rse-lf, by interminable wars, i e>r the great task of worlel-

      cone|ue-st that lay be-fore he-r. By the

      3. Rome Lat and Samnite and Punie- wars she-

      trained her se>ns in the- art ejf war, ex- te-nele-el her te-rritorial powe-r and made he-r name elre-ade-d eve-ry where-. Italy and ne>rth Africa, Gn-e-e-e and Asia Minor and the northern barbarians we-re conquen-d in turn. Her intellectual brilliancy was de veletped only when the- lust of e-eHieiue-st was sated after a fashie>n, but, in the- ce-nt. immediately preceding the Christian era we find sue-h name s as Lucretius and Heirte-ntius, Cate> anel Cicero, Sal- lust and Diexlorus Sie-ulus, Virgil anel Horace. At the- close- of the pe-riexl betwe-e-n the- Testaments, Rome had be-e-ome- the- mistress of the world and every road le-d 1e> her capital.

      (4) In Asia the Pers empire-, heir to the- civiliza tion and traditiems of the- great Assyr-Bab world- power, was fast e-ollapsing anel was

      4. Asia ultimate-ly utte-rly wipe-el out by the-

      younger Gr empire anel civilization. In far-away India the- e>ld e-thnic religion of Brahma a e-e-nt. e>r mem- befem- the be -ginning of our pe-rioel passe-el thremgh the- reformatory e-risis inaugurated by Gatama Buddha e>r Sakya Mouni, and thus Buddhism, erne of the great e-thnic re-ligions, was be>rn. Anothe-r re-former e>f the Tauistie; faith was Confucius, the- sage e>f China, a contemporary of Buddha, while- Zoroaste-r in IVrsia laid the founela- tiems e>f. his dualist ic worlel-view. In every sense and in every dim-tion, the- perioel between the Testaments was there-fern- e)tie- of political anel intel lectual fe-rment.

      ///. Historical Developments. As regards Jew ish histe)ry, the- perioel between the Testaments may be divided as follows: (1) the Pers period;



      (2) the Alexandrian period; (3) the Egyp period; (4) the Syrian period; (5) the Maccabean period; (6) the Rom period.

      (1) The Pers period extends from the cessation of prophecy to 334 BC. It was in the main un eventful in the history of the Jews, a

      1. The breathing spell between great national Persian crises, and comparatively little is Period known of it. The land of Pal was a

      portion of the Syrian satrapy, while the true government of the Jewish people was semi- theocratic, or rather sacerdotal, under the rule of the high priests, who were responsible to the sat rap. As a mat tor of course, the high-priestly office became the object of all Jewish ambition and it aroused the darkest passions. Tims John, the son of Judas, son of Eliashib, through the lust of power, killed his brother Jesus, who was a favorite of Bagoses, a general of Artaxerxes in command of the district. The guilt of t he frat ricide was enhanced, because the crime was committed in the temple itself, and be fore the very altar. A storm of wrath, the only no-table one of this period, thereupon swept over Judaea. The Persians occupied Jerus, the temple was defiled, the city laid waste in part, a heavy fine was imposed on the people and a general persecution followed, which lasted for many years (Ant, XI, 7; Kent, 1UP, 231). Then as later on. in the many persecutions which followed, the Samaritans, ever pliable and willing to obey the tyrant of the day, went practically soot free.

      (2) The Alexandrian period was very brief, 334- 323 BC. It simply covers the period of the Asiatic

      rule of Alexander t lie ( Ireat . In ( ireece

      2. The things had been moving swiftly. The Alexandrian Spartan hegemony, which had been Period unbroken since the fall of Athens, was

      now destroyed by the Thebans under Epaminondas, in the great battles of Leuctra and Mantinea. But the new power was soon crushed by Philip of Macedon, who was thereupon chosen general leader by t he unwilling (Jreeks. Persia was the object of Philip s ambition and vengeance, but the dagger of Pausanias (Ant, XI, viii, 1) forestalled the execution of his plans. His son Alexander, a youth of 20 years, succeeded him, and thus the "great he-goat." of which Daniel had spoken (Dnl 8 8; 10 20), appeared on the scene. In the twelve years of his reign (335-323 BC) he revolutionized the world. Swift as an eagle he moved. All Greece was laid at his feet. Thence he moved to Asia, where he defeated Darius in the memorable battles of Granicus and Issus. Passing southward, he conquered the Mediterranean coast and Egypt and then moved eastward again, for the complete subjugation of Asia, when he was struck down in the height of his power, at Babylon, in the 33d year of his age. In the Syrian campaign he had come in contact with the Jews. I n willing to leave any stronghold at his back, he reduced Tyre after a siege of several months, and advancing south ward demanded the surrender of Jerus. But the Jews, taught by bitter experience, desired to remain loyal to Persia. As Alexander approached the city, Jaddua the high priest, with a train of priests in their official dress, went out to meet him, to suppli cate mercy. A previous dream of this occurrence is said to have foreshadowed this event, and Alex ander spared the city, sacrificed to Jeh, had the prophecies of Daniel concerning him rehearsed in his hearing, and showed the Jews many favors (Ant, XI, viii, 5) From that day on they became his favorites; he employed them in his army and gave them equal rights with the Greeks, as first- citizens of Alexandria, and other cities, which he founded. Thus the strong Hellenistic spirit of the Jews was created, which marked so large a portion

      of the nation, in the subsequent periods of their history.

      (3) The Egyptian period (324-264 BC). The death of Alexander temporarily turned everything

      into chaos. The empire, welded to-

      3. The get her by his towering genius, fell Egyptian apart under four of his generals Period Ptolemy, Lysimachus, Cassander, and

      Selenus (Did 8 21.22). Egypt fell to the share of Ptolemy Soter and Judaea was made part of it. At first Ptolemy was harsh in his treat ment of the Jews, but later on he learned to respect them and became their patron as Alexander had been. Hecataeus of Thrace is at this time said to have studied the Jews, through information re ceived from Hezekiah, an Egyp Jewish immigrant, and t o have writ t en a Jewish history from the time of Abraham till his own day. This book, quoted by Jos and Origen, is totally lost. Soter was suc ceeded by Ptolemy Philadelphia, an enlightened ruler, famous through the erection of the light house of Pharos, and esp. through the founding of the celebrated Alexandrian library. Like his father he was very friendly to the Jews, and in his reign the celebrated Gr trof the OT Scriptures, the LXX, was made, according to tradition (Ant, XII, ii). As however the power of the Syrian princes, the Seleucidae, grew, Pal increasingly became the battle ground between them and the Ptolemies. In the decisive battle between Ptolemy Philopator and Antiochus the Great, at Raphia near Gaza, the latter was crushed and during Philopator s reign Judaea remained an Egyp province. And yet tins battle formed the turning-point of the history of the .lews in their relation to Egypt. For when Ptolemy, drunk with victory, came to Jerus, he en deavored to enter the holy of holies of the temple, although he retreated, in confusion, from the holy place. But lie wreaked his vengeance on the .Jews, for opposing his plan, by a cruel persecution. He was succeeded by his son Ptolemy Epiphanes, a child of 5 years. The long-planned vengeance of Antiochus now took form in an invasion of Egypt. Coele-Syria and Judaea were occupied by the Syrians and passed over into the possession of the Seleu cidae.

      (4) The Syrian period (204-165 BC). Israel now entered into the valley of the shadow of death.

      This entire period was an almost un-

      4. The interrupted martyrdom. Antioehus Syrian was succeeded by Seleucis Philopator. Period But harsh as was their attitude to the

      Jews, neither of these two was noto rious for his cruelty to them. Their high priests, as in former periods, were still their nominal rulers. But the aspect of everything changed when Antio chus Epiphanes (175-164 BC) came to the throne. He may fitly be called the Nero of Jewish history. The nationalists among the Jews were at that time wrangling with the Hellenists for the control of affairs. Onias III, a faithful high priest, was ex pelled from office through the machinations of his brother Jesus or Jason (2 Mace 4 7-10). Onias went to Egypt, where at Heliopolis he bnilt a temple and officiated as high priest. Meanwhile Jason in turn was turned out of the holy office by the bribes of still another brother, Menelaus, worse by far than Jason, a Jew-hater and an avowed defender of Gr life and morals. The wrangle between the brothers gave Antiochus the oppor tunity he craved to wreak his bitter hatred on the Jews, in the spoliation of Jerus, in the wanton and total defilement of the temple, and in a most hor rible persecution of the Jews (1 Mace 1 16-28; 2 Mace 5 11-23; Dnl 11 28; Ant, XII, v, 3.4). Thousands were slain, women and children were sold into captivity, the city wall was torn down, all



      sacrifices roused, and in the temple on the altar of burnt offering a statue was erected to Jupiter Olympius (1 Mace 1 43; 2 Mace 6 1-2). Cir cumcision was forbidden, on pain of death, and all the people of Israel were to be forcibly paganized. As in the Pers persecution, the Samaritans again played into the hands of the Syrians and implicitly obeyed the will of the Seleucidae. But the very rigor of the persecution caused it to fail of its pur pose and Israel proved to be made of sterner stuff than Antiochus imagined. A priestly family dwelling at Modin, west of Jerus, named Has- monean, after one of its ancestors, consisting of Mat tat bias and his five sons, reused the standard of revolt, which proved successful after a severe struggle. See ASMONAEAN.

      (5) The Maccabean period (165-63 BC). The

      slaying of an idolatrous Jew at the very altar

      was the signal of revolt. The land of

      5. The Judaea is specially adapted to guerilla Macca- tactics, and Judas Maccabaeus, who bean succeeded his father, as leader of the Period Jewish patriots, was a past master in

      this kind of warfare. All efforts of Antiochus to quell the rebellion failed most miserably, in three Syrian campaigns. The king died of a loathsome disease and peace was at last concluded with the Jews. Though still nominally under Syrian control, Judas became governor of Pal. His first act was the purification and rededication of the temple, from which the Jews date their festi val of purification (see PURIFICATION). When the Syrians renewed the war, Judas applied for aid to the Romans, whose power began to be felt in Asia, but he died in battle before the promised aid could reach him (Ant, XII, xi, 2). He was buried by his father s side at Modin and was succeeded by his brot her Jonathan. From t hat time the Maccabean history becomes one of endless cabals. Jonathan was acknowledged by the Syrians as meridarch of Judaea, but was assassinated soon afterward. Simon succeeded him, and by the help of the Romans was made hereditary ruler of Pal. He in turn was followed by John Hyrcanus. The people were torn by bitter partisan controversies and a civil war was waged, a generation later, by two grandsons of John Hyrcanus, Hyrcanus and Aris- tobulus. In this internecine struggle the Rom general Pompey participated by siding with Hyr canus, while Aristobulus defied Rome and defended Jerus. Pompey took the city, after a siege of three months, and entered the holy of holies, thereby forever estranging from Rome every loyal Jewish heart .

      ((>) The Roman period (63-4 BC). Judaea now became a Rom province. Hyrcanus, stripped of

      the hereditary royal power, retained

      6. The only the high-priestly office. Rome Roman exacted an annual tribute, and Aris- Period tobulus was sent as a captive to the

      capital. ?Ie contrived however to escape and renewed the unequal struggle, in which he was succeeded by his sons Alexander and Ant ig- onus. In the war between Pompey and Caesar, Judaea was temporarily forgotten, but after Caesar s death, under the triumvirate of Octavius, Antony and Lepidus, Antony, the eastern triumvir, favored Herod the Great, whose intrigues secured for him at last the crown of Judaea and enabled him completely to extinguish the old Maccabean line of Judaean princes.

      IV. Internal Developments in This Period. One thing remains, and that is a review of the de velopments within the bosom of Judaism itself in the period under consideration. It is self-evident that the core of the Jewish people, which remained loyal to the national traditions and to the national

      faith, must have been radically affected by the terrible cataclysms which mark their history, during the four cents, before Christ. What, if any, was the literary activity of the Jews in this period? What was their spiritual condition? What was the result of the manifest difference of opinion within the Jewish economy? What preparation does this period afford for the fulness of time"? These and other questions present themselves, as we study this period of the history of the Jews.

      (1) The voice of prophecy was utterly hushed in this period, but the old literary instinct of the

      nation asserted itself; it was part and 1. Literary parcel of the Jewish traditions and Activity would not be denied. Thus in this

      period many writings were produced, which alt hough they lack canonical authority, among Protestants at least, still are extremely helpful for a correct understanding of the life of Israel in the dark ages before Christ.

      (a) The Apocrypha. First of all among the fruits of this literary activity stand the apocryphal books of the OT. It is enough here to mention them. They are fourteen in number: 1 and 2 Esdras, Tobit, Judith, 2 Esther, Wisdom of Solo mon, Ecclesiasticus, Baruch, Song of the Three Holy Children, History of Susannah, Bel and the Dragon, Prayer of Manasses, 1 and 2 Maccabees. As 3 and 4 Maccabees fall presumably within the Christian era, they are not here enumerated. All these apocrypha] writings are of the utmost impor tance for a correct understanding of the Jewish problem in the day in which they were written. For fuller information, see APOCRYPHA.

      (b) Psen/lcpigrapha. Thus named from the spurious character of the authors names they bear. Two of these writings very probably belong to our period, while a host of them evidently belong to a later date. In this class of writings there is a mute confession of the conscious poverty of the day. First of all, we have the Psalter of .Solomon, origi nally written in II eb and tr 1 into Or a collection of songs for worship, touching in their spirit, and evincing the fact that true faith never died in the heart of the true believer. The second is the Book of Enoch, a production of an apocalyptic nature, named after Enoch the patriarch, and widely known about the beginning of the Christian era. This book is quoted in the NT (Jude ver 14). It- was originally written in Heb or Aram, and tr 1 into (Ir. As there is no trace of a Christian influence in the book, the presumption is that the greater part of it was written at an earlier period. Both Jude and the author of Revelation must have known it, as a comparative study of both books will show. The quest ion of these quotations or allusions is a veritable crux inter prctmn: how to reconcile the inspiration of these books with these quotations?

      (c) The Hcptniujint. The tradition of the LXX is told by Jos (Ant, XII, ii, 13). Aristeas and Aristobulus, a Jewish priest in the reign of Ptolemy Philometor (2 Mace 1 10), are also emoted in sup port of it by Clement of Alexandria and by Euse- bius. See SEPTUAGINT. The truth of the matter is most probably that this great tr of theOT Scrip tures was begun at the instance of Ptolemy Phila- delphus 2S5-247 BC, under the direction of Deme trius Phalereus, and was completed somewhere about the middle of the 2d cent. BC. Internal evidence abounds that the tr was made by different hands and at different times. If the tr was in any way literal, the text of the LXX raises various interesting questions in regard to the Heb text that was used in the tr, as compared with the one we now possess. The LXX was of the utmost missionary value and contributed perhaps more than any other thing to prepare the world for the "fulness of time."

      Between Tests. Bible, The



      The return troin Babylon marked a turniNg-

      poinl in the spiritual history of the .lews. I Yom

      that time onward, the lust of idolatry,

      2. Spiritual which had marked t heir whole previous Conditions history, utterly disappears. In the

      place of it came an almost intolerable spirit of exclusiveness, a striving after legal holiness, these two in combination forming the very heart and core of the later Pharisaism. The holy books, but especially the law, became an object of almost idolatrous reverence; the spirit was utterly lost in the form. And as their own tongue, the classic Ileb, gradually gave way to the common Aram., 1 he rabbis and t heir schools st rove over more earnest ly to keep t he ancient tongue pure, worship and life each demanding a separate language. Thus the Jews became in a sense bilingual, the Hob tongue being used in their synagogues, the Aram, in their daily life, and later on, in part at least, the (ir tongue of the conqueror, the linijnn fru/icn of the; period. A spiritual aristocracy very largely re placed the former rule of their princes and nobles. As the core of their religion died, the bark of the t ree ilourished. Thus t it lies were xealoiislv paid bv the believer (cf Alt 23 2:5), the Sabbath became a positive burden of sanctity, the simple laws of God wen* replaced by cumbersome human inven tions, which in later times were to form the bulk of the Talm, and which crushed down all spiritual liberty in the days of Christ (Mt 11 2X; 23 4.2:5). The substitution of the names "Elohim" and "Adonai" for the old glorious historic name "Jah- velf is an eloquent commentary on all that has been said before and on the spiritual condition of Israel in this period (Ewald, II of I, V, I .isi, in which the change was inaugurated. The old centripetal force, t he old ideal of cent ralization, gave way loan almost haughty indifference to the land of promise. The .lews became, as they are today, a nation wit h- out a count ry. For, for every .lew t hat came back to the old national home, a thousand remained in the land of their adoption. And yet scattered far and wide, in all sorts of environments, they remained Jews, and the national consciousness was never extinguished. It was God s mark on them now as then. And thus they became world-wide missionaries of 1 he knowledge of t he t rue (!od, of a gospel of hope for a world t hat was hopeless, a gospel which wholly against their own will directed the eyes of the world to the fulness of time and which prepared t he fallow soil of human hearts for t he rapid spread of ( hristianity when it ultimately appeared.

      During the (!r period the more conservative and

      zealous of the Jews were all t he 1 ime confronted wit h

      a tendency of a very considerable

      3. Parties portion of the people, especially the

      younger and wealthier set, to adopt the manners of life and t hought and speech of t heir masters, the ( .reeks. Thus the Hellenistic party was born, which was bitterly hated by all true- blooded Jews, but which left its mark on their his tory, till the date of the final dispersion 70 AI). From the day of Mattathias, the Chasids or Hasi- deans (I Mace 2 42) were the true Jewish patriots, Thus the party of the Pharisees came into existence (Anl, XIII, x, 5; XVIII, i, 2; BJ, I, v, 2). See PHARISKF.S. They were opposed by the more secular-minded Sadducees (Ant, XIII, x, 0; XVIII, i, :>; /> ./, II, viii, 14). wealthy, of fine social stand ing, wholly free from 1 he restraints of tradition, utterly oblivious of the future life and closely akin to the Or Epicureans. See SADDUCEES. These parties bitterly opposed each other till the very end of the national existence 1 of the Jews in Pal, and incessantly fought for the mastery, through the high-priestly office. Common hatred for Christ, for a while, afforded them a community of interest s.

      Throughout this entire dark period of Israel s history, ( !od was working out His own Divine plan with them. Their Scriptures were tr li 4. Prepara- into (ir, after the conquest of Alex- tion f or ander the Great, the common language

      Christianity in the East. Thus the world was pre pared for the word of (!od, even as the latter in turn prepared the world for the reception of the }j;ift of God, in the gospel of His Son. The TAX thus is a distinct forward movement in the fulfilment, of the Abrahamic promise (Gen 12 ,$; 18 IS). As the sacrificial part of Jewish worship declined, through their wide separation from the temple, tin 1 eyes of Israel were more firmly fixed on their Scriptures, read every Sabbath in their synagogues, ;md, as we have; seen, these Scriptures, through the rendering of the I AX, had become the property of the entire world. Thus the synagogue everywhere became the great missionary institute, imparting to the world Israel s exalted" Messianic hopes. On the other hand, the Jews themselves, embittered by long-continued martyrdoms and suffering, utterly carnali/.ed this Messianic expec tation in an increasing ratio as the yoke of the oppressor grew heavier and the hope of deliverance grew fainter. And thus when their Messiah came, Israel recognized Him not, while the heart-hungry heat hen, who through the I AX had become familiar with the promise 1 , humbly received Him (Jn 1 9-14). The eyes of Israel were blinded for a se>ason, till the fulness of the Gentiles shall be gathered in (Horn 9 32; 11 2.-)). HKNHY E. DOSKER

      BEULAH, bfi la (nb 73 , b Ttlnh, "married"): A name symbolically applied to Israel: "Thy land phall be called] B. . . . . t hy land shall be married. .... so shall thy sons marry thee" (Isa 62 4 f). In this figure, frequently used sine e Hose-a, the prophet wishes to e > xpress the future prosperity of Israel. The land once desolate shall again be populated.

      BEWAIL, be-wal (KO-ITTW, L; ,/>to) : In 1 he middle 1 voice, this word has the thought of striking on the breast and eif loud lamentation, so common among oriental people 1 in time of great sorrow. It is used t o express t he most inte iise grie f, a sorrow t hat e-eHii- pels outward demonstration ( Lk 8 ~)2; 23 27). A striking instance- of this grief is that of the; daughter of Jephthah f.Igs 11 :-57; Le-v 10 <>). See BruiAL, IV, 4, o, (i; GKIEF.

      BEWITCH, be-wie:h (eio-TT]|ja, c.rlslemi): There are two Gr words in Hie XT t r 1 "bewitch." The erne given above (Acts 8 <).! 1 AV "bewitched," RV "ama/ed") has reference to the work e>f Simon Ma gus. It means "to be oul of one s mind," "to aston ish," "to overwhelm with wonder." The; e>theT weml, [JaffKaivu, Ixixkit uio (Gal 3 1), me>ans "to fascinate by false representation." It is by this means the apostle 1 e-emiplains they have been lenl to acce pt a teaching wholly contrary to the- gospel of Christ. Both these; wemls ivveal to us something e)f the; difficulty the 1 early teacheTS had te> eraelicate the; idea so widely heaVl by the; Jews and Egyptians especially, that there were certain powers, dark anel myste riems, whie-h. by certain occult forces they coulel e-ontrol. Fe)r a lemg time this had to be con tended with as one e>f the corrupt practices brought into the 1 chure-h by the converts, both from Judaism anel heathenism. These worels have a reference; to the e>vil e\\\\\\\\vc which for e-ents. was, anel even toehiy is, an important factor in the life of the people of the East. 1 Tim 6 20 is a reference to this thought and explains the weml "science" (AV) as the^re use>d. See DIVINATION; EVIL EYE; SORCERY; SUPERSTITION. jAreju W. KAPP



      Between Tests. Bible, The

      BEWRAY, be-ra , BEWRAYER, be-ra er: In its derivation is entirely different from betray (Lat tradcrc"), and meant originally "todiss lose," "reveal" (cf Shakspere, 7V/ /*. I ndronicus, II, iv,3: "Writedown thy mind, bewray thy meaning so"); but has been affected by the former word and is used almost synonymously. It is the tr of three Heb words:

      (1) X"j]?, karu , meaning "to call out" (Prov 27 10), "the ointment of his right hand which bewrayeth itself" (ARV "his right hand encountereth oil," ARVm "the oil of his right hand betrayeth itself");

      (2) ~r>! , iiiighadh, meaning "tofront,""toannounce" (by word of mouth): Prov 29 24, "heareth cursing and bewrayeth it not" (ARY "heareth the adjura tion and uttereth nothing"); (3) !"lp3 , gdluh, "to denude," fig. "to reveal" (Isa 16 3), "bewray not him that wandereth" (ARY "betray not the fugi tive").

      In Sir 27 17 "bewray [RV "reveal"] his secrets" is the tr of a.TroKa.\\\\\\\\virru>^ d poknliipto, lit. "to uncover" ; so also in Sir 27 21 (RV "revealeth"). Bewrayer of 2 Mace 4 1 ("bewrayer of the money and of his country," RY "had given information of the money and had betrayed his country") is the tr of (vSeiKT-rjs, cn<lcikt(~.-<, lit. "one who shows.

      In the NT "bewrayelh" is the AY of Mt 26 7:5; "thy speech bewrayeth thee" is the tr of the phrase drj\\\\\\\\ov Troietv, dHitn ptndn, which 1 ne ARV renders "maketh thee known." ARTHTR J. KIXSKLLA

      BEYOND, be-yond : Found in the Heb only in its application to space and time, and for these ideas three words are employed: nX>n, hCd "dk (Gen 35 21) = " to the distance"; "127, *tib!tur = "to go beyond," "to cross," derivative "127, * cither (Chald. "15", *dbh(ir) = "across," "beyond" (Dt 30 13; Josh 18 7; Jgs 3 26; 1 S 20 36; 2 Ch 20 2; Ezr 4 17.20; Jer 25 22); and 57, V// (Lev 15 2")) = "beyond the time." In the XT n-tpav, pennt., is used to express "beyond" in the spatial sense (Mt 4 1.1), while other words and phrases an; employed for adverbial ideas of degree: vTrepTtrepurcruis, huperperissos (Mk 7 37); virtp, ku/ter (2 Cor 8 3; 10 1(1); Ka6vweppo\\\\\\\\rjv, hithn/icrbo- Ltn (Gal 1 13). In the AY "1373, l^cbfier, is occasionally tr 1 "beyond." and when this word is joined to I""! 1 : ~ , fta-i/tirden, "Jordan," as it usually is, it becomes critically important . In ARV, b ^ebher htt-i/ardcn is tr 1 "beyond the Jordan," in Gen 50 10.11: Dt 3 2().2r>; josh 9 10; Jgs 5 17; "on this side Jordan" in Dt 1 1.5; Josh 1 14.1"); "on th; 1 other side Jordan" in Dt, 11 30; Josh 12 1 ; 22 4; 24 2.8 (cf AY and RV, vs 1 1,1."); .see RIVKU, THK), Jgs 10 8; 1 S 31 7; and "on the side of Jordan" in Josh 5 1. ARV gives "beyond the Jordan" throughout . "127 }3 , mPebher, is used wit h hn-ijurden in Nu 34 15; 35 14; Josh 13 32; Jgs 7 25; and "127, <ebkcr, alone in Dt 4 49 (AV "on this side"); Josh 13 27 (AY "on the other side"). It is clear that the phrase may be tr 1 "across Jordan"; that it is used of either side of the Jordan (Dt 3 8 speaks of the eastern, 3 20.25 of the western); that "beyond Jordan" may be used of the side of the Jordan on which the writer stands (Josh 5 1 ; 9 1; 12 7); but from the fact that Dt 1 1.5; 4 41. 46.47.49, where statements are made about Moses, the reference is to the country E. of the Jordan, while in Dt 3 20.25; 11 30, where Moses is repre sented as speaking, the W. is indicated, critics have concluded that the author (at least of Dt) must have lived after Moses, being careful to distinguish between himself and the prophet.


      BEZAANANNIM, be-za-an-an im (Josh 19 33 KVm;. See ZAA.NAXMM.

      BEZAI, be za-I OS2, heyiy, "shining"!?]):

      (1) A chief who with Nehemiah sealed the; cov enant (Neh 10 IS).

      (2) The descendants of B. returned with Zerub- babel to Jerus (323, Ezr 2 17; 324, Neh 7 23 = Bassai, 1 Esd 5 16).

      BEZALEL, bez a-lel (5-X5S3 , b-galT-l, "in the shadow [protection] of El [God]"; ~Betrt\\\\\\\\r!}\\\\\\\\, Be- sdctl; AV Bezaleel) :

      (1) A master workman under Moses; son of I ri, son of Hur, of the tribe of Judah. Jeh gave him especial wisdom and skill for his task, which was, with the aid of Oholiab of the tribe of Dan, to superintend the making of the tabernacle and its furniture (Ex 31 2; 35 30; 36 1.2 (S); 37 1- 38 22; 1 Ch 2 20; 2 Ch 1 5).

      (2) An Israelite of the time of Ezra who put away a foreign wife (Ezr 10 30). F. K. FARR

      BEZEK, be zek (p|3, bezck; B^K, Bczek, B, ApieK, Abiezek):

      ( 1) The city of Adoni-bezek taken by Judah and Simeon (Jgs 1 4 f), in the territory allotted to .Judah. It is somewhat doubtfully identified with Bi zknh, about 3 miles X.E. of Gezer.

      (2) The place where Said marshaled his army before marching to the relief of Jabesh-gilead (1 S 11 8). Onom speaks of two village s of this name 17 Rom miles from Shechem, on t he way to Scythopolis. No doubt, Kfiirbet Ibzlk is intended. Here, or on the neighboring height, I fan Jbzlk, a mountain 2,401 ft. above sea level, the army prob ably assembled. W. EwiNG

      BEZER, be zer (1^2, bcfcr; Bocrop, Busor, "strong"):

      (1) A city of refuge, set apart by Moses for the Reubenites and located in the "plain country" (or table-land, Mlslinr) ] ]. of the Jordan, later assigned to this tribe by Joshua (Dt 4 43; Josh 20 8). The same city was assigned by lot as place of resi dence; to the children of Merari of the Levite tribe (Josh 21 31) ; 1 Ch 6 63.78). Driver, IIDK, sug gests the identity of B. with Bo/rah (LXN Bosor) (Jer 48 24). Besheir has been suggested as the present site. According to the MS it was fortified bv Mesha.

      (2) A son of Zophah of the house of Asher (1 Ch 7 37). A. L. BRESLICH

      BEZETH, be zeth (Br^e 0, Brzetli): A ])lace in the neighborhood of Jerus to which Bacchides withdrew and where he slew several deserters (1 Mace 7 19). Possibly the same; as Bezetha (see JERUSALEM).

      BEZETHA, be-ze t ha : Also called by Jos t IK; "New City" (BJ, V, iv, 2), certain suburbs of Jerus, N. of the Temple, which were outside the second but in cluded within the third wall. BEZETH (q.v.) may be the same place. See JKRKSALEM.

      BIATAS, bl a-tas (<t>a\\\\\\\\ias, Phalias; A, 4>taeds, Fhiathax) : RV "Phalias," one of the Levites (1 Esd 9 48) who "taught [the people] the law of the Lord, making them withal to understand it." Called Pelaiali in Neh 8 7.

      BIBLE, bl b l, THE (pip\\\\\\\\ia, bihlla):

      I. Tin: X.VMES

      1. Biblo

      2. Other Designations Scriptures, etc :i. OT and XT


      Bible, The



      III. COMPASS AND DIVISIONS I. The Jewish Bible

      .loseplms. etc 12. The LXX

      The Apocrypha :i. The Vulgate. (O P) 4. The NT

      (1) Acknowledged Hooks

      (2) Disputed Hooks

      IV. LlTKHAKY (iuoWTII AM) () H I ( ; I X (\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\NONICITY

      1. The <)T

      (1) Indications of OT Itself (<() Patriarchal Ajje

      (t>) Mosaic Age

      (<) Judges

      ((/) Monarchy

      (c) Wisdom literature History

      (/) Prophecy

      (a) Assyrian Afje

      (p) Chaldaean Ago

      (</) .losiah s Reformation

      (lit Kxilian and Post-Exilian

      (i) Daniel, etc

      (j) Prccxilic liible

      (2) Critical Views

      (n) Tin; Pentateuch (/-) Histories (c) Psalms and Prophets (. 5) Kormation of ( anon (u) ( Yit ical Theory (li) More Positive View (<) ( lose of Canon

      2. The XT

      (1) Historical Hooks (n i The Synoptics (6) Fourth (Jospel (c) Acts

      (2) The Kpistles (a) Pauline

      (6) Kpist le to Hebrews O) Catholic Kpisiles (H) Prophecy

      Hook of Revelation (4) NT Canon V. UNITY AND S i-i urrr A \\\\\\\\. IVui-osK INSPIRATION

      1. Scripture a I nit y

      2. The Purpose- of (Jrace >. Inspiration

      I. Historical Influence

      VI. A 1)1) KM) A

      1. Chapters and Verses

      2. AV ami K\\\\\\\\

      M. Helps to Study LlTEBATUKB

      This word designates the collection of the. Scrip tures of the OT and NT recognized and in use in

      the Christian churches. Different re- General ligions (such as the Zoroast nan, Hindu, Designation Buddhist, Mohammedan) have their

      collections of sacred writings, some times spoken of as their "Bibles." The Jews acknowledge only the Scriptures of the OT. Chris tians add the writings contained in the NT. The present art. deals with the origin, character, con tents and purpose of the Christian Scriptures, regarded as the depository and authoritative record of (lod s revelations of Himself and of His will to the fathers by the prophets, and through His Son to the church of a later age (He 1 1.2). Reference is made throughout to the arts, in which the several topics are more fully treated.

      /. The Names. -The word "Bible" is the equiva lent of the (ir word biblia (dim. from biblox, the

      inner bark of the papyrus), meaning 1. Bible originally "books." The phrase "the

      books" (ta biblia) occurs in DnI 9 2 (LXX) for prophetic writings. In the Prologue to Sir ("the rest of the books") it designates generally the OT Scriptures; similarly in 1 Mace 12 9 ("the holy books"). The usage passed into the Christian church for OT (2 Clem 14 2), and by and by (cir oth cent.) was extended to the whole Scriptures. Jerome s name for the Bible (4th cent.) was "the Divine Library" (Bibliotheca Dirina). Afterward came an important change from pi. to sing, mean ing. "In process of time this name, with many others of Gr origin, passed into the vocabulary of the western church; and in the 13th cent., by a happy solecism, the neut. pi. came to be regarded as a fern, sing., and The Books became by common

      consent, The Book (biblin, sing.), in which form the word was passed into the languages of modern Kurope" (West cot t, liiblc in. the Church., >). Its earliest occurrences in Eng. are in Piers Plowman, Chaucer and Wyclif fe.

      There is naturally no name in the NT for the complete body of Scripture; the only Scriptures then known being those; of the OT 2. Other In 2 Pet 3 1(5, however, Paul s epis- Designa- ties seem brought under this category, tions The common designations for the

      Scriptures, OT books by Our Lord and His apos- etc ties were "the scriptures" (writings)

      (Mt 21 -12; Mk 14 49; Lk 24 32; Jn 5 39; Acts 18 24; Rom 15 4, etc), "the holy scriptures" (Rom 1 2); once "the sacred writings" (2 Tim 3 lf>). The Jewish technical division (see below) into "the law," the "prophets," and the " holy) writings" is recognized in the expression "in the law of Moses, and the prophets, and the psalms" (Lk 24 44). More briefly the whole is summed up under "the law and the prophets" (Ml 5 17; 11 13; Acts 13 If,). Occasionally even the term "law" is extended to include the other divisions (Jn 10 31; 12 34; 15 2.1; 1 Cor 14 21). Paul uses the phrase "the oracles of Clod" as a name for the OT Scriptures (Horn 3 2; cf Acts 7 3S; He 5 12; 1 Pet 4 11).

      Special interest attaches to the names "Old" and "New Testament," now and since the close of the 2d cent, in common use to 3. OT and distinguish the Jewish and the Chris- NT tian Scriptures. "Testament" (lit. "a will") is used in the NT (AV) to repre sent the Or word <ii<ithfl;c, in classical usage also "a will," but in the LXX and NT employed to translate the Ileb word b i^tfi, "a covenant." In RV, accordingly, "testament" is, with two ex ceptions (He 9 16.17), changed to "covenant" (Mt 26 2S; 2 Cor 3 (; Cal 3 lo; He 7 22; 9 15, etc). Applied to the Scriptures, therefore, "Old" and "New Testament" mean, strictly, "Old" and "New Covenant," though the older usage is now too firmly fixed to be altered. The name is a con tinuation of the OT designation for the law, "the book of the covenant" (2 K 23 2). In this sense Paul applies it (2 Cor 3 14) to the OT law; "the reading of the old testament" (RV "Covenant"). When, after the middle of the 2d cent., a definite collection began to be made of the Christian writ ings, these were named "the New Testament," and were placed as of equal authority alongside the "Old." The name Nornm Testamentum (also In- .stnu/ii nlinn i occurs first in Tertullian (190-220 AD), and soon came into general use. The idea of a Christian Bible may be then said to be complete.

      //. Languages. -The OT, it, is well known, is written mostly in Ileb; the NT is written wholly in (Ir. The parts of the OT not in Ileb, viz. Ezr 4 S -6 IS; 7 12 26; Jer 10 1 1 ; DnI 2 47 28, are in Aram, (the so-called Chaldee), a related dialect, which, after the Exile, gradually displaced Heb as the spoken language of the Jews (see ARA MAIC; LANGUAGE AND TEXT OP OT). The ancient Heb text was "unpointed," i.e. without the vowel- marks now in use. These are due to the labors of the Massoretic scholars (after 6th cent. AD).

      The Gr of the NT, on which so much light has recently been thrown by the labors of Deissmann and others from the Egyp papyri, showing it to be a form of the "common" (Hellenistic) speech of the time (see LANGUAGE OP NT), still remains, from its penetration by Heb ideas, the influence of the LXX, peculiarities of training and culture in the writers, above all, the vitalizing and transforming power of Christian conceptions in vocabulary and expres sion, a study by itself. "We speak," the apostle



      says, "not in words which man s wisdom teacheth, but which (ho Spirit teacheth" (1 Cor 2 13). This is not always remembered in tin; search for parallels in the papyri. (For tr 3 into other lan guages, see VERSIONS.)

      ///. Compass and Divisions. The story of the origin, collection, and final stamping with canonical authority of the books which compose our present Bible involves many points still keenly in dispute. Before touching on these debatable matters, certain more external facts fall to be noticed relating to the general structure and compass of the Bible, and the main divisions of its contents.

      A first step is to ascertain the character and con tents of the Jewish Bible the Bible in use by Christ and His apostles. Apart from 1. Jewish references in the NT itself, an impor- Bible taut aid is here afforded by a passage

      Josephus in Jos (CAp, I, 8), which may be taken to represent the current belief of the Jews in the 1st cent. AL>. After speaking of the prophets as writing their histories "through the inspirat ion of God, 1 Jos says: "For we have not myriads of discordant and conflicting books, but 22 only, comprising the record of all time, and justly accredited as Divine. Of these, 5 are books of Moses, which embrace the laws and the tradi tions of mankind until his own death, a period of almost 3,000 years. From the death of Moses till the reign of Arlaxerxes, the successor of Xer xes, king of Persia, the prophets who followed Moses narrated the events of their time in 13 books. The remaining 4 books consist of hymns to God, and maxims of conduct for men. From Artaxerxes to our own age, the history has been written in detail, but it is not esteemed worthy of the same credit, on account of the exact succession of the prophets having been no longer maintained." He goes on to declare t hat, in this long interval, "no one has dared either to add anything to [the writ ings], or to take anything from them, or to alter anything," and speaks of them as "the decrees [dogmata] of God," for which the Jews would will ingly die. Philo (20 BC-cir 50 AD) uses similar strong language about the law of Moses (in Euse- bius, Pr. Er., VIII, (I).

      In this enumeration of Jos, it will be seen that the Jewish sacred books 39 in our Bible are reckoned as 22 (after the no. of letters in the Ileb alphabet), viz. 5 of the law, 13 of the prophets and 4 remaining books. These last are Ps, Prov, Cant and Eccl. The middle class includes all the historical and prophetical books, likewise Job, and the reduction in the no. from 30 to 13 is explained by Jgs-Ruth, 1 and 2 S, 1 and 2 K, 1 and 2 Ch, Ezr-Neh, Jer- Lam and the 12 minor prophets, each being counted as one book. In his 22 books, therefore, Jos in cludes all those in the present Heb canon, and none besides not the books known as the APOCRYPHA, though he was acquainted with and used some of these.

      Other lists and dirixinns. The statement of Jos as to the 22 books acknowledged by the Jews is confirmed, with some variation of enumeration, by the lists preserved by Eusebius (HE, vi.26) from Melito of Sardis (cir 172 AD) and Origen (186-254 AD), and by Jerome (Prcf to OT, cir 400) all following Jewish authorities. Jerome knew also of a rabbinical division into 24 books. The celebrated passage from the Talm (Bdbhd Bathrd , 146: see CANON OF OT; cf Westcott, Bible in Church, 35; Driver, LOT, vi) counts also 24. This no. is obtained by separating Ruth from Jgs and Lam from Jer. The threefold division of the books, into Law, Prophets, and other sacred Writings (Hagiographa), is old. It is already im plied in the Prologue to Sir (cir 130 BC), "the law,

      the prophets, and the rest of the books"; is glanced at in a work ascribed to Philo (Dc vita content pi., 3); is indicated, as formerly seen, in Lk 24 44. It really reflects stages in the formation of the Ileb canon (see below). The rabbinical division, how ever, differed materially from that of Jos in reck oning only 8 books of the prophets, and relegating 1 and 2 Ch, Ezr-Neh, Est, Job and Dni to the Hagiographa, thus enlarging that group to 9 (West cott, op. cit., 28; DB, I, "Canon"). When Ruth and Lam were separated, they were added to the list, raising the no. to 11. Some, however, take this to be the original arrangement. In printed Heb Bibles the books in all the divisions are separate. The Jewish schools further divided the "Prophets" into "the former prophets" (the his torical books Josh, Jgs, 8 and K), and "the latter prophets" (Isa, Jer, Ezk and the 12 minor prophets as one book).

      A T references. It may be concluded that the above lists, excluding the Apoc, represent the Heb Bible as it existed in the time of Our Lord (the opinion, held by some, that the Sadducees received only the 5 books of the law rests on no sufficient evidence). This result is borne out by the evidence of quotations in Jos and Philo (cf Westcott, op. cit.). Still more is it confirmed by an examination of OT quotat ions and references in the NT. It was seen above that the main divisions of the OT are recognized in the NT, and that, under the name "Scriptures," a Divine authority is ascribed to them. It is therefore highly (significant that, although the writers of the NT were familiar with the LXX, which contained the Apoc (see below), no quotation from any book of the Apoc occurs in their pages. One or two allusions, at most, suggest acquaintance with the Book of Wisdom (e.g. Wisd 5 18-21 || Eph 6 13-17). On the other hand, "every book in the Heb Bible is distinctly quoted in the NT with the exception of Josh, Jgs, Ch, Cant, Eccl, Ezr, Neh, Est, Ob, Zeph and Nah" (West cott). Enumerations differ, but about 178 direct quotations may be reckoned in the Gospels, Acts and Epistles; if references are included, the no. is raised to about 700 (see QUOTATIONS IN NT). In four or five places (Lk 11 49-51; Jas 45; 1 Cor 2 9; Eph 6 14; Jn 7 38) apparent references occur to sources other than the OT; it is doubtful whether most of them are really so (cf Westcott, op. cit ., 40-48; Eph 5 14 may be from a Christian hymn). An undeniable influence of Apocalyptic literature is seen in Jude, where vs 14.15 are a direct quotation from the Book of Enoch. It does not follow that Jude regarded this book as a proper part of Script ure.

      Hitherto we have been dealing with the IIeb OT; marked changes are apparent when we turn to the Xeptuagint, or Gr version of the LXX 2. The LXX current in the Gr-speaking world at 1 he commencement of the Christian era. The importance of this version lies in tin- fact that it was practically the OT of the early church. It was used by the apostles and their converts, and is freely quoted in the NT, sometimes even when its renderings vary considerably from the Heb. Its influence was necessarily, therefore, very great.

      Origin. The special problems connected with origin, text and literary relations of the LXX are dealt with elsewhere (see SEPTUAGINT). The ver sion took its rise, under one of the early Ptolemies, from the needs of the Jews in Egypt, before the middle of the 2d cent. BC; was gradually exe cuted, and completed hardly later than cir 100 BC; thereafter spread into all parts. Its render ings reveal frequent divergence in MSS from the present MT, but show also that the translators

      Bible, The



      permitted themselves considerable liberties in enlarging, abbreviating, transposing and otherwise modifying the texts they had, and in the insertion of materials borrowed from other sources.

      The Apocrypha. The most noteworthy differ ences are in the departure from Jewish tradition in the arrangement of the books (this varies greatly; .cf Swete, Intro to OT in Or, II, ch i), and in the inclusion in the list of the other books, unknown to the Heb canon, now grouped as the Apocrypha. These form an extensive; addition. They include the whole of the existing Apoc, with the exception of 2 Esd and Pr Man. All are of late date, and are in Gr, though Sir had a Ileb original which has been partly recovered. They are not collected, but are interspersed among the OT books in what are taken to be their appropriate places. The (Ir frag ments of Est, e.g. are incorporated in that book; Sus and Bel form part of Dnl; Bar is joined with Jer, etc. The most important books are Wisd, Sir and 1 Mace (cir 100 BC). The fact, that Sir, originally in Heb (cir 200 BC), and of high repute, was not included in the Heb canon, has a weighty bearing on the period of the closing of the latter.

      Ecclesiastical -uxc. It is, as already remarked, singular that, notwithstanding this extensive en largement of the canon by the LXX, the books just named obtained no Scriptural recognition from the writers of the NT. The more scholarly of the Fathers, likewise (Melito, Origen, Athana- eius, Cyr, Jerome, etc), adhere to the Heb list, and most draw a sharp distinction between the canoni cal books, and the Cir additions, the reading of which is, however, admitted for edification (cf Westcott, op. cit., 135-30, 10S, ISO, 182-83). Whore slight divergencies occur (e.g. Est is omitted by Melito and placed by Athanasius among the Apoc; Origen and Athanasius add Bar to Jer), these are readily explained by doubts as to canonicity or by imperfect knowledge. On the other hand, famil iarity with the LXX in writers ignorant of Ileb could not but tend to break down the limits of the Jewish canon, and to lend a Scriptural sanction to the ad ditions to that canon. This was aided in the West by the fact that the Old Lat VSS (2d cent.) based on the LXX, included these additions (the Syr Pesh followed the Heb). In many quarters, therefore, the distinction is found broken down, and ecclesi astical writers (Clement, Barnabas, Irenaeus, Ter- tullian, Clem. Alex., Basil, etc) quote freely from books like Wisd, Sir, Bar, Tob, 2 Esd, as from parts of the OT.

      An important landmark is readied in the Vulg or Lat version of Jerome. Jerome, on grounds explained in his Preface, recognized 3. The only the Heb Scriptures as canonical;

      Vulgate, under pressure; he executed later a etc (OT) hasty tr of Tob and Jud. Feeling ran strong, however, in favor of the other books, and ere long these were added to Jerome s version from the Old Lat (see VIUIATE). It is this enlarged Vulg which received oflicial recognition, under anathema, at the Council of Trent (1543), and, with revision, from Clement V11I (1592), though, earlier, leading Romish scholars (Ximenes, Erasmus, Cajetan) had made plain the true state of the facts. The Cir church vacillated in its decisions, sometimes approving the limited, some times the extended, canon (cf Westcott, op. cit., 217-29). The churches of the Reformation (Luth eran, Swiss), as was to be expected, went back to the Heb canon, giving only a qualified sanction to the reading and ecclesiastical use of the Apoc. The early English VSS (Tyndale, Coverdale, etc) in clude, but separate, the apocryphal books (see ENGLISH VERSIONS). The Anglican Articles ex press the general estimate of these books: "And the

      other 1 looks (as Jerome saith) the Church doth read for example of life and instruction of manners; yet doth it not apply them to establish any doctrine" (Art. VIII). Modern Protestant Bibles usually ex clude the Apoc altogether.

      From this survey of the course of opinion on the compass of the OT, we come to the NT. This admits of being more briefly treated. 4. The NT It has been seen that a Christian NT did not, in the strict sense, arise till after the middle of the 2d century. Gospels and Epistles had long existed, collections had begun to be made, the Gospels, at least, were weekly read in the assemblies of the Christians (Justin, 1 ApoL, 07), before the attempt was made to bring together, and take formal account of, all the books which enjoyed apostolic authority (see CANON OF NT). The needs of the church, however, and very specially controversy with gnostic opponents, made it nec essary that this work should be done; collections also had to be formed for purposes of tr into other tongues. Genuine gospels had to be distinguished from spurious; apostolic writings from those of later date, or falsely bearing apostolic names. When this task was undertaken, a distinction soon revealed itself between two classes of books, setting aside those recognized on all hands as spurious: (1) books universally acknowledged those named afterward by Eusebius the hoinologoumena; and (2) books only partially acknowledged, or on which some doubt rested -the Eusebian antilegomcna (HE, iii.2f>). It is on this distinction that differences as to the precise extent of the NT turned.

      (1 ) "Acknowledgedbooks." The "acknowledged" books present little difficulty. They are enumer ated by Eusebius, whose statements are confirmed by early lists (e.g. that of Muratori, cir 170 AD), quotations, VSS and patristic use. At the head stand the Four Gospels and the Acts, then come the 13 epistles of Paul, then 1 Pet and 1 Jn. These, Westcott says, toward the close of the 2d cent., "were universally received in every church, without doubt or limitation, as part of the written rule of Christian faith, equal in authority with the Old Scriptures, and ratified (as it seemed) by a tradition reaching back to the date of their composition" (op. cit., 133). With them may almost be placed Revelation (as by Eusebius) and He, the doubts regarding the latter relating more to Pauline authority than to genuineness (e.g. Origen).

      (2) "l)iff/ili (l bnokx." The "disputed" books were the epistles of Jas, Jude, 2 and 3 Jn and 2 Pet. These, however, do not all stand in the same rank as regards authentication. A chief difficulty is the silence of the western Fathers regarding Jas, 2 Pet and 3 Jn. On the other hand, Jas is known to Origen and is included in the Syr Pesh; the Mura- torian Fragment attests Jude and 2 Jn as "held in the Catholic church" (Jude also in Tertullian, Clem. Alex., Origen); none of the books are treated as spurious. The weakest in attestation is 2 Pet, which is not distinctly traceable before the 3d cent. (See CANON OF NT; arts, s.v.) It is to be added that, in a few instances, as in the case of the OT Apoc, early Fathers cite as Scripture books not generally accepted as canonical (e.g. Barnabas, Hennas, Apoc of Pet).

      The complete acceptance of all the books in our present NT canon may be dated from the Councils of Laodicea (cir 363 AD) and of Carthage (397 AD), confirming the lists of Cyril of Jerus, Jerome and Augustine.

      IV. Literary Origin and Growth Canonicity. Thus far the books of the OT and NT have been taken simply as given, and no attempt has been made to inquire how or when they were written or compiled, or how they came to acquire the dignity



      Bible, The

      and authority implied in their reception into a sacred canon. The field here entered is one bristling with controversy, and it is necessary to choose one s steps with caution to find a safe way through it. Details in the survey are left, as before, to the special articles.

      Attention here is naturally directed, first, to the OT. This, it is obvious, and is on all sides admitted, has a long literary history prior to its 1. The OT final sett lement in a canon. As to the course of that history traditional and modern critical views very widely differ. It may possibly turn out that the truth lies somewhere mid way between them.

      (1) OT indications. If the indications furnished by the T itself be accepted, the results are some thing like the following:

      (a) Patriarchal age: No mention is made of writing in the patriarchal age, though it is now known that a high literary culture then prevailed in Babylonia, Egypt and Palestine, and it is not improbable, indeed seems likely, that records in some form came down from that age, and are, in parts, incorporated in the early history of the Bible.

      (6) Mosaic age: In Mosaic times writing was in use, and Moses himself was trained in the learning of the Egyptians (Ex 2 10; Acts 7 22). In no place is the composition of the whole Pent (as traditionally believed) ascribed to Moses, but no inconsiderable amount of written matter is directly attributed to him, creating the presumption that there was more, even when the fact is not stated. Moses wrote "all the words of Jeh" in the "book of the covenant" (Ex 21-23; 24 4.7). He wrote "the words of this law" of Dt at Moab, "in a book, until they were finished" (Dt 31 9.24.20). This was given to the priests to be put by the side of the ark for preservation (vs 25.26). Other notices occur of the writ ing of Moses (Ex 17 14; Nu 33 2; Dt 31 19.22; cf Nu 11 20). The song of Miriam, and the snatches of song in Nu 21, the first (perhaps all) quoted from the "book of the Wars of Jeh" (Xu 21 14 IT), plainly belong to Mosaic times. In this con nection it should be noticed that the discourses and law of Dt imply the history and legislation of the critical JV> histories (see below). The priestly laws (Lev, Nu) bear so entirely the si amp of t he wilderness that they can hardly have originated anywhere else, and were probably then, or soon after, written down. Joshua, too, is presumed to be familiar with writing (Josh 8 30-35; cf Dt 27 8), and is stated to have written his farewell address "in the book of the law of God" (Josh 24 20; cf 1 7.8). These statements already imply the beginning of a sacred literature.

      (c) The Judges: The song of Deborah (Jgs 5) is an indubitably authentic monument of the age of the Judges, and the older parts of Jgs, at least, must have been nearly contemporary with the events which they record. A knowledge of writing among the common people seems implied in Jgs 8 14 (ARVm). Samuel, like Joshua, wrote "in a book" (1 S 10 25), and laid it up, evidently among other writings, "before Jehovah."

      (d) The age of David and Solomon was one of high development in poetical and historical com position: witness the elegies of David (2 S 1 17 fT; 3 33.34), and the finely-finished narrative of David s reign (2 S 9-20), the so-called "Jerusalem-Source," admitted to date "from a period very little later than that of the events related" (Driver, LOT, 183). There were court scribes and chroniclers.

      David and the Monarchy: David, as befits his piety and poetical and musical gifts (cf on this POT, 440 ff), is credited with laying t he foundations of a sacred psalmody (2 S 23 Iff; see PSALMS), and a whole collection of psalms (1-72, with exclusion

      of the distinct collection, 42-50), once forming a separate book (cf Ps 72 20), are, with others, ascribed to him by their titles (Pss 1, 2, 10 are untitled). It is hardly credible that a tradition like this can be wholly wrong, and a Davidic basis of the Psalter may safely be assumed. Numerous psalms, by their mention of the "king" (as Pss 2, 18, 20, 21, 28, 33, 45, 61, 63, 72, 101, 110), are naturally referred to the period of the monarchy (some, as Ps 18 certainly, Davidic). Other groups of psalms are referred to the temple guilds (Sons of Korah, Asaph).

      (c) Wisdom literature: Solomon is renowned as founder of the Wisdom literature and the author of Proverbs (1 K 4 32; Prov 11; 10 1; Eccl 12 9; Eccl itself appears to be late), and of the Song (Cant 1 1). The "men of Hezekiah" are said to have copied out a collection of his proverbs (Prov 25 1 ; see PROVERBS). Here also may be placed the Book of Job. He/ckiah s reign appears to have been one of literary activity: to it, probably, are to be referred certain of the Pss (e.g. Pss 46, 48; cf Perowne, Delitzsch). In history, during the mon archy, the prophets would seem to have acted as the "sacred historiographers" of the nation. From their memoirs of the successive reigns, as the later books testify (1 Ch 29 29; 2 Ch 9 29; 12 15, etc), are compiled most of the narrative s in our canonical writings (hence the name "former prophets")- The latest date in 2 K is 502 BC, and the body of the book is probably earlier.

      (/) Prophecy: With the rise of written prophecy a new form of literature enters, called forth by, and vividly mirroring, the religious and political condi tions of the closing periods of the monarchy in Israel and Judah (see PKOI HKCY). On the older view, Obadiah and Joel stood at the head of the series in the pre-Assyr period (9th cent.), and this seems the preferable view still. On the newer view, these prophets are late, and written prophecy begins in the Assyr period with Amos (Jeroboam II, cir 750 BC) and Hosea (cir 745-735). When the latter prophet wrote, Samaria was tottering to its fall (721 BC). A little later, in Judah, come Isaiah (cir 740-090) and Micah (cir 720-708). Isaiah, in the reigns of Uz/iah, Jotham, Ahaz and He/ekiah, is the greatest of the prophets in the Assyr age, and his ministry readies its climax in the deliverance of Jerus from Sennacherib (2 K 18, 19; Isa 36, 37). It is a question whether some oracles of an Isaianic school are not mingled with the prophet s own writings, and most scholars now regard the 2d part of the book (chs 40-66) as exilian or (in part) post-exilian in date. The standpoint of much in these chs is certainly in the Exile; whether the composition of the whole can be placed there is extremely doubtful (see ISAIAH). Nahum, who prophesies against Nineveh, belongs to the very close of this period (cir GOO).

      The prophets Zephaniah (under Josiah, cir 030 BC) and Habakkuk (cir 000) may be regarded as forming t he t ransit ion to the next the Chaldaean- - period. The Chaldaeans (unnamed in Zeph) are advancing but are not yet come (Hab 1 0). The great prophetic figure here, however, is Jeremiah, whose sorrowful ministry, beginning in the 13th year of Josiah (020 BC), extended through the suc ceeding reigns till after the fall of Jerus (580 BC). The prophet elected to remain with the remnant in the land, and shortly after, troubles having arisen, was forcibly carried into Egypt (Jer 43). Here also he prophesied (chs 43, 44). From the reign of Jehoiakim, Jeremiah consistently declared the success of the Chaldaean arms, and foretold the 70 years captivity (25 12-14). Baruch acted as his secretary in writing out and editing his prophecies (chs 36/45).

      Bible, The



      (g) Jo.siah s reformation: A highly important event in this period was Josiah s reformation in his 18th year (021 BC), and the discovery, during repairs of the temple, of "the hook of the law," called also "the book of the covenant" and "(he law of Moses" (2 K 22 8; 23 2.24.25). The find ing of this book, identified by most authorities with the Book of Dt, produced an extraordinary sensa tion. On no side 1 was there the least question that it was a genuine ancient work. Jeremiah, strangely, makes no allusion to this discovery, but his proph ecies are deeply saturated with the ideas and stvle of Dt.

      (//) Exilian and post-exilian: The bulk of Isa 40 66 belongs, at least in spirit, to the Exile, but the one prophet of the Exile known to us by name is the priestly Ezekiel. Carried captive under Jehoiachin (597 BC), Ezekiel labored among his fellow-exiles for at least 22 years (Ezk 1 2; 29 17). A man of the strongest moral courage 1 , his symbolic visions on the banks of the Chebar alternated with the most direct expostulation, exhortation, warn ing and promise. In the description of an ideal temple and its worship with which his book closes (chs 40-48), critics think they discern the suggestion of the Levitical code.

      (/ ) Daniel: After Ezekiel the voice of prophecy is silent till it revives in Daniel, in Babylon, under Nebuchadnezzar and his successors. Deported in 605 BC, Daniel rose to power, and "continued" until the 1st year of Cyrus (5:56 BC; Dnl 1 21). Criticism will have it that his prophecies are a product of the Maccabean age, but powerful con siderations on the other side are ignored (see DANIKL). Jonah may have been written about this time, though the prophet s mission itself was pre- Assyr (9th cent.). The rebuilding of the temple after the return, under Zerubbabel, furnished the occasion for the prophecies of Ilaggai and Zechari- ah (520 BC). Scholars are disposed to regard only Zee 1-8 as belonging to this period the remainder being placed earlier or later. Maladii, nearly a cent, after (cir 480), brings up the rear of prophecy, rebuking unfaithfulness, and predicting the advent of the "messenger of the covenant" (Mai 3 1.2). To this period, or later, belong, besides post-exilian psalms (e.g. Pss 124, 126), the books of Ezr, Neh, Ch, Est and apparently Eccl.

      (j) A preexilic Bible: If, in this rapid sketch, the facts are correctly represented, it will be ap parent that, in opposition to prevalent views, a large body of sacred lit. existed (laws, histories, psalms, wisdom-books, prophecies), and was recog nized long before the Exile. Clod s ancient people had "Scriptures" had a Bible if not yet in col lected form. This is strikingly borne out by the numerous OT passages referring to what appears to be a code of sacred writings in the hands of the pious in Israel. Such are the references to, and praises of, the "law" and "word" of God in many of the Pss (e.g. 1, 19, 119, 12 6; 17 4; 18 21.22), with the references to Clod s known " words," "ways," "commandments," "statutes," in other books of the OT (Job 8 8; Hos 8 12; Dnl 9 2). In brief, Scriptures, which must have contained records of God s dealings with His people, a knowl edge of which is constantly presupposed, "laws" of God for the regulation of the heart and conduct, "statutes," "ordinances," "words" of God, are a postulate of a great part of the OT.

      (2) Critical vieiVN. The account of the origin and growth of the OT above presented is in marked contrast with that given in the textbooks of the newer critical schools. The main features of these critical views are sketched in the art. CRITICISM (q.v.); here a brief indication will suffice. Gener ally, the books of the OT are brought down to late

      dates; are regarded as highly composite; the earlier books, from their distance from the events recorded, are deprived of historical worth. Neither histories nor laws in the; Pent belong to the Mosaic age: Josh is a "romance"; Jgs may embody ancient frag ments, but in bulk is unhistorical. The earliest fragments of Israelitish literature are lyric pieces like those preserved in Gen 4 23.24; 9 25-27; Nu 21; the Song of Deborah (Jgs 5) is probably genu ine. Historical writing begins about the age of David or soon thereafter. The folklore of the He brews and traditions of the Mosaic; age began to be reduced to writing about the 9th cent. BC.

      (a) The Pentateuch: Our present Pent (en larged to a "Hexateuch," including Josh) consists of 4 main strands (themselves composite), the oldest of which (called J, from its use of the name Jehovah) goes back to about 850 BC. This was Judaean. A parallel history book (called E, from its use of the name Elohim, God) was produced in the North ern kingdom about a century later (c 750). Later still these two were united (JE). These histories, "prophetic" in spirit, were originally attributed to individual authors, distinguished by minute cri teria of style: the more recent fashion is to regard them as the work of "schools." Hitherto the only laws known were those of the (post-Mosaic) Book of the Covenant (Ex 20-23). Later, in Josiah s reign, the desire for centralization of worship led to the composition of the Book of Dt. This, secreted in the temple, was found by Hilkiah (2 K 22), and brought about the reformation of Josiah formerly mentioned. Dt (D), thus produced, is the third strand in the Pentatcuchal compilation. With tin; destruction of the city and temple, under the impulse of E/ekiel, began a new period of law- construction, now priest ly inspirit. Old laws and usages were codified; new laws were invented; the history of institutions was recast; finally, the ex tensive complex of Levitical legislation was brought into being, clothed with a wilderness dress, and ascribed to Moses. This elaborate Priestly Code (PC), with its accompanying history, was brought from Babylon by Ezra, and, united with the already existing JE and D, was given forth by him to the restored community at Jerus (444 BC; Neh 8) as "the law of Moses." Their acceptance of it was the inauguration of "Judaism."

      (b) Histories: In its theory of the Pent the newer criticism lays down the determinative positions for its criticism of all the remaining books of the OT. The historical books show but a continuation of the processes of literary construction exemplified in the books ascribed to Moses. The Deuteronomic element, e.g. in Josh, Jgs, 1, 2 S, 1, 2 K, proves them, in these parts, to be later than Josiah, and historically untrustworthy. The Levitical element in 1, 2 Ch demonstrates its pictures of David and his successors to be distorted and false. The same canon applies to the prophets. Joel, e.g. must be post-exilian, because it presupposes the priestly law. The patriarchal and Mosaic histories being sub verted, it is not permitted to assume any high religious ideas in early Israel. David, therefore, could not have written the Pss. Most, if not practically all, of these are post-exilian.

      (c) Psalms and prophets: Monotheism came in at least first obtained recognition through Amos and Hosea. The prophets could not have the fore sight and far-reaching hopes seen in their writings: these passages, therefore, must be removed. Gen erally the tendency is to put dates as low as possi ble and very many books, regarded before as pre- exilian, are carried down in whole or part, to exilian, post-exilian, and even late Gr times (PC, Psalter, Job, Prov, Cant, Eccl, 2 Isa, Joel, Lam). Dnl is Maccabean and unhistorical (cir 168-167 BC).



      Bible, The

      It is not proposed here to discuss this theory, which is not accepted in the present art ., and is con sidered elsewhere (see CRITICISM; PENTATEUCH). The few points calling for remark relate to canonical acceptance.

      (3) Formation of the canon. The general lines of the completed Jewish canon have; already boon sketched, and some light has now been thrown on the process by which the several books obtained a sacred authority. As to the actual stages in the formation of the canon opinions again widely diverge (see CANON OF THE ( )T).

      (a) Critical theory: On the theory at present in favor, no collections of sacred books were made prior to the return from Babylon. The only books that had authority before the Exile were, perhaps, the old Book of the Covenant, and, from Josiah s time, the Hook of 1)1 . Both, after the return, were, on this theory, embodied, with the .IE histories, and the PC, in Ezra s completed Book of the Law (with Josh [?]), in which, accordingly, the foundation of a canon was laid. The fivefold division of the law was later. Subsequently, answering to the 2d di vision of the Jewish canon, a collection was made of the prophetic writings. As this includes books which, on the critical view, go down to (Jr times (Jon; Zee 9-14), its completion cannot be earlier than well down in the 3d rent. BC. Latest of all came 1 he collect ion of 1 he "TTagiographa" a division of the canon, on the theory, kept open to receive additions certainly till the 2d cent., some think after. Into it were received such late writings as Eccl, Maccabean Pss, Dnl. Even then one or two books (Eccl, Est ) remained subjects of dispute.

      (h) More positive view: It will appear from the foregoing that this theory is not here accepted wit h- out considerable modification. If the question be asked, \\\\\\\\Yhat const itutcd a right to a place in 1 he canon? the answer can hardly be oilier than that suggested by Jos in the passage formerly quoted a real or supposed inspiration in the author of the book. Books were received if men had the pro phetic spirit (in higher or lower degree: that, e.g. of wisdom); they ceased to be received when the succession of prophets was thought to fail (after Mai). In any case the writings of truly inspire.! men (Moses, the prophets, psalmists) were accepted as of authority. It was sought, however, to be shown above, that such books, many of them, already existed from Moses down, Jong before the Exile (the law, collections of psalms, of prov erbs, written prophecies: to what end did 1 he prophets write, if they did not mean their prophe cies to be circulated and preserved?); and such writings, to the godly who knew and used them, had the full value of Scripture. A canon began with the first laying up of the "book of the law" before Jeh (Dt 31 25.2G; Josh 24 20). The age of Ezra and Nehemiah, therefore, is not that of the beginning, but, as Jewish tradition rightly held (Jos; 2 Mace 2 13; Talm), rather that of the completion, systematic delimitation, acknowledg ment and formal close of 1 he canon. The divisions of "law, prophets, and holy writings" would thus have their place from the beginning, and be nearly contemporaneous. The Samaritans accepted only the 5 books of the law, with apparently Josh (see; SAMARITAN PENTATEUCH) .

      (c) Close of the canon: There is no need for dogmatism as to an absolute date for the close of the canon. If inspired voices continued to be heard, their utterances were entitled to recognition. Books duly authenticated in it/lit be added, but the non-inclusion of such as a book as Sir (Ecclus: in Heb, cir 200 BC ) shows that the limits of the canon were jealously guarded, and the onus of proof rests on those who affirm that there were such books.

      Calvin, e.g. held that there were Maccabean Pss. Many modern scholars do the same, but it is doubt ful if they are right. Eccl is thought on linguistic grounds to be late, but it and other books need not be so late as critics make them. Did is confidently declared to be Maccabean, but there are weighty reasons for maintaining a Pers date (see DANIEL). As formerly noticed, the threefold division into "the law, the prophets, and the rest [td loi/xi, a definite number] of the books" is already attested in the Prologue to Sir.

      Critical controversy, long occupied with the OT, has again keenly attached itself to the A" 7 , with similar disturbing results (see CRITI- 2. The NT CISM). Extremer opinions may be here neglected, and account be taken only of those that can claim reasonable support. The NT writings are conveniently grouped into the historical books (Gospels and Acts); Epistles (Pauline and other); and a Prophetic book (Rev). In order of writing, the Epistles, generally, are earlier than the Ciospels, but in order of subject, the Ciospels naturally claim attention first.

      (1) The d oxpcln and Actx. The main facts about the origin of the Gox/id* can perhaps be dis tinguished from the complicated literary theories which scholars are still discussing (see GOSI-ELS). The first three Gospels, known as the Synoptics, evidently embody a common tradition, and draw from common sources. The Fourth Gospel that of John -presents problems by itself.

      (<i) The Svnoptics: The former the Synoptic Gospels (Mt, Mk, Lk) fall in date well within the apostolic age, and are, in the 2d cent., uniformly connected with the authors whose names they bear. Mark is spoken of as "the interpreter of Peter" (Papias, in UK iii.3 .)); Luke is the well-known companion of Paul. A difficulty arises about Mat- thew, whose Gospel is stated to have been written in Aram. (Papias, ut supra, etc), while the gospel bearing his name is in Gr. The Gr gospel seems at least to have been sufficiently identified with the apostle to admit of the early church always treat ing it as his.

      The older theory of origin assumed an oral basis for all 3 Gospels. The tendency in recent criticism is to distinguish two main sources: (1) Mk, the earliest gospel, a record of the preaching of Peter; (2) a collection of the sayings and discourses of Jesus, attributed to Matthew (the Eusebian Loyhi, now called Q); with (3) a source used by Luke in the sections peculiar to himself the result of his own investigations (Lk 1 1-4). Alt and Lk are sup posed to be based on Mk and the Logia (Q); in Luke s case with 1 he addition of his special material. Oral tradition furnished what remains. A simpler theory may be to substitute for (1) a. Petrine tradition already firmly fixed while yet the apostles were working together in Jerus. Peter, as fore most spokesman, would naturally stamp his own type upon the oral narratives of Christ s sayings and doings (the Mk type), while Matthew s stories, in part written, would be the chief source for the longer discourses. The instruction imparted by the apostles and those taught by them would everywhere be made the basis of careful catechetical teaching, and re-cords of all this, more e>r less fragmentary, would be early in circulation (Lk 1 1-4). This wemlel explain the Petrine type of narrative, anel the see>ming dependence of Alt and Lk, without the ne-cessity of supposing a elirect use of Alk. So important a gospel could hardly be in- cluded in the "attempts" of Lk 1 1.

      (h) The- Fourth Gospel: The Fourth Ge)spel (.In), the ge-nuineness of which is assume-d (see JOH\\\\\\\\, GOSPEL OF), differs e-ntirely in e-haracter anel style. It is less a narrative than a didactic work,

      Bible, The



      written to convince its readers that Jesus is "the Son of God" (Jn 20 , 51 ). The gospel may be pre sumed to have been composed at Ephesus, in the last years of the apostle s residence there. With this its character corresponds. The other gospels had long been known; John does not- therefore traverse the ground already covered by them. He confines himself chiefly to matters drawn from his personal recollections: the Judaean ministry, t he- visits of Christ to Jems, His last private discourses to His disciples. John had so often retold, and so long brooded over, the thoughts and words of Jesus, that they had become, in a manner, part of his own thought, and, in reproducing them, he necessarily did so with a subjective tinge, and in a partially paraphrastic and interpretative manner. Yet it is truly the words, thoughts and deeds of his beloved Lord that he narrates. His gospel is the needful complement to the- others the "spiritual" gospel.

      (c) The Acts: The Acts narrates the origin and early fortunes of the church, with, as its special motive (cf 1 S), the extension of the gospel to I he Gentiles through the labors of Paul. Its author is Luke, Paul s companion, whose gospel it continues (1 1). Certain sections the so-called "we-sections" (16 10-17; 20 5-15; 21 1-1S; 27 128 16) are transcribed directly from Luke s journal of Paul s travels. The book closes abruptly with Paul s 2 years imprisonment at Home (28 30. 31; 00 <>1 AD), and not a hint is given of the issue- of the imprisonment trial, liberation or death. Does this mean that a 3d "treatise" was contemplated? Or that the book was written while the imprison ment still continued? (thus now Harnack). If the latter, the Third Gospel must be verv early.

      (2) The. Ei)ixtU x. (a} Pauline: Doubt never rested in the early church on the 13 epistles of Paul. Following upon the- rejection by the "Tu bingen" school of all the epistles but 4 (Horn 1, 2 Cor, Gal), the fide of opinion has again turned strongly in favor of their genuineness. An ex ception is the Pastoral epistles (1, 2 Tim, Tit), still questioned by SOUK- on insufficient grounds (see PASTORAL EPISTLES). The epistles, called forth by actual needs of the churches, are a living out pouring of the thoughts and feelings of the mind and heart of the apostle in relation to his converts. Most are letters to churches he himself had founded (1, 2 Cor, Gal, Eph[?], Phil, 1, 2 Thess): two are to churches he had not himself visited, but with which lie stood in affect ionate relations (Rom, CoL; OIK- is purely personal (Philem); three are addressed to individuals, but with official responsibilities (1, 2 Tim, Tit). The- larger number wen- written during his missionary labors, and reflect his personal situation, anxieties and companionships at the places of their composition; four arc epistles of the 1st Rom imprisonment (Eph, Phil, Col, Philem): 2 Tim is a voice from the dungeon, in his 2d imprisonment, shortly before his martyrdom. Doctrine, counsel, rebuke, admonition, tender solicitude-, ethical in struction, prayer, thanksgiving, blend in living fusion in their contents. So marvelous a collection of letters, on such magnificent t hemes, was never before given to the world.

      The earliest epistles, in point of date, are generally held to be those to the Thessalonians, written from Corinth (52, 53 AD). The church, newly-founded, had passed through much affliction (1 Thess 1 6; 2 14; 3 3.4, etc), and Paul writes to comfort and exhort it. His words about the Second Coming (4 13 IT) led to mistaken expectations and some disorders. These his 2d epistle was written to correct (2 Thess 2 1-3; 3 6, etc).

      Corinth itself received the next epistles the 1st called forth by reports received at Ephesus of grave divisions and irregularities (1 Cor 1 11;

      3 3; 11 18 ff, etc), joined with pride of knowledge,

      doctrinal heresy (15 12 ff), and at least one case of gross immorality (ch 6) in the church; the 2d, written at Philippi, expressing joy at the repentance of the offender, and removing the severe sentence that had been passed upon him (2 Cor 2 1-10; cf 1 Cor 5 3.4), like-wise vindicating Paul s own apostle-ship (chs 10-13). The date of both is 57 AD. 1 Cor contains the beautiful hymn on love (ch 13), and the noble chapter on resurrection (ch 15).

      In the following year (58 BC) Paul penned from Corinth the Epistle to the Romans the greatest of his doctrinal epistles. In it he develops his great theme of the impossibility of justification before God through works of law (chs 1-3), and of the Divine provision for human salvation in a "right eousness of God" in Christ Jesus, received through faith. He exhibits first the objective side of this redemption in the deliverance from condemnation effected through Christ s reconciling death (chs 3-5); then the subjective side, in the new life im parted by the spirit, giving deliverance from the power of sin (chs 68). A discussion follows of t In- Divine sovereignty in God s dealings with Israel, and of the end of these dealings (chs 9-11), and the epistle concludes with practical exhortations, counsels to forbearance and greetings (chs 12-16). Closely connected with the Kpistle to the Romans is that to the Galatians, in which the same- truths are handled, but now with a polemical intent in expost ulat ion and reproach. The ( ialat ian churches had apostatixed from the gospel of faith to Jewish legalism, and tin- apostle, sorely grieved, writes this powerful letter to rebuke their faithlessness, and recall them to their allegiance to the truth. It is reasonable to suppose that the 2 epistles are nearly related in place and time. The question is complicated, however, by the dispute 1 which has arisen as to whether the- churches inteneleel are- those of Northern Galalia (the oleler view; cf Conybeare and Henvson, Lightfoot) or those of Southern Galatia (Sir Win. Ramsay), i.e. the churches of De-rbe-, Lystra, Icemium and Anlioch, in Paul s time- embraced in the- Rom province; of Galatia (see GALATIA; GALATIAXS). If the latter view is adopted, date and place are- uncertain; if the- former, the- epistle may have been written from Ephesus (cir 57 AD).

      The 4 epistles of the imprisonment all fall within the- years 60, (il AD. That to the Philippians, warmly praising the- church, and exhorting to unity, possibly the- latest of the group, was sent by the hand of Epaphroditus, who had come- to Rome with a present from the Philippian church, and had there been ove-rtaken by a serious illness (Phil 2 25-30; 4 15-LS). The remaining 3 epistles (Eph, Col, and Philem) were- written at one time, and were carried to their destinations by Epaphras. Eph and Col are twin e-pistles, similar in thought and style, ex tolling the preeminence of Christ, but it is doubtful whether the former was not really a "circular" epistle, or even, perhaps, the lost Epistle- to the Laodiceans (Col 4 10; see EPISTLE TO THE LAOIH- CEA.VS). The- Colossian epistle has in view an early form of gnostic heresy (cf Lightfoot, Gal). Philem is a personal le-tter to a friend of the- apostle s at Colossae, whose runaway slave, Onesimus, now a Christian, is being sent back to him with warm commendations. See CAPTIVITY EPISTLES.

      Latest from Paul s pen are the Pastoral Epistles (1, 2 Tim, Tit), implying his liberation from his 1st imprisonment, and a new period of missionary labor in Ephesus, Macedonia anel Crete (see PAS TORAL EPISTLES). Timothy was left at Ephesus (1 Tim 1 3), Titus at Crete (Tit 1 5), for the regulation and superintendence of the churches.



      Bible, The

      The epistles, the altered style of which shows the deep impress of advancing years and changed con ditions, contain admonitions to pastoral duty, with warnings as to perils that had arisen or would arise. 1 Tim and Tit were written while the apostle was still at liberty (63 AD); 2 Tim is from his Rom prison, when his case had been partly heard, and the end was impending (2 Tim 4 6.16.17).

      (b) Epistle to the Hebrews: These are the Pau line Epistles proper. The Epistle to the Hebrews, though ascribed to Paul in the title of the AV, is not, really his. It is an early writing (probably before the destruction of Jerus, 70 AD) of some friend of the apostle s (in Italy, cf 13 23.24), de signed, by a reasoned exhibition of the superiority of Jesus to Moses and the Levitical priesthood, and of the fulfilment of OT types and institutions in His person and sacrifice, to remove the difficulties of Jewish Christians, who clung with natural affec tion to their temple and divinely appointed ritual. It was included by Eusebius, with others in tin- East (not, however, by Origen), among the epistles of Paul: in the West the Pauline authorship was not admitted. Many, nevertheless, with Origen, upheld a connection with Paul ("the thoughts an 1 Paul s"). Ideas and style suggest an Alexandrian training: hence Luther s conjecf ure of Apollos as the writer. There can be no certainty on the subject. The value of the Epistle 1 is unimpaired, whoever was the author.

      (c) Catholic Epistles: Of the 7 so-called " Catho lic" Epistles, Jas and Jude are by "brethren" of the Lord (James, "the Lord s brother," was head of the church at Jerus, Acts 15 13; 21 IS; Gal 1 1 .), etc); Peter and John, to whom the others were ascribed, were apostles. Jas and 1 Pet are addressed to the Jews of t he Dispersion (1 Pet 1 1; Jas 1 I). The doubts respecting certain of these writings have already been mentioned. The early date and acceptance of Jas is attested by numerous allusions (Clem, of Rome, Barnabas, Hernias, l)i<l). Many regard it. as the earliest of the epistles before Paul s. Its tone is throughout practical. The seeming conflict with Paul on faith and works, which led Luther to speak slightingly of it, is only verbal. Paul, too, held that a dead faith avails nothing (1 Cor 13 2; (lal 5 6). 1 Jn, like 1 Pet, was undisputed (if 1 he Fourth Gospel is genuine, 1 Jn is), and, on internal grounds, the shorter epistles (2, 3 .In) need not be doubted (see EPISTLES OF JOHN). Jude, rugged in style, with allusions to Jewish Apocalypses (vs it. 11), is well attested, and 2 Pet seems to found on it. The last-named epistle must rely for acceptance on its own claim (2 Pet 1 1.18), and on internal evidence of sincerity. It, is to be observed that, though late in being not iced, it never appears to have been treated as spurious. The style certainly differs from 1 Pet ; this may be due to the use of an amanuensis. If accepted, it must be placed late in Peter s life (before 6") AD). 1 Pet and Jude, in that case, must be earlier (see


      (3) I rophccij. The Book of Revelation: The one prophetic book of the NT the apocalyptic counterpart of Dnl in the OT is the Book of Rev. The external evidence for the Johannine authorship is strong (sec; APOCALYPSK). Tradition and in ternal evidence ascribe it to the reign of Domitian (cir 95 AD). Its contents were given in vision in the isle of Patmos (Rev 1 9). The theory which connects it with the reign of Nero through the sup posed fitness of this name to express the mystic no. 666 is entirely precarious (cf Salmon, Intro to NT, 245-54). The main intent is to exhibit in symbolic form the approaching conflicts of Christ and His church with anti-Christian powers with secular world-power (Beast), with intellectual anti-

      Christianism (False Prophet), with ecclesiastical anti-Christianism (Woman) these conflicts issuing in victory and a period of triumph, preluding, after a sharp, final struggle, the last scenes (resurrection, judgment), and the eternal state. When the visions are taken, not as poetic imaginings, but as true 1 apocalyptic unveilings, the change in style from the gospel, which may be regarded as already written, can readily be understood. These mighty revelations in Patmos brought about, as by vol canic force, a tremendous upheaval in the seer s soul, breaking through all previous strata of thought and feeling, and throwing everything into a new perspective. On the resultant high keynote: "Amen: Come, Lord Jesus" (Rev 22 20), the NT closes.

      (4) Cnnoniciti/. The principal steps by which the books now enumerated were gradually formed into a \\\\\\\\ T "Canon," have been indicated in previous sec tions. The test of canonicity here, as in the OT, is the presence of inspiration. Some would pre fer i lie word "apostolic, 1 which conies to the same thing. All the writings above reckoned were held to be the works of apostles or of apostolic men, and on this ground were admitted into the list of books having authority in the church. Barnabas (cir 100-120 AD) already quotes Alt 20 16 with the formula "it is written." Paul quotes as "scrip ture" (1 Tim 5 IS) a passage found only in Lk (10 7). Paul s Epistles are classed with "other scriptures" in 2 Pet 3 16. Post-apostolic Fathers draw a clear (list inct ion bet ween t heir own writ ings and those of apostles like Paul and Peter (Poly- carp, Ignatius, Barnabas). The Fathers of the close of t lie 2d cent . t real t he XT writ ings as in t he fullest degree inspired (cf West cot t, Intro to Xtiuly of (, oxpds. Append. B). An important impulse to the formation of a definite canon came from the gnostic Marcion (cir 140 AD), who made a canon for himself in 2 parts, "Gospel" and "Apostolicon," consisting of one gospel (a mutilated Lk) and 10 epistles of Paul (excluding Pastorals). A challenge of this kind had to be taken up, and lists of NT writings began to be made 1 (Melito, Aluratorian Fragment, etc), with the results previously de scribed. By the commencement of the 4th cent, unanimity had practically been attained as regards even the An/ilc(joietnt. At the Council of Nicaea (325 AD), Westcott says, "the Holy Scriptures of the Old and New Testaments were silently admitted on all sides to have a final authority" (Bible in Church, 155). See CANO.N OF NT.

      V. Unity and Spiritual Purpose Inspiration. Holy Scripture is not simply a collection of religious books: still less does it consist of mere 1. Scrip- fragments of Jewish and Christian ture a Unity literature 1 . It belongs to the concep tion of Scripture thai, though origi nating "by divers portions and in divers manners" (He 1 1), it should yet, in its completeness, con stitute; a unity, evincing, in the spirit and purpose; that bind its parts together, the Divine source from which its revelation comes. The Bible is the record of ( lod s revelations of Himself to men in successive ages and dispensations (Eph 1 8-10; 3 5-9; Col 1 25.26), till the revelation culminates in the advent and work of the Son, and the mission of the Spirit. It is this aspect of the Bible which consti tutes its grand distinction from all collections of sacred writings the so-called "Bibles" of heathen religions in the world. These, as the slightest inspection of them shows, have no unity. They an; accumulations of heterogeneous materials, pre senting, in their collocation, no order, progress, or plan. The reason is, 1 hat t hey embody no historical revelation working out a purpose; in consecutive stages from germinal beginnings to perfect close.



      The Bible, by contrast, is a single book because it embodies such a revelation, and exhibits such a purpose. The unity of the book, made up of so many parts, is the attestation of the reality of the revelation it contains.

      This feature of n/>irituul purpose in the Bible is

      one of the most obvious things about it (cf POT,

      oOl f). It gives to the Bible what is

      2. The sometimes termed its "organic unity." Purpose The Bible has a beginning, middle and of Grace end. The opening chs of Gen have

      their counterpart in the "ne\\\\\\\\v heaven and new earth" and paradise restored of the clos ing chapters of Rev (21, 22). Alan s sin is made the starting-point for disclosures of (iod s grace. The patriarchal history, with its covenants and promises, is continued in the story of the Kxodus and the events that follow, in fulfilment of these promises. Dt recapitulates the lawgiving at Sinai. Josh sees the people put in possession of t he promised land. Backsliding, rebellion, failure 1 , do not defeat (iod s purpose, but are overruled to carry it on to a surer completion. The monarchy is made the oc casion of new promises to t he house of David ( 2 S 7). The prophets root themselves in the past, but, at the very hour when the nation seems sinking in ruin, hold out bright hopes of a greater future in the extension of (iod s kingdom to the (ientiles, under Messiah s rule. A crit ical writer, Kautzsch, lias justly said: The abiding value of the OT lies above all in this, that it guarantees to us with ab solute certainty the fact and the process of a Divine plan and way of salvation, which found its conclusion and fulfilment in the new covenant, in the person and work of Jesus Christ " (lilcihendc Jji ileiiti/ny ilex AT, 22, 21, 2s 2 .. 30-31).

      Fulfil mi n( in C///-/.X/. How truly all that was imperfect, transitional, temporary, in the ( )T was brought to reali/ation and completion in the redemp tion and spirit ual kingdom of Christ need not here be dwelt upon. Christ is the prophet, priest and king of the New Covenant. His perfect sacrifice, "once for all," supersedes and abolishes the typical sacrifices of the old economy (He 9, 10). His gift of the Spirit reali/es what the prophets had foretold of C.od s law being written in men s hearts (Jer 31 31-34; 32 39.40; Ezk 11 l .).2(), etc). His kingdom is established on moveless foundat ions, and can have no end (Phil 2 .I 11; lie 12 2S; Rev 5 13, etc). In 1 racing the lines of this redeeming pur pose of (iod, brought to light in Christ, we gain the key which unlocks the inmost meaning of the whole- Bible. It is 1 he revelation of a "gospel."

      "Inspiration" is a word round which many de bates have gathered. If, however, what has been said is true of the Bible as the record

      3. Inspira- of a progressive revelation, of its con- tion tents as the discovery of the will of

      (iod for man s salvation, of the pro phetic and apostolic standing of its writers, of the unity of spirit and purpose that pervades it, it will be difficult to deny that a quite peculiar pres ence, operation, and guidance of the Spirit of (iod are manifest in its production. The belief in inspiration, it has been seen, is implied in the forma tion of these books into a sacred canon. The full discussion of the subject belongs to a special art. (sec INSPIRATION).

      iJihlicul cldini. Here it need only be said that the claim for inspiration in the Bible is one made in fullest measure by the Bible itself. It is not denied by any that Jesus and His apostles regarded the OT Scriptures as in the fullest sense inspired. The appeal of Jesus was always to the Scriptures, and the word of Scripture was final with Him. "Have ye not read?" (Mt 19 4). "Ye do err, not knowing the scriptures, nor the power of God"

      (Mt 22 2!)). This because "(iod" speaks in them (Mt 19 4). Prophecies and psalms were fulfilled in Him (Lk 18 ;U ; 22 37; 24 27.44). Paul es teemed the Scriptures "the oracles of God" (Rom 3 2). They are "God-inspired" (2 Tim 3 16). That XT prophets and apostles were not placed on any lower level than those of the OT is mani fest from Paul s explicit words regarding himself and his fellow-apostles. Paul never faltered in his claim to be "an apostle of Christ Jesus through the will of God" (Eph 1 1, etc) "separated unto the gospel of God" (Rom 1 1) who had received his message, not from man, but by "revelation" from heaven (Gal 1 11.12). The " mystery of Christ" had "now been revealed unto his holy apostles and prophets in the Spirit ," in consequence of which the church is declared to be "built upon the founda tion of the apostles and prophets, Christ Jesus himself being the chief corner stone" (Eph 2 20; 3 5).

      Marl:* of inspiration. It might be shown that these claims made by XT writers for the < )T and for themselves are borne out by what the OT itself teaches of prophetic inspiration, of wisdom as the gift of God s spirit, and of the light, holiness, saving virtue and sanctifying power continually ascribed to (Iod s "law," "words," "statutes," "command ments," "judgments" (see above). This is the ultimate test of "inspiration" that to which Paul likewise appeals its power to "make wise unto salvation through faith which is in Christ Jesus" (2 Tim 3 1.")) its profitableness "for teaching, for reproof, for correction, for instruction which is in righteousness" (ver 16) all to the end "that the man of God may be complete, furnished com pletely unto every good work" (ver 17). Xothing is here determined as to "inerrancy" in minor his torical, geographical, chronological details, in which some would wrongly put the essence of in spiration; but it seems implied that at least there is no error which can interfere with or nullify the utility of Scripture for the ends specified. Who that brings Scripture to its own tests of inspiration, will deny that, judged as a whole, it fulfils them?

      3. The claim of the Bible to a Divine origin is justified by its tiixlorical -influence. Regarded even as lit., the Bible has an unexampled 4. Histor- place in history. Ten or fifteen MSS ical Influ- are thought a goodly number for an ence of the ancient classic; the MSS of whole or Bible parts of the NT are reckoned by thou

      sands, the oldest going back to the 4th or ")th cent. Another test is tr. The books of the XT had hardly begun to be put together before we find tr s being made; of them in I,at, Syr, Egyp, later into Gothic and other barbarous tongues (see VHIISIOXS). In the Middle Ages, before the invention of printing, tr 3 were made into the ver nacular of most of the countries of Europe. Today there is not a language in the civilized world, hardly a language among uncivilized tribes, wherever mis sions have gone, into which this word of God has not been rendered. Thanks to the labors of Bible Societies, the circulation of the Bible in the differ ent countries of the world in recent years outstrips all previous records. X o book has ever been so minutely studied, has had so many books written on it, has founded so vast a lit. of hymns, liturgies, devotional writings, sermons, has been so keenly assailed, has evoked such splendid defences, as the Bible. Its spiritual influence cannot be estimated. To tell all the Bible has been and done for the world would be to rewrite in large part the history of modern civilization. Without it, in heathen lands, the arm and tongue of the missionary would be paralyze,!. With it, even in the absence of the missionarv, wondrous results are often effected.



      al Theology

      In national life the Bible is the source of our highest social and national aspirations. Professor Huxley, though an agnostic, argued for the reading of the Bible in the schools on this very ground. "By the study of what other book," he asked, "could chil dren be so much humanized, and made to feel that each figure in that vast historical procession fills, like themselves, but a momentary space in the in terval between two eternities, and earns the blessings or the curses of all times, according to its effort to do good and to hate evil, even as they are also earn ing their payment for their work?" (Critique* and Addresses, <>i).

      VI. Addenda. A few notes may be added, in closing, on special points not touched in the pre ceding sect inns.

      Already in pre-Talm times, for purposes of read ing in the synagogues, the .lews had larger divisions of the law into sections called I dra-

      1. Chapters .s7m//s, and of the prophets into similar and Verses sections called Haphtarahs. They had

      also smaller divisions into I i{ sulc~un, corresponding nearly with our verses. The division into chapters is much later (loth cent.). It is ascribed to Cardinal Hugo de St Caro (d. 124S); by others to Stephen Langton, archbishop of Canter bury (d. 1227). It was adopted into the Vulg, and from this was transferred by R. Nathan (cir 1HO) to the Heb Bible (Bleek, Keil). Verses are marked in the Vnlg as early as 1558. They first appear in the NT in Robert Stephens edition of the Gr Testament in 1551. Henry Stephens, Robert s son, reports that they were devised by his father during a journey on horseback from Paris to Lyons.

      The AV of 1611, based in part on earlier English VSS, esp. Tyndale s, justly holds rank as one of

      the noblest monuments of the English

      2. AV and language of its own, or any, age. RV Necessarily, however, the (Ir text

      used by the translators ("Textus Receptus"), resting on a few late MSS, was very imperfect. With the discovery of more ancient MSS, and multiplication of appliances for criticism, the need and call for a revised text and tr became urgent. Finally, ;it the instance of the Convocation of the Province of Canterbury, the task of revision was undertaken by Committees representing the best English and American scholarship. Their labors resulted in the publication, in 1SS1, of the Revised NT, and in issr,, of the Revised OT (a revised edition of the Apoc was published in 1S96). The preferences of the American Revisers were printed in an appendix, a pledge being given that no further changes should be made for 14 years. The English Companies were disbanded shortly after 1885, but the American Committee, adhering to its own renderings, and believing that further improvements on the English RV were possible, continued its organization and work. This issued, in 1901, in the production of the ARV, which aims at greater consistency and accuracy in a number of important respects, and is supplied, also, with care fully selected marginal references (see AMKHICAN RKVISKD VKHSIOX). Little could be done, in either ERV or ARV, in the absence of reliable data for comparison, with the text of the OT, but certain obvious corrections have been made, or noted in the margin.

      In recent years abundant helps have been fur nished, apart from Commentaries and Dictionaries, for the intelligent study of the English

      3. Helps to Bible. Among such works may be Study mentioned the Oxford Helps to the

      Hindi/ of the Bible; the valuable Aids to Bible Students (Eyre and Spottiswoode, 1898); Dr. Angus Bible Handbook (revised by Green);

      A. S. Peake s Guide to Biblical Study (1S97); W. F. Adeney s How to Read the Bible (1896); R. C. Moulton s The. Modern Renders Bible (1907); The Sunday School Teachers Bible (1875); The Variorum Reference Bible and Variorum Teachers 1 Bible (1880); Weymouth s NT in Modern Speech (1909); The Twentieth Cent. NT (West cot t and Hort s text, 1904); S. Lloyd s The Corrected Eng lish W7 1 (Bagster, 1905).

      LITERATURE. Cf arts, in the Bible Diets., specially Sanday on "Bible," and Dobschutz on "The Bible in the Church," in Hastings Enc <>f Rel. ami Etfiirx, 11; \\\\\\\\Vost- cott, The Hit, I, in tin- Church (1S75); W. H. Bennett, .1 Primer of the liihle (1S07); A. F. Kirkpat rick. The Divine Library of the I)T (IS Jtir. .1. Fadie. The English liihU; works on Introduction (Driver, etc) ; books mentioned above under "Helps"; B. H. Warlield in Princeton Tlno- logical Rerieir (October. 1010); C. A. Hriggs, General Intro to the. Xtua i of //-/// Srrii>ttirc (Scribners, IS .lOi; W. 11. Green, General Intro to the (>T (Scribners, IS!) 1 .)]; K. C. Bissell, The 1 ent: It* Orii/in. ami Strnetnre (Scribners, 18S5); Zalin, Intro to the NT.



      BIBLICAL DISCREPANCIES, bib li-kal dis- krep an-si/. See DISCREPANCIES, BIBLICAL.

      BIBLICAL THEOLOGY, bib li-kal the-ol 6-ji:


      1. Definition

      2. Relation to Dogmatics

      3. Place and Method of Biblical Theology

      4. Relation to Scientific Exegesis

      II. IllSTOKY OK BllH.ICAI. TllKOI.OliV

      1. Its Rise in Scientific Form

      2. Patristic and Scholastic 1 eriods

      :i. Biblical Efforts in 17th and ISth Centuries 4. OT Theology in First Half of l!)th Century ">. N T Theology in the 10th Century (I. OT Theology in Second Half of 10th Century 7. Bearings of Criticism on OT Theology III. DIVISIONS OF BIHI.ICAI. THKOI.OCY

      1. Divergent Views of OT Divisions

      2. Law and Prophecy

      3. Primal Prophet ism and Final Judaism

      4. Place of Mosaism

      5. Nature of Israel s Religious Development LITERATURE

      /. As a Science. Bib. theology seems best de fined as the doctrine of Bib. religion. As such it works up the material contained in the

      1. Defi- OT and the NT as the product of nition exegetieal study. This is the modern

      technical sense of the term, whereby it signifies a systematic representation of Bib. religion in its primitive form.

      Bil). theology has sometimes been taken to signify not alone this science of t he doctrinal declarat ions of tin 1 Scriptures, but the whole group of sciences con cerned with the interpretation and exposition of the Scriptures. In that wider view of Bib. theology, the term exegetieal theology has been used to define and include the group of sciences already referred to. But the whole weight of preference seems, in our view, to belong to the narrower use of the term Bib. theology, as more strictly scientific.

      This is not to confound the science of Bib. theology

      with that of dogmatics, for their characters are

      sharply distinguished. The science of

      2. Relation dogmatics is a historico-philosophical to Dog- one; that of Bib. theology is purely matics historic. Dogmatics declares what,

      for religious faith, must be regarded as truth; Bib. theology only discovers what the writers of the OT and the XT adduce as truth. This latter merely ascertains the contents of the ideas put forward by the sacred writers, but is not. concerned with t heir correctness or verification. It is the what of truth, in these documentary authorities, Bib. theology seeks to attain. The ich i/, or irith n hat rii/hl, it is so put forward as truth, belongs to the other science, that of dogmatics.



      Bib. theology is thus the more objective science; it has no need of dogmatics; dogmatics, on the other hand, cannot be without the 3. Place aid of Bib. theology. The Bib. theolo- an d giau should be a Christian philosopher,

      Method an exegete, and, above all. a historian, of Biblical For it is in a manner purely historical Theology that Bib. theology seeks to investigate the teaching, in whole, of each of the sacred writers. Each writing it studies in itself, in its relation to the others, and in its place in history taken as a whole. Its method is historical-genetic. The proper place of Bib. theology is at the head of his torical theology, where it shines as a center of light. Its ideal as a science is to present a clear, complete and comprehensive survey of the Bib. teachings.

      In pursuance of this end, Bib. theology is served by scientific exegesis, whose results it presents in ordered form so as to exhibit the or- 4. Relation ganic unity and completeness of Bib. to Exegesis religion. The importance of Bib. theol ogy lies in the way it directs, corrects and fructifies all moral and dogmatic theology by bringing it to the original founts of truth. Its spirit is one of impartial historical inquirv.

      //. History of Biblical Theology. Bib. theology,

      in an} truly scientific form, dates only from the

      ISth cent. Offspring as it was of

      1. Its Rise German rationalism, it has yet been in Scientific found deserving of cultivation and Form scientific study by the most orthodox

      theology. Indeed, Pietism, too, urged its claims as Bib. dogma, over against the too scholastic dogma of orthodoxy. The Patristic

      theology, no doubt, was Bib., and the

      2. Patristic Alexandrian Si-hool deserves special and praise. The scholastic theology of the Scholastic Middle Ages leaned on the Fathers Periods rather than on the Bible. Bib. the ology, in spirit, though not in form,

      found a revival at the Reformation. But this was early followed by a 17th cent, type of scholasticism, polemical and confessional.

      Even in that cent.., however, efforts of a more

      purely Bib. character were not wanting, as witness

      those of Schmidt, Witsius and Vit-

      3. 17th and ringa. But throughout the entire 18th Cents. ISth cent, there were manifest en deavors to throw off the scholastic

      yoke and return to Bib. simplicity. Haymann (1 70S), Biisching (17.")(i), Zachariae (1772) and Storr (1793), are examples of the efforts referred to. But it was from the rationalist ic side 1 hat the first vindication of Bib. theology as a science of inde pendent rank was made. This merit belonged to Gabler (17S7), who urged a purely historical treat ment of the Bible, and was, later, shared by his colleague, G. L. Bauer, who issued a liih. Theology of the XT (Ger) in four parts (1X00-1X02). More inde pendent still was the standpoint assumed by C. F. Ammon in his Iliblische Theologie (2d ed, 1801-2). Ammon does not fail to apprehend the historical character of our science, saying that Bib. theology should deal only with the "materials, fundamental ideas, and results of Bib. leaching, without troubling itself about the connection of the same, or weaving them into an artificial system."

      The influence of Schleiermacher was hardly a fortunate one, the OT being sundered from the NT,

      and attention centered on the latter. 4. OT The- Kayser (1813) and, still more, Do ology in Wette, who died in IS/50, pursued the

      First Half perfecting of our science, particularly of 19th in matters of method. Continuators

      Cent. of the work were Baumgarten-Crusius

      (1828), Cramer (1830) and Colin, whose work was posthumously presented by D. Schulz in

      6. NT

      Theology in the 19th Cent.

      1X30. It was in the second quarter of the 19th cent, that the Bib. theology of the OT began to receive the full attention it deserved. It has been declared the merit of Hegel s philosophy to have taught men to see, in the various Bib. systems of doctrine, a complete development, and Hegel did, no doubt, exert a fertilizing influence on historical inquiry. But it must also be said that the Hegelian philosophy affected Bib. theology in a prejudicial manner, as may be seen in Vatke s a priori con struction of history and do ctrine in his work, Die bib Theologie (lS3o), and in Bruno Bauer s Die Religion des AT (1838-39), which controverted but did not improve upon Yatke. Steudel (1840), Oehler (1840) and Havernick (1X4S) are worthy of particularly honorable mention in this OT connection. In his Theology of (he O7 (3d ed, 1X<)1; Amer. ed, 1883) (i. F. Oehler excellently maintained the close con nection between the OT and the NT, which Heng- stenberg had already emphasized in 1X2 .).

      The Bib. theology of the NT was furthered by the memorable Neander. In 1X32, he first issued his Planting ami Training of the Christian Church, while his Life of Jesus first appeared in 1X37. In this latter work, he summarized the doctrine of the Redeemer, while the former presented the doctrinal teaching of the apostolic writers in such wise as to show the different shades of thought peculiar to each of them, pointing out, at the same time, "how, notwithstanding all differ ence, there was an essential unity beneath, unless one is deceived by the form, and how the form in its diversity is easily explained." C. F. Schmid im proved in some respects upon Neander s work in his excellent liiblical Theolot/i/ of the XT, issued (18/53) after his death by Weizs acker (newed, 1X04). In Schmid s work, the Bib. theology of the NT is presented with objectivity, clearness and pene trating sympathy.

      Halm s Theology of the. NT (1X54) came short of doing justice to the diverse types of doctrinal development in the NT. The work of G. V. Lech- ler on the apostolic and post -apostolic age, was, in its improved form of !Xf)7, much more important. E. Hcuss. in ls.-)2, issued his valuable History of tlie Christian Theology of the Apostolic Age, a com plete and critical work, but not sufficiently objective in its treatment. The Prelections on NT The ology of F. C. Baur, head of the Tubingen school, exemplify both the merits and the defects of the school. They are critical, independent and sug gestive, but lacking in impartiality. They were published by his son after his death (1804). "A new ed of these lecture s on NT theology was issued by Pfieiderer in 1S .)3.

      Having first donlt with the teachings of Jesus, Baur then set out the materials of the NT theology in three periods, making Paul well-nigh the founder of Christianity. For him only four epistles of Paul were genuine products of the apostolic age, namely, Romans, the two Corinthians, Galatians, together with the Revelation. To the growth and history of the NT Baur applied the method of the Hegelian dialectic, and, though powerful and profound, dis played a lack of sane, well-balanced judgment. Yet so conservative a scholar as Weiss gave Baur the credit of having "first made it the problem of criti cism to assign to each book of the NT its place in the history of the development of primitive Chris tianity, to determine the relations to which it owes its origin, the object at which it aims, and the views it represents." Among Baur s followers may be noted Pfieiderer, in his Paulinism (1873).

      The Theology of the NT, by J. J. Van Oosterzee (Eng. ed, 1870), is a serviceable book for students, and the NT Theology of A. Immer (1878), already



      famous for his herrneneutical studies, is note worthy. Chief among subsequent cultivators of the Bib. theology of the NT must be reckoned B. Weiss, whose work in two volumes (Eng. ed, 1882-83) constitutes a most critical and complete, thorough and accurate treatment of the subject in all its details: W. Beyschlag, whose A T 7 T Theology (Eng. ed, in 2 vols, 1895) is also valuable; H. Holtz- mann, whose treatise on NT Theology (1897) dealt in a critical fashion with the doctrinal con tents of the NT. Holtzmann s learning and ability are great, but his work is marred by naturalistic presuppositions. The French work on Theology of the NT, by J. Bo von (2 vols, 1893-94) is marked by great independence, skill and fairness. The Theology of the NT, by W. F. Adeney (1894), and the yet more recent, and very attractively written, work with the same title, by G. B. Stevens (1899), bring us pretty well up to the present state of our science in respect of the NT.

      Coming back to the Bib. theology of the OT in the second half of the 19th cent., we find A. Kloster- mann s Investigations into the OT 6. OT Theology, which appeared in 1868.

      Theology The OT theology, no less than that in Second of the NT, was set forth by that great Half of the scholar, II. Ewald, in four vols (1871- of the 19th 75; Eng. ed [first part], 1SSS). His Cent. interest in NT theology was due to his

      strong feeling that the NT is really the second part of the record of Israel s revelation. A. Kuenen dealt with the Religion of Israel in two volumes (Eng. ed, 1874-75), writing nobly but with defective insight into, and comprehension of, the higher religious ideas of Israel. F. Hitzig s Prelections (1880) deal with the theology of the OT, as part of their contents. II. Schultz treated of the OT Theology in two vols (1st ed, 1869; 5th ed, 1896; Eng. ed, 1892), in a careful, mainly just, and, by comparison, well-balanced handling of the development of its religious ideas.

      We have not touched upon writers like; Srnend, for example, in his History of OT Religion (1S93), and J. Robertson, in his Early Religion of Israel (2d ed, 1892), who treat of the Bib. theology of the OT only in a way subsidiary to the consideration of the historico-critical problems. The Concep tion of Revelation in the OT was dealt with by F. E. Konig in 1882 in a careful and comprehensive manner, and with regard to the order and relation of the documents, revelation in Israel being taken by him in a supranaturalistic sense. Significant also for the progress of OT Bib. theology was The, Theological and the Historical View of the OT, by C. Siegfried (1890), who insisted on the develop ment of the higher religion of Israel being studied from the elder prophets as starting-point, instead of the law.

      Mention should be made of Biblical Study: Its Principles, Methods and History, by C. A. Briggs (1883; 4th ed, 1891); of the important Compen dium of the Bib. Theology of tin-. O ami the NT by K. Schlottmann (1889); of E. Riehm s valuable OT Theology (1889); and of G. Dalman s Ktiuliesin Bib. Theology the Divine name and its history in 1889. Also, of the Or Theology of A. Duff (1891) ; A. Dillmann s Handbook of OT Theology, edited by Kittel (1895); and of Marti s ed of the Theology of the OT of A. Kayser (3d ed, 1897).

      Of Theology of the OT, by A. B. Davidson (1904), it may be said that it does full justice to the idea of a progressive development of doctrine in the OT, and is certainly divergent from the view of those who, like Cheyne, treat the OT writings as so many fragments, from which no theology can be ex tracted. Biblical Theology of the OT, by B. Stade (1905), is the work of a distinguished representative

      of the modern critical views, already famous for his work on the history of Israel (1887). The The ology of the OT by W. H. Bennett (1906) is a clear and useful compendium of the subject.

      Recent works like The Problem of the OT by James Orr (1905), OT Critics by Thomas Whitelaw (1903), andEssaysinPentateuchalCriti- 7. Bearings cism, by Harold M. Wiener (1909), of Criticism deal with the critical questions, and do on OT not concern us here, save to remark

      Theology that they are not without bearing, in their results, upon the theology of the OT. Such results are, e.g. the insistences, in Orr s work, on the unity of the OT, the higher than naturalistic view of Israel s religious development, the discriminate use of Divine names like Elohim and Jehovah, and so forth; and the express con tention in Whit claw s work, that the critical hypoth eses are not such as can yield "a philosophically reasonable theology" (p. 346). Indeed, it must not be supposed that even works, like that of S. R. Driver, Introduction to the literature of the, OT (first issued in 1891), are without resultant influence on Bib. theology.

      So far from that, the truth is that there is prob ably no result of the readjustment of the history and lit. of the OT so important as its bearings on the Bib. theology of theOT. For the order and the method of revelation are most surely involved in the order and relation of the books or documents, and the course of the history. The progress of the revelation ran parallel with the work of God in Nature and in the growth of human society. Hence the reconstruction of the historical theology of the OT will take much time and study, that the full value of the OT may be brought out as that of an independent and permanent revelation, with char acteristic truths of its own. Meantime, the real ity of that revelation, and the teleological character of the ( )T, have been brought out, in the most signal manner, by theological scholars like Dorner, Dillmann, Kittel, Kautsch, Schultz and others, who feel the inadequacy of natural development or human reflection" to account for OT theology, and the immediacy of God s contact with man in OT times to be alone sufficient to account for a revela tion so weighty, organically connected, dynamically bound together, monotheistic and progressive.

      ///. Divisions of Biblical Theology. The di visions of OT theology are matters of grave diffi culty. For the newer criticism has 1. Diver- practically transformed that mode of gent Views representing the process of Israel s re- on the OT ligious development , which had been cust omary or traditional. On t his lal - ter view, the Patriarchal Age was succeeded bythe Mosaic Age, with its law-giving under Moses, fol lowed, after an intercalated period of Judges and monarchy, by the splendid Age of Prophecy. Then there was the Exile preparing the way, after the Return, for the new theocracy, wherein the Law of Moses was sought with more persistent endeavor, though not without darkly legalistic result. Such wore the historic bases for OT theology, but the modifications proposed by the new criticism are sufficiently serious. These it will be necessary to in dicate, without going beyond the scope of this art. and attempting criticism of either the one view or the other. It is the more necessary to do so, that finality has not been reached by criticism. We are only concerned with the difference which these divergent views make for OT Bib. theology, whose reconstruction is very far from perfected.

      That they do mean serious difference has been indicated in the historical part of this art. Most obtrusive of these differences is the proposal to invert the order of law and prophecy, and speak



      rather of the. Prophets ;m<I the Law. For the Law is, on the newer view, taken to belong to the post- prophetic period in short, to the 2. Law and period of the return from the Exile, Prophecy whereas, in the traditional scheme of the order of revelation, the Law was found in full force both at the Exodus and the Return, with a dead-letter period between. The garment o f legalism, the newer criticism asserts, could not have suited the Israeli) ish nation in its early t and undeveloped stage, as it. does after the teachings of the prophets and the discipline of the Exile. Against this, the older scheme prefers the objection thai an external and legalistic system is made the outcome of the lofty spiritual teaching of the prophets; the letter appears super-imposed upon the spirit. Criticism, however, postulates for the ritual codes of the Pent, an influence parallel in t ime with t hat of prophet ism.

      Besides the. adjustments of prophecy and law just, referred to, the critical views postulate a primal period in which the religion 3. Prophet- of the prophets, with their view of ism and Israel s vocation, was inculcated; also,

      Judaism a final period of Judaism, intercalated between the Return and the Macca bees, in which are seen at work the Levitical law, and various anti-leg.d tendencies. It must be obvious that attempts to integrate the OT theology amid the prevailing uncertainties of criticism must be far from easy or (hud, even if the need and im portance be felt of keeping the religious interest, before even the historical in OT study. For the OT writers, religion was primary, historv secondary and incidental, we may well believe.

      \\\\\\\\Ve must, be content to know less of the remote

      beginnings and initial stages of Israel s religious

      development, for, as A. B. Davidson re-

      4. Place of marked, "in matters like this we never Mosaism can get at the beginning." J. Robert son deems criticism wrong in not allow ing a suflicient starting-point for the develop ment," by which he means that pure prophetic religion needs "a pure pre-prophetic religion" to explain its more than "germinal or elementary character." It may be noted, too, how much greater place and importance are attached to Mosaism or Moses by critics like Reuss, Schultz, Brcdenkamp and Sfrack, than by Wellhausen, who yet, allows a certain substratum of actual and his torical fact.

      It, may be observed, further, that no one is under any compulsion to account for such a transforma tion, as even Wellhansen allows, in the

      5. Israel s slow growth from very low beginnings Religious of the idea of Jeh iip to pure and Develop- perfect monotheism among a non- ment metaphysical people by the simple

      supposition of naturalistic theory. Evolutionary the critical hypothesis of the religious development of Israel may be, but that develop ment was clearly not so exclusively controlled by human elements or factors as to exclude the pres ence of supernatural energy or power of revelation. It had God within it had, in Dot-tier s phrase, "teleology as its soul." Thus, as even Gunkel de clares, "Israel is, and remains, the people of revela tion." This is why Israel was able to make despite all retrograde tendenciesrectilinear prog ress toward a predestined goal the goal of being what Ewald styled a "purely immortal and .spirit ual Israel." ()T theology does not seem to have sufficiently realized that the OT really presents us with theologies rather than a theology with the progressive development of a religion rather than with theological ideas resting on one historic plane.

      LITERATURE. I OT Literature: B. Stade, Biblische Theologie des .17, 190o; H. Schultz, ,17 Theoloyie 5th ed 1890; , Eng eel. 1892; H. Ewald, Revelation: Its Nature and Record, Eng. ed, 1884; C F. Oehler, Theolog.,, of the

      ,, V /7 lg V C d r 874; , 4 Kucuen - T>>e Religion of Israel to the PM of the Jewish State, Eng. ed, 1875; E. Riehm. AT Theologie, 1889; S. K. Driver, An Introduction to th Litera- !" " " r. 1 T StCd 1S91 = A - Ji - Davidson, Theology of ,i ,t r -. 1!)<)4; J - Orr The. I roblem of the. OT, 1905; A. DuttOT Theology 1891; J. Robertson, Early Religion of Israel 2d ed, 1892; W. II. Smith. The OT in the Jewish

      theOT, "896; T K 2 fchYyn? Fofnders O /OT C " ,"" " J 1893 ; T. Whitelaw, T Critics, 1903; W. Vi .Jordan , Bib lical Criticismand Modern Th,,, t ,iht. 1909; II. M. Wiener Essays inPentateuchal Criticism, 1909; E. O. Bissell, The Pentateuch: ItsOrigin and Structure, 1885; D. K. v. Orelli, I he O1 Prophecy, Ainer. ed. 1SS5, Eng. ed, 1893- B Dllhm. ,, Theologie der Propheten, LS75; E Riehm

      Messianic Prophecy, 2d Eng. ed. 1891; O. I. Breden- kamp Gesetz und Pro ,,h,ic,,, 1881; W. R. Smith, The Prophets of Israel, 18.S2; I). K. Schlottmann, Kompen- diutn der biblixchen TheoJ,,,/ie ,/r.s- .1. u . V. Testaments ; AT. Kirkpatrick, 7V,r /;/n,,c Library of the OT 1891; .1. Lindsay, 7V, ( - Significance of the of for Modern theology, 1896; R. Kittel, Scientific Study of the OT, Eng. ed. 191 0.

      II, NT Lift-rat ure: W. Beyschlag, XT Theoloo,, M O VT r/ / " ed - 189S : , J1 . Holtzmann, Lehrbuch <[, r

      mr iheoloiiie, 1 89 < : B. Weiss, Lehrbuch der bilil isehe n

      Theologie des \\\\\\\\ 1 , 7th ed, 1903; Eng. ed, 1883; J. J. v. Opsterzee, Die Theologie des XT, 2d ed, 1880- Eng ed. 1870; J. Bovon, Theolo,,ie dn Xoureau Testament 1893-94; C. P. Schmld, Kiblitrhe Thcolo</ie des NT Vw,Yn d V 1S( 4; T - H> stl vpns . The Theology of the. XT, ,, t B , !Ulr - Vorlesungen iiber XT Theolo,,ie, \\\\\\\\ /1*A^ AdeQe 7 Tl " Theolo,,,j of the XT, l.VH- A. O. McOiffert, .1 History of Christianity in the ,1 postolic A ff e 1897; E. Reuss. //,,7,, r// / Christian Theology in the Apostolic Age, Kng. ed, 1872; JL JL Wendt, The leachtng ot Jesus, Kng. ed. 1S92; A. JJ. Bruce 7V, c Kingdom of (;,!. 1S90; J. Aloorhouse, The T,achin,i of Christ, 1891; O. Pfleiderer, >er PauZuusmus, 2d ed 1S9() - 2d Lng. ed, 1S91 ; A. Sahati.T. 7V,c Apostle Paul, Kng. ed]

      91; (,. B. Stevens. The Pauline Theolo,, /, 2d ed 1897- (.. Matheson, 7V/, Spiritual U, i,loi>mct of St. Paul 1890; E. Kiehni, Der Lehrbegriff des II, l.raerbriefs, 18(i7- Ji Weiss, Der petrinische Lehrbegriff, 1855; G. B. Stevens, TheJohannine Theology, !S9t; B. Weiss, Derjohanneische Lehrbegriff %n semen Grundziigen untersueht, 18t>2.


      BICHRI, bik rl Pir?, biUirl, "first born"; cf lll X, SS, 102): Father of Sheba who rebelled against David. B. is of the house of Benjamin and the word probably means a "descendant of Becher" (2 8 20 1 ft). Cf BECHER 1.

      BID: Variously signifying, according to six Heb and as many Gr originals: (1) "to command" (Xu 14 10; Mt 1 2-1 AY, Tr^oo-rdr-ru), proxtdlld); (2) "to prescribe" or "order" (.In 2 2) ; (3) "to consecrate," and so rendered in RY (Zeph 17; cf 1 S 16 5); (4) elvov ci /)<>//, "to say" or "tell" (Mt 16 12); (5) "to call" i.e. "invite" (/caX^w, kaleo), conspicuously used in this sense in Christ s j)arables of the Mar riage Feast (Mt, 22 3-9) and of the Great. Supper (Lk 14 7-24); (G) "to take leave of," dTrordrrw <il><>td(ir> (Lk 9 61).

      BIDDEN, bid n: "Called," "invited" (1 S 9 13).

      BIDE, bid: A variant of "abide" (q.v.); is the rendering of irepi^vu ) perimeno, in \\\\\\\\Yisd 8 12 (RY "they shall wait for me"). In Acts 1 4 the same word is tr 1 "wait for."

      BIDKAR, bid kar n]5~5, bi,lhkar; "son of Deker"[?]; cf HPN, (>!)): A captain in the service of Jehu, formerly his fellow-officer (2 K 9 2o ) .

      BIER, her:

      (1) Found in the OT only in 2 S 3 31, "and king David followed the bier"; and in the NT in Lk 7 14, "and he [Jesus] came nigh and touched !/ bier." The Heb word rendered " bier" (mittah) and its Gr equivalent (soros) mean strictly "coffin." The so-called "bier" among the ancient Hebrews was simply an open coffin or a flat wooden frame, on which the body of the dead was carried from the house to the grave.



      Bilgah, Bilgai

      (2) Closed coffins, so universal now in the West, were unknown to common usage among the He brews of olden times, though not unknown to Egyptians, Greeks and Romans.

      At the burial of Abner the people were com manded to "rend their clothes" and "gird themselves with sackcloth," and the king himself in token of his grief and royal regard, "followed the bier" in the procession to the grave (2 S 3 31).

      (3) Of Jesus, when He met the procession that went out of the gate of the city of Nain, bearing to the grave the only son of the widowed mother, Luke says, "When the Lord saw her, he had com-

      BILDAD, bil dud (~T?3, bibladt,, "Bel has loved"): The second of the three friends of Job who, coming from distant regions, make an appoint ment together to condole with and comfort him in his affliction (Job 2 11). He is from Shuali, an unknown place somewhere in the countries E. and 8.E. of Pal (or the designation Shuhite may be intended to refer to his ancestor Shuah, one of Abraham s sons by Keturah, Gen 25 2), and from his name (compounded with Bel, the name of a Bab deity) would seem to represent the wisdom of the distant East. His three speeches are contained in Job 8, 18 and 25. For substance they are largely

      passion on her .... and he came nigh and touched

      the bier," and commanded the young man to arise, etc. We should recall that contact with a dead body was forbidden by the law as a source 1 of de filement (Nu 19 lit ); so Jesus here "came nigh" and "touched the bier" only in raising the young man, thus avoiding any criticism for infraction of the law. In Jn 11 3"), as here, we have a miracle of Je-^us which clearly pointed to a higher law the eternal law of compassion which received its first full expression in the life of Jesus and forms one of the distinctive features of the gospel.

      G KO. B. EACF.II

      BIGTHA, big tha (SP33 , bigh ltm; LXX Bapa^i, Ilnmzi; B, Btopa^T), Borazt; A, Oapepwd, Onrehuii): One of the seven eunuchs or chamberlains having charge of the harem of King Xerxes ("Ahasuerus") and commanded to bring Vashti to the king s ban quet (Kst 1 10).

      BIGTHAN, big than, BIGTHANA, big-tha na ("~" ? , Sir*" 1 ?, bigh e thdn, bigh e thana ; LXX omits name): One of the two chamberlains or eunuchs of Xerxes ("Ahasuerus") who conspired against the king s life, the conspiracy being detected by Mor- decai and the culprits hanged (Esl 2 21). Possibly these men had been partially superseded by the degradation of Vashti and were thus prompted to take revenge on Xerxes.

      BIGVAI, big va-I ("H32, highway; Bao-yeC, fiaogci, Ba-youd, Bagoud):

      (1) The head of one of the families who returned from Babylon with Zcrubbabel (Ezr 2 2; Neh 7 7), having a large number of his retainers (2,()f>0, according to Ezr 2 14; 2,007, according to Neh 7 19), besides 72 males later under Ezra (8 14).

      (2) One of those who subscribed the covenant with Nehemiah (10 10).

      BIKATH-AVEN, bik-ath-a ven (^~n7]53, bik alh dwen, "valley of vanity" [Am 1 5 AVm]). SeeAvEN; BETH-EDEX.

      an echo of what Eliphaz has maintained, but charged with somewhat increased vehemence (cf 8 2; 18 3.4) because he deems Job s words so impious and wrathful. He is the first to attribute Job s calamity to actual wickedness; but he gets at it indirectly by accusing his children (who were destroyed, 1 19) of sin to warrant their punishment (8 4). For his contribution to the discussion he appeals to tradition (8 S-10), and taking Elipha// cue of cause and effect (ver 11) lie gives, evidently from the literary stores of wisdom, a description of the precarious state of the wicked, to which he con trasts, with whatever implication it involves, the felicitous state of the righteous (8 11-22). His second speech is an intensified description of the wicked man s woes, made as if to match Job s de scription of his own desperate case (cf 18 5-21 with 16 0-22), thus tacitly identifying Job with the reprobate wicked. His third speech (25), which is the last utterance of the friends, is brief, subdued in tone, and for substance is a kind of Parthian shot, reiterating Elipha/ depravity idea, the doc trine that dies hardest. This speech marks the final silencing of the friends.


      BILEAM, bil e-am (3 2 b 3 , bil diti; I|3\\\\\\\\ad|A, Ib- ladtn): A town in the territory of Manasseh as signed to the Kohathite Levites (1 Ch 6 70), probably the same as Ibleam (Josh 17 11, etc), and identical with the modern HcFameh, half a mile S. of Jenin.

      BILGAH, bil ga, BILGAI, bil ga-I (nab3, bil- gdh; n ^5, bilgay, "cheerfulness"): A priest or priestly family in the time of the Return (Neh 12 5), and (under the form of "Bilgai," Neh 10 <S) in the time of Nehemiah. According to 1 Ch 24 14, Bilgah is the loth of the 24 divisions of the priests who officiated in the Temple. In the LXX, the names read BeX-yca, Bclydi, Bclgd and Balyds. The traditional explanation of the name is "reju venation"; modern exegetes explain it as "cheer fulness."

      Bilhah Birds



      BILHAH, bil ha (person) (nn33, bilhah; BaAAd, Balld): A slave girl whom Laban gave to Rachel (Gen 29 29), and whom the latter gave to Jacob as a concubine (Gen 30 3.4); the mother of Dan and Naphtali (Gen 30 4.7; 35 25; 46 25; 1 Ch 7 13); guilty of incest with Reuben (Gen 36 22).

      BILHAH, bil hu (place) (r.nb? ,bill, <lh; A,BaXad, Babul; B, AfhXXd, Abellu) : A cit v in Simeon (1 Ch 4 29) = Baalah l.Iosh 15 29), Balah (193), and Baalath (19 44). Unidentified.

      BILHAN, bil hun Ci"^, bit/inn; BaXadv, Ba- ladn) :

      (1) A Horite chief , son of Ezer (Gen 36 27; 1 Ch

      1 42).

      (2) A descendant of Benjamin, son of Jediael, father of seven sons who were heads of houses in their tribes (1 Ch 7 10).

      BILL, BOND, etc:

      (1) In the parable of the I njust Steward (Lk 16 (i "bill," AV, better "bond," RV, is used to translate the Gr yrdmniulu, which is the equiva lent of the contemporary Hob legal term sff tar, "writing." This "writing," in the usage of the times, was an acknowledgment of the taking over or receiving of goods or money that had to be written and signed by the debtor himself. (See Bdbha Bdthru 1 10 8.) Edersheim s averment that the Gr word was adopted into the 11 eb (Life and Tinas of ./(.s//.s the Mcsxidlt, II, 272), is based, ac cording to competent textual critics, upon a false reading. The Gr, according to Tisch., Treg. and WII, is td (/rdnimuta, not to (jnhninu (Tit). The word is indefinite, lit. "the letter," and determines nothing involved in controversy.

      (2) A question much discussed is, Was "the bond" (RV) merely an acknowledgment of debt, or was it, an obligation to pay a fixed annual rental from the produce of a farm ? Edersheim, for in stance, holds the former view, Light foot the latter. That the obligation is stated in the parable in kind wheat, and oil and not in money seems to bear against the simple debt theory. Edersheim sets down the remissions spoken of as authorized by the steward as amounting in money value to only about, 5 and 25 respectively, and t hinks t hey repre sented not a single but an annual payment (cf Ken nedy, 1-vol HDB, and Fraser, DCG, art. "Bill").

      (3) Still another question has arisen: Was the old "bond" simply altered, or was a new one sub stituted for it? Here again Light foot and Eder sheim are in the controversy and on opposite sides. The alteration of the old bond is suggested though not demanded by the language here, and, more over, would be, Edersheim thinks, in accordance with the probabilities of the case. Such bonds were usually written, not on vellum or papyrus, but on wax-covered tablets, and so could be easily erased or altered by the stylus with its flat, thick "eraser" (niohek).

      (4) It is probably safe to conclude: (a) that the "bill" or "bond" had to be written and signed by the person assuming the obligation; (6) that it was the only formal or legal evidence of the debt incurred; and (c) that the supervision of the whole transaction belonged of right to "the steward." Should "the steward" conspire with the debtor against the master, the latter, it would appear, w r ould have no check against the fraud.

      LITERATURE. Lightfoot, //or. Heb., ed L. and T., II, 268-73; Edersheim, Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah, II, 272 ff ; crit. comni. in loc.

      GKO. B. EAGER

      BILL OF DIVORCEMENT, di-vors ment. See DIVORCE IN OT.

      BILLOW, liil o (23, gal, "a great rolling wave"): Figuratively, of trouble, "All thy waves and thy billows are gone over me" (1 s 42 7; cf Jon 2 3).

      BILSHAN, bil shan CjTpba, bilshan): An Israelite who returned with Zerubbabel (Ezr 2 2 = Neh 7 7). The name may be explained as "inquirer" (new Heb and Aram.), TS52, balash, the 2 (b) being an abbreviation of "3, ben, as in "I"? , bidhkar, and 2np3 , bimhul. Bilshan would then be a compound of "3, ben, and "pttJJ , Idshon. ,}. Halevy (Revue eludes juives, X, 3) translates the name "pere de la langue," "pttJp IX, abh Idshon. In 1 Esd 5 8, he is called "Beelsarus," which is akin to the form "Belshar" = "Belshar-ussur" or "() Bel, protect the king." Bilshan points to "Belsun," "his lord." The rabbis take Bilshan as a surname to the preceding Mordecai. II. J. WOLF

      BIMHAL, bim hal prV>23, bimhul): A descend ant of Asher (1 Ch 7 33).

      BIND, bind, BOUND (S, dco): There are a number of Heb words used to express this word in its various meanings, ula/n (Gen 37 7), asar(42 24), kutifidr (Dt 6 8). It sometimes means "to attach," "to fasten" (Ex 28 28; Deut 14 25). It was used also wit h reference to an agreement in a judicial sense (Xu 30 2.3), or to make one a prisoner (Jgs 16 10; I s 149 S). It means also "to control" (Job 38 31).

      Figurative: In a fig. sense, to bind heavy and burdensome (extra) so-called religious duties on men (Ml 23 4). This fig. use of the word in Alt 16 19 and 18 IS has given special interest to it. Necessarily certain powers for administration must be conferred on this company of men to carry out the purpose of Christ. That this power was not conferred on Peter alone is evident from the fact that in Alt 18 18 it is conferred on all the apostles. The use of the word in the NT is to declare a thing to be binding or obligatory (Jn 20 23). In this sense this authority is used by some denominations in the service in preparation for the Lord s Supper, in which after the confession of sin by the people the ministers say, "1 declare to you who have sincerely repented of your sins and believe on the Lord Jesus Christ the entire forgiveness of your sins." This statement is followed by the further declaration that if any have not so repented God will not forgive them, but will retain them and call them to account. The claim of the church of Home that these statements of Our Lord confer on the priests and bishops, or primarily on the pope, the power to retain or forgive sins, is without his torical validity and does violence to the Scriptures. See AUTHORITY; FORGIVKXKSS; I KTER.


      BINEA, bin p-a (ny!3, bitfnh): A name in the genealogy of Benjamin (1 Ch 8 37 = 9 43).

      BINNUI, bin O-I (^32, binnuy, a proper name, "a building up") :

      (1) A Levite, living in the time of Ezra (Ezr 8 33; Neh 10 9; 12 8).

      (2) One of the b c ne Pahath-mo abh who had taken foreign wives (Ezr 10 30 Balnuus of 1 Esd 9 31) and one of the b e ne Buni (Ezr 10 38) who had also intermarried.

      (3) The son of Henadad, who built part of the wall of Jerus (Neh 3 24), and sealed the covenant with Nehemiah (Neh 10 9). In all probability he is identical with "Bavvai, the son of Henadad" mentioned in 3 18. "Bavvai" is either a corrup tion of "Binnui," or is the name of the Levitical house of which Bavvai was the chief representative.



      Bilhah Birds

      Biriiuii is mentioned in 10 9 as a leading Levite, and, besides, the names in these vs are obviously those of priests and Levites; so the former theory is probably correct.

      (4) Head of a family who returned with Zerub- babel (Neh 7 15; Ezr 2 10). H. J. WOLF

      BIRD-CATCHER, burd kach-er. See FOWLER.

      BIRDS, burds (uP?, *ayit; Gr variously TO, irereivd, td pctcind [Mt 13 4], rd opvea TOV ovipavoC, td 6r>n:a toil ouranou [Rev 19 17], opvis, urnia [Mt 23 37; Lk 13 34]; Lat avis;O~K "brid") :

      /. Meaning of the Word. All authorities agree

      that the exact origin of the word bird, -as we apply

      it to feathered creatures, is unknown.

      1. In Early The Ileb "~uijit means to tear and Hebrew scratch the face," and in its original

      form undoubtedly applied to birds of prey. It is probable that no spot of equal size on the face of the globe ever collected such numbers of vultun>s, eagles and hawks as ancient Pal. The land was so luxuriant that flocks and herds fed from the face of Nature. In cities, village s, and among tent-dwellers incessant slaughter went on for food, while the heavens must almost have been obscured by the ascending smoke from the burning of sacrificed animals and birds, required by Ia\\\\\\\\v of every man and woman, l- rom all these slain creatures the offal was thrown to the birds. There were no guns; the arrows of bowmen or "throw- sticks" were the only protection against them, and these arms made no noise to frighten feathered creatures, and did small damage 1 . So it easily can be seen that the birds would increase in large num bers and become so bold that men wen 1 often in actual conflict with them, and no doubt their faces and hands were torn and scratched.

      Later, ;is birds of song and those useful for food came into their lives, tin 1 word was stretched to

      cover all feathered creatures. In the

      2. In Later AV \\\\\\\\iijit, is tr 1 "fowl," and occurs Usage several times: "And when the fowls

      came down upon the carcases, Abram drove them away" ((Jen 15 11). "They shall be left together unto the fowls of the mountains, and to the beasts of the earth; and the fowls shall summer upon them, and all the beasts of the earth shall winter upon them" (Isa 18 0). "There is a path which no fowl knoweth, and which the vul ture s eye hath not seen" (Job 28 7). The All V changes these and all other references to feathered creatures to "birds," making a long list. The Heb \\\\\\\\iyit in its final acceptance was used in Pal as "bird" is with us.

      Our earliest known form of the word is the OE "brid," but they applied the term to the young of

      any creature. Later its meaning was

      3. In Old narrowed to young produced from English eggs, and the form changed to "bird."

      //. Natural History of Birds. The first known traces of birds appear in the forma tion of the Triassic period, and are found in the shape of footprints on the red sandstone of the Connecticut valley.

      This must have been an ancient sea bed over which stalked large birds, leaving deeply imprinted

      impressions of their feet. These im- 1. Earliest pressions baked in the sun, and were Traces and drifted full of fine wind-driven sand Specimens before the return of the tide. Thus

      were preserved to us the traces of 33 species of birds all of which are proven by their footprints to have been much larger than our birds of today. The largest impressions ever found measured 15 in. in length by 10 in width, and were set from 4 to 6 ft. apart. This evidence would

      form the basis for an estimate of a bird at least four times as large as an ostrich. That a bird of this size ever existed was not given credence until the finding of the remains of the dinornis in New Zealand. The largest specimen of this bird stood 10-2- ft. in height. The first complete skeleton of a bird was found in the limestone of the Jurassic period in Solenhofen, Bavaria. This bird had 13 teeth above and 3 below, each set in a separate socket, wings ending in three-fingered claws much longer than the claws of the feet, and a tail of 20 vertebrae, as long as the body, having a row of long feathers down each side of it, the specimen close to the size 1 of a crow. The first preserved like ness of a bird was found frescoed on the inside of a tomb of Maydoon, and is supposed to antedate the time of Moses 3,000 years. It is now carefully preserved in the museum of Cairo. The painting represents six geese, four of which can be recog nized readily as the ancestors of two species known today. Scientists now admit that Moses was right in assigning the origin of birds to the water, as their structure is closer reptilian than mamma lian, and they reproduce by eggs. To us it seems a long stretch between the reptile with a frame most nearly bird-like and a feathered creature, but there is a possibility that forms making closer connection yet will be found.

      The trunk of a bird is compact and in almost all instances boat -shaped. Without doubt pre historic man conceived his idea of 2. Struc- navigation and fashioned his vessel tural from the body of a water bird, and

      Formation then noticed that a soaring bird steered ils course with its tail and so added the rudder. The structural formation of a bird is so arranged as to give powerful flight and perfect respiration. In the case 1 of a few birds that do not fly, the wings are 1 beaten to assist in attaining speed in running, as the ostrich, or to help in swimming under the water, as the auk. The skull of a yeiung bird is made 1 up eif parts, as is that of man or animal; but with age these parts je>in so evenly that they appear in a seamless formation. The jaws extiMid beyond the 1 fae-e, forming a bill that varies in length and shape with species, anel it is use el in securing food, in defence, feather dre-ssing, ne>st buileling in fact it is a combination e>f the rnemth and hand of man. The spine is practically immovable, because of the ribs attaches! to the upper half anel the bony structure support ing the 1 pelvie 1 joints of the lower. In sharp e-on- trast with this the neck is formed of from 10 to 23 vertebrae, anel is so flexible that a bird can turn its heael completely around, a thing impossible to man or beast. The breast bone is large, strong, and provieled with a rielge in the middle, largest in birds of strong (light, smallest in swimmers, anel lacking only in birds that elo not fly, as the ostrich. The wings correspond 1e> the arms e>f man, anel are nem- used in flight and swimming only. Such skeletons as 1 lie Archeopteryx prove 1 that the bemes now combine-el in the tip of the wing we>re once claws. This shows that as birds spreael over land and developed wing pe>wer in seaivhing longer distances for fooel or when driven by varying con ditions of climate, the wings were used more in flight, anel the claws gradually joined in a tip and were given covering that grew feathers, while the bill became the instrument for taking food anel fe>r defence. At the same time the long tail proving an incumb ranee, it gradually wore away and con tracted to the present form. Studied in detail of bony structure, muscle, and complicated arrange ment of feathers of differing sizes, the wing of a bird proves one of Nature s marvels. The le;gs are used in walking or swimming, the thigh joint

      Birds Birth



      being so enveloped in the body that the true leg is often mistaken for it. This makes the knee of a man correspond to the heel of a bird, und in young birds of prey especially, the shank or tarsus is used in walking, until the bones harden and the birds are enabled to bear their weight on the feet and straighten the shank. The toes vary with species. Pliny classified birds by them: "The first and principal difference and distinction in birds is taken from their feet ; for they have either hooked talons, as Hawkes, or long round claws as Hens, or else they be broad, flat and whole-footed as Geese." Flight is only possible to a bird when both wings are so nearly full-feathered that it balances perfectly. In sleep almost every bird places its head under its wing and stands on one foot. The arrangement by which this is accom plished, without tiring the bird in the least, is little short of miraculous and can be the result only of slow ages of evolution. In the most finished degree this provision for the comfort of the bird is found among cranes and other long-legged water birds. The bone of one part of the leg fits into the bone of the part above, so that it is practically locked into place with no exertion on the part of the bird. At the same time the muscles that work the claws, cross the joints of t he leg so t hat t hey are st retched by the weight of the bird, and with no effort, it stands on earth or perches on a branch. This explains the question so frequently asked as to why 1 he feet of a perching bird do not become so cramped and tired that it falls.

      Birds feed according to their nature, some on prey taken alive, some on the carrion of dead bodies, some on fish and vegetable 3. Birds products of the water, some on fruit Food, seed, insects and worms of the land.

      Blood, etc Almost every bird indulges in a com bination of differing foods. Their blood is from 12 to 1C> warmer than that of the rest of the animal kingdom, and they exhibit a corresponding exhilaration of spirits. Some in dulge in hours of sailing and soaring, some in bubbling notes of song, while others dart near earth in playful dashes of flight. Birds are sup posed to be rather deficient in the senses of taste and touch, and to have unusually keen vision. They reproduce by eggs that they deposit in a previously selected and prepared spot, and brood for a length of time varying with the species. The young of birds of prey, song birds, and some water birds, remain in the nests for differing lengths of time and are fed by the old birds; while others of the water birds and most of the game birds leave the nest as soon as the down is dry, and find food as they are taught, by their elders, being sheltered at night so long as needful.

      ///. Birds of the Bible. The birds of the Bible were the same species and form as exist in Pal today. Because of t heir wonderful coloring, power ful flight, joyous song, and their similarity to humanity in home-making and the business of raising their young, birds have been given much attention, and have held conspicuous place since the dawn of history. When the brain of man was young and more credulous 1 han today he saw omens, signs and miracles in the characteristic acts of birds, and attributed to them various marvelous powers: some were considered of good omen and a blessing, and some were bad and a curse.

      The historians of the Bible frequently used

      birds in comparison, simile, and metaphor. They

      are first mentioned in Gen 7 14.15,

      1. Earliest "They, and every beast after its kind,

      Mention and all the cattle after their kind,

      and every creeping thing that creepeth

      upon the earth after its kind, and every bird after

      its kind, every bird of every sort." This is the enumeration of the feathered creatures taken into the ark to be preserved for the perpetuation of species after the flood abated. They are next found in the description of the sacrifice of Abram, where it was specified that he was to use, with the animals slaughtered, a turtle dove and a young pigeon, the birds not to be divided. It is also recorded that the birds of prey were attracted by the carcases as described in Gen 15 !)!!, "And he said unto him. Take me a heifer t hree years old, and a she-goat three years old, and a ram three years old, and a turtle-dove, and a young pigeon. And he took him all these, and divided them in the midst, and laid each half over against, the other: but the birds divided he not. And the birds of prey came down upon the carcasses, and Abram drove them away." Pal abounded in several varieties of "doves" (.q.v.) and t heirdevot ion to each other, and tender, gentle characteristics had marked them as a loved possession of the land; while the clay cotes of pigeons were reckoned in establishing an estimate of a man s wealth.

      In an abandon of gratitude to God these people offered of their best -loved and most pri/ed posses sions as sacrifice; and so it is not sur-

      2. Used in prising to find the history of burnt Sacrifice offerings frequently mentioning these

      birds which were loved and pri/ed above all others. Their use is first commanded in Lev 1 14-17, "And if his oblation to Jeh be a burnt-offering of birds, then he shall offer his oblation of turtle-doves, or of young pigeons. And the priest shall bring it unto the altar, and wring off its head, and burn it on the altar; and t he blood thereof shall be drained out on 1 lie side of t he altar; and he shall take away its crop with the filth t hereof, and cast it beside the alt ar on t he east part, in the place of the ashes." Again in Lev 5 7-10, we read: "And if his means siiflice not for a lamb, then he shall bring his trespass-offering for that, wherein he hath sinned, two turtle-doves, or two young pigeons, unto Jeh: one for a sin-offering, and the other for a burnt-offering." Throughout, the Bible these birds figure in the history of sacri fice (Lev 12 S; 14 4-S; Nu 6 10, etc).

      The custom of weaving cages of willow wands, in which to confine birds for pets, seems to be

      referred to when Job asks (41 f>),

      3. Other "Wilt thou play with him as with a bird ? References *^ r w " l U)U "" mnl r r thy maidens?"

      See Job 12 7:

      "But ask now the beasts, and they shall leach (lice; And t lie birds of t lie heavens, and they shall tell thee."

      David was thinking of the swift homeward flight of an eagle when he wrote:

      "In Jehovah do I take refuge: How say ye to my soul. Flee as a bird to your mountain?" (Psll l).

      His early days guarding the flocks of his father no doubt suggested to him the statement found in Ps 50 11:

      "T know all the birds of the mountains; And the wild beasts of the Held are mine"

      ( UVm "in my mind").

      In describing Lebanon, the Psalmist wrote of its waters:

      "By them the birds of the heavens have their habitation; They sing among the branches" 1 104 1-;.

      He mentioned its trees: "Where the birds make their nests ; As for the stork, the iir-trees are her house" (104 17).

      See also 78 27; 148 10.

      The origin of the oft-quoted phrase, "A little bird told me," can be found in Eccl 10 20: "Revile not the king, no, not in thy thought; and revile



      Birds Birth

      not the rich in thy bedchamber: for ;i bird of the heavens shall carry the voice, and that which hath wings shall tell the matter." In a poetical de scription of spring in the Song of Solomon, we read:

      "The (lowers appear on the earth; The time of the siiiKiiis <>f birds is come, And the voice of the turtle-dove is heard in our land"

      (Cant 2 12).

      In his prophecy concerning Ethiopia, Isaiah wrote, "They shall bo left together unto the raven ous birds of the mountains, and to the beasts of the earth; and the ravenous birds .shall summer upon them, and all the beasts of the earth shall winter upon them" (Isa 18 0). In foretelling Clod s judgment upon Babylon, Isaiah (46 11) refers to Cyrus as a ravenous bird [called] from the east, the man of my counsel from a far country"; "probably in allusion to the fact that the griffon was the em blem of Persia; and embroidered on its standard" (IIDB, I, 032); (see EAGLE). Jer 4 25 describes the habit of birds, which invariably seek shelter before an approaching storm. In His denunciation of Israel, Jell questions, in Jer 12 9, "Is my heritage unto me as a speckled bird of prey? are the birds of prey against, her round about?" When Jeremiah threatened the destruction of Jems, he wrote that Jeh would "cause them to fall by the sword before their enemies, and by the hand of them that seek their life: and their dead bodies will I give to be food for the birds of the heavens" (19 7j: that is, He would leave them for t he carrion eaters. Eze- kiel threatens the same fate to the inhabitants of Clog (39 4.17). Hosea (9 11 ) prophesies of Ephraim, "Their glory shall fly away like a bird." In the Sermon on the Mount, Jesus mentions the birds, as recorded by Mt 6 20: "Behold the birds of the heaven, that they sow not , neither do t hey reap, nor gather into barns; and your heavenly Father feedeth them. Are not ye of much more value than they?" In the sermon from the boat where He spoke the parable of the Sower Hoagain mentioned the birds: "As he sowed, some seeds fell by the way side, and the birds came and devoured them" (13 4). Mark describes the same sermon in 4 4, and ver 32 of the same ch quotes the parable of the Mustard Seed: "Vet when it is sown, [it] groweth up, and become! h greater than all the herbs, and putteth out great branches; so that the birds of the heaven can lodge under the shadow thereof." In 8 5, Luke gives his version of the parable of the Sower, and in 13 11) of the Mustard Seed. See also Rev 19 17.21. These constitute all the important refer ences to birds in the Bible, with the exception of a few that seem to belong properly under such sub jects as TRAPS; NETS; CAGES, etc.



      BIRDS OF PREY, pra: They were undoubtedly the first birds noticed by the compilers of Bib. rec ords. They were camp followers, swarmed over villages and perched on the walls of cities. They were offensive in manner and odor, and of a bold ness unknown to us in birds. They flocked in untold numbers, there was small defence against them, and the largest and strongest not only carried away meat prepared for food and sacrifice, but also preyed upon the much-prized house pigeons, newly born of the smaller animals, and even at times attacked young children. See Gen 15 11, "And the birds of prey came down upon the carcasses, and Abram drove them away." Be cause they were attracted from above the clouds by anything suitable for food, people recognized that these were birds of unusual vision. When Job wanted to tell how perfectly the path to the

      gold mine was concealed, he wrote, "That path no bird of prey knowelh" (Job 28 7). The infer ence is, that, if it were so perfectly concealed that it escaped the piercing eyes of these birds, it was not probable that man would find it. These birds were so strong, fierce and impudent that even-one feared them, and when the prophets gave warning that people would be left for birds of prey to ravage, they fully understood what was meant, and they were afraid (Isa 18 0). In His complaint against His heritage, Jeh questions, "Is my heritage unto me as a speckled bird of prey? are the birds of prey against her round about?" (Jer 12 9). And when he prophesied the destruction of Jerus, Jeremiah painted a dreadful picture, but one no doubt often .seen in that land of pillage and war fare: "Their dead bodies will 1 give to be food for the birds of the heavens, and for the beasts of the earth" (19 7). GKXK STRATTON-PORTKR

      BIRDS, UNCLEAN, un-klen : The lists of birds forbidden as food are given in Lev 11 13-19 and Dt 14 12-1S. The names arc; almost identical, Dt containing one more than Lev and varying the order slightly. In Dt 14 13 the first name, ha- ra ah, is almost certainly a corruption of ha-dd ah, the first name in Lev 11 14. In ARV it, is tr d "kite" in Lev, while in Dt it is tr rl "glede." The additional one in Dt is hii-ilni/i/a/i, and is t r 1 "kite." Doubtless the three words, ha-dd ah, hd- ayydh and hd-ilay i/ali, are generic and refer to different birds of the kite or perhaps falcon family, so it is impos sible to give specific meanings to them. There are twenty-one names in all, counting the extra one in Dt. The tr of many of these words is disputed. Tin 1 ARV gives them as follows: eagle, gier eagle, ospray, kite, falcon, glede, every raven, ostrich, night-hawk, sea-mew, hawk, little owl, cormorant, great owl, horned owl, pelican, vulture, stork, heron, hoopoe and bat. It will be observed that all of them are either carrion-eaters, birds of prey, or water fowl. The names of those birds which may be eaten are not given, the principle of classification is that of elimination. No principle of separation is given as is the case with the animals. The reason for the prohibition doubtless lies in the unsanitary and repulsive nature of the flesh of these birds, the Divine command endorsing 1 he instincts which were repelled by such food. For particulars, see separate arts, on each of these birds. See also ABOMINATION, BIRDS OF. JAMKS JOSIAII REEVE

      BIRSHA, bur sha ("C")2 , birsha ): King of Go morrah (Gen 14 2), who joined the league against Chedorlaomer. The name is probably corrupt; some have tried to explain it as J TT^Zl , h Tesha*, "with wickedness," a name purposely used by the writer in referring to this king.

      BIRTH, biirth (-ytvecris, f/cncnis):

      (1) It was said by the angel beforehand of John the Baptist, "Many shall rejoice at his birth"; and when he was born Elisabeth said, "Thus hath the Lord done unto me .... to take away my reproach among men" (Lk 1 14.25). Among the ancient Hebrews barrenness was a "reproach." and the birth of a child, of a son esp., an occasion for rejoicing.

      (2) This, no doubt, was due in part to the Mes sianic hope inspired and sustained by prophecy (see Gen 3 15, where it was foretold that the seed of the woman should bruise the serpent s head; and subsequent prophecies too numerous to mention). Cases in point worth studying are found in Gen 4 1, where Eve rejoices over the birth of her firstborn and cries, "I have gotten a man with the help of

      Birth, New Bishop



      Jch"; and 1 S 1 20, where Hannah exults over her firstborn, calling his name "Samuel," "," .she says, "I have asked him of .Jeh."

      (3) The marvelous passage in Isa 7 14, "Behold, a virgin shall conceive, and bear a son, and shall call liis name Immanuel," must have intensified the longing and hope of every devout Jewish maiden to be a mother, if mayhap, under God, she might be the mother of Messiah Iinniditnil ! (Cf Mt 1 22. 23; Lk 1 13 f.) See JESUS CHRIST; VIR<;I\\\\\\\\ BIRTH.

      GEO. B. E.\\\\\\\\(iEK


      BIRTH, VIRGIN. See Vmci.v BIRTH.

      BIRTHDAY, burth da:

      (1) The custom of observing birthdays of great men, esp. of kings, was widespread in ancient times (seeGen 40 20f, "the third day, which was Pharaoh s birthday," etc; cf 2 Mace 6 7; ami Herod, ix.110; in the NT, Mt 14 6; Mk 6 21, "Herod on his birth day made a supper to his lords," etc, i.e. Herod An- tipas). Here we see the ancient custom reflected in two conspicuous instances cents, aparl : 00 Pharaoh, on his birthday "made a feast unto all his servants," etc, and (h) Herod on his birthday "made a supper to his lords, and the high captains," etc. The AV (Mt 14 6) has it "when Herod s birthday was kept," etc.

      The correct text here (Tisch., HID has a very peculiar construction, but without material (lilTorencc of meaning. The locative case gives the time of the principal action, "danced on Herod s birthday, when it occurred." The construction is not unexampled (sec ,Ielf, (> . .)). This need not be called "a case absolute." though it corresponds to the Lat ablative (locative) absolute; and the (Jr genitive absolute is itself not really "abso lute." i.e. it is not cut loose from the resi of the con struction, but gives some, event to which the principal action is referred, for the indication of its circumstances.

      (2) The term "birthday" (TO. yev^ffta, Id goiesia) was applied also to the anniversary of a king s ac cession to the throne (Edcrsheim); but Wiesolor s argument that such is the case here is not conclusive. It is easy to suppose that when Herod s birthday approached he was sojourning at the castle of Machaerus, accompanied by leading military and civil officials of his dominions (Mk 6 21). Petty ruler as he was, not properlv "king" at all, lie affected kingly ways (cf Est 5 3.r>; 7 2).

      (3) Gcni sia, which in Att ic(!r means the commem oration of the dead, in later (lr is interchangeable with gcuelhlia = "birthday celebrations"; and there is no good reason why the rendering of the A V and RV here, "birthday," should not be right. (See Swete on Mk 6 21, and HDB, s.v.) For date of Christ s birth, etc, see JESUS CHRIST; CALENDAR, etc.

      CEO. B. EAGER

      BIRTHRIGHT, burth rlt (rTC3, b r Worth, from b khor, "firstborn"; irpwroTOKia, /irutolokio): Birthright is the right which naturally belonged to the firstborn son. Where there were more wives than one, the firstborn was the son who in point of time was born before the others, apparently whether his mother was a wife or a concubine. Sarah protests against, Ishmael being heir along with Isaac, but it is possible that the bestowal of the rights of the firstborn on Isaac was not due to any law, but rather to the influence of a favorite wife (Gen 21 10). The birthright of the first born consisted in the first place of a double portion of what his father had to leave. This probably means that he had a double share of such property as could be divided. We have no certain knowledge of t he manner in which property was inherited in the patriarchal age, but it seems probable that the lands and flocks which were the possession of the family as a whole, remained so after the death of the father. The first born became head of t he family and thus suc ceeded t o t he charge of t he family propert y , becoming

      responsible for t he maintenance of the younger sons, the widow or widows, and the unmarried daughters. He also, as head, succeeded to a considerable amount of authority over the other members. Further, he generally received the blessing, which placed him in close and favored covenant-relationship with Jeh. According to the accounts which have come down to us, all these gifts and privileges could be diverted from the firstborn son. This could happen with his own consent, as in the case of Esau, who sold his birthright to Jacob (den 25 29-34), or by the decision of the father, as in the case of Reuben ((ion 48 22; 49 3.4; 1 Ch 5 1.2) and of Shimri (1 Ch 26 10). In the Deuteronomic ver sion of the law, a provision is made, prohibiting the father from making the younger son the pos sessor of (lie birthright, just because his mother was specially beloved ( I)t 21 1~>-17). The bless ing also could be diverted from the eldest son. This was done when Jacob blessed the children of Joseph, and deliberately put the younger before the elder ((ion 48 13.14.17-19); even when the blessing was obtained by the younger son in a fraudulent manner, it could not be recalled (Gen 27). Jacob does not appear to have inherited any of the property of his father, although he; had obtained both the birthright and the blessing.

      In the NT "birthright," prototokia, is mentioned only once (Ho 12 10), where the reference is to Esau. In various passages where Our Lord is spoken of as the firstborn, as in Col 1 1~)-19; He 1 2, the association of ideas with the OT con ception of birthright is easy to trace. See also FIRST-HORN; FAMILY; HEIR; INHERITANCE; LAW. J. MACARTNEY WILSON

      BIRTH-STOOL, burth stool: Found only in Ex 1 16, in connection with Hob women in Egypt when oppressed by Pharaoh. The Hob Cabhnaylin) hero rendered "birth-stool" is used in Jer 18 3, and is there rendered "potter s wheel." The word is used in both places in the dual form, which points, no doubt, to the fact that the potter s wheel was composed of two discs, and suggests that the birth-stool was similarly double. See STOOL.

      BIRZAITH, bur-za ith, AV Birzavith, bur-za vith , rrn?, birzawill, or birzdyith; B^aCO, Be- zaith, or BpaU, licrzaic): The name of a town in Asher founded by Malchiel (1 Ch 7 31). It probably corresponds to the modern /j 7/ 1 cz-Zait, "well of olive oil," near Tyre.

      BISHLAM, bish lam (25TB3, biahlnm, "peaceful" [?|): One of three foreign colonists who wrote a letter of complaint against the Jews to Artaxerxes (Ezr 4 7 = 1 Esd 2 16). In 1 Esd the reading is "Belomus." "And in the days of Artaxerxes wrote Bishlam, Mithredath, Tabeel, and the rest of his companions, unto Artaxerxes, king of Per sia," etc (Ezr 4 7). The LXN renders Bishlam i n lirfin , "in peace," as though it were a phrase rather than a proper name; this is clearly an error.

      BISHOP, bish up: The word is evidently an abbreviation of the Gr emo-Ko-iros, c i>itsko po$ ; Lat episcopus.


      The LXX gives it the generic meaning of "super-

      intendency, oversight, searching" (Nu 4 16; 31 14)

      in matters pertaining to the church,

      1. Use in the state, and the army (Jgs 9 28;

      the LXX 2 K 12 11; 2 Ch 34 12.17; 1 Mace

      and Classic 1 54; Wisd 1 6). Nor is it unknown

      Gr to classical Gr. Thus Homer in the

      Iliad applied it to the gods (xxii.255),

      also Plutarch, Cam., 5. In Athens the governors

      of conquered states were called by this name.



      Birth, New Bishop

      The word is once applied to Christ himself, "un to the Shepherd and Bishop of your souls" (1 Pet 2 25). It, abounds in Pauline lit.,

      2. NT Use and is used as an alternative for

      pn-isbiiteros or elder (Tit 1 5.7; 1 Tim 31; 4 14; 5 17.19). The earliest ecclesiastical offices instituted in the church were? those of elders and deacons, or rather the reverse, inasmuch as the latter office grew almost immediately out of the needs of the Christian community at Jerus (Acts 6 1-6). The presbyteral constitution of Jerus must have been very old (Acts 11 30) and was distinct from the apostolate (Acts 15 23; 16 4). As early as 50 AD Paul appointed "elders" in every church, with prayer and fasting (Acts 14 23), referring to the Asiatic churches before established. But in writing to the Philip- pians (1 1) he speaks of "bishops" and "deacons." In the gentile Christian churches this title evidently had been adopted; and it is only in the Pastoral Epistles that we find the name "presbyters" ap plied. The name "presbyter" or "elder," familiar to the Jews, signifies their age and place in the church; while the other term "bishop" refers rather to their office. But both evidently have reference to the same persons. Their office is defined as "ruling" (Rom 12 8), "overseeing" (Acts 20 17.2S; 1 Pet 6 2), caring for the flock of Clod (Acts 20 28). But the word archcln, "to rule," in the hierarchical sense, is never used. Moreover each church had a college of presbyter- bishops (Acts 20 17.28; Phil 1 1; 1 Tim 4 14). During Paul s lifetime the church was evidently still unaware of the distinction between presbyters and bishops.

      Of a formal ordination, in the later hierarchical sense, there is no trace as yet. The word "or dained" used in the AV (Acts 1 22) is an unwar rantable interpolation, rightly emended in tin 1 RV. Neither the word cheirotontsantes (Acts 14 23, tr d "appointed" ARV) nor Av/^.s/r.sT.s- (Tit 1 5, tr 1 "appoint" ARY) is capable of this tr. In rendering these words invariably by "ordain," the AV shows a riliuin originix. No one doubts that the idea of ordination is ext remely old in the history of the church, but the laying on of hands, men tioned in the XT (Acts 13 3; 1 Tim 4 14; 2 Tim 1 6; cf Acts 14 26; 15 40) points to the com munication of a spiritual gift or to its invocation, rather than to the imparting of an official status.

      According to Rome, as finally expressed by the

      Council of Trent , and to the episcopal idea in general,

      the hierarchical organization, which

      3. Later originated in the 3d cent., existed Develop- from the beginning in the NT church, ment of But besides the NT as above quoted, the Idea the early testimony of the church

      maintains the identity of "presby ters" and "bishops." Thus Clement of Rome (Ep. 1, chs 42, 44, 57), the Did, ch 15; perhaps the Constitutions, II, 33, 34, in the use of the pi. form; Irenaeus (Adv. Hacr., iii.2, 3), Ambrosiaster (on 1 Tim 3 10; Eph 4 11), Chrysostom (Horn 9 in Ep. ad Tim), in an unequivocal statement, the "presbyters of old w r ere called bishops .... and the bishops presbyters," equally unequivocally Jerome (Ad Tit, 1, 7), "the same is the presbyter, who is also the bishop." Augustine and other Fathers of the 4th and 5th cents, hold this view, and even Peter Lombard, who preceded Aquinas as the great teacher of the church of the Middle Ages. Hatch of Oxford and Harnack of Berlin, in the face of all this testimony, maintain a dis tinction between the presbyters, as having charge of the law and discipline of the church, and the bishops, as being charged with the pastoral care of the church, preaching and worship. This theory

      is built upon the argument of prevailing social conditions and institutions, as adopted and imitated by the church, rather than on sound textual proof. The distinction between presbyters and bishops can only be maintained by a forced exegesis of the Scriptures. The later and rapid growth of the hierarchical idea arose from the accession of the Ebionite Christian view of the church, as a necessary continuation of the OT dispensation, which has so largely influenced the history of the inner develop ment of the church in the first six cents, of her existence. HENRY E. DOSKER


      /. Episcopacy Defined. Episcopacy is the gov ernment in the Christian church by bishops. The rule of the Orthodox churches in the East, of the Roman Catholics, and of the Anglicans is that the consecration of other bishops, and the ordination of priests and deacons can only be by a bishop; and with them, a bishop is one who claims historic descent from apostolic or sub-apostolic times.

      //. Offices in the Early Church. In the NT, the office of bishop is not clearly defined. Indeed there appear to have been many degrees of ministry in the infant church: apostles, prophets, evangelists, teachers, presbyters or elders, bishops or over seers, and deacons.

      Due allowance is not generally made for the mental attitude of the apostles and early Chris tians. They were looking for the speedy return of ( hrist , and consequently did not organize the church in its infancy, as it was afterward found necessary to do. For this reason, while the different persons who composed the body of Christian ministers did not overlap or infringe on each other s work, yet the relative rank or priority of each minister was not clearly defined.

      The apostles were undoubtedly first, and in them

      rested the whole authority, and they were the

      depository of the power committed

      1. Apostles unto them by Christ.

      Next to the apostles in rank, and

      first in point of mention (Acts 11 27), came the

      prophets. So important were these officers in the

      early church that they were sent from

      2. Prophets Jerus to warn the rapidly growing

      church at Antioch of an impending famine. Then it appears that there were resident prophets at Antioch, men of considerable impor tance since their names are recorded, Barnabas, Symeon, Lucius, Manaen and Saul (Acts 13 1). These men received a command from the Holy Spirit to "separate me Barnabas and Saul," on whom they laid their hands and sent them forth on their work. The election is conducted on the same lines as the election by the eleven apostles of St. Matthias, and Barnabas and Paul are hereafter called apostles. It is an ordination to the highest order in the Christian ministry by "prophets and teachers." Whether "prophets and teachers" refers lot wo distinct ministries, or whether they are terms used for the same one is uncertain. It may be that of the five men mentioned, some were prophets, and others teachers.

      In Acts 15 32 we have given us the names of two other prophets, Judas and Silas. St. Paul tells the Corinthians (1 Cor 12 28) that God hath set some in his church, first apostles, secondly prophets, thirdly teachers, and writing to the Ephesians he places the prophets in the same rank. "He gave some, apostles; and some, prophets; and some, evangelists; and some, pastors and teachers; for the perfecting of the saints, for the work of the ministry" (Eph 4 11.12 AV). And again, he says that the mystery of Christ is now "revealed unto his holy apostles and prophets in the Spirit" (Eph




      3 ". The same apostle in that wonderful imagery of Christ i a us being built up for a habitation of God, says thevare "being built upon the foundation of the apostles and prophets, Christ Jesus himself being the chief corner stone" (Eph 2 20).

      In the case of the ordination of Timothy, which St. Paul says distinctly was by his own laying on of hands and that of the presbytery, it is of great consequence to note thai St. Paul says to Timothy that his ordinal ion was "according to the prophecies which went before on thee" (1 Tim 1 IX AY). 1 Yom this it would appear that the prophets, as in the case of St. Paul himself, guided by the Holy Ghost , chose Tit not hy for t he overseer-ship or bishop ric, or it may be, which i.s just as likely, that Tim othy was set apart by the laying on of hands by some prophets, to the rank of elder or presbyter which did not carry with it the "overseership." It is at any rate evident that in the selection of Timothy St. Paul is insistent on pointing out that it was through the prophets (cf 1 Tim 1 IX; 4 1-4; 2 Tim 1 6).

      In K e vela t ion, t he term prophet constantly occurs as a term denoting rank equivalent to that of apostle: "ye saints, and ye apostles, and ye proph ets" (Rev 18 20); "blood of prophets and of saints" (Rev 16 <>; 18 24). The angel calls him self "thy fellow-servant, and of thy brethren the prophets" (Rev 22 AY). The words prophesy and prophesying are used in a general sense, and it does not mean that they were in every ease the formal utterances of prophets.

      The ministry of the elders of the Christian

      church was modeled after that of the synagogue in

      which there were elders and teachers.

      3. Elders or The Christian elders or presbyters were Presbyters most likely a council of advice 1 in each

      local Christian <rr/<x/</. They appear to act conjointly and not separately (Acts 15 4.6.22; 16 4; 20 17; Jas 5 14).

      Teachers were the equivalent of those teachers

      or catechists of the synagogue before whom Our

      Lord was found in the temple. Evan-

      4. Teachers gelists were persons who probably

      had the gift of oratory and whose function it was to preach the glad tidings. Philip was one of them (Acts 21 X). In the instructions

      to Timothy he is bidden to do the

      5. Evangel- work of an evangelist, that is to say. ists to preach the gospel. This was to be

      part of his work in the ministry.

      In writing to Timothy, St. Paul twice says that he himself was ordained preacher, and apostle and teacher. This does not mean that he held three grades of the ministry, but that his duties as an apostle were to preach and to teach. The fact that the apostles called themselves elders does not thereby confirm the view that the bishops men tioned by them were not superior to elders, any more than the fact that the apostles called them selves teachers, or preachers, makes for the view that teachers, or preachers, were the equals of apostles.

      Bishops or overseers were probably certain

      elders chosen out of the body of local elders. Under

      the Jewish dispensation, the elders

      6. Bishops stayed at home, that is, they did no

      ministerial visiting, but it was soon found necessary as the Christian church grew to have someone to attend to outside work to win over by persuasion and exposition of the Scriptures those inclined to embrace Christianity. This neces sitated visiting families in their own homes. Then, it became necessary t o shepherd t he sheep. Someone had to oversee or superintend the general work. The Jewish elders always had a head and in a large synagogue the conditions laid down for its head, or

      le(]atnn, were almost identical with those laid down by St. Paul to Timothy. He was to be a father of a family, not rich or engaged in business, possessing a good voice, apt to teach, etc.

      The term episkopos was one with which the Hellenistic Jews and Gentiles were well acquainted; and it became thus a fitting term by which to desig nate the men called out of the body of elders to this special work of oversight . Then, again, the term (pinko/Hix was endeared to the early Christians as the one applied to Our Lord "the Shepherd and Bishop of your souls" (1 Pet 2 25;. The duties of elders, or presbyters, are not clearly defined in the XT.

      In the Acts, the term is found only twice, one in reference to Judas, "his bishopric [or overseer- shipl let another take" (Acts 1 20 AV), and in St. Paul s address to t lie elders of Ephesus, he warns them to feed the church over which they have been made overseers or bishops (Acts 20 2X). It is impossible to say whether this "overseership" refers to all t he elders addressed, or to such of those elders as had been made "overseers," or "bishops."

      In the epistles, we find the church more clearly organi/.ed, and in these writings we find more definite allusions to bishops and their duties (Phil 1 1; 1 Tim 3 1.2; Tit 1 7; 1 Pet 2 25).

      St . Paul tells Timothy, "If a man desire the office of a bishop [or overseer] he desireth a good work." "A bishop [or overseer) must be blameless" (1 Tim 3 1.2 AV). He tells Titus that "he is to ordain elders in every city" and that a "bishop must be blameless, as the steward of God" (Tit 1 .5.7 AY).

      On the other hand, there are numerous texts where elders and their duties are mentioned and where there is no reference whatever to bishopric or oversight. The epistles show that of necessity there had grown to be a more: distinct organiza tion of the ministry, and that following the custom of the synagogue to some of the elders had been committed a bishopric or over-sight. At the same time the rank of a bishop, or overseer, was not yet one of the highest. St. Paul does not enumerate it in the order of ministry which he gives to the Ephesians apostles, prophets, evangelists, pastors and teachers.

      That Timothy had an oversight over the elders or presbyters is evident from the fact that St. Paul enjoins him to rebuke those that sin: "Against an elder receive not an accusation, except at the mouth of two or three witnesses. Them that sin reprove in the sight of all" (1 Tim 5 10.20). This, of course, refers to a formal trial by one in authority of persons inferior to him in rank.

      It has been asserted that the terms elder and bishop in the XT were equivalent and denoted the same office or grade in the ministry. This asser tion seems unwarranted. They do not naturally denote t-he same grade any more than do apostle and teacher, or angel and prophet.

      The deacons were the seven appointed to take charge of the temporal affairs of the church. Their appointment was perhaps suggested 7. Deacons by the alms-collectors of thesynagogue. In the XT they do not appear as deacons to have had any part, in the sacred ministry, except, in the case of Philip the evangelist, if it be assumed that he was a deacon, which i.s uncer tain. Xowhere i.s it recorded that they laid hands on anyone, or were considered as capable of be stowing any grace. In the epistles they are men tioned with the bishops "bishops and deacons" (Phil 11), thus showing the nature of their in fluence 1 as the helpers of the "bishops" in the manage ment of the growing funds, or properties of the church.

      ///. Episcopacy according to the NT. The passages where the Gr word occurs which has been




      tr 1 either as bishops, or overseers, are so few (hut they are enumerated: Acts 20 17.2S: the Ephesian elders are stated to be bishops [or overseers] to feed the church; Phil 1 1: the salutation of Paul and Timothy to bishops [or overseers] and deacons at Philippi; 1 Tim 3 1.2 and Tit 1 7 give the exhortation to Timothy and Titus as holding 1 lie office of a bishop; 1 Pet 2 25, where the apostle referring to Christ says, unto the Shepherd and Bishop of your souls."

      IV. The "Didache. "Passing out of the NT, we come to the early Christian writing, the so- called Teaching of the Twelve Apostles. Setting aside the question for what class of Christians this document was intended, the clear fact stands out that at the date of its writing the two highest grades in the Christian ministry were still called apostles and prophets. Various dates have been assigned to this document ranging from SO to 100 AD.

      At the end of ch 10, which deals with the thanks giving or cucharist, the remark is made, "Hut permit the prophets to make thanksgiving as much as they desire." Chs 11 and 13 deal with apostles and prophets. They were to be treated "according to the ordinance" of the gospel." An apostle was not to be allowed to stay more than a couple ot days at the utmost, and in no case was he to receive any money, else he was to be considered "a false prophet." A prophet could beg on behalf of others, but not for himself; but a prophet could settle among a congregation, and in that case he was to receive the same first -fruits "of money and raiment and of every possession" as the chief priest did under the old dispensation. It is to be noted that in reality the prophets, though placed second in order, were to be t real ed with the greater respect. If the prophet settles down, he becomes the man of the first rank in that Christian com munity.

      Ch 15 deals with bishops and deacons, and we are told that it appointed they rendered the ministry of prophets and teachers, but the warning is given. "Despise them not, therefore, for they are your honoured ones, together with the prophets and teachers." This shows that bishops were localized ; and that while they could be appointed over a. community, they were not considered as of equal rank with the prophets.

      V. Clement of Rome. Clement of Rome in his Epistle to the Corinthians says that the apostles preaching through countries and cities appointed the first-fruits of their labors to be bishops and deacons (ch 42). It is usually said that Clement, meant elders by the term "bishops," but it is much more likely that he meant, what he said; that according to the tradition received by him, the apostles appointed bishops, that is, appointed bishops out of the elders mentioned in the Acts. In ch 44 Clement warns against the sin of ejecting from the episcopate those who have presented the offerings, and says, "Blessed are those presbyters who have finished their course."

      The reason why the terms apostles and prophets fell into desuetude was, as regards the first, not so much out of respect to the original apostles, but because the apostles in the sub-apostolic age became apparently only wandering evangelists of little standing; while the prophets lowered their great office by descending to be soothsayers, as the Shepherd of Hernias plainly intimates. With the fall of the apostles and the prophets, there rose into prominence the bishops and deacons.

      VI. Bishops and Deacons. The deacons acted as secretaries and treasurers to the bishops. They were their right-hand men, representing them in all secular matters. As the numbers of Christians

      increased, it was found absolutely necessary for the bishops to delegate some of their spiritual authority to a second order.

      VII. Bishops and Presbyters (Priests). Thus very slowly emerged out of the body of elders 1 1n official presbyters or priests. To them the bishop delegated the power to teach, to preach, to bap tize, to celebrate the Holy Eucharist.; but how slowly is evidenced by the fact that so late as 7f>f> AD the Council of Vern forbade priests to baptize, except by distinct permission of their bishop.

      VIII. Ignatian Epistles on the Three Orders. When we come to the Ignatian epistles written between 110-17 AD, we find a distinct threefold order. We have given us the names of Damas, for bishop, Bassus and Apollonius for presbyters, Zotion for deacon. Throughout these epistles there is no question that the bishop is supreme. Apostles and prophets are not even mentioned. The bishop succeeds to all the powers the apostles and prophets had. ( hi the other hand, as with the Jewish elders, so with the Christian presbyters, they form a council with the bishop. Here we see in clear day what we had all along suspected to be the case in apostolic times: a council of presbyters with a ruler at their head and deacons to attend to money matters.

      It is quite immaterial as to whether a bishop had ten or a hundred presbyter-elders under him, whether he was bishop in a small town or in a large city. The question of numbers under him would not affect his authority as has been claimed. The greatness of the city in which lit- exercised this rule would add dignity to his position, but nothing to his inherent authority.

      From this time on it is admitted by all that bishops, priests and deacons have been contin uously in existence. Their powers and duties have varied, have been curtailed as one order has encroached on the power of the other, but still then- the three orders have- been. Gradually the presbyters or priests encroached on (lie power of the bishop, till now, according to Anglican usage-, only the power of ordaining, confirming and con secrating churches is left to them.

      IX. Views of Reformers. At t he time of the Reformation there was a great outcry against, bishops. This was caused by the fact that under feudalism the bishops had come to be great, tem poral lords immersed in schemes of political and material aggrandizement, and often actually lead ing their armies in times of war. Many of the bishops wen- proud and arrogant , forget ful t hat their duties as fathers of the children of Christ were to look after those committed to them with fatherly kindness and charity or that as pastors they had to tend the erring sheep with Divine patience and infinite love.

      The bulk of the adherents to the Reformed religion, looking upon the bishops as they were and as their fathers had known them, recoiled from retaining the office, although their principal men, like Calvin, deplored the loss of bishops, and hoped that bishops of the primitive order would some day be restored. The present modern Anglican bishop seems to sum up in his person and office the requirements laid down by Calvin.

      Thus the claim put forth by the Anglicans in the preface to the Ordinal may be considered as sound: "It is evident unto all men, Conclusion diligently reading Holy Scripture and ancient Authors, that from the Apos tles time there have been these- Orders of Ministers in Christ s Church Bishops, Priests, and Deacons."

      LITERATI-UK. Teaching of the Twelve Apostlos; Clement of Rome: Shepherd of Hennas; Ignatian epistles; Muratorian Fragnient ; \\\\\\\\Vorks of .John Light-




      foot; Duchcsnc, Orii/inrx rl u Cultr Chretien; Pellieia, I oliti/ nf tin Christian Church; Uishop Mac Lean, Ancient Church Orders; Cheetharn, Hist of the Christian Church (hirinfl the First .Si> Cents.; Salmon, Intro to \\\\\\\\T; lOhvin, The Minister of Baptism; Oruttwell, Literan/ Hist of Knrlij Christian it a; Potter, Church (lorern me nt ; Lowndes, Vin dication of A n<ilican. Orders; K. Hatch, The Organization of the Karl ij Christian Churches; (\\\\\\\\ Core, The Church the Ministru; Thompson, Historic Episcopate, (Presby terian); liaird, llutnnnots.



      As ;i spiritual and social democracy, Congrega-

      tionalisin finds no warrant or precedent in the NT

      for the episcopal conception of the

      1. The NT words "bishop," "presbyter," and Church a "elder." It interprets ^TTICTKOTTOS, cpi- Spiritual skopos, lit. as orvrNccr not an ecclesi- Democracy astical dignitary but a spirit ual. min ister. It finds the Romanist view

      of Peter s primacy, founded alone on Mt 16 IS, contradicted by the entire trend of Christ s teach ing, as e.g. when referring to t he ( ientiles exercising lordship and (inthorilij Christ says, "Not. so shall it be among you" (Mt 20 26 ff). lie set the prec- edent of official greatness when He said "the Son of man came not to be ministered unto, but to minister," and t hat "whosoever would become great among you shall be your minister [servant)." Paul s testimony confirms this in suggesting no pri macy among the apostles and prophets, but making "Christ .... himself .... the chief cornerstone" (Eph 2 20). The organization and history of the early Christian church establish this view of its simplicity and democracy. In Acts 1 20 the RV corrects the rendering "bishopric" (given by the King James translators, who were officers in the Episcopal church) to "office," thus relieving the verse of possible ecclesiastical pretensions.

      The church formed on the day of Pentecost was the spontaneous coming together of the original 120 disciples and the 3,000 Christian converts, for fellowship, worship and work, under the inspiration and guidance of the Holy Spirit. Its only creed was belief in the risen Christ and the renewing power of the Holy Spirit; its only condition of membership, repentance and baptism.

      The apostles naturally took leadership but,

      abrogating all authority, committed to the church

      as a whole the choice of its officers

      2. Election and the conduct of its temporal and of Officers spiritual affairs. Judas place in the by Popular apostolate was not filled by succession Vote or episcopal appointment (Acts 1

      23-26). The seven deacons were elected by popular vote (Acts 6 1 (>). One of the seven Philip preached and, without protest, administered the rite of baptism (Acts 8 12.13).

      The churches in the apostolic; era were inde pendent and self-governing, and the absence of anything like a centralized ecclesiastical authority is seen by the fact that the council at Jerus, called to consider whether the church at Antioch should receive the uncircumcised into membership, was a delegated body, composed in part of lay members, and having only advisory power (Acts 15 1-29).

      The apostolic letters, forming so large a part of

      the NT, are not official documents but letters of

      loving pastoral instruction and coun-

      3. The sel. The terms bishops, elders, pas- Epistles not tors and teachers are used synony- Official mously and interchangeably, thus Documents limiting the officers of the early church

      to two orders: pastors and deacons. See also CHURCH GOVERNMENT; DIDAOHE.

      Under the spiritual tyrannies of the Church of England, during the reigns of Henry VIII, Edward VI, "bloody" Mary and Queen Elizabeth, the

      Dissenting bodies, chiefly the Congregationalists, returned to the simplicity and spiritual freedom

      of the primitive church. The issue 4. Restora- was forced by two arbitrary acts of tion of Parliament under Elizabeth: the Act

      Primitive of Supremacy and the Act of Uniform- Ideals ity. Emancipation from the intellect

      ual and religious tyranny of these acts was won at the cost of many martyrdoms. These st niggles and persecutions wrought into the successors of Robert Browne, the father of modern Congregationalism, a deep-seated and permanent resentment against all forms of autocratic power in church and state. They challenged, at the cost of life, both the Divine Right of kings, and of bishops. They believed that in Christ Jesus all believers are literally and inalienably made "kings and priests unto God" (Rev 1 (> AV), actual spirit ual sovereigns, independent of all human dictation and control in matters of belief and worship. The Pilgrims expatriated themselves to secure this spiritual liberty; and to their inherent antagonism to inherited and self-perpetuated power, whether civil or ecclesiastical, must be credited t he religious freedom and civil democracy of America.

      LiTKKATruK. For further study see Henry M. Dexter, Congregationalism, ch ii; Dumiing s Conrire(/ntio>ial.ists in America, chsi, ii: Uailiy, Th<: Ancient Catholic Church.


      BISHOPRICK, bish up-rik (tirio-Ko-n-Ti, cpiskopc; Acts^l 20 AV, quoted from I s 109 N) : RV "of fice," m, "overseership." See BISHOP.


      BIT AND BRIDLE, bii d l (ICnvarH , ><>!/!< <//i wd-re$en): The two words occur in conjunction (Ps 32 !) AV, "Be ye not as the horse, or as the mule, which have no understanding; whose mouth must be held in with hit and bridle, lest they come near unto thee"; RV "else they will not come near unto thee," m, "that, they come not near." Mclfn tj/i, tr 1 "bit" above, is properly a bridle or halter in which the bit was a loop passed round the under jaw of the animal; rcsen has a

      Bit and Bridle.

      similar meaning. The counsel in the ver is that men should render a willing obedience to God and not be like the animals that man has to bridle and curb in order to get them to do his will. Cf Jas 3 3, where we have "bit" as tr of chalinos, "a bit" or "curb," "We put bits [RV "bridles"] in the horses mouths that they may obey us." "Bridle" occurs separately as tr of mcthegh (2 S 8 1), "David took Metheg-ammah," AVm "the bridle of Amman," RV "the bridle of the mother



      city," m, as AV; the meaning may be that he took the control or dominion of it; "I will put .... my bridle in thy lips" (2 K 19 28; Isa 37 29); "a bridle for the ass" (Prov 26 3); of re?en (Job 30 11), "They have also let loose the bridle before me," RV "and they have cast off the bridle before me" (acted in an unbridled [unrestrained] manner); 41 13, said of "leviathan" (HV "the hippopotamus"), "Who can come to him with his double bridle?" ARV "within his jaws?" ERV "within his double bridle," others, "into the double row of his teeth"; Isa 30 28, "a bridle in the jaws of the people causing them to err," RV "a bridle that causeth to err"; of mahsom, which means "a muzzle" (Ps 39 1), "I will keep my mouth with a bridle," AVm "Heb, a bridle, or muzzle for my mouth" ; so HYm.

      "To "bridle" occurs (Jas 1 20, "bridleth not his tongue"; 3 2 "able to bridle the whole body"; clittlitt(t(/o<jeo, "to lead" or "guide with a bit"). In 1 Ksd 3 0. and 2 Mace 10 29, we have "bridles of gold" (chrusochalinos) , W. L. WAI.KKR


      by kings whose names they bear; the other chief cities, Nicaea and Chalcedon, had been built by Gr enterprise earlier. There were highways lead ing from Nicomedia and Nicaea to Dorylaeum and to Angora (see Ramsay, Historical Geography of Asia Minor, and The Church in the Rom Empire before A.I). 170). I nder Rome the Black Sea lit toral as far as Amisus was more or less closely joined with Bithynia in administration.

      BITHIAH, bi-thl a (rrr,2, Inthijuh tfiiii; B, reXid, (leli<\\\\\\\\, "daughter of Jeh"): The dauu hter of a Pharaoh who married Mered, a descendant of Judah (1 Ch 4 IS). Whether this Pharaoh was an Kgyp king, or whether it was in this case a Heb name, it is ditlieult to say. The name Bithiah seems to designate one who had become ( (inverted to the worship of ,)eh, and this would favor the first supposition. If, as the PiY reads, the other wife of Mered is distinguished as "the Jewess" (instead of AV "Jehudijah"), this supposition would receive further support.


      BITHRON, bith ron ("Virian, ha-liithrnn; O\\\\\\\\T\\\\\\\\V TT]V TrapaTeivovorav, holen ttn parateinousan, lit. "the entire [land] extending"; 2 S 2 2 J, "the Bith- ron," i.e. the gorge; or groove): Does not seem to be a proper name; rather it indicates the gorge by which Abner approached Mahanaim. Buhl (CiAI , 121) favors identification with Wd li/ Ajlun, along which in later times a Rom road con nected Ajl/ni and Mahanaim. Others (Out he, ; Km", bill. \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ orti rlntch, s.v.) incline to Wddij c*h

      BITHYNIA, bi-thin i-a (BiOuvia, Jlithunia): A coast province in northwestern Asia Minor on the Propontis- and the Euxine. Its narrowest compass included the districts on both sides of the Sangarius, its one large river, but in prosperous times its boundaries reached from the Rhyndacus on the west to and beyond the Parthenius on the east. The Mysian Olympus rose in grandeur to a height of 6,400 ft. in the southwest, and in general the face of Nature was wrinkled with rugged moun tains and seamed with fertile valleys sloping toward the Black Sea.

      Hittites may have occupied Bithynia in the remote past, for Priam of Troy found some of his stoutest enemies among the Amazons on the upper Sangarius in Phrygia. and these may have been Hittite, and may easily have settled along the river to its mouth. The earliest discernible Bithyn- ians, however, were Thracian immigrants from the European side of the Hellespont. The country was overcome by Croesus, and passed with Lydia under Pers control, .540 BC. After Alexander the Great, Bithynia became independent, and Nicomedes I, Prusias I and II, and Nicomedes II and III, ruled from 278 to 74 BC. The last king, weary of the incessant strife among the peoples of Asia Minor, especially as provoked by the aggres sive Mithridates, bequeathed his country to Rome. Nicomedia and Prusa, or Brousa, were; founded

      Ships l)r;i\\\\\\\\vn up on ( oast of Black Sea.

      Pavil and Silas essayed to go into Bithynia, but the Spirit suffered them not (Acts 16 7). Other evangelists, however, must have labored there early and with marked success. Bithynia is one of the provinces addressed in 1 Pet 1 1.

      Internal difficulties and disorders led to the sending of Pliny, the lawyer and literary man, as governor, 111 to 113 AD. He found Christians under his jurisdiction in such numbers that the heathen temples were almost deserted, and the trade in sacrificial animals languished. A memor able correspondence followed between the Rom governor and the emperor Trajan, in which the moral character of the Christians was completely vindicated, and the repressive measures required of officials were interpreted with leniency (see; E. G. Hardy, I lin // * Correspondence icilh Trajan, and Chris/ in n Hi/ ntnl the Rmn d onrnmcnt). Un der this Rom policy Christianity was confirmed in strength and in public, position. Subsequently the first" Ecumenical Council of the church was held in Nicaea, and two later councils convened in Chalcedon, a suburb of what is now Constanti nople. The emperor Diocletian had fixed his resi dence and the seat of government for thp eastern Roman Empire in Nicomedia.

      Bithynia was for a thousand years part of the Byzantine Empire, and shared the fortunes and misfortunes of that, state. On the advent of the Turks its territory was quickly overrun, and Or- chan, sultan in 1320, selected Brousa as his capital, since which time this has been one of the chief Ottoman cities. G. E. WHITE

      BITTER, bit er, BITTERNESS, bit er-nes (TO, mar, or "np , mar ah = "bitter" [lit. or fig.]; also [noun] "bitterness" or [adv.] "bitterly"; "angry, " "chafed," "discontented," "heavy" [Gen 27 34; Ex 15 23; Nu 5; Est 4 1; Job 3 20; Ps 64 3; Prov 5 4; 27 7; Eccl 7 20; Isa 5 20; Jer 2 19; 4 18; Ezk 27 31; Am 8.10; Hab 1 G]; the derivatives "TH? , ITD , and fTPE , mCirnr, ?n f ror, tnTdrah, used with the same signifi cance according to the context, are found in Ex 1 14; 12 8; Nu 9_ 11; Job 13 20; Isa 24 9. The derivatives m rl and m e nn occur in Dt 32 24; Job 23 2rn; and "l^H^ri , tamrur, is found in Jer 6 20; 31 15. In the NT the verb iriKpalvw, pikraind = "to embitter"; the adj. 7ri/cp6s, pikros

      Bitter Herbs Blasphemy



      = "bitter," and the noun TriKpia, pikriti, "bitter ness." supply the same ideas in C<>1 3 19; Jus 3 11.11; Hev 8 11; 10 <).!()): It will be noted that the word is employed with three principal spheres of application: (1) the physical sense of taste; (2) a fig. meaning in the objective sense of cruel, biting words; intense misery resulting from forsaking (!od, from a life of sin and impurity; the misery of servitude; the misfortunes of bereave ment; (3) more 1 subjectively, bitter and bitterness describe emotions of sympathy; the sorrow of childlessness and of penitence, of disappointment; the feeling of misery and wretchedness, giving rise to the expression "bitter tears"; (4) the ethical sense, characterizing untruth and immorality as the bitter thing in opposition to the sweetness of truth and the gospel; (.">) Nu 5 IX RV speaks of "the water of bitterness that cause) h the curse." Here it is employed as a technical term.

      FRANK E. Hutscir

      BITTER HERBS, hurbs, or urbs (Z n T^, ni rorltn): Originally in the primitive Passover (Ex 12 X; Nu 9 11) these were probably merelv salads, the simplest and quickest prepared form of vegetable accompaniment to the roasted lamb. Such salads have always been favorites in the Orient. Cucumbers, lettuce, water-cress, parslev and endive are some of those commonly used. Later on t he Passover rit ual (as it does today ) lai 1 emphasis on the idea of "bitterness" as symbolical of Israel s lot in Egypt. In modern Pal the Je .v- use chiefly let t uce and endive for t he "bit ter herb.-" of their Passover. In Lam 3 1 ."> t he same word i< used: "He hath filled me with bitterness [m ronin], he hath sated me with wormwood. Here th.- parallelism with "wormwood suggests some plant more distinctly bitter than the mild salads men tioned above, such, for example, as the colocvnth (Cilriilliift colocynthus) or the violently irritating squirting cucumber (Ecballium clutcriinn)

      E. \\\\\\\\Y. G. MASTERMAN

      BITTERN, bit ern (ISp, kii>/>r></h; Lat liolunr,,* x/rl/nrix; (ir exivos, rrfii /nix) : A nocturnal mem ber of the heron family, frequenting swamps and marshy places. Its Heb name means a creature of waste and desert places. The bittern is the most individual branch of the heron (nnliiilm ) familv on account of being partially a bird of night. There are observable differences from the heron in proportion, and it differs widely in coloration. It is one of 1 he birds of must ancient history, and as far bark as records extend is known to have inhabited Europe, Asia, Africa, Australia and America. The African bird that Bible historians were familiar with was 2! ft. in length. It had a 4-in. bill, bright eyes and plumage of buff and chestnut, mottled with black. It lived around swamps and marshes, hunting mostly at night, and its food was much the same as that of all members of the heron family, frogs being its staple article of diet. Its meat has not the fishy taste of most members of the heron family, and in former times was considered a great delicacy of food. In the days of falconry it, was protected in England be cause of the sport afforded in hunting it. Aristotle mentions that previous to his time the bittern was called oknos, which name indicates "an idle dis position." It, was probably bestowed by people who found the bird hiding in swamps during the daytime, and saw that it would almost allow itself to be stepped upon before it would fly. They did not understand that, it fed and mated at night. Pliny wrote of it as a bird that "bellowed like oxen," for which reason it was called Taunt*. Other mediaeval writers called it bolaurus, from which our term bittern is derived. There seems to

      be much confusion as to the early form of the name; but all authorities agree that it was bestowed on the bird on account of its voice. Turner slates thai in 1.114 the British called it "miredromble," and "botley bump, from its voice. Rolland says the French called it Jin nf i/ t-nn. In later days "bog-bull," "stake-driver" and "thunder-pumper" have at t ached themselves to it as terms fitly de scriptive of its voice. Nuttall says its cry is "Iike the interrupted bellowing of a bull, but hollower and louder, and is heard at a mile s distance, as if issuing from some formidable being that resided at the bottom of the waters." Tristram says, "Its

      Bittern (Bota

      strange booming note, disturbing the stillness of night, gives an idea of desolation which nothing but the wail of a hyena can equal." Thoreau thought its voice like the stroke of an ax on the head of a deeply driven stake. In ancient times it was believed the bird thrust its sharp beak into a reed to produce this sound. Later it was supposed to be made by pushing the bill into muck and water while it cried. Now the membrane by which the sound is produced has been located in the lungs of the bird. In all time it has been the voice that attracted attention to the bittern, and it was solely upon the ground of its vocal attainments that it entered the Bible. There are three references, all of which originated in its cry. Isaiah in prophesy ing the destruction of Babylon (14 23 AY") wrote: "I will also make it a possession for the bittern, and pools of water"; in other words he would make of it a desolate and lonely swamp. Again in 34 11 AV, in pronouncing judgment against Idumaea, he wrote, "But the cormorant and the bittern shall possess it .." In the RV, "cormorant" and "bittern" are changed to "pelican" and "porcupine." The change from the cormorant to pelican makes less difference, as both are water birds, and the Heb xhtllukh, which means "a plunging bird," would apply equally to either of them. If they were used to bear out the idea that they would fill the ruins with terrifying sound, then it is well to remember that the cormorant had something of a voice, while the pelican is notoriously the most silent of birds.

      4 So


      Bitter Herbs Blasphemy

      The change from bittern to porcupine is one with which no ornithologist would agree. About 620 BC, the prophet Zephaniah (2 14) clearly indi cates this bird: "And herds shall lie down in the midst of her, all the beasts of the nations: both the pelican and the porcupine shall lodge in the capitals thereof; their voice shall sing in the win dows; desolation shall be in the thresholds: for he hath laid bare the cedar work." This should forever settle the question raised by some modern commentators as to whether a bird or beast is intended by the word ki/>/>ddlt. In some instances it seems to have been confounded with Ipunfudh, the hedgehog or porcupine. No natural historian ever would agree to this, because these animals are not at home in the conditions that were known to exist here. Even granting that Nineveh was to be made dry, it must be remembered that the marshes of the Tigris lay very close, and the bird is of night , wit h a voice easilv carrying over a mile. Also it was to "sing" and to "lodge" on the "upper lintels" which were the to]) timbers of the doors and windows. These formed just the location a bittern would probably perch upon when it left its marshy home and went booming through the night in search of a mate. It was without doubt t lie love song of the bittern that Isaiah and Zeph- aniah used in completing prophecies of desola tion and horror, because with the exception of mating time it is a very quiet bird. For these reasons 1 he change from bit t ern to porcupine in t he HY, of the paragraph quoted, is a great mistake , as is also that of cormorant to pelican.



      BIZIOTHIAH, biz-yo-thl a (r^f^^bizydlh yGh; LXX al K<X>|ACU aiircov, hni knnini nntnii, lit. "their villages"; AV Bizjothjah, biz-joth ja, "place of Jali s olives" jYounu r |. or "contempt of Jali" (Strong]): According to MT, a town in the south of Judah, near Beersheba (Josh 15 2S). LXX reads "ami her daughters," only one consonant of MT being read differently; and so We, Hollenberg, I)i et al. The LXX has probably preserved the original text

      (cf Nell 11 27).

      BIZTHA, bi/ tha (LXX Madv, Mazaii; also Hirj iu and Jidzca): One of the seven eunuchs or chamberlains of King Ahasuerus (Xerxes). It is possible that Hie name is derived from the Pers 6r.s-/r//, "bound," hence "eunuch" (Est 1 10).

      BLACK. See COLORS.

      BLACKNESS (C^TT??, kimnntii, "obscura tions"; P 7 ~~ , Jfadhriltli, "darkness"; -yvo^os, (jn6/>lir>x, "darkness," 64>os, ? / /" *. "blackness" } : Terms rarely used but of special significance in picturing the fearful gloom and blackness of moral darkness and calamity. Job, cursing the day of his birth, wishes that it, a dies alcr ("dead black day" ), might be swallowed up in darkness (Job 3 .5). Because of Israel s spiritual infidelity Jeh clothes the heavens with the blackness of sackcloth (Isa 50 3), the figure being that of the inky blackness of ominous, terrifying thunder clouds. The fear ful judgment against sin under the; old dispensation is illustrated by the appalling blackness that en veloped smoking, burning, (making Sinai at the giving of Hie law (He 12 IS; cf Ex 19 16-19; 20 IS). The horror of darkness culminates in the

      impenetrable blackness of the under-world, the eternal abode of fallen angels and riotously immoral and ungodly men (Jude ver 13; sec also ver 6 and 2 Pet 2 4.17). Human language is here too feeble to picture the moral gloom and rayless night of the lost : "Pits [AY "chains"] of darkness" (cf the ninth plague of Egypt, "darkness which may be felt" [Ex 10 21]). Wicked men are "wan dering stars," comets that disappear in "blackness of darkness .... reserved for ever." In art- this fig. language has found majestic and awe-inspiring expression in Dore s illustrations of Dante s Pur gatory and Milton s I dnuiixc Loxt.


      BLAINS, bhlnz (n^rnx, nhhn hn ah: only in Ex 9 9.10): Pustules containing fluid around a boil or inflamed sore. It is an OE word "bleyen," used sometimes as a synonym for boil. Wyclif (13S2) uses the expression "stinkende bleyne" for Job s sores. The Ileb word is from a root which means that which bubbles up. See BOIL.

      BLASPHEMY, blas fe-mi (pX min): In classical Gr meant primarily "defamation" or "evil-speaking" in general ; "a word of evil omen," hence "impious, and irreverent speech against Cod."

      (1) In the OT as subst. and vb.: (a) ("1.3, Itnrnkh) "Naboth did blaspheme Cod and the king" (1 K 21 10.13AV); (h) (?-;., gadhaph) of Senna cherib defying Jeh (2