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All Entries for LETTER "D"



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      Deuter-canonical Books are included as references, and less often, the Pseudo-pigraphia (extra-biblical New Testament Era writings - such as the Epistle of Barnabas - used for over 300 years by the early Church.

      Though these are 'NOT' Inerrant Scripture, they are very important as geographical and historical references, and helping to understand how particular Hebrew and Greek words were used.

      Since the Deuter-canonical Books were part of the Jewish Bible that Jesus and Paul used, they have great value for understanding the era between the Covenants, and all things Jewish.

      Many will be surprised to know they were in the Geneva Bible of Calvin and Knox - and the Puritan Pilgrims - and included in the King James for over 275 years . . .

      . . . and left out in later versions - ONLY to make the Bible MORE PROFITABLE, by selling at the usual price, while being much smaller to print!

      No wonder Paul said the "love of money is the root of all evil!"

      Further know, that that these books are rejected by most Bible Preachers today, BECAUSE the Jews of Jesus' Day rejected them for the Jewish Canon at the Council of Jamnia after the fall of Jerusalem.

      This seems reasonable enough, and though these Scribes and Lawyers SHOULD have had superior knowledge in ALL THINGS JEWISH . . . in their Jewish wisdom, THEY ALSO REJECTED JESUS AS THE MESSIAH!!!

      TheDeuter-canonical Books are very "Kingdom of God" and "Messianic" Oriented, thus the Jews sis NOT want any writings confirming that Jesus WAS the Jewish Messiah.

      The wise "Students-north-Scholars" will know them, as they provide light on New Testament Scripture that are NOT understood otherwise;

    Quick Example:

    In Luke 3:36 YOUR Bible reads as follows:
        "Which was the son of Cainan, which was the son of Arphaxad, which was the son of Sem (Shem), which was the son of Noe (Noah), which was the son of Lamech;"

      This ancestor of Jesus named "Cainan, son of Arphaxad: where is he in YOUR Bible; (Check Genesis 11:13, and other genealogies).

      This dilemma - which the WORLD calls a great contradiction in the linage of Jesus as the Christ - can ONLY be solved by the Bible Jesus used, which included the Deuter-canonical Books.

      Do you suppose Jesus knew more about the "Correct Books of the Bible than modern "lukewarm" Denominations?


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      Consider the Hebrew Language:

      Hebrew is "The Perfect Language" - in the original form - as the Hebrew Language has evolved from perfection:

        >> God taught, or programmed, Adam and Eve perfect Hebrew;

        >> over a thousand years it eroded into informal Hebrew, as formal British-English eroded into the American dialect;

        >> over hundreds of more years it became a "dead Hebrew", meaning it is no longer spoken by any nation of people;

        >> eventually evolving into into the derivative Aramaic, which was commonly spoken in the days of Jesus;

        >> finally evolving into that "modern Hebrew" spoken in Israel in Post-AD-2000).

      The linguistics of the Hebrew Language as designed and taught by God to Adam and Eve (or perhaps "programmed" - either way does not affect the evidence of the Godhead) gives us massive and mighty "Eternal Evidence", daily clues and reminders of the Existence and Transcendence of the Almighty Godhead:

        >> God the Spirit - who is Spirit; manifest as Spirit of Ghost (that is Presence without corporeal body or manifestation such as Christ after His Resurrection);

        >> God the Father - willing to give His Son to save the World John 3:16-17;

        >> God the Son - willing to give His life to save the World! John 12:47;

      God decided to continually reveal the "THREE-FOLD-NATURE-OF-HIS-GODHEAD" by making EVERY Hebrew "root word" have THREE-CONSONANTS!"

        > NEVER 2 letters;

        > NEVER 4, 5, 6, or more;

        > BUT ALWAYS 3 letters!

        > And ONLY 3 and THREE alone!


      Likewise, the "Language of Life" - called by some "The Protein Language" - also designed and programmed by God to be the language of all living substance from lions to dandelions to from babies to buttercups top butterflies!

      The Protein Language is the language of Genetics, of Cells, of plants and animals and all that exists: the Code of Life;

      The PROTEIN LANGUAGE consists of "CODONS".

      This Language of all Life is also made of THREE LETTER WORDS, and each letter of these TRINITARIAN CODONS, is the life-giving code for an amino acid, creating the genetic structure of all that is LIFE!

      Thus every word that your body parts (cells, organs, glands and tissues, etc.,) write to each other, and every word your body reads in communication from another body part, these are ALL THREE LETTER WORDS!

      All of the intelligence your body has, all it knows and all it communicates - in every bodily function possible - is given in THREE LETTER WORDS!

        > NEVER 2 letters;

        > NEVER 4, 5, 6, or more;

        > ALWAYS 3 letters!

        > ONLY 3 and THREE alone!

      Can we possibly miss this, asks NewtonStein? (Not if we can count as far as 1, 2, 3!!!)

    Even the Word "G-O-D" in English . . . is Three Letters!

      Why is "GOD" in English significant?

      For the simple reason that today, in the POST-AD-2,000 word, very few scores of thousands speak Biblical Hebrew with the THREE-LETTER-ROOT-WORD structure.

      Comparatively, scores of HUNDREDS OF MILLIONS SPEAK English!

        >> ENGLISH, is an Official Language in well over 100 nations of the World!

        >> ENGLISH, is The Major Language of Science, Globally!

        >> ENGLISH, is an Official - and the Major - Language of , the United Nations!

        >> ENGLISH, is The Official Language of The Internet!

        >> ENGLISH, is The Major Language of Serious Publishing - even in Japan and Germany!

        >> ENGLISH, is The Official Language of Global Airlines and Airports!

        >> ENGLISH, is The Official Language of OF the World!

        ** THUS more people will hear the Gospel in ENGLISH than any other Language!

        ** THUS more people will read the Gospel in ENGLISH than any other Language!

        ** THUS more people will own a Bible in ENGLISH than any other Language!

        ** THUS more people will get saved from learning TRUTH in ENGLISH than any other Language!

        FACT! SINCE God knew of the ENGLISH as the Global Language before the Foundation of the World!

        FACT! SINCE God in His Goodness has ALWAYS given Signs to Those Who Believe, from Moses and Israel, to Samson, to The Virgin Birth as a sign (Isa 7:14) to the Swaddling Clothes as a sign, to the Signs of the times in Matthew 24:4-24, Mark 13:5-20 and Luke 17:31-41 and 21:10-25;

        FACT! SINCE God originally made His name a "Three-Letter-Root-Word in Hebrew - "JAH" (Psalm 68:4)

        FACT! ONCE AGAIN God made His Name a THREE LETTER WORD in ENGLISH, the Global Language of the most populated era of Earth!

      So remember this every time "GOD!" is heard, read, said, etc., teach this to others, and help your family and friends see the "SIGNS along the WAY!"

    Seeing God in Linguistics, in General;

      In linguistics, there are many, many more, that PROVE God is the Designer of (a)All language, (b)alphabet, (c)Hebrew, (d) that Hebrew is the parent language of all others, (e)word structure, (f)actual words unique to Hebrew that pertain to God . . .


      . . . BECAUSE they had no God with eternal Attributes!

      Emmanuel is the same word in every language, and no language has a word it can be translated into, because it means GOD DWELLING IN HIS PEOPLE . . . and no people had "this experience apart from the People of the One True GOD JAH, thus "Emmannuel remains the same word in all languages!

      Likewise "Halleluah" - which is a Hebrew compound word "Hallelu-JAH" - and is a Command to "PRAISE JAH!"

      "Amen!" and Hosanna are also neat, unique words and there are literally hundreds more!

      The scoffing world asks: "Where is evidence for God!?" to which we answer:






    All Commentary from INSPIRED-INERRANT View of God's Word!

    Letter "D"


    Letter "D"

    DABAREH, dab a-re.

      See DAHKKATH.

    DABBESHETH. dab e-sheth,

      A town on the western boundary of Zebulun (Joshus 19:11). It is probably identical with the modern Dabshch, a ruined site to the East of Acre.

    DABERATH, dab r-rath

      "pasture"; Dabciroth): A city in the territory of Issachar, on the boundary between that tribe and Zebulun (Joshus 19:12). It was assigned to the Gershonite Levites (Joshus 21:28; 1 Chroniclesron 6:72). The most probable identification is with Daburiyeh, a village on the lower western slopes of Tabor.

    DABRIA, da bri-a:

      One of the five who wrote down the visions of Esdrasras, described (2 Esdrasras 14:24) as "ready to write swiftly."

    DACUBI, da-ku bi,

      AV Dacobi, Head of a family of gate-keepers (I Esdrasras 5:28). See AKKUB; DAKUBI.

    DADDEUS, da-de us,

      RV LODDEUS (AoSSaios, Loddaios), which see.

    DAGGER, dag er.

      See ARMOR, ARMS.

    DAGON, da gon

      Apparently derived from datjh, "fish" of the 'fish-god'. The idol Dagon had an emendation, "a tail" , 'dagho', "his fish-part". Scholars appear to be right in inferring that the idol was half man, half fish.

      Classic authors give this form to Derceto. Today we would call this a 'Mermaid'.

      Name of the god of the Philistines (according to Jerome on Isaiah 46:1 of the Philistines generally); in the Bible Dagon is associated with Gaza (Judges 16) but elsewhere with Ashdod (cf 1 Samuel 5:1-5 and 1 Macc 10:83 f; 11 4); in 1 Chroniclesro 10:10 there is probably an error (cf the passage 1 Samuel 31:10).

      The god had his temple ( the house of Dagon") and his priests. When the ark was captured by the Philis, it. was conducted to Ashdod where it was placed in the house of Dagon by the side of the idol. But, on the morrow it was found that the idol lay prostrate be fore the ark of the Lord.

      It was restored to its place; but on the following day Dagon again lay on the ground before the ark, this time with the head and both hands severed from the body and lying upon the miphtdii (the word is commonly interpreted to mean "threshold"; according to Winckler, it means "pedestal") ; the body alone remained intact.



      The Hebrews says: "Dagon alone remained." Whether we resort to an emendation ("j" , dagho, "his fish-part") or not, commentators appear to be right in inferring that the idol was half man, half fish. Classic authors give this form to Derceto. The sacred writer adds that from that time on the priests of Dagon and all those that entered the house of Dagon refrained from stepping upon the 'tniphtan' of Dagon. See 1 Samuel 5 1-5.

      The prophet Zephaniah (Zeph 1:9) speaks of an idolatrous practice which consisted in leaping over the miphtnn (tail).

      The Septuagint - THE BIBLE OF JESUS and HIS APOSTLES - in 1 Samuel indeed adds the clause:

      "but they wene wont to leap."

      Leaping over the threshold was a practice of the Philistines, a ritual which the Hebrews explained in their way.

      A god Dagon seems to have been worshipped by the Canaanites; see BETH-DAGON. (House of Dagon)

      LITERATURE Commentaries on JRS anel 1 Samuel; Winckler, Altoriental. Forschungen, 111, 3s:{.


    DAILY, day lee:

      This word, coming as it does from the Hebrew "yom", or "day," suggests either day by day (1 Kingsings 5:13), that which is prepared for one daily (Nehemiah 5:18), as e.g. our "daily bread," meaning bread sufficient for that day (Mat 6:11) in the Lord's Prayer.

      **HOWEVER, note that in the Greek for the Lord's Prayer this word is NOT known:

        [1] It is ONLY used in the New Testament, that it is NOT found in any ancient Greek manuscripts of daily life, from letters to books to news-notes;

        [2] And it is ONLY used in the New Testament, ONLY in this ONE PASSAGE, so it cannot be understood from other passages;

        [3] It could mean in the New Testament as 'give us this day our 'heavenly' or 'spiritual' bread, [manna-like]; or 'seed-bread' [that is bread to give to the needy]

      In the Hebrew, it seems to be 'Manna-like' - or day by day continuously, one day after another in succession, as follows:

        [1] "the daily burnt offering" (Numbers 29:1-5 --> (AV),

        [2] "daily ministration" (Acts 6 1),

        [3] daily in the temple" (Acts 5:42 AV).

        [4] daily ...from house to house" (Acts 5:42 AV).

        [5] The meaning of the word "daily" as used in the Lord s Prayer (Mat 6:11) seems to indicate sufficient for our need, whether we consider that need as a day at a time, or day after day as we are permitted to live. "Give us bread sufficient for our sustenance." WILLIAM EVANS [SEE ABOVE, NewtonStein]


      See SACRIFICeast

    DAINTIES, dan ties,

      DAINTY (MEATS) matfammoth, "things full of taste," "fat," "shining"): Jacob is represented as predicting of Asher, "He shall yield royal food." (Genesis 49:20; cf || clause, "His bread shall be fat," and Deuteronomy 33:24, "Let him dip his foot in oil").

      David, praying to be delivered from the ways of "men that work inquity," cries, "Let me not eat of their dainty meats." (Psalm 141:4).

      The man who sitteth "to eat with a ruler" (Prov 23:1-3) is counseled, "If thou be a man given to appetite, be not desirous of his d.; see ing they are deceitful food" (cf John's words in the woes upon Babylon [The The Revelation 18:14],

      "All things that want dainty and sumptuous are perished from thee." and Homer's Iliad [Pope], xviii.4.j(i).

      "Dainties," then, are luxuries, costly, delicate and rare. This idea is common to all the words thus rendered; naturally associated with kings tables, and with the lives of those who are lovers of pleasure and luxury.

      By their associations and their softening effects they are to be abstained from or indulged in moderately as "deceitful food" by those who would live the simple and righteous life which wisdom sanctions. They are also "offered not from genuine hospitality, but with some by-ends."

      He should also shun the dainties of the niggard (Prov 23:1-6, who counts the cost (ver 7 RV) of every morsel that his guest eats. See DELICATE; FOOD, etc. GEO. B. EAGER

    DAISAN, ela san, da i-san

      (Aaurav, Daiadn): Head of a family of temple servants (1 Esdrasras 6:31) called llezin in Ezraa 2:48; Nehemiah 7:50, the interchange of D and R in Hebrews being not uncommon.

    DAKUBI, da-ku bi,

      da-koo bi (AaKov3, Dakoub, vpC, Dakoubi; AV Dacobi): Head of a family of gate-keepers (1 Esdrasras 5:28) called "Akkub" in the canonical lists.

    DALAIAH, da-la a,

      da-la-i a. See DELAIAH.

    DALAN, da lan

      (AaXav, Dnldn; AV Ladan) : Head of a family that returned to Jerusalem, but which "could shew neither their families, nor their stock, how they wen 1 of Israel" (1 Esdrasras 5:37); corresponds to Delaiah (Ezra 2 GO). Another reading is "Asan."

    DALE, daal,

      KINGS (1) "Absalom in his lifetime 1 had taken and reared up for himself the pillar, which is in the king s dale" (2 Samuel 18:18). According to Jos (Ant, YII, x, 3) this was a marble pillar, which he calls "Absalom's hand" and it was two furlongs from Jerus.

      Warren suggests that this dale was identical with the KING south GARDEN (q.v.j, which he places at the open valley formed at the junction of the Tyropuxm with the Kidron (see JERUSALEM). The so-called Absalom s Pillar, which the Jews still pelt with stones in reprobation of Absalom s disobedience, and which a comparatively recent tradition associates with 2 Samuel 18:18, is a very much later structure, belonging to the Graeco-Romans period, but showing Egyptian influence.

      King s Vale (Genesis 14 17; AV dale). See KING south YALE; YALeast east west G. MASTEHMAN

    DALETH, da leth

      The 4th letter of the Hebrews alphabet, and as such used in Psalm 119:1-2 --> to designate the 4th section; transliterated in this Encyclopaedia with the dutjcxh as d, and, without, as dh.

      It came also to be used for the number four (4), and with the dieresis for 4,000.

      ** With the apostrophe it is sometimes used as abbreviation for the tetragrammaton.

      For name, etc, see ALPHABET.

    DALLY, dal lee:

      Occurs in Wisd 12 20: "But they that would not be reformed by that correction wherein he 'dullnil' with them" ("child play of correction"), the reference 1 being to the earlier and lighter plagues of Egypt; RV renders "by a mocking correction as of children," "by a correction which was as children's play," Gr (as above).

      He first tried them by those lighter inflictions before sending on them the heavier. In later usage "dally" implies delay.

    DALMANUTHA, dal-ma-nu tha.

      See MAGA Cf Mark 8 10; Matthew 15 3!).

    DALMATIA, dal-ma shi-a

      "deceitful"): A district of the Romans empire lying on the eastern shore of the Adriatic. Writing from Rome to Timothy during his second imprisonment according to Ramsay's chronology), Paul records the departure! of Titus to Dalmatia (2 Tim 4:10).

      No mention is made of his special mission, and we cannot tell whether his object was to traverse regions hitherto unevangelized or visit churches already formed.

      Nor can we deter mine with certainly the 1 meaning of the word Dal matia as here used. Originally it denoted the laud of the barbarous Dalmatae Delmatae, a warlike Illyrian tribe 1 subjugated by the Romans after a long and stubborn resistance; it was then the southern portion of the Romans province of Illyricum, lying between the river Titius (mod. Kcrka) and the Macedonian frontier; later the name 1 was extended to the 1 entire province. On 1hc whole 1 it seems most probable that the apostle; uses it in this last sense. See further s.v. ILLYRHTM. MAKCUS north



    DALPHON, dal fon

      dlalpho "crafty"): The second of the ten sons of Hainan, slain by the Jews (Est 97).


      (the ordinary Hob word for "mother ): Hebrew law prohibited the destruction of the "dam and the young of birds at the same time, commanding that if the young be taken from a nest the dam be allowed to escape ( Deuteronomy 22:7).

      In the same spirit it enjoined the taking of an animal for slaughter before it had been seven days with its "dam" (Exodus 22:1-2 -->); Leviticus 22:27; cf Exodus 23:19).

    DAMAGE, dam aj

      (habliillu): This word expresses any inflicted loss of value or permanent injury to persons or things. "Why should damage grow to the hurt of the kings." (Ezraa 4:22).

      In Prov 26 (> "damage" means "wrong," injury (Heh Cpn, Ijaind.y). The trof Est 7 4 is doubtful: "Although the adversary could not, have compen sated for the king s damage" (HYm "For our afflic tion is not to be compared with the king s damage"; AV "could not countervail the king s damage"); but Heh pT:., ttcz<k (Est 7 4) and Aram, ptl , iidzik (I)nl 6 2) have the meaning of "molestation" or "annoyance" (see Ges.-Buhl Diet. [15th ed] 4S<), 806, 908). We therefore ought to read for that oppression would not have been worthy of the mo lestation of the king (Est 7 4) and that the king should have no molestation (Dnl 6 2). The "loss" and "to cause loss"; RV therefore translates Acts 27 10 "will be with injury and much loss" (AV "damage"), and 2 Corinthians 7 !) "that ye might suffer loss by us in nothing" (AV "damage"). A. L. BRKSLICH

      DAMARIS, dam a-ris (Aajxapis, Dainnrix, pos sibly a corruption of SafiaAis, ildiiuiliti, "a heifer"). The name of a female Christ ian of Athens, converted by Paul s preaching (Acts 17 34). The fact that she is mentioned in this passage together with Dio- nysius the Areopagite has led some, most probably in error, to regard her as his wife. The singling out of her name with that of Dionysius may indicate some personal or social distinction. Cf Acts 17 12.

      DAMASCENES, dam-a-senz , dain a-senz (TTJV iroXiv Aa|Aao-Kiivu>v, ten politi I)<nt/(ixl;c/ton , "the city of the Damascenes")^ The inhabitants of Damascus under Aretas the Arabian are so called (2 Corinthians 11 32).

      DAMASCUS, da-mas kus: 1 Name

      2. Situation and Natural Features :{. The City Itself 4. Its History

      (1) The Karly Period (to cir 950 BO)

      (2) The Aramaean Kingdom (cir <>">()-732 BO) (li) The Middle Period (7X2 B(M>5() AD)

      (4) Under Islam

      The Eng. name is the same as the fir Aa/xao-^j, Damaskds. The Hebrews name is plCTQ , Danirncwk, but

      the Aram, form pTl?p"n , Darmesek, oe- 1. Name curs in 1 Chronicles 18 5; 2 Chronicles 28 5. The

      name appears in Egyp inscriptions as Ti-mas-ku (16th cent. BC), and Sa-ra-mas-ki (13th cent. BC), which west M. IMiiller, Asien u. Europa, 227, regards as representing Ti-ra-mas-ki, conclud ing from the "ra" in this form that Damascus had by that time passed under Aram, influence. In the Am Tab the forms Ti-ma-as-gi and Di-tnas-ka occur. The Arab, name is Dimashk cx/i-rfhain ("Damascus of Syria") usually contrasted to Esh-Sham simply. The meaning of the name Damascus is unknown. Esh-tftiatH. (Syria) means "the left," in contrast to the Yemen (Arabia) = "the right."


      Damascus is situated C >.T :>() north la.t., . {(> ri IS east

      longj in the northwest corner of the (Ihuta, a fertile

      plain about 2, . !()() ft. above sea level,

      2. Situation west of Ml. Hermon. The part of and Natural the (Ihuta east of the city is called </- Features Mcrj, the "meadow-land" of Damascus.

      The river Barada (see ABAXA) flows through Damascus and waters the plain, through which the \\\\afir d-Airtij (see PIIAKPAK) also flows, a few miles south of the city. Surrounded on three sides by bare hills, and bordered on the east, its open side, by the desert, its well-watered and fertile (Ihuta, with its streams and fountains, its fields and orchards, makes a vivid impression on the Arab of the desert. Arab, lit . is rich in praises of Damas cus, which is described as an earthly paradise. The European or American traveler is apt to feel that these _ praises are exaggerated, and it is perhaps only in early summer that the beauty of the in numerable fruit trees apricots, pomegranates, wal nuts and many others justifies enthusiasm. To see Damascus as the Arab sees it, we must approach it, as he does, from the desert. The Barada (Abana) is the life blood of Damascus. Confined in a narrow gorge until close to the city, where it spreads itself in many channels over the plain, only to lose itself a few miles away in the marshes that fringe the desert, its whole strength is expended in making a small area between the hills and the desert reallv fertile. That is why a city on this site is inevitable and permanent. Damascus, almost defenceless from a military point of view, is the natural mart and factory of inland Syria. In the course of its long history it has more than once enjoyed and lost political supremacy, but in all the vicissitudes of political fortune it has remained the natural harbor of 1 he Syrian desert .

      Damascus lies along the main stream of the Bara da, almost entirely on its south bank. The city is about a mile long (10. to west) and about

      3. The City half a mile broad (north to south). On the Itself south side a long suburb, consisting

      for the most part of a single street, called the Meiiltin, stretches for a mile beyond the line of the city wall, terminating at the; Baurwabet Allah, the "(late of Clod," the starting-point of the II<ij, the annual pilgrimage to Mecca. The city has thus roughly the shape of a broad-headed spoon, of which the Meidcm is the handle. In the Gr period, a long, colonnaded street ran through the city, doubtless the "street which is called Straight" (Acts 9 11). This street, along the course of which remains of columns have been discovered, runs westward from the Babesh-Sherki, the "East Gate." Part- of it is still called Derb el-M n.^taklm (."Straight Street"), but it is not certain that it has borne the name through all the intervening cents. It runs between the Jewish and Christian quarters (on the left and right, respectively, going westj, and ter minates in the tit<k el-Midhatiyeh, a bazaar built by Midhat Pasha, on the north of which is the main Moslem quarter, in which are the citadel and the (Ireat Mosque. The houses are flat-roofed, and are usually built round a courtyard, in which is a foun tain. The streets, with the exception of Straight Street, are mostly narrow and tortuous, but on the west side of the city there are some good covered bazaars. Damascus is not rich in antiquities. The Omayyad Mosque, or (Ireat Mosque, replaced a Christian church, which in its time had taken the place of a pagan temple. The site was doubtless occupied from time immemorial by the chief reli gious edifice of the city. A small part of the ancient Christian church is still extant. Part of the city wall has been preserved, with a foundation going back to Romans times, surmounted by Arab work. The traditional site of Paul s escape (Acts 9 25;




      2 Corinthians 11 33) and of the House of Naaman (2 Kings 5) are pointed out to the traveler, but the traditions are valueless. The charm of Damascus lies in the life of the bazaars, in the variety of types which may be seen there the Druse, the Kurd, the Bedouin and many others and in its historical associations. It has always been a manufacturing city. Our word "damask bears witness to the fame of its textile industry, and the "Damascus blades" of the Crusading period were equally famous; and though Timur (Tamerlane) destroyed the trade in arms in 1399 by carrying away the armorers to Samarcand, Damascus is still a city of busy craftsmen in cloth and wood. Its antiquity casts a spell of romance upon it. After a traceable history of thirty-five cents, it is still a populous and flourishing city, and, in spite of the advent of the railway and even the electric street car, it still preserves the flavor of the East.

      kingdom in Damascus. Rezon, son of Eliada, an officer in the army of Hadadezer, king of Zobah, escaped in the hour of defeat, and became a captain of banditti. Later he established himself in Da mascus, and became its king (1 Kings 11 23 ff). He cherished a not unnatural animosity against Israel, and the rise of a powerful and hostile kingdom in the Israelitish frontier was a constant source of anxiety to Solomon (1 Kings 11 25).

      (2) The Aramaean king/lorn (cir 960-732 BC). Whether Rezon was himself the founder of a dy nasty is not clear. He has been identified with He/ion, father of Tab-rimmon, and grandfather of Ben-hadad (1 Kings 15 IS), but the identification, though a natural one, is insecure. Bcn-hadad (Bir- idri) is the first king of Damascus, after Rezon, of whom we have any detailed knowledge. The disruption of the Hebrews kingdom afforded the Ara maeans an opportunity of playing off the rival Hebrews


      (1) The earl/i /n riail (In cir 9~)f) Il( ). The origin of Damascus is unknown. Mention has already been made ( 1) of the references to the 4. Its city in Egyp inscriptions and in the Am

      History Tab. It appears once -possibly twice

      in the history of Abraham. In (Jen 14 15 we read that Abraham pursued the four kings as far as Hobah, "which is on the left hand [i.e. the north] of Damascus." But this is simply a geo graphical note which shows only that Damascus was well known at the time when Genesis 14 was written. Greater interest attaches to Genesis 15 2, where Abraham complains that he is childless and that his heir is Dammesek Eliezer" (ERV), for which the Syr versionreads "Eliezer the Damaschul." The clause, however, is hopelessly obscure, and it is doubtful whether it contains any reference to Da mascus at all. In the time of David Damascus was an Aramaean city, which assisted the neighboring Aramaean states in their unsuccessful wars against David (2 Samuel 8 5f). These campaigns resulted in directly in the establishment of a powerful Aramaean

      states against each other, and of bestowing their favors now on one, and now on the other. Ben- hadad was induced by Asa of Judah to accept, a large bribe, or tribute, from the Temple treasures, and relieve Asa by attacking the Northern Kingdom (1 Kings 15 18 ff). "Some years later (cir 880 BC) Ben-hadad (or his successor?) defeated Omri of Israel, annexed several Israelitish cities, and secured the right of having Syrian "streets" (i.e. probably a bazaar for Syrian merchants) in Samaria (1 Kings 20 34). Ben-hadad II (according to Winckler the two Ben-hadads are really identical, but this view, though just possible chronologically, conflicts with 1 Kings 20 34) was the great antagonist of Ahab. His campaigns against Israel arc narrated in 1 Kings 20 2L>. At first successful, he was subsequently twice de feated by Ahab, and after the rout at Aphek was at the mercy of the conqueror, who treated him with generous leniency, claiming only the restora tion of the lost Israelitish towns, and the right of establishing an Israelitish bazaar in Damascus. On the renewal of hostilities three years later Ahab



      fell before Rarnoth-gilcad, ;ind his death relieved Ben-hadad of the only neighboring monarch who could ever challenge the superiority of Damascus. Further light is thrown upon the history of Damas cus at this time by the Assyrian inscriptions. In Sf>4 BC the Assyrians defeated a coalition of Syrian and Palestine states (including Israel) under the leadership of Bcn-hadad at Karkar. In SI!) and S4(> BC renewed at tacks were made upon Damascus by the Assyrians, who, however, did not effect any considerable conquest. From this date until the fall of t he city in 732 I >( 1 he power of t he Aramaean kingdom depended upon the activity or quiescence of Assyria, lla/ael, who murdered Ben-hadad and usurped his throne cir SI I B( , was attacked in S42 and S3 .), but during the next thirty years Assyria made no furl her advance west ward. Ila/.ael was ;ible to devote all his energies to his western neighbors, and Isiael suffered severely at his hands. In south():j Mari of Damascus, who is probably identical with the Ben-hadad of 2 Kingsings 13:3, Hazael s son, was made tributary to Kammati-nirari 111. of Assyria. This blow weakened Aram, and afforded Jeroboam 11 of Israel an opportunity of avenging the defeats inflicted upon his country by Israel.

      In 727 Assyria again invaded the territory of Damascus.

      Tiglath-piTeser III in 727BC 1 Kingsings pushed vigorously westward, and in 735 Jeremiah of Damascus paid tribute. A year or two later lie revolted, and at tern [it ed in concert with I ekah of Israel, to coerce Judah into joining an anti-Assyrian league (2 Kingsings 15 37 ; 16 Isaiah 7).

      His punishment, was swift and de cisive. In 734 the Assyrians advanced and laid siege to Damascus, which fell m 732. Re/in was executed, his kingdom was overthrown, and the city suffered the fate which a few years later befell Samaria.

      (4) The middle period (cir 732 B( ,-(>. ,() .ID). Damascus had now lost its political importance, and for more than two cents, we have only one or two inconsiderable references to it. It is men tioned in an inscription of Sargon (722-70") IK ) as having taken part in an unsuccessful insurrecti n along with Hamath and Arpad. Then 1 are inci dental references to it in Jeremiah 49 23 ff and Kzk 27 IS; 47 K) IT. In the I ers period Damascus, if not politically of great importance, was a prosperous city. The overthrow of the I ers empire by Alex ander was soon followed (301 BC) by the estab lishment of the Seleucid kingdom of Syria, with Antioch as its capital, and Damascus lost its posi tion as the chief city of Syria. The center of gravity was moved toward the sea, and the maritime com merce of the Levant became more important than the trade of Damascus with the interior. In 111 BC the Syrian kingdom was divided, and Antiochus Cyzicenus became king of Coele-Syria, with Da mascus as his capital. His successors, Demetrius Kucaerus and Antiochus Dionysus, had troubled careers, being involved in domestic conflicts and in wars with the Parthians, with Alexander Jan- naeus of Judaea, and with A ret as the Nabataean, who obtained possession of Damascus in 8"> BC. Tigranes, being of Armenia, held Syria for some years after this date, but, was defeated by the Romans, and in 64 BC Pompey finally annexed the country. The position of Damascus during the first cent, and a half of Romans rule in Syria is obscure. For a time it was in Romans hands, and from 31 BC- 33 AD its coins bear the names of Augustus or Ti berius. Subsequently it was again in the hands of the Nabataeans, and was ruled by an ethnarch, or governor, appointed by Aretas, the Nabataean king. This ethnarch adopted a hostile attitude to Paul (2 Corinthians 11 32 f). Later, in the time of Nero, it again became a Romans cily. In the early history of Christianity Damascus, as compared with Antioch,

      played a very minor part. But it is memorable in Christian history on account of its associations with Paul s conversion, and as the scene of his earliest Christian preaching (Acts 9 l-2o). All the NT ref erences to the citv relate to this event (Acts 9 1- 2.J; 22 5-11; 26 12.20; 2 Corinthians 11 32 f; Cial 1 17).

      Traditional H

      Afterward, under the early Byzantine emperor, Damascus, though important as an outpost of civili zation on the edge of the desert, continued to be second to Antioch both politically and ecclesiasti cally. It was not until the Arabian conquest ((534 AD when it passed out of Christian hands, and re verted to the desert , that it once more became a true capital.

      (4) I niliT f.^lnin. Damascus has now been a Moslem city, or rather a city under Moslem rule, for nearly thir teen cent lines. ! ()! about a cent . after <>50 AU it was tin- seat of the Omayyad caliphs, and enjoyed a position of preeminence in the Moslem world. Later it was sup planted by Ila.udad. and in the 10th cent, it came under the rule of the Katimites of KK.vpl. Toward the close of the llth cent, tin; Seljnk Turks entered Syria and cap tured Damascus. In the period of the Crusades the city, though never of decisive importance, played a con siderable part, and was for a time the headquarters of Saladin. In i:i()0 it was plundered by the Tartars, and in i:west) Timur exacted an enormous ransom from it. and carried otf its famous armorers, thus robbing it of one of its most important industries. Finally, in l.~>1(> A I), the Osmanli Turks under Sultan Selim con quered Syria, and Damascus became, and still is, tho capital of a province of tho Ottoman Empire.

      C. II. THOMSOX

      DAMMESEK ELIEZER (Genesis 15 2 ERV). See ELIK/.KH (1),

      DAMN, dam, DAMNATION, dam-na shun, DAMNABLE, dam na-b l: These words have under gone a change of meaning since the AV was made. They are derived from Lat dnniitarc="to inflict a loss," "to condemn," and that was their original meaning in Kng. Now they denote exclusively the idea of everlasting punishment in hell. It is often difficult to determine which meaning was intended by the translators in AV. They have been excluded altogether from RV. The words for which they stand in AY are:

      (1) elirwXeia. apdleia, "destruction," tr 1 "damna ble" and "damnation" only in 2 Pet 21 3 (RV "destructive," destruction"). False prophets taught doctrines calculated to destroy others, and themselves incurred the sentence of destruction such as overtook the fallen angels, the world in the Deluge, and the cities of the Plain. Apdleia occurs otherwise 1(5 times in the NT, and is always tr 1 in AV and RV by either "perdition" or "destruction": twice of waste of treasure (Matthew 26 8 = Mark 14 4); twice of the beast that comes out of the abyss and goes into perdition (The The Revelation 17 8.11). In all other cases, it refers to men, and defines the destiny that befalls them as the result of sin: Judas is the "son of perdition" (John 17 12). Peter consigns Simon Magus and his money to perdition (Acts 8 20).



      Some men are "vessels of wrath fitted unto de struction" (Romans 9 22), and others, their "end is perdition" (Phil 3 19). It is the antithesis of sal vation (He 10 39; Phil 1 28). Of the two ways of life, one leads to destruction (Matthew 7 13). Whether it is utter, final and irretrievable destruction is not stated.

      (2) Kpivu, kr inu, tr 1 "damned" only in AV of 2 Thess 2 12 (RV "judged") means "to judge" in the widest sense, "to form an opinion" (Luke 7 43), and forensic-ally "to test and try" an accused person. It can only acquire the sense of "judging guilty" or "condemning" from the context.

      (3) KaTaKplvu. leal alert no, tr 1 "damned" only in AV of Alk 16 1(5; Romans 14 23 ("condemned" in RY), means properly "to give judgment against" or "to condemn" and is so tr 1 17 t in AY and always in RV.

      (4) Kpio-Li, krisis, tr 1 "damnation" in AY of Matthew 23 33; Mark 3 29; John 5 29 (RV "judgment," but in Mark 3 29, "sin" for dud/jT-^a, hamdrtema), means (a) judgment in general like krino, and is so used about 17 t, besides 14 t in the phrase "day of judgment"; (b) "condemnation," like katakrino, about 14 t.

      ( )) KpiiJ.a, krinia, tr ! in AV "damnation" 7 t (Matthew 23 14 = Mark 12 40 = Luke 20 47; Romans 3 north; 13 2; 1 Corinthians 11 29; 1 Tim 5 12), "condemnation" 6 1, "judg ment" 13 t, "law" and "avenged" once each; in RV "condemnation" 9 t (Matthew 23 14 only inserted in m), "judgment" 17 t, and once in m, "lawsuit" and "sentence" once each. "Judgment" may be neutral, an impartial act of the judge weighing the evidence (so in Matthew 7 2; Acts 24 2o; Romans 11 33; He 6 2; 1 Pet 4 17; The The Revelation 20 4> and "lawsuit" (1 Corinthians 6 7); or it may be inferred from the context that judgment is unto condemnation (so in Romans 2 2.3; 6 Ki; (J:il 5 10; 2 Pet 2 3; The The Revelation 17 1; 18 20, and RY Romans 13 2; 1 Corinthians 11 29). In places where kriina and Ar/.s /.s are rightly tr 1 "condem nation, "and where "judgment" regarded as an ac complished fact involves a sentence of guilt, they together with k<i/ul:rin<> define the relation of a per son to the supreme authority, as that of a criminal, found and held guilty, and liable to punishment. So the Romans empire regarded Jesus Christ, and the thief on the cross (Luke 23 40; 24 20). But gener ally these words refer to man as a sinner against dod, judged guilty by Him, and liable to the just penalty of sin. They imply nothing further as to the nature 1 of the penalty or the state of man under going it, nor as to its duration. Nor does the word "eternal" (aiuv, aiuvios, aion, niottiox, often wrongly tr 1 "everlasting" in AY) when added to them, deter mine the question of duration. Condemnation is an act in the moral universe, which cannot be deter mined under categories of time.

      These terms define the action of God in relation to man s conduct, as that of the Supreme Judge, but they express only one aspect of that relation which is only fully conceived, when coordinated with the more fundamental idea of God s Fatherhood. See ESCHATOLOI.Y; JUDCMKNT.

      LITERATUReast Salmoncl, Christian Doctrine of Immor tality; Charles, Enchatoloyy.

      T. REES

      DAMSEL, dam zel: A young, unmarried woman; a girl (lass); maiden (cf Fr. demoiselle). RY in Matthew 26 (59; John 18 17; Acts 12 13; 16 16 gives "maid" for 7rcu5icr/c77, paidiske, "a girl," i.e. (spec.) a maid servant or young female slave (AV "damsel"), and "child" for TraiSLov, paid ton, "a half-grown boy or girl," in Mark 5 39.40 bisAl.

      DAN (]", dan, "judge"; Aav, Daniel): The fifth of Jacob s sons, the first borne to him by Bilhah, the maid of Rachel, to whom, as the child of her

      slave, he legally belonged. At his birth Rachel,

      whose barrenness had been a sore trial to her,

      exclaimed "God hath judged me ....

      1. Name and hat h given me a son," so she called

      his name Daniel, i.e. "judge" (Genesis 30 G). He was full brother of Naphtali. In Jacob s Blessing there is an echo of Rachel s words, "Daniel shall judge his people" (Genesis 49 1(5). Of the pa triarch Daniel almost nothing is recorded. Of his sons at the settlement in Egypt, only one, Hushim, is mentioned (Genesis 46 23). The name in Numbers 26 42 is Shuham. The tribe however stands second in point of numbers on leaving Egypt, furnishing

      (52,700 men of war (Numbers 1 39); and

      2. The at the second census they were 64,400 Tribe strong (26 43). The standard of the

      camp of Daniel in the desert march, with which were Asher and Naphtali, was on the north side of the tabernacle (Numbers 2 2f>; 10 2f>; cf Joshus 6 9 AVm "gathering host"). The prince of the tribe was Ahie/er (Numbers 1 12). Among the spies Daniel was represented by Ammiel the son of Gemalli (13 12). Of the tribe of Daniel was Oholiab (AV "Aholiab") one of the wise-hearted artificers en gaged in the construction of the tabernacle (Exodus 31 (5). One who was stoned for blasphemy was the son of a Danite woman (Leviticus 24 10 f). At the ceremony of blessing and cursing, Daniel and Napht ali stood on Mount Ebal, while the other Rachel tribes were on Geri/im (1)1 27 13). The prince of Daniel at the division of the land was Bukki the son of Jogli (Numbers 34 22).

      The portion assigned to Daniel adjoined those of Ephraim, Benjamin and Judah, and lay on the west ern slopes of the mountain. The

      3. Territory reference in Judges 6 17: "And Daniel,

      why did he remain in ships?" seems to mean that on the AV. Daniel had reached the sea. But, the passage is one of difficulty. \\\\Yo are told that the Amorites forced the children of Daniel into the mountain (Judges 1 34), so they did not enjoy the richest part of their ideal portion, the fertile plain bet ween the mountain and the sea. The strong hand of the house of Joseph kept the Amorites tributary, but did not drive them out. Later we find Daniel oppressed by the Philis, against whom the heroic exploits of Samson were performed (Judges 14 ff). The expedition of the Danites recorded in Judges 18

      is referred to in Joshus 19 47 ff. The

      4. The story affords a priceless glimpse of the Danite Raid conditions prevailing in those days.

      Desiring an extension of territory, the Danites sent out spies, who recommended an attack ui)on Laish, a city at the north end of the Jordan valley. The people, possibly a colony from Sidon, were careless in their fancied security. The land was large, and there was "no want of anything that was in the earth." The expedition of the 600, their dealings with Micah and his priest, their capture of Laish, and their founding of an idol shrine with priestly attendant, illustrate the strange mingling of lawlessness and superstition which was charac teristic of the time. The town rebuilt on the site of Laish they called Daniel see following art. Per haps 2 Chronicles 2 14 may be taken to indicate that the Danites intermarried with the Phoenicians. Di vided between its ancient seat in the south and the new territory in the north the tribe retained its place in Israel for a time (1 Chronicles 12 3">; 27 22), but it played no part of importance in the subsequent history. The name disappears from the genealogical lists of Chronicles ; and it is not mentioned among the tribes in The The Revelation 7 5 ff .

      Samson was the one great man produced by Daniel, and he seems to have embodied the leading charac teristics of the tribe: unsteady, unscrupulous, vio lent, possessed of a certain grim humor; stealthy



      in tactics "a serpent in the way, an adder in the path" (Genesis 49 17) hut. swift and strong in strik ing "a lion s whelp, that leapeth forth from Ba- shan" (Deuteronomy 33 22). Along with Abel, Daniel ranked as a city in which, the true customs of old Israel were preserved (2 Samuel 20 IS l.XX). \\\\V. EWING

      DAN: A city familiar as marking the northern limit of the land of Israel in the common phrase "from Daniel oven to Beer-sheba" (Judges 20 1; 1 Samuel 3 20, etc). Its ancient name was Laish or Loshem (Judges 18 7, etc). It was probably an outlying set tlement of Tyre or Sidon. Its inhabitants, pursu ing the ends of peaceful traders, were defenceless against the onset of the Danite raiders. Having captured the city the Danites gave it the name of their own tribal ancestor (Judges 18). It lay in the valley near Beth-rehob (ver 2S). Jos places it near Matthew. Lebanon and the fountain of the lesser Jor dan, a day s journey from Sidon (Ant, V, iii, 1; VIII, viii, 4; /> ./, IV, i, 1). On<n says it lay 4 Romans miles from Paneas on the way to Tyre, at the source of the Jordan. This points decisively to Tdld-Kfl(hj, in the plain \\\\Y. of Banias. The mound of this name K <l<ly is the exact Arab, equivalent of the Hebrews Dun rises from among the bushes and reeds to a height varying from 10 to SO ft. The largest of all the springs of the Jordan rises on the west side. The waters join with those of a smaller spring on the. other side to form .\\\\<i/ir cl-Lnl lilri which flows southward to meet the streams from Jidniax and IJtixlx ii/ih. The mound, which is the crater of an extinct volcano, has certain ancient remains on the south side, while the tomb of Xlicikk M<irznk is sheltered by two holy trees. The sanc tuary and ritual established by the Danites per sisted as long as the house of God was in Shiloh, and the priesthood in this idolatrous shrine remained in the family of Jonathan till the conquest of Tig- lath-pileser (Judges 18 . ,(); 2 Kings 15 29). Here Jero boam I set up (lie golden calf. The ancient sanctity of the place would tend to promote the success of his scheme (1 Kings 12 2S f, etc). The calf, according to a Jewish tradition, was taken away by Tiglath- pileser. Daniel fell before Benhadad, king of Syria (1 Kings 15 20; 2 Chronicles 16 4). It was regained by Jeroboam II (2 Kings 14 25). It shared the country s fate at the hands of Tiglath-pileser (2 Kings 15 29).

      It was to this district that Abraham pursued the army of Chedorlaomer (Genesis 14 14). For Dr. G. A. Smith s suggestion that Daniel may have been at #anias see tf G//L 1 , 473, 480 f . west Ewi\\\\<;

      DAN (Ezekiel 27 19 AY). See YEDAX. DANCING, dan sing. See GAMES.

      DANDLE, dan d l ("TLTtJ , .s/iaVWi , a Pulpal form, from root. >""Tp , .s/mV, with sense of to "be caressed"). Occurs in Isaiah 66 12, "shall be dandled upon the knees."

      DANGER, dan jer: Danger does not express a state of reality but a possibility. In Matthew 5 21 f, however, and also AY Mark 3 29 (RV "but is guilty of an eternal sin") the expression "danger" refers to a certainty, for the danger spoken of is in one case judgment which one brings upon himself, and in the other the committing of an unpardonable sin. Both are the necessary consequences of a man s conduct. The reason for translating the Gr iVoxos, enochos (lit. "to he held in anything so one cannot escape") by "is in danger," instead of "guilty" or "liable," maybe due to the translat or s conception of these passages as a warning against such an act rather than as a statement of the judgment which stands pronounced over every man who commits the sin. A. L. BRESLICH


      DANIEL, dan yel (bST:^, danlyc l, bx: 1 ! , dani cl, "God is my judge"; AaviT|\\\\, Daniel):

      (1) One of the sons of David (1 Chronicles 3 1).

      (2) A Levite of the family of Ithamar (Ezra 8 2; Nehemiah 10 6).

      (3) A prophet of the time of Nebuchadnezzar and Cyrus, the hero and author of the Book of Dnl.

      \\\\\\\\ e know nothing of the early life of 1. Early Daniel, except what is recorded in the Life hook bearing his name. Here it is

      said that lie was one of the youths of royal or noble seed, who were carried captive by Nebuchadnezzar in the third year of Jehoiakim, king of Judah. Those youths were without blem ish, well-favored, skilful in all wisdom, endued with knowledge, and understanding science, and such as had ability to stand in the king s palace. The king commanded to teach them the knowledge and tongue of the Chaldaeans; and appointed for them a daily portion of the king s food and of the wine which he drank. After having boon thus nourished for three years, they were to stand before the king. Ashpenaz, the master or chief of the eunuchs, into whose hands they had boon intrusted, following a custom of the time, gave to each of these youths a new and Bab name. To Daniel, he gave the name Beltesha/zar. In Bab this name was probably Belu-lita-sharri-usur, which means "() Bel, protect thou the hostage of the king," a most appropriate name for one in the place which Daniel occupied as a host am- of Jehoiakim at the court of the king of Babylon. The youths were probably from 12 to 1") years of age at the time when they were carried captive. (For changes of names, of Joseph changed to Zaphenath-paneah [den 41 45]; Eliakim, to Jehoiakim [2 Kings 23 :U] ; Mattaniah, to Zedokiah [2 Kings 24 17]; and the two names of the high priest Johanan s brother in the Sachau Papyri, i.e. Ostan and Anani.)

      Having purposed in his heart that he would not defile himself with the food and drink of the king, Daniel requested of Ashpenaz permission to eat vegetables and drink water. Through the favor of God, this request was granted, notwithstanding the fear of Ashpenaz that his head would be endangered to the king on account of the probably resulting poor appearance of the youths living upon this blood-diluting diet, in comparison with the expected healthy appearance of the others of their class. However, ten days trial having been first granted, and at the end of that time their countenances having been found fairer and their flesh fatter than the other youths , the permission was made perma nent; and God gave to Daniel and his companions knowledge and skill in all learning and wisdom, and to Daniel understanding in all visions and dreams; so that at the- end of the three years when the king communed with them, he found them much superior to all the magicians and enchanters in every matter of wisdom and understanding.

      Daniel s public activities were in harmony with his education. His first appearance was as an in terpreter of the dream recorded in 2. Dream- Dnl 2. Nebuchadnezzar having seen Interpreter in his dream a vision of a great image, excellent, in brightness and terrible in appearance, its head of fine gold, its breast and its arms of silver, its belly and its thighs of brass, its legs of iron, its foot part of iron and part of clay, behold a stone cut out without hands smiting the image and breaking it in pieces, until it became like chaff and was carried away by the wind; while the stone that smote the image became a great mountain and filled the whole earth. When the king awoke from his troubled sleep, he forgot, or feigned that he had forgotten, the dream, and summoned the wise men of Babylon both to tell him the dream and



      to give the interpretation thereof. The wise men having said that they could not tell the dream, nor interpret it as long as it was untold, the king threat ened them with death. Daniel, who seems not to have been present when the other wise men were before the king, when he was informed of the threat of the king, and that preparations were being made to slay all of the wise men of Babylon, himself and his three companions included, boldly went in to the king and requested that he would appoint a time for him to appear to show the interpretation. Then he went to his house, and he and his companions prayed, and the dream and its interpretation were made known unto Daniel. At the appointed time, the dream was explained and the four Hebrews were loaded with wealth and given high positions in the service of the king. In the 4th chapter, we have recorded Daniel s interpretation of the dream of Nebuchadnezzar about the great tree that was hewn at the command of an angel, thus prefiguring the insanity of the king.

      Daniel s third great appearance in the book is

      in ch 5, where he is called upon to explain the

      extraordinary writing upon the wall

      3. Inter- of Belshazzar s palace, which foretold preter of the end of the Bab empire and the in- Signs coming of the; Medes and Persians.

      For this service Daniel was clothed with purple, a chain of gold put around his neck, and he was made; the third ruler in the kingdom.

      Daniel, however, was not merely an interpreter of other men s visions. In the hist six chapters we

      have recorded four or five of his o\\\\vn

      4. Seer of visions, nil of which are taken up with Visions revelations concerning the future his tory of the great world empires, esp.

      in their relation to the people of God, and predic tions of the final triumph of the Messiah s kingdom. In addition to his duties as seer and as inter preter of signs and dreams, Daniel also stood high in the governmental service of Nebu-

      5. Official chadnezzar, Belshazzar, and Darius of the the Mede, and perhaps also of Cyrus. Kings The Book of Dnl, our only reliable

      source of information on this subject, does not tell us much about his civil duties and per- .formances. It docs say, however, that he was chief of the wise men, that lie was in the gate of the king, and that he was governor over the whole province of Babylon under Nebuchadnezzar; that Belshaz zar made him the third ruler in his kingdom; and that Darius made him one of the three presidents to whom his hundred and twenty satraps were to give account; and that- he even thought to set him over his whole kingdom. In all of these positions he seems to have conducted himself with faithfulness and judgment. While in the service of Darius the Mede, he aroused the antipathy of the other presi dents and of the satraps. I nable to find any fault with his official acts, they induced the king to make a, decree, apparently general in form ami purpose, but really aimed at Daniel alone. They saw that they could find no valid accusation against him, unless they found it in connection with something concerning the law of his God. They therefore caused the king to make a decree that no one should make a request of anyone for the space of thirty days, save of the king. Daniel, having publicly prayed three times a day as he was in the habit of doing, was caught in the act, accused, and on account of the irrevocability of a law of the Medes and Persians, was condemned in accordance with the decree to be cast into a den of lions. The king was much troubled at this, but was unable to with hold the punishment. However, he expressed to Daniel his belief that his (iod in whom IK; trusted continually would deliver him; and so indeed it

      came to pass. For in the morning, when the king drew near to the mouth of the den, and called to him, Daniel said that (Sod had sent His angel and shut the mouths of the lions. So Daniel was taken up unharmed, and at the command of the king his accusers, having been cast into the den, were de stroyed before they reached the bottom.

      LITERATUReast Besides the commentaries and other works mentioned in the art. on the Book of Dnl, valuable information may bo found in Jos and in Payne Smith s Lectures on, Daniel.

      R. DICK WILSON DANIEL, dan yel, BOOK OF:

      I . X A M E

      II. PLACE IN THE (\\\\\\\\NON T




      1. The Predictions

      2. The. Miracles I*. The Text

      4. The Language

      ">. The Historical Statements




      /. Name. The Book of Dnl is rightly so called, whether we consider Daniel as the author of it, or as the principal person mentioned in it.

      //. Place in the Canon. In the Eng. Bible, Dnl is placed among the Major Prophets, immediately after Ezekiel, thus following the order of the Sept and of the Lat Vulg. In the II eb Bible, however, it is placed in the third division of the Canon, called the Kethuvim or writings, by the Hebrews, and the hagiographa, or holy writings, by the Seventy. It has been claimed, that Dnl was placed by the Jews in the third part of the Canon, either because they thought the inspiration of its author to be of a lower kind than was that of the other prophets, or because the book was written after the second or prophetical part of the Canon had been closed. It is more probable, that the book was placed in this part of the Hebrews Canon, because Daniel is not called a iiabliT ( prophet"), but was rather a hozch ("seer") and a hnkhnin ("wise man"). None but the works of the u bhTlin were put in the second part of the Jewish Canon, the third being reserved for the heterogeneous works of seers, wise men, and priests, or for those that do not mention the name or work of a prophet, or that are poetical in form. A con fusion has arisen, because the 05 r word prophet is used to render the two Hebrews words ndbhl and hozch. In the Scriptures, God is said to speak to the former, whereas the latter see visions and dream dreams. Some have attempted to explain the position of Daniel by assuming that he had the prophetic gift without holding the prophetic office. It must be kept, in mind that all reasons given to account for the order and place of many of the books in the Canon are purely conjectural, since we have no historical evidence bearing upon the subject earlier than the time of Jesus ben Sirach, who wrote prob ably about 180 BC.

      ///. Divisions of the Book. According to its sub ject-matter, the book falls naturally into two great divisions, each consisting of six chapters, the first portion containing the historical sections, and the second the apocalyptic, or predictive, portions; though the former is not devoid of predictions, nor the latter of historical statements. More specifi cally, the first chapter is introductory to the whole book; chs 2-6 describe some marvelous events in the history of Daniel and his three companions in their relations with the rulers of Babylon; and chs 7-12 narrate some visions of Daniel concerning the great world-empires, esp. in relation to the kingdom of God.



      According to the languages in which the hook is written, it. maybe divided into the Aram, portion, extending from 2 4h to the end of ch 7, and a Hebrews portion embracing the rest of the book.

      IV. Languages. The language of the book is partly lleb and partly a dialect of Aram., which has been called Chaldee, or Bib. Aram. This Aram, is almost exactly the same as that which is found in portions of Ezra. On account of the large number of Bab and Perswords characteristic of this A -am. and of that of the papyri recently found in Egypt, as well as on account of the general similarity of the nominal, verbal and other forms, and of the syn tactical construction, the Aram, of this period might properly be called the Bab-Pers Aram. With the exception of the 1 sign used to denote the sound dh, and of the use of kojth in a few cases where Dnl has \\\\iyin, the spelling in the papyri is the same in gen eral as that in the Bib. books. Whether the change of spelling was made at a later time in the MSS of Dnl, or whet her it was a peculiarity of the Bab Aram. as distinguished from the Egyp, or whether it was due to the unifying, scientific genius of Daniel him self, we have no means at present to determine. In view of the fact that the Elephantine Papyri fre quently employ the d sign to express the dh sound, and that it is always employed in E/r to express it ; in view further of the fact that, the z sign is found as late as the earliest Nabatean inscription, that of 70 BC (see Euting, 34!): 1, 2, 4) to express the dh sound, it seems fat uous to insist on t he ground of the writing of these two sounds in the Book of Dnl, that it cannot have been written in the 1 ers period. As to the use of k<~>i>h and ". //" for the Aram, sound which corresponds to the Hebrews rudlic when equiva lent to an Arab, dud, any hasty conclusion is de barred by the fact that the Aram, papyri of the oth cent. BC, the MSS of the Sam Tg and the Man- dale; MSS written from (>()() to .)()() AD all employ the two letters to express the one sounel. The writing of <7 /</;/<, and I if-, without any proper dis crimination occurs in the papyri as well as in Dnl. The- onlv serious objection to the early elate e>f Dnl upon the ground of its spelling is that which is based upon the use of a final // in the- pronominal suflix of the second and third persons masc. pi. instead of the /// of the Aram, papyri and of the Zakir and Sendschirli inscriptions. It is possible that Dnl was influenceel in this by the correspond ing forms of the Bab language. The Syr and Man- daic dialects of the Aram, agree with the Bab in the formation of the pronominal suffixe>s_ of the second and third persons masc. pi., as against, the Hebrews, Arab., Minaean, Sabae-an and Ethiopic. It is possible that the occurrence of m in semie west Aram. documents may have- arisen through the influence of the Hebrews ami Phoen, and that pure Aram, always had // just as we finel it in Assyr and Bab, and in all east Aram, documents thus far discovered.

      The supposition that the 1 use- of // in Dnl as a lire- formative of the third person masculine of the im perfect proves a Palestinian provenience has been shown to be untenable by the discovery that the earliest east Syr also used y. (Sen; M.^Pognon, In scriptions semitiques, premiere partie, 17.)

      This inscription is dated T. i A I). This proof that in the earlier stages of its history the east Aram, was in this respect the same as that, found in Dnl is confirmee! by the fact that the forms of the lid person of the imperfect, found in the proper names em the Aram, dockets of the Assyr inscriptions also have the 1 preformative y. (Se>e> CIS, II, 47.)

      V. Purpose of the Book. The book is not in tended to give an account of the life e>f Daniel. It give s neither his lineage, nor his age, and re-counts but a fenv e)f the events of his long career. Nor is it meant to give a record of the history of Israel during

      the exile, nor even of the captivity in Babylon. Its purpose is to show how by His providential guid ance, His miraculous interventions, His foreknowl edge 1 and almighty power, t he ( lod of heaven cont rols and directs the forces of Nature and the history of nations, the lives of Hebrews captives and of the might iest of the kings of the earth, for the accomplish ment of His Divine and beneficent plans for His servants and people.

      VI. Unity. The unity of the book was first lenied by Spinoza, who suggested that the first part was taken from the chronological works of the Chal- daeans, basing his supposition upon the difference of language between the former and latter parts. Newton followed Spino/a in suggesting two pails, but began his second division with ch 7, where the narrative passes over from the lid to the 1st person. Kohlcr follows Newton, claiming, however, that the visions were written by the Daniel of the exile, but that the first 6 chapters were composed by a later writer who also redacted the whole 1 work. Von Orelli holds that certain prophecies of Daniel were enlarged and interpolated by a .Jew living in the time of Antiochus Epiphanes, in order to show his con temporaries the bearing of the predictions of the hook upon those times of oppression. Zockler and Lange hold to the unity of the book in general; but the former thought that 11 f> 4."> is an interpola tion; and the latter, that 10 111 44 and 12 f>-lli have been inserted in the original work. Meinhold holds that the Aram, portions existed as early _ as the times of Alexander the (ireat a view to which Strack also inclines. Eichhorn held that the book consisted of ten different original sections, which are hound together merely by the circumstance that they are all concerned with Daniel and his three friends. Finally, De Lagarde, believing that the fourth kingdom was the Romans, held that ch 7 was written about t>9 AD. (For the best discussion of the controversies about the unity of Dnl, see Eich- horn, Kinlcilumj, 012-1, and Buhl in RE, IV, 449-r> 1.)

      VII. Genuineness. With the exception of the neo-Platonist Porphyry, a (Jr non-Christian phi losopher of the lid cent. AD, the genuineness of the Book of Dnl was denied by no one until theorise of the deistic movement in the 17th cent. The attacks upon the genuineness of the book have been based upon (1) the predictions, (2) the miracles, (15) the text, (4) the language , (5) the historical statements.

      The assailants of the genuineness of Dnl on the ground of the predictions found therein, may be divided into two classes those who 1. The Pre- deny prediction in general, and those dictions who claim that the apocalyptic char acter of the predictions of Dnl is a sufficient proof of their lack of genuineness. The first of these two classes includes properly those only who deny not merely Christianity, but, theism; and the answering of them may safely be left to those who defend the doctrines of theism, and par ticularly of revelation. The second class of as sailants is, however, of a different character, since it. consists of those who are sincere believers in Christianity and predictive prophecy. They claim, however, that certain characteristics of definiteness and detail, distinguishing the predictive portions of the Book of Dnl from other predictions of the OT, bring the genuineness of Dnl into question.

      The kind of prediction found here, ordinarily called apocalyptic, is said to have arisen first in the 2d cent. BC, when parts of the Book of En and of the Sibylline Oracles were written; and a main characteristic of an apocalypse is said to be that it records past eventsasif they were still future, throw ing the speaker back into some distant past time,



      for the purpose of producing on the reader the im pression that the book contains real predictions, thus gaining credence for the statements of the writer and giving consolation to those who are thus led to believe in the providential foresight of Clod for those who trust in Him.

      Since those who believe that God has spoken unto man by His Son and through the prophets will not be able to set limits to the extent and definiteness of the revelations which He may have seen fit to make through them, nor to prescribe the method, style, time and character of the revelations, this attack on the genuineness of Did may safely be left to the defenders of the possibility and the fact of a revelation. One who believes in these may logically believe in the genuineness of Did, as far as this ob jection goes. That there are spurious apocalypses no more proves that all are spurious than that there are spurious gospels or epistles proves that there are no genuine ones. The spurious epp.of Philaris do not prove that Cicero s Letters are not genuine; nor do the false statements of 2 Mace, nor the many spurious Acts of the Apostles, prove that 1 Mace or Luke s Acts of the Apostles is not genuine. Nor does the fact that the oldest portions of the spurious apocalypses which have been preserved to our time are thought to have been written in the 2d cent. BC, prove that no apocalypses, either genuine or spurious, were written before that time. There must have been a beginning, a first apocalypse, at some time, if ever. Besides, if we admit that the earliest parts of the Book of En and of the Sibyl line: Oracles were written about the middle of the 2d cent. BC, whereas the Book of Esdras was written about 300 AD, 450 years later, we can see no good literary reason why Dnl may not have antedated En by 350 years. The period between 500 BC and 150 BC is so almost entirely devoid of all known Jleb literary productions as to render it exceedingly precarious for anyone to express an opinion as to what works may have characterized that long space oi time.

      Secondly, as to the objections made against the Book of Dnl on the ground of the number or char acter of the miracles recorded, we shall

      2. The only say that they affect the whole Miracles Christian system, which is full of the

      miraculous from beginning to end. If we begin to reject the books of the Bible because miraculous events are recorded in them, where in deed shall we stop?

      Thirdly, a more serious objection, as far as Dnl itself is concerned, is the claim of Eichhorn that

      the original text of the Aram, portion

      3. The Text has been so thoroughly tampered with

      and changed, that we can no longer get at the genuine original composition. We our selves can see no objection to the belief that these Aram, portions were written first of all in Hebrews, or even, if you will, in Bab; nor to the supposition t hat some Gr translators modified the meaning in their version either intentionally, or through a misunder standing of the original. We claim, however, that the composite Aram, of Dnl agrees in almost every particular of orthography, etymology and syntax, with the Aram, of the North Sem inscriptions of the 9th, 8th and 7th cents. BC and of the Egyp papyri of the 5th cent. BC, and that the vocabulary of Dnl has an admixture of Hebrews, Bab and Pers words simi lar to that of the papyri of the 5th cent. BC; where as, it differs in composition from the Aram, of the Nabateans, which is devoid of Pers, Ileb, and Bab words, and is full of Arabisrns, and also from that of the Palmyrenes, which is full of (!r words, while hav ing but one or two Pers words, and no Hebrews or Bab. As to different recensions, we meet with a similar difficulty in Jeremiah without anyone s impugning

      on that account the genuineness of the work as a whole. As to interpolations of verses or sections, they are found in the Sam recension of the Hebrews text and in the Sam and other Tgs, as also in certain places in the text of the NT, Jos and many other ancient literary works, without causing us to dis believe in the genuineness of the rest of their works, or of the works as a whole.

      Fourthly, the objections to the genuineness of

      Dnl based on the presence in it of three Gr names of

      musical instruments and of a number

      4. The of Pel s words do not seem nearly as Language weighty today as they did a hundred

      years ago. The Cir inscriptions at Abu Simbal in I pper Egypt dating from the time of Psamtek II in the early part of the Oth cent. BC, the discovery of the Minoan inscriptions and ruins in Crete, the revelations of the wide commercial relations of the Phoenicians in the early part of the 1st millennium BC, the lately published inscriptions of Sennacherib about his campaigns in Cilicia against the Cir seafarers to which Alexander Poly- histor and Abydenus had referred, telling about his having carried many Greeks captive to Nineveh about 700 BC, the confirmation of the wealth and expensive ceremonies of Nebuchadnezzar made by his own building and other inscriptions, all assure us of the possibility of the use of (ir musical instruments at Babylon in the Oth cent. BC. This, taken along with the well-known fact that names of articles of commerce and esp. of musical instru ments go with the thing, leave no room to doubt that a writer of the Olh cent. BC may have known and used borrowed (!r terms. The Aramaeans being the great commercial middlemen between Egypt and Greece on the one hand and Babylon and the Orient on the other, and being in addition a subject people, would naturally adopt many for eign words into their vocabulary.

      As to the presence of the so-called Pers words in Dnl, it must be remembered that many words which were formerly considered to be such have been found to be Bab. As to the others, perhaps all of them may be Median rather than Pers; and if so, the children of Israel who were carried captive to the cities of the Medes in the middle of the 8th cent. BC, and the Aramaeans, many of whom were sub ject io the Medes, at least from the time of the fall of Nineveh about 007 BC, may well have adopted many words into their vocabulary from the lan guage of their rulers. Daniel was not writing merely for the Jews who had been carried captive by Nebuchadnezzar, but for all Israelites through out the world. Hence, he would properly use a language which his scattered readers would under stand rather than the purer idiom of Judaea. Most of his foreign terms are names of officials, legal terms, and articles of clothing, for which there were no suitable terms existing in the earlier Hebrews or Aram. There was nothing for a writer to do but to invent new terms, or to transfer the current foreign words into his native language. The latter was the pref erable 1 method and the one which he adopted.

      Fifthly, objections to the genuineness of the Book

      of Dnl are made on the ground of the historical

      misstatements which are said to be

      5. Histori- found in it. These may be classed as cal State- (1) chronological, (2) geographical, and ments (3) various.

      (1) Chronological objections. The first chronological objection is derived from Dnl 1 1, where it is said that Nebuchadnezzar made an expedition against Jerus in the 3d year of Jehoiakim, whereas Jeremiah seems to imply that the expedition was made in the 4th year of that king. As Daniel was writing primarily for the Jews of Babylon, he would naturally use the system of dating that was



      employed the-re 1 ; and this system differed in its method of denoting the 1st year of a reign from that used by the Kgyptians and by the Jews of Jerus for whom Jeremiah wrote.

      The second objection is derived from the fact that Daniel is said (Dnl 1 21) to have lived unto the 1st year of Cyrus the king, whereas in 10 1 he is said to have seen a vision in the od year of Cyrus, king of Persia. These statements are easily recon ciled by supposing that in the former case it is the 1st year of Cyrus as king of Babylon, and in the second, the 3d year of Cyrus as king of Persia.

      The third chronological objection is based on 6 2s, where it is said that Daniel prospered in the kingdom of Darius and in the kingdom of Cyrus the Persian. This statement is harmoni/ed with the facts revealed by the monuments and with the statements of the book itself by supposing that Darius reigned synchronously with Cyrus, but as sub-king under him.

      The fourth objection is based on 8 1, where Daniel is said to have seen a vision in the third year of Belshazzar the king. If we suppose that Bel- sha//ar was king of the Chaldaeans while his father was king of Babylon, just as Cambyses was king of Babylon while his father, Cyrus, was king of (In lands, or as Xabonidus II seems to have been king of Ilarran while his father, Xabonidus I, was king of Babylon, this statement will harmoni/e with the other statements made with regard to Belsha/xar.

      (2) Geographical olijectionx- --As to the geographi cal objections, three only need be considered as im portant. The first is, that Shushan seems to be spoken of in 7 2 as subject to Babylon, whereas it, is supposed by some to have been at that time sub ject to Media. Here we can safely rest upon t he opinion of \\\\Vinckler, that at the division of the Assyr dominions among the allied Medes and Baby lonians, Klarn became subject to Babylon rather than to Media. If, however, this opinion could be shown not to be true, we must remember thai Daniel is said to have been at Shushan in a vision.

      The second geographical objection is based on the supposition that Nebuchadnezzar would not have gone against Jerus, leaving an Kgyp garrison at Carchemish in his rear, thus endangering his line of communication and a possible retreat to Babylon. This objection has no weight, now that the position of Carchemish has been shown to be, not at Cires- sium, as formerly conjectured, but at- Jirabis, lot) miles farther up the Kuphrates. Carchemish would have cut off a retreat to Nineveh, but was far re moved from the direct line of communication with Babylon.

      The third geographical objection is derived from the statement that Darius placed 120 satraps in, or over, all his kingdom. The objection rests upon a false conception of t he meaning of sat rap and of t he extent of a satrapy, there being no reason why a sub-king under Darius may not have had as many satraps under him as Sargon of Assyria had govern ors and deputies under him; and the latter king mentions 117 peoples and countries over which he appointed his deputies to rule in his place.

      (3) Other objections. Various other objections to the genuineness of Dnl have been made, the prin cipal being those derived from the supposed non-ex istence of Kings Darius the Mede and Belshazzar the Chaldaean, from the use of the word Chaldaean to denote the wise men of Babylon, and from the silence of other historical sources as to many of the- events recorded in Dnl. The discussion of the existence of Belshazzar and Darius the Mede will be found under BELSHAZZAR and DAIUTTS. As to the argu ment from silence in general, it may be said that it reduces itself in fact to the absence of all reference to Daniel on the monuments, in the Book of Kcclus,

      and in the post-exilic lit. As to the latter books it proves too much; for Hag, Zee, and Mai, as well as K/,r, Nehemiah, and Kst, refer to so few of the older canonical books and earlier historical persons and events, that it is not fair to expect them to refer to Daniel at least, to use their not referring to him or his book as an argument against the existence of either before the time when they were written. As to Kcclus, we might have expected him to mention Daniel or the Three Children; but who knows what, reasons Ben Sira may have had for not placing them in his list of Hebrews heroes? Perhaps, since he held the views which later characterized the Saddueees, he may have passed Daniel by because of his views on the resurrection and on angels. Perhaps he failed to mention any of the four companions be cause 1 none of their deeds had been wrought in Pal; or because their deeds exalted too highly the heathen monarchies to which the Jews were subject. Or, more likely, the book may have been unknown to him, since very few copies at best of the whole OT can have existed in his time, and the Book of Dnl may not have gained general currency in Pal before it was made .so preeminent by the fulfilment of its predictions in the Maccubean times.

      It is not satisfactory to say that Ben Sira did not mention Daniel and his companions, because the stories concerning them had not yet been im bedded in a canonical book, inasmuch as he does place 1 Samuelimon, the high priest, among the greatest of Israel s great men, although he is not mentioned in any canonical book. In conclusion, it may be said, that while it is impossible for us to determine why Ben Sira does not- mention Daniel and his three companions among his worthies, if their deeds were; known to him, it is even more impossible to under stand how these stories concerning them cannot merely have arisen but have been accepted as true, between ISO BC, when Kcclus is thought to have been written, and Kit) BC, when, according to 1 Mace, Matthias, the first of the Asmoneaiis, ex horted his brethren to follow the example of the fortitude of Ananias and his friends.

      As to the absence of all mention of Daniel on the contemporary historical documents of Babylon and Persia, such mention is not to be expected, inas much as those documents give the names of none who occupied positions such as, or similar to, those which Daniel is said to have tilled.

      VIII. Interpretation. Questions of the interpre tation of particular passages may be looked for in the commentaries and special works. As to the general question of the kind of prophecy found in the Book of Dnl, it has already been discussed above under the caption of "( lenuineness." As to the interpretation of the world monarchies which pre cede the monarchy of the Messiah Prince, it may be said, however, that the latest, discoveries, ruling out as they do a separate Median empire that in cluded Babylon, support the view that the four monarchies are the Bab, the Pers, the Or, and the Romans. According to this view, Darius the Mede 1 was only a sub-king under Cyrus the Pers. Other interpretations have been made by selecting the four empires from those of Assyria, Babylonia, Media, Persia, Medo-Persia, Alexander, the Seleucids, the Romans, and the Mohammedans. The- first and the last of these 1 have- generally been excluded from serious consideration. The main dispute is as to whether the 4th empire was that of the Seleucids, or that, of the- Romans, the former view being held commonly by those who liolel to the composition of Dnl in the 2el cent. BC, and the latter by those who hold te> the 1 traditional view that it was written in the(ith cent.. BC.

      IX. Doctrines. It is universally admitted that the teachings of Daniel with regard to angels and



      the resurrection are more explicit than those found elsewhere in the OT. As to angels, Daniel attrib- utes to them names, ranks, and functions not men tioned by others. It lias become common in certain quarters to assert that these peculiarities of Daniel are due to Pers influences. The Bab monuments, however, have revealed the fact thai- the Babylo nians believed in both good and evil spirits with names, ranks, and different functions. These .spirits correspond in several respects to the Hebrews angels, and may well have afforded Daniel the back ground for his visions. Yet, in all such matters, it, must be remembered that Daniel purports to give us a vision, or revelation; and a revelation cannot be bound by the ordinary laws of time and human influence.

      As to the doctrine of the resurrection, it is gen erally admitted that Daniel adds some new and distinct features to that which is taught in the other canonical books of the Old Testament. But it will be noted that he does not dwell upon this doctrine, since he mentions it only in 12 2. The materials for his doctrine are to be found in Isaiah 26 14.21 and 66 2-1; E/k 37 1-14, and in Job 14 12; 19 2. ,; IIos 62; 1 Kings 17; 2 Kings 4, and 8 1 -o, as well as in the use of t he words for sleep and awakening from sleep, or from the dust, for everlasting life or ever lasting contempt in Isaiah 26 10; Psalm 76 0; 13 :i; 127 2; Deuteronomy 31 10; 2 Samuel 7 12; 1 Kings 1 21; Job 7 21,andJer 20 11; 23 40. The essential ideas and phraseology of Daniel s teachings are found in Isaiah, Jeremiah, and Ezekiel. The first two parts of the books of En and 2 Mace make much of the resurrection; but ou the oilier hand. Keel seems to believe not even in the immortality of the soul, and \\\\\\\\isd and 1 Mace do not mention a resurrection of the body.

      Thai the post-exilic prophets do not mention a resurrection does not prove that they knew nothing about Dnl anymore than it proves that they knew nothing about Isaiah, Jeremiah, and E/k.

      There are resemblances, it is (rue, between the teachings of Daniel with regard to the resurrection and those of the A vest a. lint so are there between his doctrines and the ideas of the Egyptians, which had existed for millenniums before his t ime. Besides there is no proof of any derivation of doctrines from the Persians by the writers of the canonical books of the Jews; and, as we have seen above, both the ideas and verbiage of Daniel are to be found in the acknowledgedly early Hebrews literature. And finally, this attempt to find a natural origin for all Bib. ideas leaves out of sight t lie fad that the Scriptures con tain revelations from God, which transcend the ordinary course of human development. To a Christian, therefore, there can be no reason for believing that the doctrines of Dnl may not have been promulgated in the cent. BC.

      The best, commentaries on Dnl from a conservative point of view are those by Calvin, Moses Stuart, Keil, /tickler. Strong in Lange s Bibelwerk, Commen- Fuller in the Speaker s Commentary, onrl Thomson in the Pul/iit Commentary, and

      Wright, Daniel and /// Critics. The Introduc- best defences of Daniel s authenticity and tions genuineness are Hengstenberg. Aut/nii-

      tiriti/ nj tin- Hook of Daniel, Tregelles. !>,- f i- n. ir of tin- Aiitlienti -iti/, Auberlen, / //. I rophecie* of Daniel, Fuller, Knn on tlic A itttu nticiti/ of Daniel. Pusey, Dain ,-1 /hf rr,,,iliet (still the best of all), (\\\\ II. H. Wright, Dunii-l on, I His Critics, Kennedy, Thr Hook o) Danielfrom tin Christian Xtaiiil point, Joseph Wilson, Dm, i< !, and Sir Robert Anderson. Daniel in the Critics !><. One should consult also Pinches. The <>1<I Testament in the Light of thi: Historic, il 1{ -or, Is of Assyria ami Hnhi/lonia, Clay, Lii/ht on tin- Olit Ti. "In nirnt from. Huh, I. and Orr, Tin- 1 roolem of thi OT. For Kng. readers, the radical school is best represented by Driver in his Lit. of the <> ! and in his Danii l; by lievan. The Hook of !>;, I; by Prince, Commentary on Daniel, and by Cornill in his Inlrn to the OT.

      X. Apocryphal Additions. In the, Gr translations of Dnl three or four pieces are added which are not

      found in the original Hebrews or Aram, text as it has come down to us. These are The Prayer of A/arias, The Song of the Three Holy Children, Susanna. and Belaud the Dragon. Tin se additions have all been rejected from the Canon by the Protestant churches because they are not contained in the Ileb Canon. In the Church of England they are "read for example of life and instruction of manners." The Three was "ordered in the rubric of the first Prayer Book of Edward VI (AD lf>40) to he used in Lent as a responsory to the OT Lesson at the Morning Prayer." It contains the Prayer of A/arias from the midst of the iiery furnace, and the song of praise by the three children for their deliverance; the latter being couched largely in phrases borrowed from Psalm 148. Sns presents to us the story of a virtuous woman who resisted the seductive* attempts of two judges of the elders of the people, whose machinations were exposed through the wisdom of Daniel who convicted them of false witness by the evidence of their own mouth, so that they were put to death according to the law of Moses; and from that day forth Daniel was held in great reputation in t he sight of the people. Bel contains three stories. The first relates how Daniel destroyed the image of Bel which Nebuchadnezzar worshipped, by showing by means of ashes strewn on the floor of the temple that the offerings to Bel were devoured by the priests who came secretly into the temple by night. The second tells how Daniel killed the Dragon by throw ing lumps of mingled pitch, fat and hair into his mouth, so causing the Dragon to burst asunder. The third gives a detailed account of the lions den, stating that there were seven lions and that Daniel lived in the den six days, being sustained by broken bread and pottage which a prophet named Habak.- kuk brought to him through the ai 1 , an angel of the Lord having taken him by the arm and borne him by the hair of his head and through the vehemency of his spirit set him in Babylon over the den, into which he dropped the food for Daniel s use.

      LiTKKATnu:. For commentaries on the additions to the Hook of Dnl. see the works on Dnl cited above, and also Tin Apocrypha by (Miurtoti and others; the volume on t he Apocrypha in Lunge s Com in, iilnri/ by Hissell; "The Apocrypha" by Wace in the Spi a/a / .> Co minentartj, and Schiirer, History of tin- ,Ieie,slt / ,/</.

      R. DICK Wir.sox

      DANITES, dan its ("^H, ha-tlanl): Occurs as describing those belonging to Daniel in Judges 13 2; 18 1.11; 1 Chronicles 12 y. ).

      DAN-JAAN, dan-ja an (~\\\\5"*_ "~ , <lan i/a u//; B, Adv ElSav KG.! OvSav, l)nti E ulnn l;n i Omli i n): A place visited by Joab and his officers when taking the census (2 Samuel 24 Oj. It is mentioned between (lilead and Sidon. Some would identify it with K/idn Ddniun, a, ruined site north of Achzib. The text is probably corrupt. Klostermann would read "toward Daniel and Ijon" (cf 1 Kings 15 20).

      DANNAH, dan a (~2~ , <lttnH<l},): One of the cities in the hill country of Judah (Joshus 15 40) between Socoh and Kiriath-sannah (I)ebir), prob ably Idhlia -the ledna of the (hiour !south miles \\\\\\\\ . of Hebron. See I EF, III, :);">, :().

      DAPHNE, daf nn (Actyvr], Daphne, "bay-tree"): A suburb of Antioch on the Orontes, according to Strabo and the Jerus itinerary, about 40 furlongs, or ~> miles distant. It is identified with licit el-Ma on the left bank of the river, to the south\\\\V. of the city. Here were the famous grove and sanctuary of Apollo. The grove and shrine owed their origin to Seleucus Nicator. It was a place of great natural beauty, and the Seleucid kings spared no outlay in adding to its attractions. The precincts enjoyed the right of asylum. Hither fled Onias the high



      priest (171 BC) from the wrath of Meneluus whom he hud offended by plain speech. To tlie disgust and indignation of Jew and (lentile alike, he was lured from the sanctuary by Andronirus and basely j)iit. to death (2 Mace 4 33-38). It sheltered fugi- iivesdyed with villainy of every shade. It was the great pleasure resort of the citizens of Antioch; and it gained an evil repute for immorality, as witnessed by the proverbial Da/tlinici ///o/r.s. In Tihcriin Orunli north, says Juvenal (iii.ti J.i, indi cating one main source of the corruption that de moralized the imperial city. The decline of Daphne. dates from the days of Christian ascendency in the reign of Julian. The place is still musical wiih fountains and luxuriant with wild vegetation; but nothing now remains to suggest its former splendor. See ANTIUCII; Gibbon, Decline and I \\\\ill, eh xxiii.

      \\\\V. E\\\\viN<; DARA, dar a (2<"V> , darn ). See DAKPA.

      DARDA, dar da ("~~!~ , darda*, " pearl of wis dom"): One of the wise men to whom Solomon is compared (1 Kings 4 31). He was either a son of Muhol (ibid) or a son of Zerah, son of Judah ( 1 ( h 2 (), where the corresponding name in the same list is given as DAUA.I. In rabbinic lore the name has been interpreted as dtlr f/<~" 1 , "the generation of knowledge" the generation of the wilderness.

      DARE, dar: The expression "to dare" in the Scriptures never has the meaning of "to defy," "to challenge," or "to terrify." It is always found as 1 he t r of To\\\\/j.du, l/thmiii, "to manifest courage." This is particularly evidonl from 2 Corinthians 10 12, "for we are not bold to number or compare ourselves" ( AV "for we dare not make ourselves of the number",).

      DARIC, dar ik CiTGrfl , darfcmon, and V^-nX , adharkon; 8apeiK6s, dareilMs): A IVrs gold coin about a guinea or five dollars in value. The first form of the word occurs in 1 Chronicles 29 7; E/r 2 (W, and Nehemiah 7 70 72; the second in Ezra 8 27 and is rendered "dram" in A\\\\ and "daric" in H\\\\ . In the passage in Chronicles, it must refer to a weight, since at the time of David there were no coins, but in the days of Ezraa and Nehemiahemiah the IVrs darics were current . See MO.NKY.

      DARIUS, da-rl us: The name of three or four kings mentioned in the OT. In the original IVrs it is spelled "Darayavaush"; in Bab, usually "Dari- amusli"; in SusiaiH . ), "Tariyamaush"; in Egyp, "Antaryuash"; on Aram, inscriptions, C"irP"l~ or TlTim" 1 "!" ; in Hebrews, TZJVi~n, <ldr i/<tircnfi; in Gr, Aapetbs, Dartiox; in Lat, "Darius." In meaning it is probably connected with t he new IVrs word l)ara, "king." Herodotus says it means in (!r, Kp^eirjs, /iY.n / <"*, co< rc/lnr, "restrainer," "compeller," "com mander."

      (1) Darius the Mede (Dnl 61; 11 1) was the son of Ahasuerus (Xerxes) of the seed of the Medes (Dnl 9 1). He received the government of Bel- shazzur the Chaldaean upon the death of t hat prince (Dnl 5 30.31; 6 1), and was made king over the kingdom of the Chuldueuns.

      From Dnl 6 2<X we may infer that Darius was king contemporaneously with Cyrus. Outside of the Book of Dnl there is no mention of Darius the Mode by name, though there are good reasons for identifying him with Guburu, or I gburu, the gov ernor of Gut him, who is said in the Xabunaid-Cyrus Chronicle to have been appointed by Cyrus as his governor of Babylon after its capture from the Chaldaeans. Some reasons for this identification are as follows:

      () Gubaru is possibly a tr of Darius. The same radical letters in Arab, mean "king," "compeller,"

      "restrainer." In Ileb, derivations of the root mean "lord," "mistress," "queen"; in Aram., "mighty," "almighty."

      (It) Gut mm was the designation of the country X. of Babylon and was in all possibility in the time of Cyrus a part of the province of Media.

      (c) But even if Gut him were not a part of Media at that time, it was the custom of IVrs kings to appoint Medes as well as Persians to satrapies and to the command of armies. Hence Darius-Guburu may have been a Mede, even if Gutium were not a part of Media proper.

      (d) Since Daniel never calls Darius the Mede king of Media, or king of Persia, it is immaterial what his title or position may have been before he was made king over the realm of the Chaldaeans. Since the realm of the Chaldaeans never included either Media or Persia, there is absolutely no evi dence in the Book of Dnl that its author ever meant to imply that Darius the Mede ever ruled over either Media or Persia.

      (c) That Gubaru is called governor (pihatu), and Darius the Mede, king, is no objection to this identi fication; for in ancient as well as modern oriental empires the governors of provinces and cities were often called kings. Moreover, in the Aram, lan guage, TIO more appropriate word than "king" can be found to designate the ruler of a sub-kingdom, or province of t he empire.

      (/) That Darius is said to have had 120 satraps under him does not conflict with this; for the IVrs word "satrap" is indefinite as to the extent of his rule, just like the Eng. word "governor." Besides, Gubaru is said to have appointed [tiliahis under himself. If the kingdom of the Chaldaeans which he received was as large as that of Sargon he may easily have appointed 120 of these sub-rulers; for Sargon names 117 subject cities and countries over which lie appointed his prefects and governors.

      ((/) The peoples, nations and tongues of ch 6 are no objection to this identification; for Babylonia itself at this time was inhabited by Babylonians, ( haldaeans, Arabians, Aramaeans and Jews, and the kingdom of I he Chaldaeans embraced also Assyrians, Elamitrs, Phoenicians and others within its limits.

      (//) This identification is supported further by the fact that (here is no other person known to his tory that can well be meant. Some, indeed, have thought that Darius the Mede was a reflection into the past of Darius Ilystaspis; but this is rendered impossible inasmuch as tin- character, deeds and empire of Darius Ilystaspis, which are well known to us from his own monuments and from the Gr historians, do not resemble what Daniel says of I )arius t he Mede.

      (2) Darius, the fourth king of Persia, called Ilyslaspes because he was the son of a IVrs king named Ilystaspis, is mentioned in Ezra (4 ^. et al.j, Hag (1 lj and Zee (1 I). I pon the death of Cambyses, son and successor to Cyrus, Smerdis the Magian usurped the kingdom and was de throned by seven Pel s nobles from among whom Darius was selected to be king. After many rebel lions and wars he succeeded in establishing himself firmly upon the throne (Ant, NI, i). He reorgan ized and enlarged the IVrs empire. He is best known to general history from his conflict with Greece culminating at Marathon, and for his re-dig ging of the Suez Canal. In sacred history he stands forth as the king who enabled the Jews under Jeshua and Zerubbubel to rebuild the temple at Jems.

      (3) Darius, called by the Greeks Nothus, was called Ochus before he became king. He reigned from (24 to 404 BC. In the Scriptures he is men tioned only in Nehemiah 12 22, where he is called Darius the IVrs, probably to distinguish him from Darius the Mede. It is not necessary to suppose that



      Durius Codomannus who reigned from 336 to 330 BC, is meant by the author of Nehemiah 12, because he mentions Jaddua; for (a) Johanan, the father of tliis Jaddua, was high priest about 40S BC, as is clear from the Aram, papyrus from Elephantine lately published by Professor Saehau of Berlin, and Jaddua may well have succeeded him in those troublous times before the death of Darius Nothus in -404 BC. And (b) that a high priest named Jaddua met Alexander in 332 BC, is attested only by Jos (Ant, XI, viii, 5). It is not fair to take the testimony of Jos as to Jaddua without taking his testimony as to the meeting with Alexander and as to the appeal of Jaddua to the predictions of the Book of Dnl. But even if Jos be right, there may have been two Jadduas, one high priest in 404 BC, and the other in 332 BC; or the one who was alive and exercising his functions in 404 BC may still have been high priest in 332 BC. He need not have exceeded .)() years of age. According to the Fshki Ilarran inscription, which purports to have been written by himself, the priest of the temple in that city had served for 104 years. In our own time how many men have been vigorous in mind and body at the age of 90, or thereabouts; Bismarck and Gladstone, for example? R. DICK WILSON

      DARK, dark, DARKNESS, dark nes

      hushckh; O-KOTOS, sMatthewox): The day and night, light

      and darkness, are notable antitheses

      1. Dark- in Philestina-Canaan Land There the day does not slowly ness and fade away into the night after a period Light in of twilight, but before sunset there is Palestine the brightness of day, and when the

      sun has disappeared everything has changed and night is at hand. From sunset until the darkness of night is less than an hour.

      In the Bible the main use of darkness is in con trast to light. Light is the symbol of God s purity,

      wisdom and glory. Darkness is the

      2. Symbolic opposite. .Miraculous occurrence of Uses darkness in the land of Egypt for three

      davs is recorded in Kx 10 21.22. and at the death of Christ (Alt 27 45). See PLAGUES; ECLIPSeast

      The fig. uses of darkness are many and various. It is used as a symbol (n) of moral depravity and its punishment. The wicked walk and work in dark ness (Psalm 82 f>; Prov 2 13; John 3 1 .); Romans 13 12), and their reward is to "sit in darkness" (Psalm 107 10) or to be "cast forth into the outer darkness" (Alt 8 12); (t>) of things mysterious or inexplicable (1 Kings 8 12; Psalm 97 2); (c) of trouble and affliction (2 Samuel 22 29; Job 5 14; Prov 20 20; Isaiah 9 2; cf Genesis 15 12); (,/) of punishment (Lam 3 2; Ezekiel 32 X; Zeph 1 15); (e) of death (1 Samuel 2 9; Job 10 21 i; Keel 11 Samuel); (/) of nothingness (Job 3 4-6); (</) of human ignorance (Job 19 X; 1 John 2 11).

      "A dark (RVm "squalid"] place (2 Pet 1 19) refers esp. to the state of tilings described in ch 2.


      DARKLY, diirk li: The word occurs in 1 Corinthians 13 12, "For now we see in a mirror, darkly," in tr of the words lv aii ijfj.aTL, en ainigmati, RVm "in a riddle." The contrast is with the "face to face" vision of Divine things in eternity. Earth s best knowledge is partial, obscure, enigmatic, a broken reflection of the complete truth ("broken lights of Thee").

      DARKON, dar kon CPp"H , dorkon, "carrier"): Ancestor of a subdivision of "Solomon s servants," so called, in post-exilic times (E/r 2 5G; Nehemiah 7 58; Lozon, 1 Esdras 5 33).

      DARK SAYINGS (Prov 1 G; Psalm 78 2; sing., Psalm 49 4[5]; rn~Pn, hWnlth, sing. rTPn , hidhah, else where rendered "riddle," "proverb"): In the head

      ing to the canonical Book of Prov, the general term "proverbs" is made to include "a proverb P ^P, mdxhdl], and a figure [or, an interpretation, Hippp, in ll<;uli], the words [sing. "IZH , ddbhur] of the wise, and their dark sayings [or, riddles]." The "prov erb" is either a saying current among the people (cf 1 Samuel 10 12; "the proverb of the ancients" 24 13[14]), or a sentence of ethical wisdom composed by the order of wise men (2">}2rn, huhhdinlin). Of the latter kind are the sententious maxims of the Wisdom lit. (chiefly Prov, but also Job, Eccl, and among the uncanonical writings Ecclus). They art characterized by a secular touch; wisdom, moreover, nourished among the neighbors of Israel as well; so in Edom and elsewhere. Whatever the date of the collection known as the "Proverbs of Solomon," the wise men existed in Israel at a very early period; the prophets allude to them. But the Hebrews mashal is sometimes of a more elaborate character corre sponding to our "parables"; frequently a vein of taunt runs through them, and they played an im portant part in compositions directed against other nations (cf Numbers 21 27). The prophets are fond of employing this genre of literary production; in their hands the unlxhal becomes a fig. or allegorical discourse (cf Ezekiel 21 5 if [Xi f]). The -nidalidl in the sense of a didactic poem occurs also in the P-alms (Pss 49 and 78). Hence it is that "prov erb" and "figure, "or "proverb" and "dark saying" are interchangeable terms. The "dark saying" is the popular "riddle" (cf Judges 14) raised to the dignity of elaborate 1 production. It is in short an allegorical sentence requiring interpretation. Both prophets and psalmists avail themselves thereof. The word of God comes to the prophet in the form of a vision (cf the visions of Amos or Jeremiah), i.e. the truth presents itself to them in the form of a simile. To the perfect prophet of t he type of Aloses t he revelation conies direct in the shape of the naked truth without the mediation of figures of speech or obscure utterances requiring elucidation (cf Numbers 12). In the same way St. Paul (1 Corinthians 13) distinguishes between the childish manner of speaking of things spiritual and the manner of a man: "For no\\\\v we see in a mirror, darkly [Gr "in a riddle"]; but then face to face." The rabbis say that, whereas all the other prophets saw God and things Divine in a dim mirror, Aloses saw them in a polished, clear mirror. Both St. Paul and the rabbis feel the difference 1 between mediate and immediate vision, the reve lation which requires dark fig. language as a vehicle and the clear perception which is the direct truth.


      DARLING, dar ling HTT , //r/ljulli, "only," AVm "only one"; ARVm "<l< nr life") : I sed poetically for the life or soul (Psalm 22 20; 35 17).

      DART, dart (f n , /">; P<^s, Ix los): A pointed missile weapon, as an arrow or light spear (2 Samuel 18 11; Job 41 2G). See ARMOR, ARMS, 111,4; AR ROwest

      Figurative: (1) Of the penalty of sin (Prov 7 23 AVj; (2) of strong suggestions and fierce tempta tions to evil (Epli 6 1G; cf 1 Mace 5 51).

      DART-SNAKE, dart snake (Isaiah 34 15). See ARROWSNAKeast

      DASH: The idea of "to throw violently" or "to st rike" with purpose of causing destruction is usually connected with the word "to dash." There is per haps but, one exception to this: Psalm 91 12 and the quotations of this passage in the NT (Alt 4 G; Luke 4 11, Trpoa-KOTTTU), proskopto) , have the meaning "to strike against accidentally" and not intentionally. Nah 2 1, "he that dasheth in pieces" is doubtful.



      "lie that scatters" would be in belter harmony with the Ueb ]*^Z"C. , /tn~/>/ilr, and t he following de scription of destruction. In all other cases "to dush" is connected with the idea of destruction, esp. the infliction of punishment which is usually ex pressed by t?y^, rdlaxh, "to dash to the ground" (2 Kings 8 12; Isaiah 13 1C. IT, et al., "to dash in pieces," A V simply "to dash"), but also by fDI , nn/>//n<;, "to l)re:ik to pieces" (Psalm 2 9; 137 .), et al.). See also PrNisiiMKvrs. A. L. BUKSLICII

      DATES, dats (CSs , d-hhnsh): Aral), dibl* (2 Chronicles 31 f> AVm); EV HOXEY (<I.Y.). See also PALM TREeast

      DATHAN, da than ("v" ddthdn, meaning and derivation unknown, though the name is found in Assyr, in the records of Shalmane/er II): The son of Eliab the son of Pallu the son of Reuben (Numbers 26 f>ff; I)t 11 0; Psalm 106 17j. He and his brother Abiram, with others, followed Korah the Levite in disputing the authority of Moses and Aaron in the wilderness (Numbers 16-17, 26; 1)1 11 0; I s 106 17). Other followers of Korah perished by fire before the tent of meeting, but Dathan and Abiram were swallowed up by the earth, with their families and their floods, at their tents. See KOKAH.


      DATHEMA, datli e-ma (Adee^a, Mlhcma): A stronghold (I Mace 6 29) in Gilead to which tin- Jews fled for refuse from the heathen (ver .t). They were delivered by Judas and Jonathan his brother. It was within a night s march from Bosora. It- may possibly be identical with l Athaindn which lies east of cl-Muzcrlb.

      DAUB, dob: "To daub" always lias the meaning "to cover," "to smear wit h" in t he Script arcs. Ezekiel compares the flatteries of the false prophets to a slight wall covered with whitewash (lit. "spittle"). See E/>k 13 10 IT; 22 2S. In Exodus 2 3 "daubed it with slime and with pitch" (Hebrews rn^HP " , wal- lalnn rd/t, denom. of "TEH , hcuidr, bitumen" or "as phalt"), "to daub" has the same meaning as in the Ezekiel passage.

      DAUGHTER, do ter (P3, bath; e^d-r^p, {/,,<- gatcr): I sed in Scriptures in several more or less distinct senses: (a) for daughter in the ordinary, literal sense (den 46 2f>; Exodus 1 1(1); (b) daughter- in-law (Ruth 2 2); (c) granddaughter or other female descendant (Exodus 21; Luke 1 f>; 13 1(5); (//_) the women of a country, or of a place, taken colled ively (Luke 23 28), of a particular religion (Mai 2 11); (e) all the population of a place, taken collectively, esp. in Prophets and poetic books (Psalm 9 1-1; Isaiah 23 10; Jeremiah 46 24; Matthew 21 f>); (/) used in familial- address, "Daughter, be of good comfort" (Matthew 9 22 AV; Mark 5 34; Luke 8 48); (;/) women in general (Prov 31 2!)); (//) the personification of towns or cities, as of the female sex (Isaiah 47 1; Ezekiel 16 11.10; cf Nah 3 4.7), esp. of dependent towns and villages (Psalm 48 11; Nii212/>m; Jgsl27m); (/) in Hebrews idiom for person or thing belonging to or having the characteristics of that with which it. is joined, as "daughter of ninety years," of Sarah, ninet\\\\ years old (den 17 17); "daughters of music," singing birds, or singing women (Eccl 12 4); daughters of a tree, i.e. branches; daughter of the eye, i.e. the pupil.

      Daughters were- not so highly prized as sons, not being usually mentioned by name. A father might sometimes sell his daughter as bondwoman (Exodus 21 7); though not to a foreigner (ver H); daughters might sometimes inherit as did sons, but could not take the inheritance outside of the tribe (Numbers 36 1-12). EDWARD BACBY POLLARD




      DAVID, da vid ("1", ddwidh, or ""H* , dawldh, "beloved"; AaxieiS, Daucid, also in NT, Dauid, Dab ul; see Thayer s Lex.):

      I. Name and Genealogy. This name, which is written "defectively" in the older books, such as those of south, but /ilcuc with the i/ddh in Chronicles and the later books, is derived, like the similar name Jedi- diah (2 Samuel 12 2f>), from a root meaning "to love." The only person who bears this name in the Bible is the son of Jesse, the second king of Israel. His genealogy is given in the table appended to the Book of Ruth (4 18-22). Here the following points are to be noted: David belonged to the tribe of Judah: his ancestor Nahshon was chieftain of the whole tribe (Numbers 1 7; 2 3; 1 Chronicles 2 10) and brother- in-law of Aaron the high priest (Exodus 6 2)5). As no other descendants of Nahshon are mentioned, his authority probably descended to Jesse by right of primogeniture. This supposition is countenanced by the fact, that Salma (Salmon), the name of the son of Nahshon and father of Boa/, is also the name of a grandson of Caleb who became "father" of Bethlehem, the home of Jesse (1 Chronicles 2 51). David was closely connected with the tribe of Moab, the mother of his grandfather Obed being .Ruth the Moabitess. Of the wife or wives of Jesse we know nothing, and consequently are without information upon a most interesting point the personality of the mother of David; but that she too may have been of the tribe of Moab is rendered probable by the fact that, when hard pressed, David placed his parents under the protection of the king of that country (1 Samuel 22 3.4).

      //. Early. Years. The home of David when he conies upon thestage of history was the picturesque town of Bethlehem. There his family 1. Shepherd had been settled for generations, in deed ever since the Israelite nation had overrun the land of Canaan. His fat her was appar ent ly not only the chief man of the place, but he seems to have been chieftain of the whole elan to which he belonged--the clan of Judah. Although the country round Bethlehem is more fertile than that in the neighborhood of Jerus, the inhabitants joined to the cultivation of the soil the breeding of cattle (Luke 2 Samuel). David s father, not only culti vated his ancestral fields, but, kept flocks of sheep and goats as well. The flocks were sent out every day to pasture in the neighboring valleys attended by the herdsmen armed so as to defend themselves and their charge, not only against marauders from the surrounding deserts, but also from the lions and bears with which the country was then infested. David seems to have been in the habit of accom panying his father s servants in their task (1 Samuel 17 20.22), and on occasion would be left in full charge by himself. Nor was his post, at such times a sine cure. He had not only to keep a sharp lookout for thieves, but on more than one occasion had with no other weapon than his shepherd s club or staff to rescue a lamb from the clutches of a lion or a bear (vs 34 f f). Such adventures, however, must have been rare, and David must often have watched eagerly the lengthening of the shadow which told of the approach of sunset, when he could drive his charge into the zariba for the night and return home. There is, indeed, no life more monotonous and en ervating than that of an eastern shepherd, but David must have made good use of his idle time. He seems, in fact, to have made such good use of it as to have neglected his handful of sheep. The inci dents of which he boasted to Saul would not have occurred, had his proper occupation taken up all his thoughts; but, like King Alfred, his head seems



      to have been filled with ideas far removed from his humble task.

      David, like Nelson, does not seem to have known what it was to be afraid, and it was not to be ex pected that he could be satisfied with

      2. Slinger the lot of the youngest of eight sons

      of the now aged chief (1 Samuel 17 12; 1 Chronicles 2 13 ff). In the East every man is a soldier, and David s bent was in that direction. _ The tribes men of Benjamin near whose border his home was situated were famed through all Israel as slingers, some of whom could sling at a hair and not miss (Judges 20 16). Taught, perhaps, by one of these, but certainly by dint of constant practice, David acquired an accuracy of aim which reminds one of tales of William Tell or Robin Hood (1 Samuel 17 49).

      Another of the pastimes in the pursuit of which David spent many an hour of his youthful days

      was music. The instrument which he

      3. Harpist used was the "harp" (Hebrews kinnor).

      This instrument had many forms, which may be seen on the Assyr and Kgyp monu ments; but the kind used by David was probably like the modern Aral), rubaba, having only one or two strings, plaved not with a plectrum (Ant, VII, xii, 3) itut by the hand (cf 1 Samuel 16 23, etc, which do not exclude, a quill). Whatever the nature of the instrument was, D. acquired such proficiency in playing it that his fame as a musician soon spread throughout the countryside (ver 18). With the passing of time be becomes the Hebrews Orpheus, in whose music birds and mountains joined (cf Koran, ch 21).

      To the accompaniment of his lyre David no doubt sang words, cither of popular songs or of lyrics of

      his own composition, in that wailing

      4. Poet eastern key which seems to be an imi

      tation of the bleating of flocks. The verses he sang would recount his own adventures or the heroic prowess of the warrior of his clan, or celebrate tin loveliness of some maiden of the tribe, or consist of elegies upon those slain in battle. That the name of D. was long connected with music the reverse of sacred appears from the fact that Amos denounces the people of luxury of his time for improvising to the sound of the viol, inventing in struments of music, like D. (6 ;">). (It is not clear to which clause "like D." belongs, probably to both.) The only remains of the secular poetry of D. which have come down to us are his elegies on Saul and Jonathan and on Aimer (2 8 1 19-27; 3 33.34), which show him to have been a true poet. Did D. also compose religious verses? Was he "the sweet psalmist of Israel" (2 Samuel 23 1)? In the

      oldest account which we have, eon-

      5. Psalmist tained in the books of south, D. appears

      as a musician and as a secular poet only, for it is obvious the poetical passages, 2 Samuel 22 1 23 7, do not belong to the original form of that book but are thrust in in the middle of a long list of names of D. s soldiers. The position is the same in Am (6 5). It is in the later books and passages that sacred music and psalms begin to be ascribed to him. Perhaps the earliest instance is the pas sage just cited containing the "last words" of D. (2 Samuel 23 1-7). The Chronicler (about 300 BC) seems to put parts of Pss 105, 96 and 106 into the mouth of D. (1 Chronicles 16 7 ff), and Nehemiahemiah (12 36) regards him apparently as the inventor of the instru ments used in the Temple service (1 Chronicles 23 5), or as a player of sacred music. So too in the LXX psalter (151 2) we read, "My hands made an organ, my fingers fashioned a psaltery"; and gradually the whole of the Psalms came to be ascribed to D. as author. In regard to this question it must be remembered that in the East at any rate there is no such distinction as that of sacred and secular.

      By sacred poetry we mean poetry which mentions the name of God or quotes Scripture, but the Hebrews or Arab poet will use the name of God as an accom paniment to a dance, and will freely sprinkle even comic poetry with citations from his sacred book. D. must have composed sacred poems if he com posed at all, and he would use his musical gift for the purposes of religion as readily as for those of amusement and pleasure (286 14.15). Whether any of our psalms was composed by D. is another question. The titles cannot be considered as con clusive evidence, and internal proofs of his author ship are wanting. Indeed the only psalm which claims to have been written by D. is the 18th ( = 2 Samuel 22). One cannot help wishing that the 23d were sung by the little herd lad as he watched his father s flocks and guarded them from danger.

      There are sayings of Mohammed 1 hat the happiest life is that of the shepherd, and that no one became a prophet who had not at one time 6. Tribes- tended a flock of slice]). What Mo- man hammed meant was that the shepherd

      enjoys leisure and solitude for reflec tion and for plunging into those day dreams out of which prophets are made. If D., like the Arab poet Tarafa, indulged in sport, in music and in poetry, even to the neglect of his charge, he must have sought out themes on which to exercise his muse; and it must have been with no little chagrin that he learnt that whereas the tribes of Ephraim, Benjamin, Naphtali, Manasseh, Issachar, Zebulun, Levi, Daniel, and even the non-Israelite tribes of Kenaz and the debatable land of Gilead could boast of having held the hegemony of Israel and led the nation in battle, his own tribe of Judah had played a quite subor dinate part, and was not even mentioned in the national war song of Deborah. As contrasted with the poets of these tribes he could boast in his verses only of Ibzan who belonged to his own town of Bethlehem (Judges 12 8). The Jerahmeelites were no doubt a powerful clan, but neither they nor any other of the subdivisions of Judah had ever done anything for the common good. Indeed, when the twelve pathfinders had been sent in advance into Canaan, Judah had been represented by Caleb, a member of the Uitlander tribe of Kenaz (Numbers 13 0). He became apparently the adopted son of Hezron and so D. might claim kinship with him, and through him with Othniel the first of the judges (Judges 1 13). D. thus belonged to the least efficient of all the Israeli! ish tribes except one, and one which, con sidering its size and wealth, had till now failed to play a worthy part in the confederacy. It is diffi cult to believe that the young D. never dreamed of a day when his own tribe should take its true place among its fellows, and when the deliverer of Israel from its oppressors should belong for once to the tribe of Judah.

      ///. In the Service of Saul. The earliest events in the career of D. are involved in some obscurity. This is due mainly to what appears to 1. David be an insoluble difficulty in chs 16 and First Meets 17 of 1 8. In ch 16, D. is engaged Saul to play before Saul in order to dispel

      his melancholy, and becomes his squire or armor-bearer (16 21), whereas in the following chapter he is unknown to Saul, who, after the death of Goliath, asks Abner who he is, and Abner replies that he does not know (17 55). This apparent contradiction may be accounted for by the following considerations: (a) 16 14-23 may be inserted out of its chronological order for the sake of the contrast with the section immediately preceding "the spirit of JHVH came mightily upon D. from that day for ward .... the spirit of JHVH departed from Saul" (16 13.14); (6) the fact of D. becoming Saul s squire does not imply constant personal attendance




      upon him; the text says D. became mi (not his) armor-bearer to Saul. The king would have many such squires: Joab, though only commander-in- e hief, had, it seems, eighteen ( 2 Samuel 23 37 reads "ar mor-bearers"); (<") D. would not play before Saul every day: his presence might not be required for a space of weeks or months; (</) Saul s failure to recognize I), may have been a result of the evil spirit from JHVH and AbnerV denial of knowl edge may have been feigned out of jealousy. If we accept all the statements of the dramatis pcr- KOIKIC in these narratives we shall not get very far. The facts seem to have been somewhat as follows: It had become evident that Saul was not equal to the task to which he had been set 2. His First the task of breaking the i hili power, Exploit and it became the duty of Samuel, as

      the vicar of Jell and as still holding very large powers, to look about for a successor. He turned to the tribe of Judah (the full brother of his own ancestor Levi ), a tribe which was fast becoming the most powerful member of the federation. The headman of this clan was Jesse of Bethlehem. His name was well known in the country -Saul does not require to be told who he is (1 Samuel 16 is; 17 r>sj but he was by this time advanced in years (17 12). He had, however, many sons. Old men in the East often foretell a great future for a young boy^cf Luke 2 34). Samuel saw that I), was formed of other clay than his brothers, and he anointed him as he had (lone Saul (I south 10 1). But whereas the anointing of Saul was done surreptitiously ami fe>r a definite purpose which was explained at the time (10 1), that of D. was performed before 1 his whole family, but with what object he was not told (16 13). His brothers do not seem to have thought the matter of much consequence (cf 17 2S), and all I). could conclude 1 from it was that he was destined to some high oflice perhaps that: of Samuel s sue-e-es- se>r (cf 1 Kings 19 If). Hi). It would have the effect of nerving him for any adventure and raising his hopes high and steeling his courage. Whether by^ac- e-ident or by contrivance he became attached to Saul as minstrel (cf 2 Kings 3 1~>) and subsequently as one of his armor-bearers. lie would probably be at this time about t wenty years of age. It must have 1 been after an interval of some months that an event hap pened which made it impossible for Saul eve-r again to forget the existence of I). This was the famous duel between I), and the Phili (ioliath, which saved the situation for Saul for the time 1 (eh 17). In regard to this narrative 1 it must be 1 noted that vs 12-31.41.r><).f>r>-f>south and the first five 1 verses of ch 18 are- wanting in the best MS e>f the 1 LXX, that is, the sending of D. from Bethlehe-m and his firsh introeluctiem to Saul and Saul s failure to recognize him are left out. With the 1 omission of these 1 verses all the 1 diflie ulties of the narrative vanish. For the 1 reason why D. could not wear the armor offered him was not because 1 he 1 was still a child, which is absurd in view of the fact that, Saul was excep tionally tall (1 Samuel 9 2), but because 1 he had had no practice with it (17 39). It, is ridiculous to sup- peise that, D. was not at this time 1 full-grown, and that two armies stooel by while a child advanced to engage* a giant. The eve nt gained for D. the repu tation wem in modern times at the cannon s mouth, but also the devoted friendship e)f Jonathan and the. nmily of Saul (1 Samuel 18 1 9).

      The 1 next years of D. s life were spent in the serv ice 1 of Saul in his wars with the Philis. D. s suc cess where Saul had faileel, however, insteael of gratifying only inflameel the jealousy of the latter, and he determined to put D. out of the way. More than once he attempted to do so with his own hand (18 11; 19 10), but he also employed stratagem. It came to his ears that his daughter Michal, as well

      as his son Jonathan, loved I)., and Saul undertook

      let give her to I), on conditiem e if his killing a hundred

      Philis. The- gruesome dowry was paid,

      3. Envy of and D. became 1 Samuelaul s son-in-law. The Saul and Hebrews text, state s that Saul first offered Flight of his elder daughter tej D., and then David failed to implement his promise (18

      17-19. 21 b), but this passage is not found in the Clr. D. s relation to Saul did not mitigate 1 the hatred e>f (he latter; indeed his enmity became 1 so bitter that I), de termined upon flight. With the- help of stratagem on the 1 part of Michal, this was effected anel 1). be took himself to Samuel at Ramah for counsel and advice 1 (19 IS). Thither Saul pursued him, but when he 1 came into the 1 pres- ene e of the 1 prophet his courage failed and he 1 was e)veivome by the contagion of the 1 prophetic ecstasy (19 24) as he 1 had been em a previous occasion (10 11). D. returned to (iibeah, while the coast was clear, te> meet Jonathan, but Saul also returned immediately, his hat reel more intense than before. D. then continued his flight and came to Ahimelech, the 1 priest at Nob (21 1). It is sometimes supposed that we have here two inconsistent accounts of D. s flight , according to e>ne of which he fle^el to Samuel at Hamah, and accenting te> the 1 e>ther to Ahimelech at Xob; but there is no necessity for such a suppo sition, anel even if it we re cenTce-t, it would ne>t eaear up all the difficulties of the 1 narrative. There is evidently mue-h in these 1 narrative s that is left untold anel our business should be 1 to fill up the gaps in a way consistent with what we are given. That Saul made sure that D. would not return is shown by the 1 fact that he gave 1 his daughter Michal to a man of the 1 tribe- e)f Benjamin as wife (25 44).

      The 1 relation existing between Jonathan and David was erne 1 of pure 1 frienelship. There was no reason

      why it should not be- so. A heredi-

      4. Jonathan tary meinare-hy elid not yet exist in and David Israel. The only previous attempt

      to establish such an institution that of (iideon s family (Judges 9) though not of CJideon himself (8 23) had eneleel in failure. The prin ciple follower! hitherto had bee 1 !! that of election by 1 he she ikhs e>r caids of the clans. Te> this Saul owed his position, for the lot was a kind of ballot. Men-c over, be hind all national nmvements there lay the power of the prophets, the representatives of Jeh. Saul was indebted for his elect iem t,e> Samuel, just as Barak was 1e> Deborah (Judges 4 G). Like the judge s who preceded him he had been put forward to meet a definite crisis in the 1 national affairs the rise 1 of the 1 Phili power (9 1(5). Hael he succeeeled in crushing these invaders, (he 1 newly established kingdom would in the absence- e>f this bond of union have 1 elissolveel again into its elements, as had hap pened em every similar eiccasion before. lie 1 was the only judge 1 who had failed to accomplish the task for which he 1 was appointe-d, and he 1 was the only erne 1 who had be-e ii appoint eel on the) under standing that his son should succeed him, for this cemstitutes the distinct iem betwe-en king anel judge. Moreover, not only was Saul aware that he; had failed, but he saw before him the man who was ready to step into his place anel sueveed. His rival had, besieles, the backing of the; mass of the people and of Samuel who was still virtual head of the state anel last court of appeal. It is not to be; wondered at that Saul was hostile to D. Jonathan, on the other hand, acquiesced in the turn things had taken and bowed to what he believeel to be the inevitable. Such was his love for D. that he asked only to be his wazccr (vizier) w r hen D. came to the throne (1 Samuel 23 17). D. s position was perhaps the most difficult im aginable. He had to fight the battles of a king whose one idea was to bring about his ruin. He was the bosom friend of a prince whom he proposed to sup-



      plant in his inheritance. His hope of salvation lay

      in the death of his king, the father of his wife and of his best, friend. The situation would in ordinary circumstances he intolerable, and it would have been impossible but for the fact that those concerned were obsessed by a profound belief in Fate. Jona than bore no grudge against D. for aiming at the throne because to the throne he was destined by the will of Jeh. To D. it would never occur that he had the choice of declining the high destiny in store for him. Had he had the power to refuse what he believed to be the decree of Fate, he would hardly escape censure for his ambition and disloyalty.

      IV. David in Exile. From the moment of his

      flight D. became an outlaw and remained so until

      the death of Saul. This period of his

      1. David career is full of stirring adventures as Outlaw which remind us of Robert Bruce or

      William Wallace of Scotland. Like King Arthur and other heroes he carried a famous sword the sword of Goliath (21 <)). Having ob tained it. of Ahimelech, lie for the first time left Is raelite territory and betook himself to the Pliili city of (iath (21 10). Not feeling safe here lie left and took up his abode in the cave of Adullam (22 1) in the country of Judah, almost within sight of his native Bethlehem. This cave was admirably suited to the outlaw s purpose and no doubt I), had many a time explored its recesses when a boy. Here he was joined by his parents and brothers, with their servants, as well as by all sorts of persons who were at war with the government, debtors, fugitives from justice, and disci in tented persons generally. I), thus became the chief of a band of outlaws who num bered about -100. Of such stuff some of his bravest soldiers were made (2 Samuel 23 13 IT). He had an augur, too, to direct his actions, and, after the mas sacre of the priests at Nob, a priest, Abiathar, carry ing an ephod with which to cast lots (1 Samuel 22 f>; 23 ( ). During this period he supported himself and his men by making raids on the 1 hili outposts and levying blackmail on his own countrymen (25 2 IT) in return forgiving them his protection from the Philis (23 1 ffj. Hard pressed both by Saul and the Pliilis (who had established themselves even in Bethlehem) he committed his parents to the keep ing of the king of Moab, and began to rove as a free booter through the country (23 r>.ir>.2.">.2 ( .)). On two occasions J). had Saul in his power, but refused to seize the opportunity of taking his life (24-26). Here again there are no adequate; grounds for sup posing we have two accounts of one and the .same incident. During his wandering D. s followers in creased in numbers (cf 22 2; 23 13; 25 13). Ilis chief lieutenant was his nephew Abishai, the son of his sister Zeruiah, but his brothers Joab and Asahel do not seem to have joined D. yet. Another of his nephews, Jonathan the son of Shimei (Shammah), is mentioned (2 Samuel 21 21; cf 1 Samuel 16 0) and the Chronicler thinks many other knights joined him during this period (1 Chronicles 11 10 if). The position of D. at this time was very similar to that of the brigand Raisuli of late in Morocco. That there was some stability in it is shown by his taking two wives at this time Ahinoam and Abigail (1 Samuel 25 42.43). D. now, abandoning all hope of ever conciliating the king (I south 27 1), made a move which shows at once his reckless daring and consum-

      2. David mate genius. He offered the services Joins the of himself and his little army of GOO Philistines men to the enemies of his country.

      The town of Gath appears to have been an asylum for fugitive Israelites (1 Kings 2 3!)). D. s first impulse on his flight from Saul had been to seek safety there (1 Samuel 21 10-15). Then, however, he was the hero of Israel, whose assassination would be the highest gain to the Philis; now he was the

      embittered antagonist of Saul, and was welcomed accordingly. Achish placed at his disposal t he fortified town of Ziklag in the territory of the now extinct tribe of Simeon, and there he and his follow ers, each of whom had his family with him, took up their quarters for sixteen months (27 0.7). The advantages to D. were many. He was safe at last from the persecution of Saul (27 4) ; he could sen-lire ample supplies by making raids upon the Ama- lekites and other tribes hostile to Israel toward the south (27 (south); and if the opportunity presented itself he could deal a serious blow at the Phili arms. The position was no doubt a precarious one. It could last just as long as I), could hoodwink Achish by per suading him that his raids wen 1 directed against his own tribe (27 10). This he succeeded in doing so completely that Achish would have taken him with him on the campaign which ended in the decisive bat tie of Gilboa. but t lie other chiefs, fearing treach ery, refused to allow him to do so. D. was forced to return with his followers to Ziklag, only to find that town razed to the ground and all the women and children carried oil by his old enemies the Amalekites (30 1.2). By the time he had recovered the spoil and returned in triumph to Ziklag the bat tie of Gilboa had been fought and Saul was slain. The conduct of D. in his relations wit h t he Philis was not more reprehensible than that of the Cid who allied himself with AI-Mu taman of Saragossa, or of Coriolanus who went over to the Volsci. D. com posed upon the deal h of Saul and Jonathan an elegy every sentence of which has become classic.

      V. David as King. D. immediately removed

      from Ziklag and took up his quarters at Hebron,

      where lie was at once 1 anointed king

      1. Civil over his own tribe of Judah. Thus War began the cleavage between Judah and

      Israel. Here he was joined, appar ent ly for 1 he first t ime, by his nephew Joab. Abner, however, loyal to his former master, had Esh-baal (1 Chronicles 8 33), son of Saul, anointed king over the remaining tribes at Mahanaim, a fortified town east of the Jordan. War continued between D. and Abner for several years, fortune always favoring 1). Seeing things were going against him Abner forced Esh-baal into a personal quarrel with himself and then transferred his allegiance and persuaded his side to transfer theirs to D. (2 Samuel 3 21). He did not reap the fruit of his defection, as he was imme diately after assassinated by Joab in revenge for the death of Asahel whom Abner had killed in self- defence (3 27). Deprived of his chief support Esh-baal also fell a victim to assassination (4 2 if). I), denounced both crimes with apparent sincerity. He composed an elegy and fasted for Abner (3 33 IT) and avenged the death of Esh-baal (4 Off). Yet these acts of violence laid the sovereignty of all Israel at his feet. Of the male heirs of Saul there remained only a son of Jonathan, Merib-baal (1 Chronicles 8 34) who was a crippled child of 7. D. was there fore 1 elected king over the 1 nation (2 Samuel 5 1 ff). His sovereignty of Judah is said te> have lasted 7 \\\\ years and that over the undivided people 33, making a reign of 40 years, beginning from D. s 30th year (5 ">; 1 Chronicles 3 4; in 282 10 the text is probably corrupt) . These are round numbers.

      King of all the Israe-litish tribes, D. found his hands fre-e to expel the 1 foreigners who had invaded

      the sacred territory. His first step

      2. Con- was to move his headquarters from the quests Southern Hebron, which he had be>e>n Abroad compelled at first to make his capital,

      to the more central Jerus. The fort here, which was still held by the aboriginal Jebusites, was stormed by Joab, D. s nephew, who also super intended the- rebuilding fe>r D. He was in conse- (juence appointed commander-in-chief (1 Chronicles 11



      6.8), a post vvhieh he held us long ;is I), lived. The materials and the skilled workmen for the erection of the palace were supplied by Hiram of Tyre; (2 85 11). D. now turned his attention to the surrounding tribes and peoples. The most for midable enemy, the Philis, were worsted in several campaigns, and their power crippled (2 Samuel 5 17 IT; 8 1). In one of these D. so nearly came by his death, that his people, would not afterward permit him to take part in the fighting (21 1C). 17). One of the first countries against which I), turned his arms was the land of Moab, which he treated with a severity which would suggest that the Moabite king had ill-treated D. s father and mother, who had taken refuge with him (8 2). Vet his conduct toward the B r nc l Aniindii was even more cruel (12 XI), and for a less cause, (10 1 IT). The king of Zobah (Chalkis) was defeated (8 3), and Israelite garrisons were placed in Syria of Damascus (8 (5) and Edom (8 14). The B ne * A mm on formed a league with the Syrian kingdoms to the north and east of Pal (10 I). 10), but these also had no success. All these people became tributary to the kingdom of Israel under D. (10 IS. ID) except the B xc *Ammon who were practically exterminated for the time being (12 31). Thus Israel became one of the "great powers" of the world during the reign of D. and his immediate successor.

      Then- is no doubt 1 hat t he expansion of the bound aries of Israel at this period almost to their ideal limits (I)t 11 24, etc) was largely due

      3. Political to the fact that the two great empires Situation of Egypt and Assyria were at the mo ment passing through a period of

      weakness and decay. The Assyr monarchy was in a decadent state from about the year 1050 BC, and the 22d Dynasty to which Shishak belonged (1 Kings 14 2")) had not yet arisen. D., therefore, had a free, hand when his time came and found no more formidable opposition than that of the petty states bordering upon Philestina-Canaan Land Against the combined forces of all the Israelitish tribes these had never been able to effect much.

      It had been the custom of the Israelites on setting

      out upon expeditions in which the nation as a whole

      took part to carry with them the sacred

      4. The Ark box or "ark" which contained the two

      stone tables (Joshus 4 7, etc)- When D. had secured the fortress of Jebus for his metropo lis one of his first thoughts was to bring into it this emblem of victory. It was then lying at Kiriath- jearim, possibly Abu (!f>sh about south miles northwest of Jerus (cf Psalm 132). Owing to the sudden death of one of the drivers, which he interpreted as indica tive of anger on the part of Jeh, D. left the ark at the house of a Phili which happened to be near at hand. As no misfortune befell this person, but on the contrary much prosperity, I), took courage after three months to bring the sacred chest and its contents into his royal city. The ceremony was conducted with military honors (2 Samuel 6 1) and with religious dancing and music (6 5.14) and festivity (6 IS. ID). A tent was pitched for it, in which it remained (7 2), except when it was sent with the army to the seat of war (11 11; 15 24). D., how ever, had already built for himself a stone palace, and he wished now to add to it a chapel royal in the shape of a small temple, such as the neighboring kings had. Pie was the more anxious to so do as he had much of the material ready to hand in the pre cious metals which formed the most valuable part of the spoil of the conquered races, such as bronze from Chalkis (8 8), gold and silver (811) and the vessels which he had received as a present from the king of Hamath (8 10). He was persuaded, how ever, by the prophet Nathan to forego that task, on the ground of his having shed much human

      blood, and to leave it to his successor (1 Chronicles 22 8; 28 3).

      VI. Domestic Life. In accordance with the practice of the kings of his time D. had several

      wives. I Us first wife was Michal, the

      1. His younger (laughter of Saul. When D. Wives and fled from Saul she was given to Phal- Children tiel, but was restored to D. after Saul s

      death. She does not appear to have borne any children. In 2 Samuel 21 8 "Michal" should be M crab (L south 18 ID). During the period of sepa ration from Michal, I), took to wife Ahinoam of ,)e/,reel and Abigail the wife of Nabal (1 Samuel 25 4)5.42), who accompanied him to Ziklag (27 3 ff), when they were among those captured by the Ama- lekites (30 5). A fourth wife was the (laughter of Talmai of (Jeshur, Maacah, whom he had captured in war (27 8; 2 Samuel 3 3). \\\\Vhcn he removed to Hebron Ahinoam bore him his eldest son Amnon, and Abigail his second son Cliileab or Daniel (2 Samuel 3 2.3; 1 Chronicles 3 1); his third son was Absalom, whose mother was Maacah, and his fourth Adonijah. His mother s name was Haggith; nothing is known about her. Two other sons, Shephatiah and Ithream were also born in Hebron (2 Samuel 3 2-5; 1 Chronicles 3 1-4). When D. added the kingdom of Israel to. that of .ludah, he, in accordance with custom, took more wives with a view to increase his state and dignity. ( )ne of t hese was Bat hslieba, who became t he mot her of Solomon (2 Samuel 5 13 ff; 1 Chronicles 3 off; 14 3ff). D. s sons discharged priestly functions (2 Samuel 8 18; cf Nathan in Zee 12 12).

      It was perhaps inevitable that in so large a house hold the usual dissensions and crimes of the hi (rim should have sprung up in plenty. A

      2. Domestic most unvarnished account of these is Troubles given in 2 Samuel 11 20 it has been

      suggested by Abiathar the pnest in order to avenge himself on Solomon for his disgrace (1 Iv 2 20.27), Solomon s mother being Bathsheba (2 Samuel 11, 12). Chronicles 13 recounts the wrong done to Tamar, the daughter of D. and Maacah, and sister of Absalom, and how the last named, having avenged his sister s honor by killing Amnon, his eldest brother, fled for asylum to his mother s father, the king of (Jeshur. Thence after two years he re turned (ch 14), only to foment rebellion against his father (ch 15), leading to civil war between D. and Judah on the one side and Absalom and Israel on the other (chs 16, 17), and ending in the death of himself (ch 18) and of Amasa, D. s nephew, at the hands of his cousins Joab and Abishai (20 7 ff), as well as nearly precipitating the disruption of the newly founded kingdom (19 43). The rebellion of Absalom was probably due to the fact, of Solomon having been designated D. s successor (cf 12 24; 1 Chronicles 22 D), for Absalom had the best claim, Amnon being dead and Chileab apparently of no account.

      VII. His Officials. As D. s circumstances im proved he required assistance in the management

      of his affairs. The beginning of his

      1. Prophets good fortune had been the friendship

      of the prophet Samuel (1 Samuel 16 13; 19 18). The prophet or seer was keeper of the king s conscience and was not appointed by him, but claimed Divine authority (2 Samuel 7 3.5 ff; 12 1 ff; 24 11 ff). Among the persons who discharged this duty for D. were Gad the seer (1 Samuel 22 5) and Nathan the prophet (1 Kings 1 11 ff). _ All these are said to have written memoirs of their times (1 Chronicles 29 2D; 2 Chronicles 9 29).

      Next to the prophet came the priest. The ko-

      hen (priest) was, as the name indicates, a soothsayer

      or diviner. The duty of Abiathar,

      2. Priests D. s first priest (1 Samuel 22 20 ff), was to

      carry the ephod an object used for casting lots (23 ff), in order to decide what to do



      in oases where there was no other way of making up one s mind (30 7). It is not to be confused with the dress of the same name (1 Samuel 2 18). Later, at Hebron, Abiathar was given a colleague, Zadok (1 Chronicles 12 28), and it became their duty to carry the ark in expeditions (2 8 15 24). Shortly after the death of D., Abiathar was deposed by Solomon for his part in Adonijah s attempt to seize the throne (1 Kings 2 26.27), and Zadok remained sole priest to the king (2 35). D. s sons also acted in the same capacity (2 Samuel 8 18). An extra private priest is mentioned in 2 Samuel 20 26 (cf 23 26.38).

      When still an outlaw D. required the services of

      a henchman to take command of his men in his

      absence. This post was hold at first

      3. Military by different persons according to cir- Officers cumstanccs, but generally, it seems,

      by his nephew Abishai (1 Samuel 26 6). It was only after the death of Saul that his brother Joab threw in his lot with D. His great military talents at once gave him a leading place, and as a re ward for the capture of Jebus he was given the chief command, which he held against all rivals (2 Samuel 3 27; 20 10) during the whole reign. D. s special body-guard of Phili troops the Chorcthites and Pelethites were commanded by Bonaiah, who in the following reign, succeeded Joab (I K 2 35).

      The office of recorder or intHjixttr tin inorim- was held during this reign and in the following by Je-

      hoshaphat (2 Samuel 8 16,); and that of

      4. Other secretary by Seraiah (2 Samuel 8 17), also Officials called Shavsha (1 Chronicles 18 16) or Shisha

      (1 Kings 4 3 i. There were also the coun sellors, men noted for their great acumen and knowledge of human nature, such as Ahithophel and Hushai.

      It was natural that there should bo much mutual jealousy and rivalry among those officials, and that some of them should attach thoni- 6. Mutual selves to one of D. s many sons, others Rivalry to another. Thus Amnon is the spe

      cial patron of D. s nephew Jonadab (2 Samuel 13 3; of 21 21), and Absalom is hacked by Amasa (17 25). The claim of Adonijah to the throne is supported by Joab and Abiathar (1 Kings 1 7), as against that of Solomon who is backed by Nathan, Benaiah, Zadok (vor ,8) and Ilushai (of Ant, VII, xiv, 4). Ahithophol sides with Absa lom; Hushai with D. (2 Samuel 15 12.32).

      VIII. Personal Character of David. Wo should obtain a very different idea of the personal character of D. according as we drew our con- 1. Chroni- elusions from the books of south and K or cles from the books of Chronicles. There is 710

      doubt whatever that the former books are much truer to fact, and any estimate or appre ciation of D. or of any of the other characters de scribed must be based upon them. The Chronicler, on the other hand, is biased by the religious ideas of his own time and is prejudiced in favor of some of those whose biographies he writes and against others. He accordingly suppresses the dark passages of D. s life, e.g. the murder of Uriah (1 Chronicles 20), or sets them in a favorable light, e.g. by laying the blame of the census upon Satan (1 Chronicles 21 1). D. s success, esp. as against Saul s misfortune, is greatly exaggerated (12 2.22). Ceremonial functions are greatly elaborated (oh 16; cf 2 Samuel 6). The various orders of priests and singers in the seeond temple have their origin traced back to D. (16 4 ff.37 ff ; chs 23-27), and the temple of Solomon itself is to all intents and purposes built by him (chs 22, 28). At the same time th(Te may be much material in the .shape of names and isolated .statements not found in the older books, which so long as they are not tinged with the Chronicler s pragmatism or "tendency," may possibly be authentic records pre

      served within the circle of the priestly caste, e.g. we are told that Saul s skull was fastened in the temple of Dagon (1 Chronicles 10 10). There is no doubt that the true names of Ish-bosheth, Mephibosheth and Eliada (2 Samuel 2 8; 4 4; 5 16)wereIsh-baal(Esh-baal),Merib- baal and Beeliada (1 Chronicles 8 33; 9 39; 8 34; 9 40; 14 7) ; that the old name of Jerusalem was Jebus (11 4.5; cf Judges 19 10.11); perhaps a son of D. called Nogah has to be added to 2 Samuel 5 15 from 1 Chronicles 3 7; 14 6; in 2 Samuel 8 8 and 21 18, for Betah and Gob read Tebah (Tibhath) and Gezer (1 Chronicles 18 8; Genesis

      22 24; 1 Chronicles 20 4). The incident recounted in 2 Samuel 23 9 ff happened at Pasdammim (1 Chronicles 11 13). Sharnmah the Harodite was the son of Elika (2 Samuel

      23 25; cf 1 Chronicles 11 27), and other names in this list have to be corrected after the readings of the Chronicler. Throe (not seven) years of famine was the alternative offered to D. (2 Samuel 24 13; cf 1 Chronicles 21 12).

      If we could believe that the Book of Pss was in whole

      or in part the work of I)., it would throw a flood of light

      upon the religious side of his nature.

      2. Psalms Indeed, we should know as much about his

      religious life as can well be known about anyone. Unfortunately the date and authorship of the Pss are questions regarding which the most divergent opinions are held. In the early Christian centuries all the Pss were ascribed to I), and. where necessary, ex plained as prophecies. The author of the Kp. to the He speaks of the Book of Pss simply as " David " (4 7). The (ir text, however, of that book ascribes only some <S7 of the poems to I)., and the Heh only 7:5. Some of these an 1 not D. s. and in the whole book there is only one which professes from its contents to be his. namely, Psalm 18 (=2 Samuel 22). The ornixi <; on which a psalm was composed is stated only in the case of 1 :5 psalms, all of which are ascribed to I). Kach of these is referred to some incident recorded in the books of south, although sometimes the cita tion is erroneous (see PSA i.. MS). The LXX supplies occasions to two or three more psalms; but all such state ments are merely the conjectures of readers and scribes and are of 110 historical value.

      To form a correct opinion of anyone is much more

      difficult than to state the facts of his life; to form

      an opinion which will be generally

      3. Complex accepted is impossible. Of D. s char- Character actor the most opposite estimates have

      boon formed. On one hand he is ex tolled as a saint, and yet few men have committed worse crimes. The character of D. must remain, like that of everyone, an insoluble enigma. A per son is to be judged by his motives rather than by his actions, and one s true motives are unknown oven to oneself (Jeremiah 17 9). There are several sides of D. s nature in regard to which there cannot be two opinions.

      Perhaps the feature of his character which stands out most prominently in his earlier years, at any

      rate, is his boundless physical courage.

      4. Physical He never shirked danger (1 Samuel 17 28. Courage 34 ff) and delighted in hairbreadth

      escapes (26 6). Like most Somites he was fond of gambling and liked to take risks (18 26; of 23 9; 30 7), even when modesty would have led him to decline them (17 32; cf Judges 8 20). A native indifference to the shedding of blood grew into a liking for it, giving rise to acts of gross cruelty (1 Samuel 27 9; 2 Samuel 8 2; 16 7, etc). He had need, indeed, to be a bravo man, considering the charac ter of the men whom he ruled (1 Samuel 22 2). Yet, he could rule them by gentleness as well as by force (30 23). All classes had unbounded confidence in his personal courage and soldierly qualities (2 Samuel 18 3), and were themselves driven to restrain his mili tary ardor (21 17).

      Whether D. possessed moral courage to an equal degree is another matter. Had he done so he would

      hardly have permitted the execution

      5. Moral of seven sons of Saul (2 Samuel 21 1 ff), Courage and that, too, at the cost of breaking

      his plighted word (1 Samuel 24 21); he would not have stood in awe of the sons of his sister



      Jeruiah (2 Samuel 3 39), and would have punished Joah instead of weakly invoking an imprecation on his head (ver 29), however much he might have felt the loss of his services. But in many matters his natural sense of justice was blunted by the super stitions of the age in which he lived.

      But I), was even more prudent than courageous.

      lie is so described by the person who recommended

      him (somewhat eulogistically) to Saul

      6. Prudence (I south 16 IS). Prudence or wisdom

      was indeed what his biographer most remarks in him (18 f>.30), and situated as lie was he could not have too much of it. It shows itself in the fact that he consistently made as many friends and as few enemies as was possible. His wonderful foresight, is shown in such acts as his conciliating the Judaean chiefs with gifts taken from his spoil (30 2(5 IT), in his commendation of the men of Ja- besh-gilead (2 Samuel 2 .">-?), and in his reception of Abtier (3 20). Yet it must be confessed that this constant looking forward to the future takes away from the spontaneity of his virtue. His gratitude is often a keen sense of favors to come. His kind ness to Merib-baal did him no harm and some advantage (cli 9; 19 2-1 IT), and his clemency to Shimei helped to win him the tribe of Benjamin (19 1(5 IT). Even in his earliest youth he seems to have preferred to attain his ends by roundabout ways. The means by which he obtained introduc tion or reintroduction to Saul (1 Samuel 17 2(5 IT) afford some justification for the opinon which his eldest- brother held of him (ver 2S). Perhaps nothing proves the genius of I), better than his choice of Jebus as the capital of the country which it still continues to be after a lapse of three thousand years.

      Yet it must be confessed that D. s prudence often degenerates into cunning. With true oriental sub tlety he believed firmly in keeping

      7. Strategy one s secret to oneself at all costs (1 Samuel

      21 2). The manner in which he got himself out of (lath after this first visit there (21 13) and the fact that he hoodwinked Achish during sixteen months (ch 27; 28 1; 29) may excite our admiration but not our respect. The Oriental, however, delights in a display of cunning and makes use of it without shame (2 Samuel 15 3-4), just as the European does in secret. There is something curi ously modern in the diplomacy which I), employed 1-o ensure his own return in due state (19 11 IT). We must remember, however, that I), lived among persons hardly one of whom lie could trust. Joab accuses Abner of deceit, while he himself was faith ful to none except I). (2 Samuel 3 2">). Ziba accuses Merib-baal of treachery, and Merib-baal, Ziba of falsehood, and I), cannot tell which is speaking the truth (2 Samuel 16 1 IT; 19 21 IT). I), himself is out witted by .Joab, though with a friendly purpose; (2 Samuel 14 Iff). The wonder, therefore, is, not that J). was guilty of occasional obliquity, but that he remained as st raighforward and simple as he was. D. was, indeed, a man very much ahead of the times in which he lived. His fine elegies upon the

      death of Saul and Jonathan, Abner

      8. Nobility and Absalom show that his nature

      was untainted with malice. It was no superstitious fear but a high sense of honor which kept him back from putting out of his way his arch enemy when he had him in his power (1 Samuel 24-26). He even attempts to find an excuse for him (26 19), while depreciating himself (24 1-1; 26 20) in phrases which are more than a mere oriental metonymy (2 Samuel 9 south). It was the ambition of his life to be the founder of a permanent dynasty (2 Samuel 7 29), yet he was willing that his house should be sacrificed to save his nation from destruction (24 17). Like most Orientals lie was endowed with a refinement of

      feeling unknown in the West. His refusal to drink of water obtained at the cost of bloodshed has be come classic (2 Samuel 23 17). And he seems to have been gifted with the saving sense of humor (1 Samuel 26 1")). That he was a religious person goes without saying (2 Samuel 7; 8 11). He did not probably believe that outside the land of Israel Jeh ceased to rule: the expression used in 1 Samuel 26 19 is not a term of dogmatic theology. Like other Hebrews I). had no theology. He believed in .Jeh alone as the ruler, if not of the universe, at any rate of all the world known to him. He certainly did not believe in Cheinosh or Milcom, whether in the hinds of Moab and Ammon or out of them (2 Samuel 12 30; for "their king" read Malcam [M ilcoin}).

      D. discharged, as most Orientals do, his duty

      toward his parents (1 Samuel 22 3). To Michal his

      first wife his love was constant (2 Samuel

      9. David in 3 13), although she did not bear him Relation to any children. In accordance with the His Family custom of the times, as his estate im proved, he took oilier wives and slave- girls. The favorite wife of his latter days was Bathsheba. His court made some show of splendor as contrasted with the dwellings of the peasantry and the farmer class (19 2S.3/>), but his palace was always small and plain, so that it could be left to the keeping of ten women when lie removed from it (15 1(1). D. and Michal seem to have lived on terms of perfect equality (6 20 IT). In this he con trasts somewhat with Ahab (I K 21 off). D. s chief weakness in regard to his family was his indul gence of some of his sons and favoring some above ot hers, and want of firmness in regard to them, lie could refuse them nothing (2 Samuel 13 27). His first favorite was his eldest son Annum (13 21 IAN). After the death of Annum, Absalom became the favorite (18 33). and after the death of Absalom, Adonijah (1 Kings 1 (5). Yet- I), lived for two whole years in .Jerus along with Absalom without seeing him (2 Samuel 14 2S), and lie was succeeded not by Adonijah, but by Solomon, whose mother was the favorite wife of his later years.

      Not only did D. know the value of having many

      friends, but he was capable of sincere attachment.

      There is no reason to doubt the sin-

      10. David in eerily of his love for Jonathan, al- Relation to though it is not so completely cut off His Friends from all suspicion of self-interest as is

      that of Jonathan for him. D., indeed, had the faculty of winning the confidence and love of all sorts and conditions of people, not onlv of Jona than (1 Samuel 18 Iff; 20; 23 1(5 IT), but of .L s sister Michal (18 20), of the whole people (18 2S IAN; 2 Samuel 19 11), and even of his people s enemies (2 Samuel 17 27 IT). His friendship lasted as long as (he ob ject of it lived (2 Samuel 1 17 IT; 10 1 f). _ In the case of his officers this was partly due to his faculty for choosing good men (2 Samuel 8 1(5 IT), so that the same persons often held the same offices during D. s life (20 23 IT). Yet the services of one of them at least were retained more by compulsion than by choice (2 Samuel 3 39). lie seems, indeed, to have continued Joab in his post because he felt he could not do wit h- out him. Joab was devoted to D. with t he devotion of Caleb Balderstone to his master, and he was as utterly unscrupulous. He did not hesitate to coin- mil any crime that would benefit I). The lat lei- dared not perpetrate these atrocities himself, but he did not mind taking advantage of such a useful instrument, and never punished Joab for them, save with an impotent curse (3 29). He dealt otherwise with malefactors who could be better spared (2 Samuel 1 14 IT; 4 9ff). Indeed, a suspicious juryman might find that D. put both Abner and An iasa in the way of Joab (3 23 IT; 19 13; 20 4 IT). It does not say much for D. that he fell so



      low as to fear losing (ho pood opinion even of Joab, this ready instrument of his worst crime (11 25).

      One reason for (he high position D. held in the popular estimation was no doubt his almost unin terrupted success. He was regarded

      11. His as the chosen of Heaven, by friend and Success foe alike (1 Samuel 23 17). Fortune seemed

      to favor him. Nothing could have been more timely than the death of Saul and Jona than, of Ishbaal and Aimer, of Absalom and Amasa, and he did not raise his hand against one of them. As a guerilla chief with his 000 bandits he could keep at bay Saul with his 3,000 picked men (1 Samuel 24 2; 26 2), but he was not a great general. Most of the old judges of Israel did in one pit died battle what D. effected in a campaign (1 Samuel 18 30; 19 X; 23 Iff; 2 Samuel 5 17 ff; 21 15 ff). Most of his con quests were won for him by Joab (1 Chronicles 11 (>; 2 Samuel 11 1), who willingly accorded D. the credit of what he himself had done (2 Samuel 12 27.28; cf 2 Samuel 8 13;

      I Chronicles 18 11 with the titleof Psalm 60). And to crown all, when he came to turn his arms east and west, he found his two most formidable opponents in these directions crippled and harmless. That he ever survived Saul he owed to a timely incursion of the Pliilis (1 Samuel 23 24 IT), and his whole career is largely to be explained by the fact that, at the moment, the tribe of Judah as a whole was passing from insig nificance to supremacy.

      In the prosecution of his military achievements

      D. employed everyone who came to his hand as an

      instrument without any question of

      12. His nationality. This is not to impugn Foreign his patriotism. Eastern peoples are Friends united not by the ties of country but

      of religion. Still it docs seem strange that two of D. s best friends were two enemies of his nation Nahash, king of the tt nv \\\\\\\\tnnnni (1 Samuel 11 1; 2 Samuel 10 1 ffj and Achish, lord of (lath (1 Samuel 21 10; 27; 28 1 i f; 29). He appears to have found the Philis more reliable and trustworthy than the Hebrews. When he became king his personal body-guard was composed of mercenaries ot that nation the Cherethites and Pelcthites with whom he had become acquainted when at Ziklag (1 Samuel 30 14; 2 Samuel 8 IS; 20 23). It was to a native of (lath that he committed the care of the sacred ark on its passage from Kiriath-joarim to Jerus (2 Samuel 6 10.11]. When the rebellion broke out under Absalom, he com mitted one-third of his forces to a banished soldier of the same town, who had come to him a little while before with a band of followers (2 Samuel 15 1<> I f; 18 2). Some of the soldiers in whom he placed the greatest confidence were Hittites (1 Samuel 26 (>; 2 Samuel

      II 0), and his commissariat was furnished by persons outside of Israel (2 Samuel 17 27; the Machir tribe were half Syrian; (Ulead is the son of Machir, 1 Chronicles 7 14 i. The threshing-floor of a Jelmsite became the site of the temple of Solomon (2 Samuel 24 IS IT).

      D. was a strong believer in the power of Nemesis,

      and that daughter of Night played a considerable

      part in his life. He felt a peculiar

      13. Neme- satisfaction in being undeservedly sis cursed by Shimei, from a conviction

      that poetic justice, would in the end prevail (2 Samuel 16 12). He must have felt that the same unseen power was at work when his own eldest son was guilty of a crime such as his father had com mitted before him (2 Samuel 13 and 11), and when the grandfather of the wife of I riah the Hittite became the enemy whom he had most to fear (2 Samuel 11 3; 23 34; cf Psalm 41 <); 55 12 f). And D. s own last hours, instead of being spent in repose and peace following upon a strenuous and successful life, were passed in meting out vengeance to those who had incurred his displeasure as well as commending those who had done him service (1 Kings 2 5 IT).

      Even as early as Ezekiel D. became the ruler who was to govern the restored people of Israel (34 23. 24; 37 24). If there were to be a rul- 14. Refer- ing house it must be the Davidic ences in dynasty; it did not occur to the Jews the NT to think of any other solution (Am

      911; Hosea 3 5; Jeremiah 30 <); Zee 12 8). That Jesus was descended from D. (Matthew 9 27, etc) is proved by the fact that his enemies did not deny that he wa s so (22 4H f). In the NT, D. is re garded as the author of the Pss (Acts 4 25; Romans 4 6; He 4 7). He is also one of the OT saints (He 11 32) whose actions (unless otherwise stated) are to be imitated (Matthew 12 3); but yet not to be compared with the Messiah (Acts 2 2<)ff; 13 3t_>) who has power over the life to come (Hev 3 7) and who is "the Root of David" (5 5; 22 1(>).

      LITERATUReast See the commentaries on the hooks of south, K, Oh. and Pss. ;ui<l histories of the kingdoms of Israel and Judah, esp. \\\\\\\\Vllhuusen and Kiltel. A sketch of the life and historical position of David from the modern Continental point of view will he found in (>. Beer, Suu/, Dnvi<l, Nn/m, published hy Mohr, Tubingen, 1906.


      DAVID, ROOT, ro7>1, OF (T] pia AaveiS, /ir rh iza Dalit-id, The The Revelation 5 5; 22 1(5): Root here means stock, family, descendant, hence "the Root of David" is that which descended from David, not that from which David descended. Jesus Christ in His human nature and family connections was a descendant of David, a member of his family.

      DAVID, TOWER, tou er, OF. See JKIU SAI.K.M.

      DAWN, don. DAWNING: The word means the approach of the morning light, the breaking of the day. There are several words in the Bible that indi cate this. "ITU, n<-*lit />fi, "twilight" of the morn ing (Job 7 4; Psalm 119 147). The same word is used for evening twilight (1 Samuel 30 17; 2 Kings 7 5.7); ""lp.3n niS , /y tnllk lia-htlkcr, "the turning" of the morning, t he change from darkness to light, approach of the morning (Judges 19 2(5); inp " 1 5?2?, *<i/>li <i/>/>e K/inhfir, "the eyelids" of the morning (Job 3 ,); 41 lS[10]);^niTn r~ ~" , *(1l<~ilh /ia-Nliah<ii\\\\ "the ascent" or "rise" of the morning (Joshus 6 15); iri<f>d><rKu, epi- /i/iuxlctl, "to grow light," the approach of the dawn (Matthew, 28 1; Luke 23 54m); Siavydfa, diaiif/iizn, "to grow bright," "lustrous" (2 Pet 1 !<)), "until the day dawn"; fig. of the Second Coming of Christ (cf ver 16). H. POUTER

      DAY, da (2T 1 , yt nn; i\\\\^po-> ht mcro): This com mon word has caused some (rouble to plain readers, because they have not noticed that the word is used in several different senses in the Eng. Bible. When the different uses of the word are understood the difficulty of interpretation vanishes. We note several different uses of the word:

      (1) It sometimes means the time from daylight (ill dark. This popular meaning is easily discovered by the context, e.g. (Jen 1 5; 8 22, etc. The marked periods of this daytime were morning, noon and night, as with us. See Psalm 55 17. The early hours were sometimes called "the cool of the day" (den 3 8). After the exile (he day or daytime was divided into twelve hours and the night into twelve (see Ml 20 1-12; John 11 0; Acts 23 23); 6 AM would correspond to the first hour, AM to the third; 12 M to the sixth, etc. The hours were longer during (he longer days and shorter during the shorter days, as (hey always counted 12 hours between sunrise and sunset .

      (2) Day also means a period of 24 hours, or the



      time from sunset to sunset. In Bible usage the day begins with sunset (see Leviticus 23 32; Exodus 12 15- 20; 2 Corinthians 11 25, where night is put before day). See DAY AND NIGHT.

      (3) The word "day" is also used of an indefinite period, e.g. "the day" or "day that" means in general "that time" (see Genesis 2 4; Leviticus 14 2); "day of trouble" (Psalm 20 1); "day of his wrath" (Job 20 2S); "day of Jehovah" (Isaiah 2 12); "day of the Lord" (1 Corinthians 6 5; 1 Thess 5 2; 2 Pet 3 10); "day of salvation" (2 Corinthians 6 2); "day of Jesus Christ" (Phil 1 G).

      (4) It is used figuratively also in John 9 4, where "while it is day" means "while I have opportunity to work, as daytime is the time for work." In 1 Thess 5 5.south, "sons of the day" means spiritually enlightened ones.

      (5) We must also bear in mind that with God time is not reckoned as with us (see Psalm 90 4; 2 Pet, 3 8).

      (G) The apocalyptic use of the word "day"inDnl 12 11; The The Revelation 2 10, etc, is difficult to define. It evi dently does not mean a natural day. See APOCA LYPSeast

      (7) On the meaning of "day" in the story of Creation we note (a) the word "day" is used of the whole period of creation (Genesis 2 4); (h) these days are days of God, with whom one day is as a thousand years; the whole age or period of salvation is called "the day of salvation"; see above. So we believe that in harmony with Bible usage we may under stand the creative days as creative periods. See also ASTRONOMY; CREATION; EVOLCTION.


      Figurative: The word "day" is used fig. in many senses, some of which are here given.

      (1) The X/HIH of human life.- -Genesis 6 4: "And tin- days of Adam .... were eight hundred years." "And if thou wilt walk .... then I will lengthen thy days" (1 Kings 3 14; cf Psalm 90 12; Isaiah 38 5).

      (2) An indefinite time. -Existence in general: Genesis 3 14: "All the days of thy life" (cf Genesis 21 34; Numbers 9 19; Joshus 22 3; Luke 1 21; Acts 21 10).

      (3) A set time. Genesis 25 24: "And when her days .... were fulfilled": Dnl 12 13: "Thou shalt stand in thy lot, at the end of the days" (cf Leviticus 12 (j; Dnl 2 44).

      (4) A historic, period. Genesis 6 4: "The Nephilirn were in the earth in those days"; Judges 17 6: "In those days there was no king in Israel" (cf 1 Samuel3 1; 1 Chronicles 5 17; Hosea 2 13).

      (5) /W time,. Psalm 18 IS: "the day of my ca lamity"; Psalm 77 5: "I have considered the days of old" (cf Alic 7 20; Mai 3 7; Matthew 23 30).

      (G) Future time.\\\\)\\\\ 31 14: "Thy days ap proach that thou must die"; Psalm 72 7: "In his days shall . . . ." (cf Ezekiel 22 14; Joel 2 29; Matthew 24 19; 2 Pet 3 3; The The Revelation 9 G).

      (7) The eternal. In Dnl 7 9.13, where God is called "the ancient of days."

      (8) A season of opportunity. John 9 4: "We must work the works of him that sent me, while it is day: the night cometh, when no man can work" (cf Romans 13 12.13; 1 Thess 5 5-8). See DAY (4), above.

      (9) Time of salralion. Specially referring to the hopes and prospects of the parouxia (see ESCIIA- TOLOGY OF NT). Romans 13 12: "The night is far spent, and the day is at hand."

      HENRY east DOSKER

      DAY AND NIGHT: "Day," C1\\\\ ydm; ordi narily, the Hob "day" lasted from dawn to the coming forth of the stars (Nehemiah 4 21). The con text usually makes it clear whether the term "day" refers to the period of twenty-four hours or to day time; when there was a possibility of confusion, the term nb^b, layiah, "night," was added (Genesis 7 4.12; 31 39). The "day" is reckoned from evening

      to evening, in accordance with the order noted in the account of Creation, viz. "And there was even ing and there was morning, one day" (Genesis 1 5); Leviticus 23 32 and Dnl 8 14 reflect the same mode of reckoning the day. The phrase "lp.3 2"}?, f crebh linker, "evening-morning," used in this last passage, is simply a variation of yum and layiah, "day" and "night"; it is the equivalent of the Gr vvxOfoepov, nuchthtmeron (2 Corinthians 11 25). That the custom of reckoning the day as beginning in the evening and lasting until the following evening was probably of late origin is shown by the phrase "tarry all night" (Judges 19 6-9); the context shows that the day is regarded as beginning in the morning; in the even ing the day "declined," and until the new day (morning) arrived it was necessary to "tarry ull night" (cf also Numbers 11 32).

      The transition of day to night begins before sun set and lasts till after sunset; the change of night to day begins before sunrise and continues until after sunrise. In both cases, neither \\\\rehh, "even ing," nor hoL-tr, "morning," indicate an exact space of time (cf Genesis 811; Exodus 10 13; Deuteronomy 16 G). The term CITE! , nexheph, is used for both evening twilight and morning dawn (cf 1 Samuel 30 17; 2 Kings 7 5.7; Job 7 4)._ As there were no definite measurements of the time of day, the various periods were indicated by the natural changes of the day; thus "midday" was the time of the day when the sun mounted its highest (3"Hr>, cghorayim); afternoon was that part of the (lay when the sun declined

      ir I oik lia-ijoin ) ; and evening was t he time of the going down of the sun P"^", \\\\-rebk). "Between the even

      ings" (south^inyn V2, ben /id- arhd/jitti) was the inter val between sunset and darkness. The day was not divided into hours until a late period. i""i<", shd*ah = Aram. (Dnl 3 G), is common in Syr and in later Hebrews; it denoted, originally, any short space of time, and only later came to be equivalent to our "hour" (Driver). The threefold division of the day into watches continued into post-exilic Romans times; but the Horn method of four divisions was also known (Mark 13 35), where all four divisions are referred to: "at even" (<5-/-<f, o/wr), "midnight" (fj.effovvKTiov, mesoniiktion), "at cock crowing" (d\\\\fK- Topotywvla, alektorophonia), "in the morning" (TT/JCOI, prui). These last extended from six to six o clock (cf also Matthew 14 25; Mark 13 35). Acts 12 4 speaks of four parties of four Romans soldiers (quaternions), each of whom had to keep guard during one watch of the night. In H -rakhotk 3I>, Rabbi Nathan (2d cent.) knows of only three night-watches; but the patriarch, Rabbi Judah, knows four. See also DAY.


      DAY BEFORE THE SABBATH (fj -n-apao-KVT|, he- paraskei&, "preparation"): Considered as a day of preparation, in accordance with Exodus 16 23, both before the regular Sabbath and before a feast Sab bath (Matthew 27 G2; Mark 15 42; Luke 23 54; John 19 14. 31.42). At 3 PM, the Hebrews began to prepare their food for the next day, and to perform all labors which were forbidden to be done on the Sab bath and yet must be done. They bat lied and puri fied themselves, dressed in festive apparel, set their tables, and lighted their lamps. On the day before Easter, the Hebrews of the later period made it their chief business to remove all leaven from the house (1 Corinthians 5 7). This custom of converting at least a portion of the day before the Sabbath into a holy day was recognized by the Romans to such an extent that, according to a rescript of Augustus, Jews need not appear in court after 3 PM on such days. Criminal cases wore- not brought before court on this day, and journeys exceeding 12 Romans miles were prohibited. The signal for the prepa-



      rations was given by the priests by means of trum pets blown six times at intervals.



      DAY, LAST (T] ctrxaTTi Tjixepa, he eschnte hemera): Repeatedly used by Jesus in John (6; 11 24; 12 4S) for the day of resurrection and judgment (see ESCHATOLOGY OF THE NT). Cf the usage in the OT (Lsa 2 2; Mic 4 1) and the NT (Acts 2 17; 2 Tim 3 1; 2 Pet 3 3; 1 John 2 IS; Jude ver 18) of "last days" and last lime" to denote 1 the Messianic age. See LATTER DAYS; LAST DAYS; LAST TIMeast

      In John 7 37, the last day, the great day of the feast" refers to the eighth day of the feast of Taber nacles. This closing day was observed as a Sab bath (Leviticus 23 3(>). "On "it the libation of water made on other days was not made; hence the allu sion of Jesus to Himself as the (liver of the living water. JAMES ORR

      DAY, LORD south See LORD south DAY.




      DAY OF THE LORD (JEHOVAH ) (TnrP "^ , yom Y!I\\\\\\\\ II; r\\\\ r^ pa TOV Kvpiou, lit- htini rn ton Kur ion): The idea is a common ( )T one. It denotes the consummation of the kingdom of (!od and the absolute 1 cessation of all attacks upon it (Isaiah 2 12; 13 (i.O; 34 south; Kzk 13 5; 30 3: Joel 1 15; 2 11; Am 6 IS; Zeph 1 14; Zee 14 1). It is a "day of visitation" (Isaiah 10 3), a day "of the wrath of Jeh" (E/k 7 19), a "great day of Jeh" (Zeph 1 14). The entire conception in the OT is dark and fore boding.

      On the other hand the NT idea is pervaded with the elements of hope and joy and victory. In the NT it is eminently the day of Christ, the day of His coming in the glory of His father. The very conception of Him as the "Son of Man" points to this day (I 1 ]. Kuehl, Dax Mbalbeiriixxtxi in Jesu, b south). John 5 27: "And he gave him authority to execute judgment, because he is a son of man" (cf Matthew 24 27.30; Luke 12 Samuel). It is true in the NT there is a dark background to the bright picture, for it still remains a "day of wrath" (Horn 2 ;">.(>), a "great day" (The The Revelation 6 17; Jude ver (i), a "day of (!od" (2" Pet 3 12), a "day of judgment" (Matthew 10 15; 2 Pet 3 7; Horn 2 16). Sometimes it is called "that day" (Matthew 7 22; 1 Thess 5 4; 2 Tim 4 south), and again it is called "the day" without any quali fication whatever, as if it were the only day worth counting in all the history of the world and of the race (1 Corinthians 3 13). To the unbeliever, the NT depicts it as a day of terror; to the believer, as a day of joy. For on that day Christ will raise the dead, esp. His own dead, the bodies of those that believed in Him "that of all that which he hath given rue I should lose nothing, but should raise it up at the last day" (John 6 39). In that day Ho comes to His own (Matthew 16 27), and therefore it"is called "the day of our Lord Jesus" (2 Corinthians 1 14), "the day of Jesus Christ" or "of Christ" (Phil 1 (UO), the day when there "shall appear the sign of the Son of man in heaven" (Matthew 24 30). All Paulinic lit. is esp. suf

      fused with this longing for the "parnusia," the day of Christ s glorious manifestation. The entire con ception of that day centers therefore in Christ and points to the everlasting establishment of the king dom of heaven, from which sin will be forever elim inated, and in which the antithesis between Nature and grace will be changed into an everlasting synthesis. See also ESCHATOLOGY (OF OT AND NT).

      HENRY east DOSKER

      DAY south JOURNEY, jur ni (ZV> 7^, derckh yom, Genesis 30 3(>; Numbers 10 33; 11 31; r^ pas 686s, hemeras hodos, Luke 2 44): The common way of estimating distances in the East is by hours and days. This is natural in a country whore roads are mere bridle paths or non-existent, as in the desert. The dis tance traveled must of course differ largely accord ing to the difficulties of the way, and it is more important to know where night will overtake the traveler than the actual distance accomplished. A day s journey is now commonly reckoned at about 3 miles per hour, the distance! usually covered by a loaded mule, the number of hours being about 8. Hence a day s journey is about 24 miles, and this may be taken as a fair estimate for Bible times.

      H. PORTER


      DAYSMAN, daz man (HZ? , yalcltah, "to argue, de cide, convince," RV UMPIRE): The use of this word appears to have been more common in the Kith cent, than at the later date of the 1r of AY, when its adoption was infrequent. The oldest instance of the term given in the O.ij urd k ni/1/xh Dictionary is I luinfilon ( <>//< *i>. ( MS9], p. 82: "Sir, the dayes- inen cannot agre us." It appears also in the 1551 ed of the OT in 1 Samuel 2 25, where the EV "judge" is tr d "dayes-man." Tindale s tr has for Exodus 21 22, "He shall pave as the dayesmen appoynte him" (EV as the "judges determine"). See also Edmund Spenser s Faerie (Jueene, ii, e. 8, published in 1590. As used in AV (Job 9 33) the word means an ar bitrator, umpire, referee; one who stands in a judi cial capacity between two parlies, and decides upon the merits of their arguments or case at law. "Nei ther is there any daysman [RV "umpire"] betwixt us, that might lay his hand upon us both" (cf (Sen 31 37). It was the eastern custom for a judge to lay his hands upon the heads of the two parties in disagreement, thus emphasizing his adjudicatory capacity and his desire to render an unbiased ver dict. Job might consider a human judge as capa ble of acting as an umpire upon his own claims, but no man was worthy to question the purposes of Jeh, or metaphorically, to "lay his hands upon" Him.

      In the NT (1 Corinthians 4 3, dvOpuirlvfj, anlhropine, ij/jL^pa, heint ra) "man s judgment" is lit. "man s day," in the sense of a day fixed for the trial of a case. Both Tindale and Coverdale so translate. See also 1 Tim 2 5, where the Saviour is termed the "one mediator .... between ( lod and men." Here the word understands a pleader, an advocate before an umpire, rather than the adjudicator him self (see Job 19 25-27).


      DAYSPRING, da spring: This beautiful Eng. word, in current use in the time of the AV, is found in t he OT as their of "inE, xhihar, "Hast . Ihou .... caused the day-spring 1o know his place?" (Job 38 12 AV). This is no doubt intended lit. for the dawn. The "place" of the dayspring is the particular point of the horizon at which the sun comes upon any given day. This slowly changes day by day through the year, moving northward from midwinter till mid summer, and back again southward from midsum mer to midwinter. See ASTRONOMY, I, 2. Also once in the NT for dcaroX??, analolt , "a rising."



      "The dayspring from on high hath visited us" (AV; RV "shall visit us," Luke 1 7S). Also in Apoc, "At, the dayspring pray unto thee" (A\\\\"; KV "plead with thee at the dawning of the light, " Wisd 16 2X). Both the I Ich and Gr words, however, are of fre quent occurrence, but variously rendered, "dawn," "break of day," "morning," "sunrise," "east." Note esj). "the spring of 1 he day" (1 Samuel 9 2(>), "the day began to spring" (Judges 19 25). I sed with hi liou, "sun," for rising of the sun (The The Revelation 7 2; 16 12). In IAX the same (!r word is used for Ileb ((nuilj, "branch," to designate the Messiah (Jeremiah 23 ~>; Zee 6 12). But this sense of the word is wholly unknown in profane Gr. The word is also employed in LXX to express the rising of a heavenly body, as the moon (Isaiah 60 19). This is good ( !r. See the kindred vl>. analcllo, "to rise" (LXX, Isaiah 60 1; Mai 4 2).

      What is the meaning of anatolc in Luke 1 7S? Certainly not branch; that does not fit any of the facts, unless it be rendered "branch of light" (see Reynolds, Jaltn the Baptist, 115). It occurs in Zacharias hymn over the birth of his son. The ode consists of two parts, "The glory and security of the Messiah s kingdom," and "The glory of the Forerunner." The expression before us is in the latter part. It naturally refers, therefore, not to the Messiah himself, but to John. lie is the dayspring from on high who hath visited the people who sat in darkness and the shadow of death. With (lodet we believe that the picture is borrowed from the caravan which has missed its way in the desert. The unfortunate pilgrims, overtaken by the night, are sit ting down expecting death, when suddenly a star brightly beams above them. They take cour age at the sight. The whole caravan leaps to its feet. It is the herald of the coming day and soon they see the great orb himself filling the east with orient pearl and gold. Is not one tempted to go a little farther and see here the morning star, herald of t he coming sun to be obliterated by his rising? He must wax, but I must wane (.In 3 .SO). What was John s work but, by his own testimony, to guide the benighted pilgrims into the way of peace, that, is, to I lim who was t lie Prince of Peace? If, however, as by most commentators, it be taken to refer to the Messiah, it probably implies prophetic knowledge that t he conception of Jesus had already taken place, and that the Messianic era was at hand, when the Jewish world should be filled with spiritual splendor. See DAY-STAU. ( .. II. TRKVKR

      DAY-STAR nnr~"2 T , fn-ir-l l,cn-slmh<ir, Isaiah 14 12; 4>wcr4>6pos, phosphuros, 2 Pet 1 1!)): The OT passage is rendered in AV "Lucifer, son of the morning," in AVm and RV "day-star," i.e. the morning star. The reference is to t he king of Baby lon (ver 4). In 2 Pet 1 I .l, "I ntil .... theday- star arise in your hearts," the word is lit. "light - bringer." It is applicable, therefore, not only to the planet Venus, seen as a morning star, herald of the dawn, but to the sun itself, and is used hen; as a title of Our Lord. See ASTRONOMY, I, ().


      DEACON, de k n, DEACONESS, de k n-es: The term SidKovos, didkonos, and its cognates occur many times in the NT, as do its synonyms u-n-ripeTrjs, liujH n tcx, and SoOXos, doiilox, with their respective cognates. It may be said in general that the terms denote the service or ministration of the bondserv ant (doulos), underling (huperetes) or helper (din- kotiox), in all shades and gradations of meaning both literal and metaphorical. It would serve no useful purpose to list and discuss all the passages in detail. Christianity has from the beginning stood for filial

      service to God and His kingdom and for brotherly helpfulness to man, and hence terms expressive of these functions abound in the XT. It behooves us to inquire whether and where they occur in a tech nical sense sufficiently defined to denote the institu tion of a special ecclesiastical office, from which the historical diaconate may confidently be said to be derived.

      Many have sought the origin of the diaconate in the institution of the Seven at Jerus (Acts 6), and this view was countenanced by many of the church Fathers. The Seven were appointed to "serve tables" (dinkonc nt Irapezdix), in order to permit the Twelve to "continue stedfastly in prayer, and in the ministry [didkoitia] of the word." They are not called deacons (diakonoi), and the qualifica tions required are not the same as those prescribed by Paul in 1 Tim 3 <south-12; furthermore, Stephen appears in Acts preeminently as a preacher, and Philip as an evangelist. Paul clearly recognizes women as deaconesses, but will not permit a woman to teach (1 Tim 2 12). The obvious conclusion is that, the Seven may be called the first deacons only in the sense that they were the earliest recorded helpers of the Twelve as directors of the church, and that they served in the capacity, among others, of specially appointed minis) rants to the poor.

      Paid says, "I commend unto you Phoebe our sister, who is a servant [RVm "or, deaconess"] of the church that is at Cenchreae" (Romans 16 1). This is by many taken as referring to an officially appointed deaconess; but the fact that then; is in the earlier group of Paul s epistles no clear evidence of the institution of the diaconate, makes against this interpretation. Phoebe was clearly an honored helper in the church closely associated with that at Corinth, where likewise evidence of special eccle siastical organization is wanting.

      In Phil 1 1 Paul and Timothy send greetings "to all the saints .... at Philippi, with the bishops and deacons." Here then we find mention of "dea cons" in a way to suggest a formal diaconate; but the want of definition as to their qualifications and duties renders it impossible to affirm with certainty the existence 1 of the office.

      In 1 Tim 3 south 12, after prescribing the qualifi cations and the method of appointment of a bishop or overseer, Paul continues: "Deacons in like man ner must be grave, not double-tongued, not given to much wine, not greedy of filthy lucre; holding the mystery of the faith in a pure conscience. And let these also first be proved; then let them serve as deacons, if they be blameless. Women in like manner must, be grave, not slanderers, temperate, faithful in all things. Let deacons be husbands of one wife, ruling their children and their own houses well." Deacons and deaconesses are hen; provided for, and the character of their qualifications makes it clear that they were to be appointed as dispensers of alms, who should come into close personal rela tions with the poor.

      We conclude, therefore, that the Seven and Phoebe did not exercise the diaconate in a technical sense, which appears first certainly in 1 Tim 3, although it is not improbably recognized in Phil 1 1, and was foreshadowed in the various agencies for the dispensing of alms and the care of the poor of the church instituted in various churches at an earlier date. See also BISHOP; CHURCH; CHURCH GOV ERNMENT. WILUAM ARTHUR HEIDEL

      DEAD, ded (flTD , muth; veKpos, nekros): Used in several senses: (1) as a substantive, denoting the body deprived of life, as when Abraham speaks of burying his dead (Genesis 23); (2) as a collective noun including all those that have passed away from life (as The The Revelation 20 12). In several passages dead in



      this sense is used in contrast to the quick or living (as Numbers 16 48). This collective mode of expression is used when resurrection is described as "rising from the dead"; (3) as an adj., coupled with body, car case or man, as Deuteronomy 14 8 AV; (4) most frequently it is used as a complement of the vb. to be," referring to the condition of being deceased or the period of death, e.g. 2 Samuel 12 19; Mark 5 35; (5) in the sense of being liable to death it occurs in Genesis 20 3; Exodus 12 33; 2 Samuel 16 9; ((>) as an intensive adj. it is used in the phrase "dead sleep," to mean profound sleep simulating death (Psalm 76 6); (7) figuratively "dead" is used to express the spiritual condition of those who are unable to attain to the life of faith. They are dead in trespasses, as in Ephesians 2 1, or con versely, those who by the New Birth are delivered from sin, are said to be dead to the Law (as Colossians 2 20, etc). A faith which does not show its life in the practical virtues of Christianity is called (had (.las 2 17); (8) in Romans 4 19; He 11 12, "dead" signifies the senile condition of loss of vigor and virility.

      The passage in Job (26 .5), wherein in AV "dead things seem to mean things that never had life, is more accurately tr 1 in RV as "they that are de ceased," i.e. the shades of the dead.

      There are few references to the physical accom paniments of the act of dying. Deborah has a poet - ical account of the death of Sisera (Judges 6 24 if), and in Eccl 12, where the failure of the bodily faculties in old age culminates in death, it is pictorially com pared to the breaking of a lamp extinguishing the flame ("golden" being probably used of "oil," as it is in Zee 4 12), and the loosing of the silver hd tin I or chain by winch the lamp is suspended in the tent. of the Arab.

      The dead body defiled those who touched it (Leviticus 11 31) and therefore sepulture took place speedily, as in the case of La/arus (John 11 17-39) and Ananias and Sapphira (Ads 5 6-10). This practice is still followed by the fellahin.

      The uselessness of the dead is the subject of a proverb (Eccl 9 4) and the phrase " dead dog" is used as a contemptuous epithet as of a person utterly worthless (1 Samuel 24 14; 2 8 9 south; 16 9).



      DEAD BODY. See CORPSeast

      DEADLY, ded li: In the < )T two words are used in the sense of a "mortal [Hob ncpht sh, "hateful," "foul"] enemy" (Psalm 17 9), and in the sense of "fatal disease 1 ," the destrueiivoness of which causes a general panic (Hob mdwdh, "death," 1 Samuel 5 11).

      In the NT we have in The The Revelation 13 3.12 the expres sion "deadly wound" ((!r tlnlnalos), better "death- stroke," as in RV, and the phrases "deadly thing," i.e. poison (thandsimon ti, Mark 16 IS), and "full of deadly poison" (w.sVP inn thanatephorou, .las 3 Si, said of an unruly tongue. Both Gr words convey the idea of "causing or bringing death" and occur in classical lit. in a variety of uses in combination with the bite of venomous reptiles, deadly potions, mortal wounds and fatal contagion.

      DEAD SEA, THE:






      1 The Plain of the Jordan

      2 Ain Jitli (Kn-gedi)

      .I The Fortress of Masada

      4 Jebel I sduin (Mount of Sodom)

      5 Vale of Siddira G El-Llsftn


      The name given by Gr and Lat writers to the remarkable inland lake occupying the deepest part of the depression of the ARABAH (q.v.). In the Bible it is called the Salt Sea (Genesis 14 3; Deuteronomy 3 17); the Sea of the Plain CArabhaK) (Joshus 3 1C>); and (he (East) Eastern Sea (Ezekiel 47 IS; Joel 2 20). Among the Arabs it is still called Bahr I At (Sea of Lot). By Jos it was called Lake Asphalt it es (An/, I, ix) from the quantities of bitumen or asphalt occasion ally washed upon its shores and found in some of the tributary wadies.

      /. Present Area. The length of the lake from north to south is 47 miles; its greatest width 10 miles nar rowing down to loss than 2 miles opposite Point Molyneux on el-Lisdn. Its area is approximately 300 sq. miles. From various levelings its surface is found to be 1,292 ft, below that of the Mediter ranean, while its greatest depth, near the eastern shore 10 miles south of the mouth of the Jordan is 1,278 ft, But the level varies from 10 to 15 ft. semiannually, and more at longer intervals; and we are not sure from which one of those levels the above figures have been derived. Throughout (he northern half of the lake on the east side the descent to the extreme depth is very rapid; while from the western side (he depth increases more gradually, esp. at the extreme northern end, whore the lake has been filled in by the delta of the Jordan.

      Jebel r.sdum from the South, Looking over 1 lie M ud

      Flat (Vale of Siddiin) Covered by the Sea, in

      High Water. (Photo, by Libbey.)

      About two-thirds of the distance to the southern end, the peninsula, cl-Lisan ("the Tongue"), pro jects from the JO. more than half-way across the lake, being in (he shape, however, of a boot rather than a tongue, with the (oe to the north, forming a bay between it and the eastern mainland. The head of this bay has been largely filled in by the debris brought down by W<i<ly Kerak, and Wmly lien Hamid, and shoals very gradually down to the greatest depths to the north The toe of (his penin sula is named Point Costigan, and the heel, Point Molyneux, after two travelers who lost their lives about the middle of the 19th cent, in pioneer at tempts to explore the lake. Over the entire area south of Point Molyneux, (he water is shallow, being nowhere more than 15 ft. deep, and for the most part not over ]() ft., and in some places loss than G ft. In high water the lake extends a mile or more beyond low-water mark, over the Mud Flat (.south <7>- kdfi) at the .south end.

      From the history of the crossing of the Jordan by Joshua and the expedition of Chedorlaomer when Lot was captured, it is evident that the outlines of the sea wore essentially the same 3,500 years ;igo as (hey are now, showing that, (hero has been no radical change in climalic conditions since then.

      II. Former Enlargement. But if we go back a few thousand years into prehistoric times the evi dence is abundant that the valley has witnessed remarkable climatic changes (see ARABAH). At Ain Abu Werideh, about 40 miles beyond the south end of the lake, Hull in 1SS3 discovered deposits of an abandoned shore line 1,400 ft. above its level (see AKABAH). A pronounced abandoned shore



      lino at the 650 ft. level had been observed first by Tristram, and noted afterward by many trav elers. But. from the more detailed examination made by Professor Ellsworth Huntington in 1009 (see Pal mid //.s 1 Transformation) five abandoned shore lines of marked si;:o have been determined,

      Remnant of the (>.">o-ft. Abandoned Shorn .Line at south \\\\V. Corner of Dead Sea, Surmounted by Cru saders Cast le and in Places Excavated to Furnish Places of Shelter. (Photo, by east 13. Wright.)

      surrounding the valley at the following approxi mate heights above the present level of the lake: 1,430, 0-40, 430, 300 and 2f>0 ft. He writes that "at its greatest extent the sea stretched at least 30 miles south of its present termination, while northward it probably covered the Sea of Galilee and the Waters of Moroni, and sent an arm into the

      Vale of Jo/reel Lacustrine deposits exist in

      the Jordan valley shortly south of the Sea of (!ali- lee. A mile north of ,/i,sr el-Mujamiyeh, as the modern railroad bridge is called, a tilted series of clays, apparent ly lacustrine, lies under some unt ill ed whitish clays, also apparently lacustrine. The ele vation here is about 810 ft. below that of the Mediterranean Sea, or 450 above the Dead Sea. .... So far as can be detected by the aneroid the highest deposits [about the Dead Sea] lie at the same elevation on all sides of the lake."

      There are also numerous minor strands below the 250 ft. major strand. These are estimated bv Huntington as 210, 170, 14."), 115, 90, 70, 56, 40, 30 and 12 ft. above the lake successively. It is noted, also, that the lower beaches all show less erosion than those above them. This certainly points to a gradual diminution of the water in the basin during the prehistoric period, while on the other hand then- is much evidence that there has been a considerable rise in the water within the historic period. Date palms and tamarisks are seen standing out from the water in numerous places some little distance from the present shore where the water is several feet, deep. These are of such size as to show that for many years the soil in which they grew was not subject to overflow. As long ago as 1876 Merrill noticed such trees standing in the water 40 ft . from the shore, near the northeast corner of the lake (East of the Jordan, 224). Numerous trunks of date palms

      and tamarisks can now be seen submerged to a similar extent along the western shore. In 181S Irby and Mangles (Travels, 454) saw a company of Arabs ford the lake from Point Molyneux to the west side, and noted that the line of the ford was marked by branches of trees which had been stuck into the bottom. In 1838 Robinson found the water at such a stage that the ford was impracti cable and so it has been reported by all travelers since that time. But Mr. A. Forder, having re cently examined the evidence for the Pal Explora tion Fund, learns from the older Arabs that formerly there was a well-known causeway leading from el- Lixan opposite Wady Kerak toWady Uinm Bayhek, across which sheep, goats and men could pass, while camels and mules could be driven across anywhere in the water. Moreover the Arab guide said that the channel "was so narrow that the people of his tribe used to sit on the edge of the Jjsan and parley with Arabs from the west as to the return of cattle that had been stolen by one or other of the parties." (See 1>EFH [April, 1910], 112.)

      ///. Level of, in Early Historic Times. Numer ous general considerations indicate that in the early historic period the, level of the water was so much lower than now that much of the bay south of Point Molyneux was dry land. In Joshus 15 2. of the south border of Judah is said to extend from "the bay [tongue, Limit] that, looketh southward"; while the border of the north quarter was from the bay [tongue, Li sun] of the sea at the end of the Jor dan; and the border went up to Beth-hoglah, and passed along by the north of Beth-arabah. If the limits of the north end of the Dead Sea were the same then as now the boundary must have turned down to the mouth of the Jordan by a sharp angle. But according to the de-script ion it runs almost exactly east and west from beyond Jerns to Beth-hog- l(i h, and nothing is said about any change in direc tion, while elsewhere, any such abrupt change in direction as is here supposed is carefully noted. Furthermore, in detailing the boundary of Benja min (Joshus 18 19) we are told that "the border passed along to the side of Beth-hoglah northward; and the goings out of the bonier were at the north bay [tongue, Lisdn] of the Salt Sea, at the south end of the Jordan: this was the south border." This can hardly have any other moaning than that the north end of the Dead Sea was at Beth-hoglah. From these data Mr. Clermont-danneau (see R<nu il d a/rhcologie orientate, V [1902], 267-80) inferred that in the time of Joshua the level of the sea was

      Beach at Lo\\\\v Water at the North End of tho Dead

      Sea, Bordering tho Plain of Jericho.

      (Photo, by Libbey.)

      so much higher than now that a tongue-like exten sion reached the vicinity of Beth-hoglah, while the underlying topography was essentially the same as now. On the contrary, our present knowledge of the geologic forces in operation would indicate that at that time the Dead Sea was considerably lower than now, and that its rise to its present level has been partly caused by the silting up of a bay which formerly extended to Beth-hoglah.



      The geological evidence concerning this point, is so interesting, and of so much importance in its bearing upon our interpretation of various historical statements concerning the region, that it is worth while to present it somewhat in detail. As already stated (see AUABAH), the present level of the Dead Sea is determined by the equilibrium established between the evaporation (estimated at 20,000,000 cubic ft. per diem) over the area and the amount of

      the extent to which these encroachments have tended to narrow the limits of the original lake. The sediment deposited by the Jordan, at the north end of the Dead Sea, is practically all derived from the portion of the drainage basin between it and the Sea of Galilee the latter serving as a catch-basin to retain the sediment brought down from the up per part of the valley. The Z6r, or narrow channel which the Jordan has eroded in the sedimentary

      MAP AND L/OXGITT DIN.-VL south ECTION* ( FRO M XoKTH TO Soi TH) OF Till" T)i:\\\\I) SKA. KI .llM Till-: ( ) US K Itv ATIO XS, Sl HVEYM


      1. Jerirhn. 2. ..f .|..i- l:m. :i. Kuniran. 4. \\\\V:i.|y /.-rkii Mii niii. 5. KTis Fi-shkah. il. A in TiTrilwll. 7. Kfls MiTscd. south W; M..jil.. . Ail, Hi. Hirk. t t-1-Khnlil. 11. Si-I.U-li. VI. \\\\ Zuweirah. Hi. I m / 14. .Ii ln-l Vs.luiu. K.. \\\\\\\\:i.l.\\\\ el-Fikri. Hi. W ;1 .U el-.leil>. IT.

      \\\\V; Tufiluli. Is. (iliur es Sufiuh. in. I lain es Si l.kjili. 2U. Wady cd Dra uli. il. The Priiinsula. - - . Tl..- I.;. I.-....north -J:i. Tlic Frank . Mountain. -J4. B.-tlileli.Mu. -jr,. ll..l.r..n. iTIii. . I. .tied liiu-s show the iilacu ..f (![. trans-v.-rso s.-rtioiis shown in the following illntratioii.)

      water brought into the valley by the tributary streams. The present area of the sea is, in round numbers, 300 sq. miles. The historical evidence shows that this evaporating surface has not varied appreciably .since the time of Abraham. But the encroachments of the delta of the Jordan upon this area, as well as of the deltas of several other streams, must have been very great since that period. The effect of this would be to limit the evaporating sur face, which would cause the water to rise until it overflowed enough of the low land at the south end to restore the equilibrium.

      It is easy to make an approximate calculation of

      plain through which it flows (see JORDAN, VAI.I.KV OF), is approximately half a mile wide, 100 feet deep, and GO miles long. All the sediment which formerly filled this has been swept into the head of the sea, while the Jarmuk, the Jabbok, and a score of smaller tributaries descending rapidly from the bordering heights of Gilead, three or four thousand ft. above the valley, bring an abnormal amount of debris into the river, as do a large number of shorter trib utaries which descend an equal amount from the mountains of Galilee, Samaria, and Judah. The entire area thus contributing to this part of the Jordan is not less than 3,000 sq. miles



      All writers are impressed by the evidence of the torrential floods which fill these water courses after severe storms. The descent being so rapid, permits the water after each rainfall to run off without delay, and so intensifies its eroding power. The well-known figure of Our Lord (Matthew 7 20 if) in de scribing the destruction of the house which is built upon the sand, when the rains descend and the winds beat upon it, is drawn from Nature. The delta terraces at the mouths of such mountain streams where they debouch on the lowlands are formed and re-formed with extreme rapidity, each succeed ing storm tending to wash the previous delta down to lower levels and carry away whatever was built upon it .

      The storms which descend upon the plains of (lilead, as u < II as those upon the .Judaean hills, are exceedingly destructive. l or though the rainfall at .lerus. according to i he observations of ( haplin (sec .1. (ilaNher. "On the Fall of Kuin at Jems," / A F.s (January, 1X1)1], :j<) averages but. 20 inches annually, ranging from :52.21 indies in 1.S7X to 13. :> . inches in 1870, nearly all occurs in the three winter months, und therefore in quantities to be most effective in erosive capacity. And this is effective upon both sides of the Jordan valley, in which the rainfall is very slight. "Day after day," Tristram remarks, "we have seen the clouds, after pouring their fatness on Samaria and Judaea, pass over the valley, and t hen descend in torrents on the hills of ( iilead and Moab," a phenomenon naturally resulting from the rising column of heated air coming up from the torrid conditions of the depressed Jordan valley.

      Tristram (Tin- Lati/l of Moub, 2 . >, ~2\\\\ ) gives a vivid description of the effect of a storm near Jerus. As his party was encamped during the night the whole slope upon which they pitched became a shallow stream, while "the dee]) ravines of the wilderness of Judah [were] covered with torrents, and tiny cas cades rolling down from every rock So

      ea.-ily disintegrated is the soft limestone: of these wadies, that the rain of a few hours .... did more to deepen and widen the channels than the storms of several years could effect on a Northumbrian hillside. No geologist could watch the effect of this storm without being convinced that in calculating the progress of denudation, other factors than that of time must be taken into account, and that denu dation may proceed most rapidly where rains are most uncertain."

      Lieutenant Lynch writes that while ascending the Kerak "there came a shout of thunder from the dense cloud which had gathered at the summit of the gorge, followed by a rain, compared to which the gent le showers of our more favoured clime are as

      dew drops to the overflowing cistern The

      black and threatening cloud soon enveloped the mountain tops, the lightning playing across it in incessant flashes, while the loud thunder reverber ated from side to side of the appalling chasm. Be tween the peals we soon heard a roaring and con tinuous sound. It was the torrent, from the rain cloud, sweeping in a long line of foam down the steep declivity, bearing along huge fragments of rocks, which, striking against each other, sounded like mimic thunder."

      1 can bear similar testimony from observations when traveling in Turkestan where the annual rain fall is only about 4 inches. At one time a storm was seen raging upon the mountains 20 miles away, where it spent its entire force without shedding a drop upon the plain. l~pon skirting the base of the mountain the next day, however, the railroad track was covered for a long distance 2 or 3 ft. deep with debris which had been washed down by the cloudburst. No one can have any proper compre hension of the erosive power of the showers of Pal without duly taking into account the extent and the steepness of the descent from the highlands on eit her side, and t he irregularity of the rainfall. These form what in the Rocky Mountains would be called

      I. From Ain Fe.shkhah to Iv shore. West East

      2. From Ain Feshkhah to Wacly Zorka Ma ain

      3. From Ain Teraboh to W uly Zorka.

      4. From Ain Terabeh

      5. From Ain Jidy to Wady Moj b.

      6. From Ain Jidy to the north point of Peninsula.

      7. From tho west shore to the \\\\. point of Peninsula.

      Across tho Lagoon from east to west

      Transverse Section (from West to East) of tho Dead

      Sea; Plotted from the Soundings Given

      by Lynch, 1S49.

      arroyos. After the debris has been brought into the Jordan by these torrents, and the rise of water



      makes it "overflow nil its hanks," the sediment is then swept on to the Dead Sea with great rapidity.

      All these considerations indicate thai the deltas of the streams coming into the valley of the .Jordan and the Dead Sea must be increasing at an unusually rapid rate. It will he profitable, therefore, to com pare it with other deltas upon which direct obser vations have been made. The Mississippi River is sweeping into the Gulf of Mexico sediment at a rate which represents one foot of surface soil over the whole drainage basin, extending from the Rocky Mountains to the Alleghenies, in a little less than "),()()() years. The Hoang-Ho is lowering its drain age basin a foot in 1,404 years, while the river I o is reducing its level a foot in 729 years. So rapidly has the river Po filled up its valley that the city of Adria, which was a seaport 2,000 years ago, is now 14 miles from the mouth of the river. The Tigris and Euphrates rivers have silled up the head of the Persian Gulf nearly 100 miles. (See Croll, Climate, and Time, 332, 333; Darwin, Format ion of Vegetable. Mould through the Action of Worm*, 233.) From these considerations it is a conservative estimate that the tributaries of the Jordan valley between the Lake of Galilee and the Dead Sea bring down sediment enough to lower the basin one foot in 2,000 years, so that since the time of Abraham 167,- 270,400,000 cubic feet of solid matter have been added to its delta. This would cover 2") sq. miles 2.10 ft . deep. "Faking into consideration the prob able depth of water at the north end of I he sea, it is, therefore, not an extravagant supposition that the Jordan delta has encroached upon the sea to the extent of lo or 20 sq. miles, limiting the evapo rating surface to that extent and causing the level of the water to rise, and extend an equal amount over the low lands at the south end.

      At the same time the other streams coming direct ly into the lake have been contributing deltas to narrow its margin at various points. The l\\\\/ml:, the An/on and the Zerkd Matthewi nin bring in an im mense amount of sediment from the east; cl- //< .s.s/, cl-Jcib and cl-Fikri from the south; and ]\\\\ adij el- M ii/nintral, cl-Areychtind the Kedron, with numerous smaller intermediate streams, from the \\\\Y. A de tailed examination of these deposits will serve the double purpose of establishing the point in question and of giving a vivid conception of the sea and its surroundings.

      Throughout the lower part of its course the river Jordan Hows as has been already said, through a narrow gorge called the Zor, which the river has eroded in the soft sedimentary deposits which cover the bottom of the valley (or Glior) from side to side. Opposite Jericho the (lln ir is about 15 miles wide. The Zor, however, does not average more than one-half mile in width and is about 100 ft. lower than the general level of the (;>,, . Hut at " the Jews Castle," about south miles from the mouth of tin; Jordan, the Zor begins to enlarge and merge into a true delta. The embankment of the Zor slopes away in a southwest direction till it reaches the Judaean mountains at Kliiirln-t Knmrnn, 10 miles distant, leaving a triangle of low land between it and the Dead Sea averaging fully one mile in width and being nearly )i miles wide opposite the mouth of the Jordan. The face of the embankment separating the Zor from the Ghdr has in several places been deeply cut into by the small wadies which come down from the western mountains, and the wash from these wadies as well as that from more temporary streams after every shower has considerably raised the western border of the Zor throughout this distance. J5ut it can safely bo estimated that the original boundary of the Dead Sea has here been encroached upon to the extent of 10 or 15 sq. miles. Again, upon the eastern side of the Jordan the other limb of the delta, though smaller, is equally in evidence. Merrill (K<i.t of thv Junlnn. 2i>:<, 224), in describing his survey of the region, says he was compelled to walk for some hours along the shore and then north to reach his horses, which evidently had been coming over the harder and more elevated surface of the Glior. "The plain." lie says, "for many sq. miles north of the sea is like ashes in which we often sank over shoe."

      Returning to the northwest corner of the lake we find the delta deposit which we left at Klturbet Kumran

      extending 2 miles farther south with an average width of one-half mile to A a.s Feshkah, which rises abruptly from the water s edge, and renders it impossible for travelers to follow along the shore. But just beyond /M.s /-V.sA/.v/// a delta half a mile or more in length and width is projected into the sea at the mouth of Wmlij en A ar, which conies down from Jerus and is known in its upper portions as Kedron. This is the wady which passes the con vent of Mar Xabd and is referred to in such a striking manner in Ezekiel 47. Like most of the other wadies coming into the Dead Sea, this courses the most of its way through inaccessible defiles and has built up a delta at its mouth covered with "fragments of rock or boulders swept along by the torrent in its periodical overflows" (De Saulcy, I, 137, 138).

      From Pax Fc.v/iAWi to 7?rtx .l/Yrx/</, a distance of 15 miles, the shore is bordered with a deposit of sand and gravel averaging a half a mile in width, while opposite Wadu r<! Di rnjfh and If,/,/// // .s,;.v ( , (which descend from Bethlehem and the wilderness of Tekoah) the width is fully one mile. At the mouth of one of the smaller gorges De Saulcy noted what geologists call a "cone of dejection" where "the gravel washed down from the heights was heaped up to the extent of nearly 250 yards" (I, 44).

      Kan ,1/Vr.svV/, again, obstructs the passage along the shore almost as effectually as did li ax l< J es/i kali, but farther south there is no other obstruction. The plain of En-gedi, connected in such an interest ing manner with the history of David and with numerous other events of national importance, is described by the Pal Exploration Fund as "about- half a mile broad and a mile in length." This con sists of material brought down for t he most part by Wddy el- Arc/jth, which descends from the vicinity of Hebron with one branch passing through Tekoah. The principal path leading from the west side of the Dead Sea to the hills of Judaea follows the direction of this wady.

      Between En-i/rdi and K<-h\\\\n-h (.\\\\fasft<!u), a distance of 10 miles, the limestone dill s retreat till they are fully 2 miles from the shore. Across this space; numerous wadies course their way bringing down an immense amount of debris and deposit ing it as deltas at the water s edge. These projecting deltas were noticed by Robin son as he looked southward from the height above En- tjtili. but their significance was not understood.

      "One feature of the sea." he says, "struck us imme diately, which was unexpected to us. vi/. the number of shoal-like points and peninsulas which run into its south ern part, appearing at first sight like Hat sand-banks or islands. Below us on the south \\\\\\\\ere two such projecting banks on the western shore, composed probably of pebbles and gravel, extending out into the sea for a considerable distance. The larger and more important of these is on the south of the spot called Iiu-L-it <l-I<halil, a little bay or indentation in the western precipice, where the water, flowing into shallow basins when it is high, evaporates, and deposits salt. This spot is just south of the mouth of ir.i</.v il-Khubarah" (Hit, 1, 501). One of these deltas is dex-ribed by De Saulcy as 500yds. in breadth and another as indefinitely larger.

      Photograph of the Channel of Wady Muhauwat, as It Enters the Dead Sea. at the North Knd of Jebel I sdum Which Appears on the Right, Masada and the Western Cliffs on the Left. Note the Size of the Bowlders Rolled Along by the Torrent of Water. (Photo, by Libbeyj

      Six miles south of Masada, probably at the mouth of Wady L mm Jidylick, Lynch notes a delta extending "half a mile out into the sea." Still farther south the



      combined delta of the Wild; Zinrciruli and Altthauirat covers an area of 2 or 3 sq. miles, and is dotted with bowlders and fragments of rock ii foot or more in diameter, which have been washed over the area, by the torrential floods. Beyond J/li/l I m! nni, }\\\\ di/ (/-/ //, /(//, draining an area of 200 or 300 sq. miles, has deposited an immense amount, of coarse sediment on the west side of the A < WY//I (a mud flat which was formerly occupied, probably by a projection of (he Dead Sea). Into the south end of the depression, extending from the X<t>/:nh. to the Ascent of Akrabbim, deltas of }\\\\ nd// cl-./rih, \\\\\\\\~<id// t l-Khdtizirch and \\\\Viniij Ti/Jildi have in connection with \\\\\\\\ (idi/ / //,/(// encroached upon the valley to the extent of 12 or In s(]. miles. Altogether these wadies drain an area of more than 3,000 sq. miles, and the granitic formations over which they pass have been so disintegrated by atmospheric influences that an excessive amount of coarse sediment is carried along by them (see Hull, Mount Seir, etc, 101-(>K In ascending them, one encounters every indication of occasional destructive floods.

      Following up (he eastern shore, \\\\] n,h/ ,!-//, .v.v / corn ing down from the mountains of Kdom has built up the plain of Snj nfi which pushes out into the neck of the Xi liktili and covers an area of :i or 4 sq. miles. Farther north, \\\\V,ln K, r,,l; and If,,./// H,ni Ihimid have with their deltas encroached to the extent of ~2 or .\\\\ si|. miles upon the head of the hay. projecting into the Lixi m east of Point ( ostigan. Still farther north, }\\\\ <I<IH Mjii, it he Arn on ) and 11 </.// /.< r/.-n Mu uin (coining down from the hot springs of Callirrhoe) have built up less pronounced deltas because of the greater depth of the water on the K. side, but even so they are by no means inconsiderable, in each case projecting a half-mile or more into the lake.

      Put tin; all these items together, there can be little doubt that the area of the Dead Sea lias been encroached upon to the extent of 2/> or . 50 sq. miles .since the time of Abraham and that this has resulted in a rise of the general level of the water sufficient to overflow a, considerable portion of the lagoon at. the south end, thus keeping (he evaporating area con stant. The only escape from this conclusion is the supposition that (he rainfall of (he region is less than it was at t he dawn of history, and so t he smaller evaporating area, would be sufficient to maintain t he former level. But of this we have no adequate evi dence. On the contrary there is abundant evi dence that the climatic conditions connected with the product ion of the dlaeial Period had passed away long before the conquest of (he Vale of Sid- dim by Amraphel and his confederates (den 14).

      The consequences of this rise of water are various and significant. Jt lends credibility to the persist ent t radii ion that the sites of Sodom and domorrah are covered by the shallow water at. the south end of (he sea, and also to the statement of Scripture that, the region about these cities (on the, supposition that they wore at the south end of the sea) was like the garden of the Lord; for that plain was (hen much larger than it is now, and was well watered, and possessed greater elements of fertility than are now appurent. Furthermore, (his supposed lower level of the lake in early times may have greatly facili tated the passage of armies and caravans from one end to the other, thus rendering it more easy to understand (he historical statements relating to the earliest periods of occupation. Even now the road at the base of Jcbcl Usdum which is open at low water is impassable at high water. On the last of December, 1SS3, Professor Hull (Mount SY/Y, etc, 133) traversed the shore at the base of the salt cliffs along a gravel terrace 100 ft. wide, which "abruptly terminated in a descent of about 5 ft. to the line of driftwood which marked the upper limit of the waters." On the 1st of January, 1001, the water along the base of the salt cliffs was so deep that it was impossible for my party to pass along the shore. It is easy to believe that the level might have been

      lowered sufficiently to expose a margin of shore which could be traversed on the YV. side from one end to the other.

      IV. Constitution of the Water. As in the case of all inclosed basins, the waters of the Dead Sea are impregnated to an excessive degree with saline matter. The salt which they contain," however, "is not wholly or even principally common salt, but is mostly the chloride and bromide of magnesium and calcium, so that they are not merely a strong brine, but rather resemble the mother liquors of a salt pan left after the common salt has crystalli/ed out" (Dawson, K(JUi>t and Xi/ria, 123). The following analysis is given by Booth and Muckle of water brought by Commander Lynch and taken by him May -"> from l ( .)f> fathoms deep opposite the mouth of \\\\Vddij Zi rkn Mn tiin. Other analyses vary from this more or less, owing doubtless to the different localities and depths from which the specimens had been obtained.

      Specific gravity at 60. ( hloride of magnesium . ( hloride of calcium . . . ( hloride of sodium . . . . Chloride of pot assium . Bromide of potassium . Sulphate of lime

      1 . 22742 145.8971

      Jl 1 . 0746

      7S. 55:57


      1 3741


      264. 1S67 Water .

      1000.0000 Total amount of solid matter found

      by direct experiment 264.0000

      \\\\\\\\ hat is here labeled bromide of potassium, how ever, is called by most other analysts bromide of magnesium, it being difficult to separate and dis tinguish these elements in composition. The large percentage of bromide, of which but a (race is found in the ocean, is supposed to have been derived from volcanic, emanations. As compared with sea water, it is worthy of note that that of the Dead Sea yields 21) Ibs. of salts to 100 Ibs. of water, whereas that of the Atlantic yields only G Ibs. in the same quan tity. Lake I rumiah is as salt, as the Dead Sea.

      As results of this salinity the water is excessively buoyant and is destructive of all forms of animal life. Lynch found that his metal boats sank an inch deeper in the Jordan when equally heavily laden than they did in the Dead Sea. All travelers who bathe in it relate that when they throw them selves u pun their backs their bodies will be half out of the water. Jos (#./, IV, viii, 4) relates that the emperor Vespasian caused certain men who could

      Bathing at the North End of the Dead Sea. tlio

      Mountains of Moab in the Background.

      (Photo, by F. B. Wright.)

      not swim to be thrown into the water with their hands tied behind them, and they floated on the surface. Dead fish and various shells are indeed often found upon the shore, but they have evi dently been brought in by the tributary fresh-water streams, or belong to species which live in the brack ish pools of the bordering lagoons, which are abun dant ly supplied with fresh water. The report ex tensively circulated in earlier times that birds did



      not fly over the lake has no foundation in fact, as some species of birds are known even to light upon the surface and sport upon the waters. The whole depression is subject to frequent storms of wind blowing through its length. These produce waves whose force is very destructive of boats encounter ing them owing to the high specific gravity of the water; but for the same reason the waves rapidly subside after a storm, so that the general appear ance of the lake is placid in the extreme.

      Salt Cliffs on the East Side of Jebel Usclum. Washed

      by the Waters of the Lake. Pillar of Salt Ready

      to Fall. (.Photo, by F. B. Wright.)

      The source from which these saline matters have been derived has been a subject of much speculation some having supposed that it was derived from the dissolution of the salt cliffs in Jcbcl Usilutn. But this theory is disproved by the fact that com mon salt forms but a small portion of the material held in solution by the water. It is more correct to regard this salt mountain as a deposit precipitated from the saturated brine which had accumulated, as we have supposed, during the Cretaceous age. Probably salt is now being deposited at the bottom of the lake from the present saturated solution to appear in some future age in the wreck of progress ive geological changes. The salts of the Dead Sea, like those in all similarly inclosed basins, have been brought in by the streams of water from all over the drainage basin. Such streams always contain more or less solid matter in solution, which becomes concentrated through the evaporation which takes place over inclosed basins. The ocean is the great reservoir of such deposits, but is too large to be af fected to the extent noticeable in smaller basins. The extreme salinity of the Dead Sea water shows both the long continuance of the isolation of the basin and the abundance of soluble matter con tained in the rocks of the inscribed area. The great extent of recent volcanic; rocks, esp. in the region 10. of the Jordan, accounts for the large rela tive proportion of some of the ingredients.

      V. Climate. Owing to the great depression below sea level, the climate is excessively warm, so that palms and other tropical trees flourish on the borders of the rivers wherever fresh water finds soil on which to spread itself. Snow never falls upon the lake, though it frequently covers the hills of Judaea and the plateau of Moab. As already ex plained the rainfall in the Jordan valley is less than on the bordering mountains. During the winter season the Arab tribes go down to the valley with their flocks of sheep and goats and camp upon the surrounding plains. But the excessive heat of the summer, rising sometimes to 130 F., drives them back to the hills again.

      VI. Roads. Except at the north end the approaches to the Dead Sea are few and very difficult to travel. On the west side the nearest approach is at En-gcdi, and this down a winding descent of 2,000 ft. where a few men at the top of the cliff could hold an army at bay below. The path up Wady Zuwcirah from the north end of Jebel Usdnm is scarcely better. Upon the south end the path leads up Wady Fikreh for a con siderable distance on the west side of the Mud Flat, and then crosses over to the Wady el-Ji-ib, up whose torrential bed during the dry season caravans can find t heir way through 1 he A rabah to Akabah. More difficult paths lead up from the east of the Mud Flat into the A rabah, and through the mountains of Moab to Petra into the plains beyond and the Pil grim route from Damascus to Mecca. From the Lisan a difficult path leads up Wady Ktrakto the fortress of the same name 20 miles distant and 5,000 ft. above the lake. Another path a little farther north leads up the Watty Bcni PI amid to Ar of Moab. From the Arnon to the north end of the Dead Sea the mountains are so precipitous that travel along the shore is now practically impossible. But there are, according to Tristram (The Land of Moab, 355), remnants of an "old and well-engineered road of ancient times" extending as far south at least as the Zcrka Ma ain.

      VII. Miscellaneous Items. There are numerous points about the bonier of the lake of special inter est. When Lot and Abraham looked

      1. The down from the heights of Bethel (Genesis Plain of the 13 lOff) they are said to have beheld Jordan "all the Plain of the Jordan, that it

      was well watered every where, before Jeh destroyed Sodom and Gomorrah, like the gar den of Jeh, like the land of Egypt, as thou goest unto Zoar. So Lot chose him all the Plain of the Jordan; and Lot journeyed east: .... and Lot dwelt in the cities of the Plain, and moved his tent as far as Sodom." The word here tr 1 "Plain" is kikkdr (Ciccar), meaning "circle," and indicating the appearance from Bethel of the Jordan valley surrounding the north end of the Dead Sea. From this fact, many recent writers have located Sodom and Gomorrah at that end of the sea (sec CITIES OF THE PLAIN). But it is by no means certain that it is necessary thus to narrow down the meaning of the phrase. Though the south end of the Dead Sea is not visible from the heights of Bethel, it is so con nected with the general depression that it may well have been in the minds of Abraham and Lot as they were dividing the country between them, one choos ing the plain, a part of which was visible, the other remaining on the bordering mountainous area, so dif ferent in all its natural resources and conditions. The extent of the region chosen by Lot may there fore be left to be determined by other considerations. A in Jidi, "fountain of the kid" (?) (see EN- GEDI) is an oasis at the base of the western cliffs about half-way between the north and

      2. Ain Jidi the south ends of the lake, fed by springs (En-gedi) of warm water which burst from be neath the overhanging cliffs. The 650

      ft. shore line composed of shingle and calcareous marl is here prominent, and, as already remarked, there is an extensive gravel terrace at the present water level. Palms and vines formerly flourished here (Cant 1 14), but now only a few bushes of acacia and tamarisk are to be found. From time immemorial, however, it has been the terminus of the principal trail which zig-zags up the cliffs to the plateau, across which paths lead to Hebron and Bethlehem.

      The Fortress of Masada was the last stronghold held by the fanatical Jews (Zealots) after the de struction of Jerus by the Romans, and offers a bird s- eye view of the Dead Sea, which is as instructive as



      it is interesting. It is situated half-way between Jdxl I sdiun and En-i/cili, directly opposite the

      northern roinontory of cl-Liiu ni. Here 3. The on a precipitous height, 2,000 ft. above

      Fortress of the ,sea, is a plateau about 700 yds. Masada long; ( 100 wide, adorned with ruins

      of dwellings, palaces and temples of Herodian long ago) Standing upon (his height one sees the outlines of tlie Romans camp, near (In shore of (ho sea, anil those of another camp in a depression several hundred yards to the V., from which the final attack of the besiegers was made over a pathway constructed along a, sloping ridge.

      Ji Ix I Utuhini (Mount extending 7 or X mile,

      4. Jebel Usdum

      >f Sodom) is a salt mountain or north miles along the south\\\\\\\\ . shore of the lake and on the west side of the Valley of Salt to its southern bound ary. Its name is derived from the traditional belief that Sodom was lo cated at the south end of the sea; but, on the other hand, it is not unlikely that (lie name would become attached to it because of its seeming to contain the pillar of salt, which, according to the ordinary tr, marked the place whore Lot s wife was overwhelmed. The mountain rises 000 ft. above the lake, and has a general level surface except where streams have

      A I \\\\ JllH. LOOKIM: SOUTH

      ving In \\\\V. Tipping Es,|., 1842.)

      Here many miles away from (heir base of supplies (he Romans slowly but irresistibly drew in their be sieging lines to the final tragic consummation when (he last remnant of the defenders commit ted suicide (HJ, VII, ix, 1). The view gives one a profound impression of t he difficulties at tending military cam paigns in all that region. I "pon lift ing up one s eyes to take in the broader view, he sees the Dead Sea in its whole length with the low ridge of ./<// I ^luin, the Valley of Salt, (he Ascent of Alcrahhini, the depression of the Aruhu/i, and Ml. Hor, to the south, while across the whole horizon to the K. is the long wall of Moab dissected by Wndij AYmA and the river Arnon, leading up to the strongholds of Kcr, Arocr and Dibon, of Moab; while immediately in the front are the white cliffs of d-Litan, and to (he north, near by, (he green oasis of Kn-ycdi, and, dimmed by distance, (he plains of Jericho, and (he cluster of peaks surrounding Matthew. 1 isgah; while (he sea itself sparkles like a gem of brilliant azure in (he midst of its desolate surroundings, giving no token of the deadly elements which permeate its water.

      worn furrows and gullies in it. The eastern face presents a precipitous wall of rock salt, which, as said above, at (ho time of my visit (.January, 1901), was washed by t ho waves of the lake making it im possible to pass along i(s base. At other times when the water is low, travelers can pass along the whole length of the shore. This wall of salt pre sents much (he appearance of a glacier, the salt being as transparent as ice, while the action of the waves has hollowed out extensive and picturesque caverns and left isolated towers and connected pin nacles of salt often resembling a (.Jot hie cathedral. These towers and pinnacles are, of course, being displaced from time to time, while others are formed to continue the illusion. Any pillar of salt known to the ancients must be entirely different from those which meet the eye of the modern traveler. It follows also as a matter of course that the gradual dissolution of this salt must partly account for (he excessive salinity of (he Dead Sea.

      It is uncertain how deep the deposit extends below (he surface. It rises upward 200 or 300 ft.,



      where it is rapped by consolidated strata of sedi mentary material, consisting of sand and loam, which most geologists think \\\\vas deposited at the time of the formation of the (>">() ft. terrace already described, and which they connect with the climatic conditions of the Glacial period.

      This view is presented as follows by Professor U.K. Emerson: "In the. earlier portion of the post-glacial stadium, a final sinking of a fraction of the bottom of tlio trough, near the south end of the lake, dissected the low salt plateau, sinking its central parts beneath the salt waters, while fragments remain buttressed against the great walls of the trench forming the plains of Ji-lni Uxiluin and the peninsula d-Lixitn with the swampy Sebkah

      between It exposed the wonderful eastern wall

      of Jcbil L sdum: 7 miles long, with ;}(J-45 in. of clear

      12; 2 Chronicles 25 II). This is in all probability the plain extending from the southern end of the Dead

      Sea to t lie "Ascent of Akrabbim" which 5. Vale of crosses the valley from side to .side, Siddim and forms the southern margin of the

      (fliCir. At present the area of the vale is about 50 sq. miles; but if our theory concerning the lower level of the Dead Sea in the time of Abra ham is correct, it may then have included a con siderable portion of the lagoon south of cl-Lixtut and so have been a third larger than now. In ( .en 14 10 the vale is said to have been full of slime (that is, of bitumen or asphalt) pits. In modern times masses of asphalt are occasionally found floating in the

      VlKW FROM THE IlKIGHTS BEHIND M ASU1A, SlIO\\\\VI\\\\<; TH 10 WlDK IU:\\\\CEI UN Till; \\\\\\\\~KSTKHX south 1 1) K OF THE LAKE,

      AND TIII: To.Ni;r i>SnAi i:i) PENINSULA.

      iKniin :i ilruwiiiK l.v west Ti|>|iini:, KM, ,

      blue salt at the base, rapped by r_ "> I K> in. of gypsnm- bearing marls impregnated with sulphur, and conglom erates at limes cemented by bitumen" ("Geological Myths," Proc. Am. Asxoc. for Adv. of Sci. [ls .M>|. 110, 111). If this was the case there has been a depression of the south end of the Dead Sea to the extent of se\\\\ erul hundred feet within a comparatively few thousand years, in which case the traditional view that Sodom and (io- morrah were overwhelmed by Dead Sea water at the; time of their destruction would refer to an occurrence exactly in line with movements that have been prac tically continuous during Tertiary, (ilacial, and post glacial times.

      With more reason, Lartet contends that this salt is a Cretaceous or Tertiary deposit covered with late Tertiary strata, in which case the sinking of the block between Jchcl L xiluin. and el-Limn, for the most part, took place at a much earlier date than the formation of the (>">() ft. terrace. A striking corollary of this supposition would be that the cli matic conditions have been practically the same during all of the post-Carboniferous times, there having been cycles of moist and dry climate in that region succeeding each other during all these geo logical periods.

      The Vale of Siddim (Genesis 14 3.south10) is probably the same as the Valley of Salt (2 Kings 14 7; 1 Chronicles 18

      southern part of the Dead Sea. After the earth quake of iSoi a large quantity was cast upon the shore near the SAY. corner of the lake, 3 tons of which were brought to market by the Arab natives. After the earthquake of January, 1S. $7, a mass of asphaltum was driven aground on the \\\\Y. side not far from ,/< Ix I l^ilnni. The neighboring Arabs swam off to it , cut, it up wit h axes and carried it to market by the camel load, and sold it to the value of several thousand dollars. At earlier times such occur rences seern to have been still more; frequent. Jos affirms that the sea in many places sends up black masses of asphaltum having the form and si/e of headless oxen"; while Diodorus Siculus relates that the bitumen (asphaltum) was thrown up in masses covering sometimes two or three acres and having the appearance of islands (Jos, li.l , IV, viii, 4; Diod. Sic. ii.48; Pliny, A If, vii.13; Tnc. Hint. v.(i; Dioscor., DC re Ml., i.99).

      Since asphalt is a product of petroleum from which the volatile elements have been evaporated, the ultimate source of these masses is doubtless to be found in the extensive beds of bituminous limestone which appear in numerous places on both sides of the Dead Sea. An outcrop of it can be observed



      at MOHMI, on the road from Jerus to Jericho, which Dawson describes as resembling dry chalk saturated with coal tar. When long weathered this becomes white and chalky at the surface, so that a mass of it, quite white externally, reveals an intense blackness when broken. It is this that the people of Bethlehem call "Dead Sea stone," and which they carve into various ornamental articles and expose for sale. Some specimens of it are suffi ciently bituminous to burn with flame like cannel- coal. These beds are still more abundant about, the south end of the lake and doubtless underlie the whole region, and for all time must have been ex uding bituminous and gaseous matter, but, much more abundantly in former times than now.

      In these accumulations of bitumen at the south end of the d fior we probably have the incentive which led the Babylonians under Amraphel and Chedor- laotner to make such long expeditions for the sake of conquering the region and holding it under their power. Bitumen was much in demand in Baby lonia.

      El- Li son (the Tongue), which projVrts half-way across the lake from the mouth of \\\\\\\\ a<t>i I\\\\<rnl;. is, like ,/i ln-l I . nt u m, a promontory of white calcareous R PI T =5n sediment containing i>ed.s of salt and gyp- 0. ,l-L,lsan sllm ;ul( | breaking off on its western side in a dill :{()() ft. high. Its upper surface rises in terraces to the 600 ft. level on the K., as J cbcl Usilum does oil the west The length of the promontory from X. to south is 9 miles. This corresponds so closely in general structure and appearance to Jfl:t 1 nrlum on the opposite side of the lake that we find it. difficult to doubt the theory of Professor Kmerson, stated above, that, the formation originally extended across and that a block of the original bottom of the lake has dropped down, leaving these remnants upon the sides. Fre quent occurrences similar to this are noted by the United States geologists in the Rocky Mountain region.

      VIII. History.- Difficulty of access has pre vented t he Dead Sea from playing any import ant part in history except as an obstruction both to commerce and to military movements. Boats have never been used upon it to any considerable extent . From earliest times salt, has been gathered on its western shores and carried up to market over the difficult paths leading to Jerus. A similar commerce has been carried on in bitumen; that from the Dead Sea being specially prized in Egypt, while as already remarked, it is by no means improbable that the pits of bitumen which abounded in the "Yale of Siddim" were the chief attraction leading the kings of Babylonia to undertake long expeditions for the conquest of the region. Productive as may have been the plain at the south end of the sea, it was too far outside the caravan route leading through IVtra to the south end of the Arabah and the mines of the Sinaitic Peninsula to divert the course of travel. Still the settlements on the eastern border of the Vale of Siddim were of sufficient importance in mediaeval times to induce the Crusaders to visit the region and leave their marks upon it. The Arabian town of Zoyltar, probably the Bib. Zoar, ap pears at one time to have been a most important place, and was the center of considerable commer cial activity. Indigo was grown there, and the oasis was noted for its hue species of dates. The country round about abounded in springs and there was much arable land (see Le Strange, I al under the. Moslems, 286 ff). The hot springs upon the eastern shore of the Dead Sea at Callirrhoe some distance up the Wudy Zcrka Ma nin were much resorted to for their medicinal properties. Here Herod came as a last resort, to secure relief from his loathsome malady, but failed of help. The fortress of Machae- rus, where John the Baptist was imprisoned, is situated but a few miles south of the Zcrka Ma iiin, but access to this region is possible only through a difficult road leading over the mountains a few miles east of the sea.

      On four occasions important military expeditions were conducted along the narrow defiles which border the southwest end of the Dead Sea: (1) That of Amraphel and his confederates from Babylonia, who seem first to have opened the way past Petra to the mines of the Sinaitic Peninsula, and then to have swept northward through the land of the Amalekites and Amorites and come down to the Dead Sea at Kn-ijali, and then to have turned to subdue the Cities of the Plain, where Lot. was dwelling. This accomplished, they probably re treated along the west, shore of the lake, which very likely afforded at that time a complete passage way to the valley of the Jordan. Or they may have gone on eastward to the line of the present pilgrim route from Damascus to Mecca and followed it northward. (2) In the early part of the reign of Jehoshaphat (2 Chronicles 20), the Moabites, Ammonites and some other tribes joined together, forming a large army, and, following around the south end of the Dead Sea, marched along the west shore to En-yedi, and having ascended the zigzag path leading up the precipitous heights to the wilderness of Tekoa, were there thrown into confusion and utterly anni hilated. (3) Not many years later Jehoram and Jehoshaphat "fetched a compass [RV "made a circuit"] of seven days journey" (2 Kings 3 9) around the south end of the Dead Sea and attacked the Moab ites in their own country, but returned without. completing the conquest. The particulars of this expedition are given in 2 Kings 3 and in the inscription on the Moabite Stone. (4) The Romans shortly after the destruction of Jerus conducted a long siege of the fortress of Masada, of which an account, has already been given in a previous section (YII, 3). All their supplies must have come down the tor tuous path to En-gedi and thence been brought along the western shore to the camp, the remains of which are still to be seen at the base of the fort ress.

      For many cents., indeed for well-nigh 1,800 years, the Dead Sea remained a mystery, and its geology and physical characteristics were practically un known. The first intimation of the depression of the lake below sea level was furnished in 1S37 by Moore and Beke, who made some imperfect experi ments with boiling water from which they inferred a depression of oOO ft. In 1S41 Lieutenant Sim mons of the British navy, by trigonometrical ob servations, estimated the depression to be 1,312 ft. In 1S35 Costigan, and again in 1847 Lieutenant Molyneux ventured upon the sea in boats; but the early death of both, consequent upon their ex posures, prevented their making any full reports. Appropriately, however, their names have been at tached to prominent points on the Li san. In 1848 Lieutenant Lynch, of the I nited States navy, was dispatched to explore the Jordan and the Dead Sea. The results of this expedition were most im portant. Soundings of the depths were carefully and systematically conducted, and levels were run from the Dead Sea by Jerus to the Mediterranean, giving the depression at the surface of the Dead Sea as 1,31(5.7 ft., and its greatest depth 1,278 ft. More recently Sir C. west Wilson in connection with the Ordinance Survey of Pal carried levels over the same route with the result of reducing the depression to 1,292 ft., which is now generally accepted to be correct. But as already stated the stage of water in the lake is not given, and that is known to vary at least 15 ft. annually, and still more at longer intervals.

      LITERATUReast Hull. Mount Seir, Sinai and Western Philestina-Canaan Land 1889; Huntington, i al <ni(l It.i Transformation, 1911; Lartet, Voyaged exploration dc la Mcr Morte, 1880; Lynch, Report of L .south Exodus i<in to the Jordan and Dead Sea, 1852; Robinson, lilt, 1841; Do Saulcy, Yoyaue dans la Syrit, 1853; Tristram, La nd of Israel, 2d eel, 1S72, The



      Land of Moab, C. A. Smith; Wright, Scientific Confirmations of OT Hist, 1900, and Journal of Bib. Lit., 1911.


      DEAF, def (tTJD, htrcsh; KCO^OS, kdphotf): I sed either in the physical sense, or figuratively as ex pressing unwillingness to hear the Divine message (Psalm 68 4), or incapacity to understand it for want of spirituality (Psalm 38 13). The prophetic utter ances were sufficiently forcible to compel even such to hear (Isaiah 42 IS; "43 8) and thereby to receive the Divine mercy (Isaiah 29 IS; 35 5).

      The expression "deaf adder that stoppeth her ear (Psalm 58 4) alludes to a curious notion that the adder, to avoid hearing the voice of the charmer, laid its head with one ear on the ground and stopped the other with the tip of its tail (Diary of John. Manninghan, 1602). The adder is called deaf by Shakespeare (2 Hen VI, iii, 2, 76; Troilus ami (Vrx- sida, ii, 2, 172). The erroneous idea probably arose from the absence of external ears.

      Physical deafness was regarded as a judgment from God (Exodus 411; Mic 7 16), and it was conse quently impious to curse the deaf (Leviticus 19 14). In NT times deafness and kindred defects wen attrib uted to evil spirits (Mark 9 ISff). See DIMB.


      DEAL, del: The noun "deal" is not found in RY. The AY tr of "ITiL"" , *issdn~>n, "the tenth deal" (Exodus 29 40; Leviticus 14 10, et al.) is rendered uniformly the tenth part" in RV (see WEIGHTS AND MEAS URES). The vb. "to deal" often means "to appor tion," "to distribute" (cf 2 Samuel 6 19; 1 Chronicles 16 3; Isaiah 58 7; Romans 12 3), but more frequently it is used in the sense of "to act," "to do," "to have transaction of any kind with." In the Pss "to deal" always means "to confer benefit," "to deal bounti fully," with the exception of Psalm 105 25, where it means "to deal subtly with." The expression "to deal," i.e. "to be engaged in," is not found in the Scriptures. The tr of 0-vyxpdo/, sugchrdomai, in John 4 9, "Jews have no dealings with Samaritans," conveys the idea that they have nothing in common.

      A. L. BRESLICH

      DEAR, der, DEARLY, der li ("held at a great price," "highly valued") : In Acts 20 24, Paul does not hold his life "dear" (rt /uos, tiniiox, "at a price"); cf 1 Corinthians 3 12, "costly stones"; 1 Pet 1 19, "precious blood." Luke 7 2, the servant was "dear" to the centurion (epri/ios, entintox, "highly prized"; cf Phil 2 29; 1 Pet 2 6). 1 Thess 28, "very dear to us" (ayaw-^Tos, a</ti{><~l< >x, "beloved"). In RY, agapetos is generally tr 1 "beloved." "Dear ly" before "beloved" of AY is omitted in all passages in RY. The word "dear" occurs but once in the OT, viz. Jeremiah 31 20. RV correctly changes "dear Son" of AY (Colossians 1 13) into "the Son of his love."

      II. I]. JACOBS

      DEARTH, durth. See FAMINeast

      DEATH (Pip, muweth; edvaros, thtinatos): PHYSIOLOGICAL AND FIGURATIVE VIEW

      The word "Death" is used in the sense of (1) the process of dying (Genesis 21 16); (2) the period of de cease (Genesis 27 7) ; (3) as a possible synonym for poison (2 Kings 4 40) ; (4) as descriptive of person in danger of perishing (Judges 15 18; "in deaths oft" 2 Corinthians 11 23). In this sense the shadow of death is a familiar expression in Job, the Psalms and the Prophets; (5) death is personified in 1 Corinthians 15 55 and The The Revelation 20 14. Deliverance from this catastrophe is called the "issues from death" (Psalm 68 20 AY; tr 1 "escape" in RY). Judicial execution, "putting to death," is mentioned 39 times in the Levitical Law.

      Figuratively: Death is the loss of spiritual life as

      in Romans 8 6; and the final state of the unregener- ate is called the "second death" in The The Revelation 20 14.



      According to Genesis 2 17, God gave to man, created in His own image, the command not to eat of the

      tree of knowledge of good and evil, and 1. Concep- added thereto the warning, "in the day tion of Sin that thou eatest thereof, thou shalt and Death surely die." Though not exclusively,

      reference is certainly made here in the first place to bodily death. Yet because death by no means came upon Adam and Eve on the day of their transgression, but took place hundreds of years later, the expression, "in the day that," must be conceived in a wider sense, or the delay of death must be attributed to the entering-in of mercy (Genesis 3 15). However this may be, Genesis 2 17 places a close connection between man s death and his trans gression of God s commandment, thereby attaching to death a religious and ethical significance, and on the other hand makes the life of man dependent on his obedience to God. This religious-ethical nature of life and death is not only decidedly and clearly expressed in Genesis 2, but it is the fundamental thought of the whole of Scripture and forms an essential element in the revelations of salvation. The theologians of early and more recent times, who have denied the spiritual significance of death and have separated the connection between ethical and physical life, usually endeavor to trace back their opinions to Scripture; and those passages which un doubtedly see in death a punishment for sin (Genesis 2 17; John 8 44; Romans 5 12; 6 23; 1 Corinthians 15 21), they take as individual opinions, which form no part of the organism of revelation. But this en deavor shuts out the organic, character of the reve lation of salvation. It is true that death in Holy Scripture is often measured by the weakness and frailty of human nature (Genesis 3 19; Job 14 1.12; Psalm 39 5.6; 90 5; 103 14.15; Eccl 3 20, etc). Death is seldom connected wit h the transgression of the first man either in the OT or the NT, or mentioned as a specified punishment for .sin (John 8 44; Romans 5 12; 6 23; 1 Corinthians 15 21; Jas 1 15); for the most part it is portrayed as something natural ((.Jen 5 5; 9 29; 15 15; 25 8, etc), a long life being presented as a blessing in contrast to death in the midst of days as a disaster and a judgment (Psalm 102 23 f; Isaiah 65 20). But all this is not contrary to the idea that death is a consequence of, and a punishment for, sin. Daily, everyone who agrees with Scripture that death is held out as a punishment for sin, speaks in the same way. Death, though come into the world through sin, is nevertheless at the same time a consequence of man s physical and frail existence now; it could therefore be threatened as a punishment to man, because he was taken out of the ground and was made a living sotd, of the earth earthy (Genesis 2 7; 1 Corinthians 15 45.47). If he had remained obedient, he would not have returned to dust ((Jen 3 19), but have pressed forward on the path of spiritual devel opment (1 Corinthians 15 46.51); his return to dust was possible simply because he was made from dust (see ADAM IN THE NT). Thus, although death is in this way a consequence of sin, yet a long life is felt to be a blessing and death a disaster and a judg ment, above all when man is taken away in the bloom of his youth or the strength of his years. There is nothing strange, therefore, in the manner in which Scripture speaks about death; we all ex press ourselves daily in the same way, though we at the same time consider it as the wages of sin. Beneath the ordinary, everyday expressions about, death lies the deep consciousness that it is unnatural and contrary to our innermost being.

      Death Deborah



      This is decidedly expressed in Scripture, much

      more so even than among ourselves. For \\\\ve are

      influenced always more or less by the

      2. The Creek, Platonic idea, that the body Meaning dies, yet the soul is immortal. Such an of Death idea is utterly contrary to the Israelite

      consciousness, and is nowhere found in the OT. The irlmlc man dies, when in death the spirit (I s 146 -1 ; Keel 12 7), or soul (Cen 35 IS; 2 Samuel 1 .); 1 Kings 17 21; .Ion 4 3), pies out of a man. Not only his body, but his soul also returns to a state of death and belongs to the nether-world; therefore the OT can speak of a death of one s soul (Cen 37 L l |IIebl; Xu 23 10m; Deuteronomy 22 21; Judges

      16 30; Job 36 11: I s 78 ."><)). and of defilement by coining in contact \\\\vith a dead body (Leviticus 19 2S; 21 11; 22 4; Xu 5 2; 6 (>; 9 (i; 19 KMT; Deuteronomy 14 1; Hag 2 13). This death of man is not annihila tion, however, but a deprivation of all that makes for life on earth. The Sheol (slf Til) is in contrast, with the land of the livim>: in every respect (.Job 28 13; IVov 15 24; K/k 26 20; 32 23); it is an abode of darkness and the shadow of death (.Job 10 21. 22; I s 88 12; 143 3), a place of destruction, yea destruction itself (.Job 26 (i; 28 22; 31 12; I s 88 1 1 ; 1 rov 27 20). without any order (.Job 10 22), a land of rest, of silence, of oblivion (Job 3 13. 17. IS; Psalm 94 17; 115 17 . where Cod and man are no longer to be seen (Isaiah 38 11), Cod no longer praised or thanked (Psalm 6 5j 115 17), His perfec tions no more acknowledged (Psalm 88 10 13; Isaiah 38 IS.l .t), His wonders not contemplated ( Psalm 88 12), where the dead are unconscious, do no more work, take no account of anything, possess no knowledge nor wisdom, neither have any more a, portion in anything that is done under the sun (Keel 9 .">.(>. K) . The dead ("the Shades KYm; cf art. DKCKASKD) are asleep (Job 26 ">; Prov 2 is; 9 IS; 21 (i; Psalm 88 11; Isaiah 14 9), weakened (Isaiah 14 10) and without strength ( Psalm 88 4).

      The dread of death was felt much more deeply

      therefore by the Israelites than by ourselves.

      Death to them was separation from

      3. Light all that they loved, from Cod, from in the His service, from His law, from His Darkness people, from His land, from all the rich

      companionship in which ihey lived. Hut now in this darkness appears the light of the revelation of salvation from on high. The Cod of Israel is the living Cod and the fountain of all life (Deuteronomy. 5 20; Joshus 3 10; Psalm 36 9). He is the ( Yeator of heaven and earth, whose power knows no bounds and whose dominion extends over life and death (Deuteronomy 32 3!>; 1 Samuel 2 (i; Psalm 90 3). He gave life to man ((ien 1 2(1; 2 7), and creates and sus tains every man still (Job 32 Samuel; 33 4; 34 11; Psalm 104 29; Keel 12 7). He connects life with the keeping of His law and appoints death for the trans gression of it (Cen 2 17; Leviticus 18 f>; Deuteronomy 30 20; 32 47). He lives in heaven, but is present, also by His spirit in Sheol (Psalm 139 7.8). Sheol and Abaddon are open to Him even as the hearts of the children of men (Job 26 (i; 38 17: Prov 15 11). He kills and makes alive, brings down into Sheol and raises from thence again (Deuteronomy 32 3 .t; 1 Samuel 2 (i; 2 Kings 6 7). He lengthens life for those who keep His commandments (Exodus 20 12; Jolt 5 26), gives escape from death, can deliver when death menaces (Psalm 68 20; Isaiah 38 5; Jeremiah 15 20; Dnl 3 2(1), can take Knoch and Klijah to Himself without dying (Cen 6 24; 2 Kings 2 11), can restore the dead to life (1 Kings

      17 22; 2 Kings 4 34; 13 21). He can even bring death wholly to nothing and completely triumph over its power by rising from the dead (Job 14 13-15; 19 25-27; II os 6 2; 13 14; Isaiah 25 8; 26 19; Kxk 37 11.12; Dnl 12 2).

      This revelation by degrees rejects the old con

      trast between life on earth and the disconsolate

      existence after death, in the dark place of Sheol, and

      puts another in its place. The physical

      4. Spiritual contrast between life and death gradu- Significance ally makes way for t he moral and spirit ual difference between a life spent in

      the fear of the Lord, and a life in the service of sin. The man who serves Cod is alive ((ien 2 17); life is involved in the keeping of His commandments (Leviticus 18 o; Deuteronomy 30 20); His word is life (Deuteronomy 8 3; 3247). Life is still for the most. part, understood to mean length of days (Prov 2 IS; 3 1<>; 10 30; Isaiah 65 20). Xevert heless it is remarkable that Prov often mentions death and Sheol in connection wilh the godless (2 IS; 5 . r >; 7 27; 9 IS), and on the other hand only speaks of life in connection wit h the right eous. Wisdom, righteousness, the fear of the Lord is the way of life (8 3:>.3I>; 11 10; 12 2S; 13 14; 14 27; 19 23). The wicked is driven away in his wickedness, but the righteous hath hope in his death (14 32). Blessed is he who has the Lord for his Cod (1)1 33 2!i; Psalm 1 1.2; 2 12; 32 1.2; 33 12; 34 !), etc); he is comforted in the greatest adver sity (Psalm 73 2.V2S; Ilab 3 17-10), and sees a light, arise for him behind physical death (Cen 49 IS; Job 14 13-ir,; 16 16-21; 19 25-27; Psalm 73 23- 2t>). The godless on the contrary, although enjoy ing for a time much prosperity, perish and come to an end (Psalm 1 4-(>; 73 18-20; Isaiah 48 22; Mai 4 3, etc).

      The righteous of the OT truly are continually occupied with the problem that the lot of man on earth often corresponds so little to his spiritual worth, but he strengthens himself with the con viction that for the righteous it will be well, and for the wicked, ill (Keel 8 12.13; Isaiah 3 10.11). If they do not reali/.e it in the present, they look for ward to the future and hope for the day in which Cod s justice will extend salvation to the righteous, and I lis anger will be visited on the wicked in judg ment. So in the ( )T the revelation of the new covenant is prepared wherein Christ by His appear ance hath abolished death and hath brought life and immortality to light through the gospel (2 Tim 1 10). See ABOLISH. This everlasting life is already here on earth presented to man by faith, and it is his portion also in the hour of deatli (.In 3 3(>; 11 25. 2C>). On the other hand, he who lives in sin and is disobedient to t he Son of ( lod, is in his living dead (Ml 8 22; Luke 15 32; John 3 3(1; 8 24; Kph 2 1; Colossians 2 13); he shall never see life, but shall pass bv bodily death into the second death (The The Revelation 2 11; 20 i.l 4; 21 8).

      This view of Scripture upon death goes much

      deeper than that which is found in other religions,

      but it nevertheless receives support

      5. Death in from the unanimous witness of humani- Non-Chris- ty with regard to its unnaturalness tian Reli- and dread. The so-called nature- gionsandin peoples even feel that death is much Science more of an enigma than life; Tide

      (lnt<iilin<i tot tlf goddienst-artenschap, II [19001, 202, referring to Andrew Lang, Moiltrn My- l/i/ilniji/, ch xiii) says rightly, that all peoples have the conviction that man by nature is immortal, that immortality wants no proof, but that death is a mystery and must be explained. Touching com plaints arise in the hearts of all men on the frailty anil vanity of life, and the whole of mankind fears death as a mysterious power. Man finds comfort in death only when he hopes it will be an end to a still more miserable life. Seneca may be taken as interpreter of some philosophers when he says: StttUili i t xl Union- mortis -itinri ("It is stupid to die through the fear of death") and some may be able, like a Socrates or a Cato, to face death calmly and courageously; what have these few to say to the



      millions, who through fear of death are all their life time subject to bondage (He 2 15)? Such a mys tery has death remained up to the present day. It may be said with Kassowitz, Vcrworm and others that the "cell" is the beginning, and the old, gray man is the natural end of an uninterrupted life- development, or with Metschmkpff, that science will one day so lengthen life that it will fade away like a rose at last and death lose all its dread; death still is no less a riddle, and one which swallows up all the strength of lite. When one considers, be sides, that a number of creatures, plants, trees, ani mals, reach a much higher age than man; that the larger half of mankind dies before or shortly after birth; that another large percentage dies in the bloom of youth or in the prime of life; that the law of the survival of the fit lest is true only when the fact of the survival is taken as a proof of their fit ness; that the graybeards, who, spent and decrepit, go down to the grave, form a very small number; then the enigma of death increases more and more in mysteriousness. The endeavors to bring death into connection with certain activities of the organ ism and to explain it by increasing weight , by growth or by fertility, have all led to shipwreck. When Weismann took refuge in the immortality of the "cinzellitje Protozoen," he raised a hypothesis which not only found many opponents, but which also left mortality of the "Korperplasma" an insoluble mvsterv (Beth, " Ueber Ursache nml Zweck f/<.s Todes, Glauben und Wissen [1000], 2*5-304, 33o- 48). Thus science 1 certainly does not compel us to review Scripture on this point, but rather fur nishes a strong proof of the mysterious majesty of death. When Pelagius, Socinus, Schleiermacher, Hitschl and a number of oilier theologians and phi losophers separate death from its connection with sin, they are not compelled to do so by s; ience, but are led by a defective insight into the relation be tween ethos and phuxis. Misery and death are not absolutely always consequences and punishment of a great personal transgression (l,k 13 2; ,John 9 3); but that they are connected with sin, we learn from the experience of every day. Who can number the victims of mannnonism, alcoholism and licentious ness? Even spiritual sins exercise their influence on corporal life; envy is a rottenness of the bones (Prov 14 30). Tliis connection is taught us in a great measure by Scripture, when it, placed the not yet fallen man in a Paradise, where death had not yet entered, and eternal life was not yet possessed and enjoved; when it sends fallen man, who, how ever, is destined for redemption, into a world full of misery and death; and at last assigns to the wholly renewed man a new heaven and a new earth, where death, sorrow, crying or pain shall no longer exist (The The Revelation 21 4).

      Finally, Scripture is not the book of death, but of life, of everlasting life through Jesus Christ Our Lord. It tells us, in oft-repeated and unmistakable terms, of the dreaded reality of death, but it pro claims to us still more loudly the wonderful power of the life which is in Christ Jesus. See also DE CEASeast HERMAN BAVINCK


      DEATH, SECOND (6 Sevrepos Oavaros, ho deu- leros tltdiiatos): An expression, peculiar to the Book of The The Revelation (2 11; 20 6.14; 21 Samuel) in Scripture, denoting the final penalty of the unrighteous; parallel with anot her expression likewise peculiar, the lake- of fire," in 20 14; 21 8. See ESCHATOLOUY OF THE NT.

      DEBATE, de-bat : This word is used only once in RV (Prov 25 9). It evidently refers to the set tling of a difficulty with a neighbor, and anticipates

      Matthew 18 15. It argues for and shows the advantage of private, peaceable settlement of difficulties. Cf Ecclus 28 9, and see MAKEUATES.

      DEBIR, de ber (TH 1 ! , d r bfnr, or "Q s , d bhir, "oracle"): King of Eglon, one of the live Amorite kings whose confederation against Israel was over come and who were killed by Joshua (Joshus 10 3).

      DEBIR, de ber P" 1 ?" , d blur; AafJeip, Dabclr} : "And Joshua returned, and all Israel with him, to Debir, and fought against it: and he took it, and the king thereof, and all the cities thereof; and they smote them with the edge of the sword .... he left none remaining" (Joshus 10 38.3 .)). In Joshus 15 15-17 and Judges 1 11-13 is an account of how Othniel captured Debir, which "before! ime was Kiriath- scphcr," and won 1 hereby the hand of Achsah, Ca leb s daughter. In Joshus 15 40 Debir is called Kiriath-Kdintdli. It had once been inhabited by the Anakim (Joshus 11 21). It was a Levitical city (Joshus 21 15; 1 Chronicles 6 58).

      (1) Debir is usually accepted as meaning "back, but this is doubtful; the word d r bfur is used to de note the "holy of holies" (1 Kings 6 5).

      1. The According to Sayce (I/ DM), "the city Meaning of must have been a sacred one with a the Name well-known temple." Kiriath-scpher

      is tr 1 "town of books," and Sayce and others consider that in all probability there was a great storehouse of clay tablets here; perhaps the name may have been Iciri/nlh xi>/i/i<r, "town of scribes." Kiriath-sannah (Joshus 15 40) is ^ prob ably a corruption of Kiriath-sepher; the LXX has here as in references to the latter 7r6\\\\is vpawdruiv, put is (/rainiinilon, "town of books."

      Unfortunately this site, important even if the

      speculations about the books are doubtful, is still

      a matter of uncertainty. Edh-Dhd-

      2. The Site lienijeli, some 11 miles southwest of Hebron,

      has a good deal of support. It _ was unquestionably a site of importance in ancient times as the meeting-place of several roads; it is in the Negeb (cf Judges i 15), in the neighborhood of the probable site of Anal) (Joshus 11 21; 15 50); it is a dry site, but there are "upper" and "lower" springs about b i miles to the north A more thorough exam ination of the site than has as yet been undertaken might produce added proofs in favor of this identi fication. No other suggestion has any great prob ability. See / AT, 111, 102; 1>K /- .south, 1875.

      (2) Debir, on the border between Judah and Ben jamin (Joshus 15 7 i, must have been somewhere east of Jerusnot far from the modern Jericho road. T/iogh- greted ])<>>,, "the pass of the rear," half a mile southwest of the Tal dl ed Dninin (see ADUMMIN), close to the so-called, "Inn of the Good Samaritan," may be an echo of the name which has lingered in the neigh borhood. Many authorities consider that there is no place-name in this reference at all, the text being corrupt .

      (3) Debir RVm, Lidcbir (Joshus 13 26), a town on the border of Gad, near Mahanaim; Ibdar, south of the Yarmuk has been suggested. May be identical with Lo-debar (2 Samuel 9 4). east west G. MASTERMAN

      DEBORAH, deb 5-ra (""Va^ , d e blidrah, signify-

      (1) Rebekah s nurse, who died near Bethel and was buried under "the oak of weeping" (Genesis 35

      (2) A prophetess, fourth in the order of the "judges." In aftertimes a palm tree, known as the "palm tree of Deborah," was shown between Ramah and Bethel, beneath which the prophetess was wont to administer justice. Like the rest of the "judges" she became a leader of her people in



      times of national distress. This time the oppressor was Jahin, king of Hazor, whose general was Sisera. Deborah summoned Barak of Kedesh-naphtali and delivered to him the Divine message to meet Sisera in battle by the brook Kishon. Barak induced Deborah to accompany him; they were joined by 10,000 men of Zebulun and Naphtali. The battle took place by the brook Kishon, and Sisera s army was thoroughly routed. While Barak pursued the fleeing army, Sisera escaped and sought refuge with Jael the wife of Ileber the Kenite, near Kedesh. The brave woman, the prototype of Judith, put the Canaanite general to sleep by offering him a draft of milk and then slew him by driving a peg into his temple. Thus runs the story in Judges 4. It is on the whole substantiated by the ode in eh 5 which is ascribed jointly to Deborah and Barak. It, is possible that the editor mistook the archaic form T^p, kaintl, in ver 7 which should be rendered "thou arosedst" instead of "I arose." Certainly the ode was composed by a person who, if not a contem porary of the event , was very near it in point, of t ime. The song is spoken of as one of the oldest pieces of Heblit. (ireat difficulties meet the exegete. Never theless the general substance is clear. The Lord is described as having come from Sinai near the "field of Eclom" to take part in the battle; for from heaven they fought, the very stars from their courses fought against Sisera (ver 20). The nation was in a sad plight, oppressed by a mighty king, and the tribes loth to submerge their separatist tendencies. Some, like Reuben, Gilead, Daniel and Asher re mained away. A community by the name of Meroz is singled out for blame, because they came not to the help of Jeh, to the help of Jeh among the mighty (ver 23; cf RVm). Ephraim, Issachar, Machir, Benjamin were among the followers of Barak; Zebulun .... jeoparded their lives unto the death, and Naphtali, upon the high places of the field" (ver IS). According to the song, the battle was fought at Taanach by the waters of Megiddo; Sisera s host was swept away by "that ancient river, the river Kishon" (ver 21). Jael, the wife of Ileber the Kenite, receives here due meed of praise for her heroic act. The paean vividly paints the waiting of Sisera s mother for the home-coming of the gen eral; the dclay_is ascribed to the great booty which the conqueror is distributing among his Canaanite host. "So let all thine enemies perish," concludes the song; "O Jeh: but let them that love him be as the sun when he goeth forth in his might." It is a song in praise of the "righteous acts" of the Lord, His \\\\york of victory which Israel s leaders, the long-haired princes, wrought, giving their lives freely to the nation s cause. And the nation was sore bestead because it had become faithless to the Lord and chosen new gods. Out of the conflict came, for the time being, victory and moral purifica tion; and the inspiring genius of it all was a woman in Israel, the prophetess Deborah.

      (3) Tobit s grandmother (AV "Debora," Tob 1 8). MAX L. M.AKCJOLIS

      DEBT, dot, DEBTOR, defer: It is difficult now adays to think of debt without associating with it the idea of interest, and even usury. Certain it is that this idea is associated with the OT idea of the word, at least in the later period of OT history. This is true of the NT entire. The Hebrews word pt5: , n e shi) always carries with it the idea of biting interest" (cf 2 Kings 4 7). The (ir words Sdvaov, ddneion (Matthew 18 27), and d^etX??, oplicilz (Matthew 18 32), may point only to the fact of indebtedness; the idea of interest, however, is clearly taught in the NT (cf Alt 25 27).

      Quite extensive legislation is provided in the OT governing the matter of debt and debtors. Indebt

      edness and loaning had not, however, the commer cial aspect among the Jews so characteristic of the nations surrounding Philestina-Canaan Land Indeed the Mosaic leg islation was seemingly intended to guard against just such commercialism. It was looked upon as a misfortune to be in debt; it indicated poverty brought on probably by blighted harvests; conse quently those in debt were to be looked upon with pity and dealt with in leniency. There must be no oppression of the poor under such circumstances (Exodus 22 25; Deuteronomy, 23 19.20; E/k 18 IS). Ever, whore a pledge is given and received, certain restrictions are thrown around it, e.g. the creditor must not take a mill, nor a necessary garment, nor a widow s ox etc, in pledge (Exodus 22 25 27; Deuteronomy 24 (5.10-1:3; Job

      22 6; Am 2 Samuel). And further, tin; pledge is to be restored in some instances "before the sun goeth down" (Exodus 22 2(1.27), and in all cases full redemp tion in the seventh and jubilee years (Nehemiah 10 31, etc). The Jews wen; strictly exhorted to take no interest at all from their own nation (Exodus 22 2.1; Deuteronomy

      23 r.1.20). _ Strangers, however, might be charged interest (ibid). A devout Jew would not lend money to another Jew on interest.

      It would seem that as Israel came into contact with the surrounding nations, debt became increas ingly a commercial matter. The Mosaic laws re garding clemency toward the poor who were com pelled for the time being to become debtors were utterly disregarded, and the poor were oppressed by the rich. An illustration of the severity with which debtors came to be dealt with is to be found in 2 Kings 4 1-7, in which, because of the inability of a widow to pay a small debt contracted by her dead husband, the woman complains to the prophet that the creditors have come to sell her two children in order that the debt might be paid. Strangely the prophet, while helping the widow by miraculously multiplying the oil in order that the debt might be paid, says nothing by way of condemnation of such conduct on the part of the creditors. Are we to understand by this that commercialism had already so powerful a grip upon Israel that even to a prophet the practice had come to seem proper, or at least expected? The debtor himself or his family might be sold for debt, or the debtor might become a slave for a certain length of time until the debt was paid (Leviticus 25 39.47; Isaiah 50 1). So oppressive had the commercial system in Israel become that the debtor cursed the creditor and the creditor the debtor (Jeremiah 15 10). Sometimes debtors were outlawed, as in the case of the men who came to David in the cave of Adullam (1 Samuel 22 2). That the matter of borrow ing and lending had assumed very grievous propor tions is evident from the very sharp warnings con cerning the matter in the Book of Prov (61; 11 15; 20 16, etc).

      The teaching of the NT on this subject is con fined very largely to the parables of Our Lord. Some think that the expression, "Owe no man anything" (Romans 13 8), is an absolute warning against indebt edness. Quite a noticeable advance in the matter of debts and debtors is noticed as we enter the time of the NT. W T e read of bankers, exchangers, money changers, interest, investments, usury (Matthew 25 16- 27; John 2 13-17). The taking of interest does not seem to be explicitly condemned in the NT. The person of the debtor, as well as his family and lands, could be seized for non-payment of debt (Matthew 18 21-26). Indeed, the debtor was often cast into prison and tormented because of non-payment (Matthew 18 30.34). That compassion and leniency should be exercised toward those in debt is the clear teach ing of Christ in the parables of the Unmerciful Serv ant (Matthew 18 23-35) and the Two Debtors (Luke 7 41-43).

      Figurative: Debt and debtor are used in a moral



      sense also as indicating the obligation of a righteous life which we owe to God. To fall short in righteous living is to become a debtor. For this reason we pray, "Forgive us our debts" (Alt 6 12). Those who are ministered to in spiritual things are said to be debtors to those who minister to them (Romans 15 27). To make a vow to God is to put one s self in debt in a moral sense (Matthew 23 10-18; RVm "bound by his oath") . In a deeply spiritual sense the apostle Paul professed to be in debt to all men in that he owed them the opportunity to do them good (Romans 1 14).

      The parables of Jesus as above named are rich with comforting truth. How beautiful is the will ingness of God, the great and Divine Creditor, to release us from our indebtedness! Just so ought we to be imitators of the Father in heaven who is merciful. ^"ILLIAM EVANS

      DECALOGUE, dek a-log. See TKN COMMAND MENTS.

      DECAPOLIS, dr-kap o-lis ( AeKairoXis, 1)< /. i/polis) : The name given to the region occupied by a league of "ten cities" (Matthew 4 25; Mark 5 20; 7 31), which Eusebius defines (Onom) as "lying in the Peraea, round Hippos, Pella and Gadara." Such combina tions of Gr cities arose as Rome assumed dominion in the East, to promote their common interests in trade and commerce, and for mutual protection against the peoples surrounding them. This par ticular league seems to have been constituted about the time of Pompey s campaign in Syria, 05 BC, by which several cities in Decapolis dated their eras. They were independent of the local tetrarchy, and answerable directly to the governor of Syria. They enjoyed the rights of association and asylum; they struck their own coinage, paid imperial .taxes and were liable to military service (Ant, NIV, iv, 4; BJ, I, vii, 7; II, xviii, 3; III, ix, 7; Vila, 05, 74). Of the ten cities, Scythopolis, the ancient Bethshean, alone, the capital of the league, was on the \\\\Y. side of Jordan. The names given by Pliny (A7/, v.lS) are Scythopolis (Bcisdn), Hippos (Susiyeh), Ga dara (Umm Kcia), Pella (Fa/iil), Philadelphia ( Amman), Gerasa (Jcrash), Dion (Adiln /), Ca- natha (Kanawat), Damascus and Raphana. The last named is not identified, and Dion is uncertain. Other cities joined the league, and Ptolemy, who omits Raphana, gives a list of IS. The Gr inhabi tants were never on good terms with the Jews; and the herd of swine (Mark 5 11 ff) indicates contempt for what was probably regarded as Jewish prejudice. The ruins still seen at Gadara, but esp. at Kanawdi (see KENATH) and Jerash, of temples, theaters and other public buildings, attest the splendor of these cities in their day. west EWINC;

      DECAY, df-ka : Although this word is still in good use in both its lit. sense, of the putrefaction of either animal or vegetable matter, and its de rived sense, denoting any deterioration, decline or gradual failure, the RV has replaced it by other expressions in Leviticus 25 35; Eccl 10 18; Isaiah 44 20; He 8 13; in some of these cases with a gain in ac curacy of tr. In Nehemiah 4 10 (^ 2, kdshal, "to be feeble," "stumble") RV retains "is decayed"; in Job 14 11 Pin, harebh, "to be dried up") ARV substi tutes "wasteth," and in John 11 39 ARV has "the body decayeth" instead of the more literal tr offen sive to modern ears (of, ozci, "emits a smell").

      F. K. FARR

      DECEASE, dr-ses , IN OT AND APOC (SEH , raptuT, pi. r i>hd lm, "ghosts," "shades," is tr 1 by "dead," "dead body," and "deceased" in both AV and RV); The word seems to mean "soft," "inert,"

      but its etymology is uncertain (see REPHAIM). The various writers of the OT present, as is to be ex pected on such a subject, different conceptions of the condition of the deceased. In the beginning prob ably a vague idea of the continuation of existence was held, without the activities (Isaiah 59 10) and the joys of the present life (Psalm 49 17). They dwell in the "land of forgetfulness" (Job 14 21; Psalm 88 5; cf Isaiah 26 14), they "tremble" of cold (Job 26 5), they totter and "stumble at noonday as in the twi light" (Isaiah 59 10), their voice is described as low and muttering or chirping (Isaiah 8 19; 29 4), which may refer to the peculiar pitch of the voice of the spirit medium when a spirit speaks through him. (The calling up of the dead, which was strictly for bidden to Israel [Leviticus 19 31; 20 27] is referred to in 1 Samuel 28 13 and perhaps in Isaiah 14 9.) The de ceased are separated from their friends; love and hatred have both ceased with them (Eccl 9 5.0); "There is no work, nor device, nor knowledge, nor wisdom, in Sheol" (Eccl 9 10). The deceased are unable to praise Jeh (Psalm 6 5; 88 10-12; Isaiah 38 IS; Bar 2 17; Sir 17 27.2S). Nor does there seem to have been at first an anticipation of reward or punishment after death (Psalm 88 10; Sir 41 4), probably because the shades were supposed to bo, lacking the organs by which either reward or pun ishment could be perceived; nevertheless they are still in the realm of God s power (1 Samuel 2 0; Psalm 86 13; 139 south; Prov 15 11; Isaiah 7 11; Hosea 13 14; Am 9 2; Tub 13 2).

      Gradually the possibility of a return of the de parted was conceived (Genesis 5 24; 2 Kings 13 21; Psalm 49 15; 73 24; 86 13; Hosea 13 14; Wisd 3 1-7; 4 13.14; 6 IS. 19; 10 14). Even here it is often more the idea of the immortality of the soul than that of the resurrection of the body, and some of these passages may be interpreted as allegorical expressions for a temporal rescue from great disas ter (e.g. 1 Samuel 2 0); nevertheless this interpretation presupposes the existence of a deliverance from the shadows of Sheol to a better life in the presence of Jeh. Some passages refer clearly to such an escape at the end of the age (Dnl 12 2;~ Isaiah 26 19). Only very few of the OT believers reached the sublime faith of Job (19 25.20) and none the blessed expec tation taught in the NT, for none but Christ has "brought life and immortality to light" (2 Tim 1 10; John 5 28.29).

      The opinion that the dead or at least the newly buried could partake of the food which was placed in graves, a custom which recent excavations have clearly shown to have been almost universal in Pal, and which is referred to in Deuteronomy 26 14 and Tob 4 17, was soon doubted (Sir 30 18), and food and drink prepared for the funeral was henceforth intended as the "bread of comfort" and the "cup of consola tion" for the mourners (Jeremiah 16 7; 2 Samuel 3 35; Ezekiel 24 17). Similarly the offering and burning of in cense, originally an homage to the deceased, became a relief for the mourner (2 Chronicles 16 14; 21 19; Jeremiah 34 5). See also \\\\Yisd 3 2; 7 6; Sir 38 23, and arts, on CORPSE; DEATH; HADES; SHEOL.

      H. L. east LUERING

      DECEASE, dC-ses , IN NT (TeXtvraw, leleutdu, "to come to an end," "married arid deceased" [Matthew 22 25j): With 0avdT V , thandto, "death," "die the death" (Matthew 15 4; Mark 7 10, RVm "surely die"). Elsewhere the word is tr d "die" (Matthew 2 19; 9 18; Mark 9 48 and often; lie 11 22, RV "end was nigh").

      Also the subst., efoSos, cxodos, "exodus," "exit," "departure," "his decease which ho was about to accomplish" (Luke 9 31, RVm "departure"); "after my decease" (2 Pet 1 15, KVm "departure").

      DECEIT, de-set: The intentional misleading or beguiling of another;



      in other Scripture represented as a companion of many ,.,.ier forms of wickedness, as cursing (Psalm 10 7), hatred (Prov 26 24), theft, covetousness, adultery, murder (Mark 7 22; Romans 1 29). The RV intro duces the word in Prov 14 2r>; 2 Thess 2 10; hut in such passages as Psalm 55 11; Prov 20 17; 26 20;

      1 Thess 2 . }, renders a variety of words, more ac curately than the AY, by "oppression," "falsehood," "guile," "error."

      DECEIVABLENESS, df-sev a-b 1-nes, DE CEIVE, de-sev (WZ:, nfisfxT, "to lead astray"): "The pride of thy heart hath deceived thee" (Jeremiah 49 10), i.e. "Thy stern mountain fast nesses have per suaded thec that thou art impregnable." In Jeremiah

      20 7, "O Lord, thou hast deceived me, and 1 was deceived," HPE , [xll/ia/i, signifies "to be enticed," "persuaded," as in ARY and RYin.

      In the OT most often, and in the XT regularly, the various words rendered in AV "deceive" denote some deliberate misleading in the moral or spiritual realm. False prophets (Jeremiah 29 X), false teachers (Ephesians 5 6) and Satan himself (The The Revelation 12 9) are de ceivers in this sense. In the gospels, A\\\\ "deceive" (u-Xavdw, planiid, 91, Alt 24 4..~> Alk 13 o.O Luke

      21 Samuel; Alt. 24 11.24; John 7 12. -17) becomes in RY "lead astray"; the same change is made in 1 John

      2 2(i; 3 7; but elsewhere (13 t) both AV and RV render pliuniu by "deceive."

      "Deceivableness" (dirdTti, apdte), only in 2 Thess 2 10, signifies power to deceive, not liability to de ception; RV "deceit." F. K. FAUK

      DECENTLY, de sent-li (v<rxT|n6va>s, < //,sr//r///ri- ?/o.s): Only once is this word found in our Eng. Bible (1 Corinthians 14 40). It is in the last verse of that re markable chapter on the proper use of spiritual gifts in the church and the proper conduct of public wor ship. It does not refer here to absence of impurity or obscenity. It rather refers to good order in the conduct of public worship. All things that are done and said in public worship are to be in harmony with that becoming and reverent spirit and tone that befit the true worshippers of (lod.

      DECISION, de-si/h un: Has several different shades of meaning. It expresses the formation of a judgment on a matter under consideration. It expresses the quality of being firm or positive in one s actions. It expresses the termination of a contest or question in favor of one side or the other, as the decision of the battle, or the decision of the judge.

      Intil recent times the decision of disputed points

      between nations was determined by force of arms.

      Thus the questions of dispute were

      1. National decided between Israel and the sur- Decisions rounding tribes, between Israel and

      Assyria, between Israel and Egypt, and later between Judaea and Rome.

      In the earliest times the questions of dispute be tween individuals were decided by the patriarch

      who was the head of the family. When

      2. Judicial Israel became a nation men were ap- Decisions pointed to decide the difficulties be

      tween the people. At first this was one of the most important duties of Moses, but when the task became too great lie appointed judges to assist him (see Fix 18 13-20). One important function of those who are called judges was to decide the difficulties between the people (see Judges 4 4.~>). The kings also decided questions of dispute between individuals (see 2 Samuel 15 1-6; 1 Kings 3 10-28). As the people developed in their national ideals the decisions in judicial matters were rendered by councils appointed for that purpose.

      Perplexing questions were many times decided by the casting of lots. The people believed that (lod

      would in this way direct them to the 3. Methods right decision (Prov 16 33; Joshus 7 of Forming 10-21; 14 2; 1 Samuel 10 20 f). Casting Decisions lots must have been a common method

      of deciding perplexing questions (see 1 Samuel 14 41.12; Jon 1 7). It was resorted to by the apostles to decide which of the two men they had selected should take the place of Judas (Acts 1 21- 20). The custom gradually lost in favor, and de cisions, even of perplexing questions, were formed by considering all the facts. See Arcritv IV, 3; LOTS. A. west FORTUNE


      DECLARATION, dek-la-ra shun, DECLARE, de- klar : "Declare" is the tr of a variety of Hebrews and (lr words in the ( >T and XT, appearing to bear uni formly the meaning "to make known," "set forth," rather than (the older meaning) "to explain" (Deuteronomy 1 ">). Declaration ( Esi 10 2 AV, RV "full ac count"; Job 13 17; Erdus 43 0; Luke 1 1 AV, RV "narrative"; 2 Corinthians 8 li) AV, RV "to show") has the like meaning.

      DECLINE, dr-khn (TO , .s/7r, or ITO , xur, HE? , mlt/l/i): In AY this word occurs 9 t in its original sense (now obsolete) of "turn aside." RY substi tutes "turn aside" in Exodus 23 2; Deuteronomy 17 1 1 ; 2 Chronicles 34 2; Job 23 11. In Psalm 102 11; 109 23, the lengthening shadows of afternoon are said to "de cline," and RY introduces the word in the same general sense in Judges 19 south; 2 Kings 20 10; Jeremiah 6 4. See Al-TKRXOON.

      DEDAN, de dan, DEDANITES, de dan-Its (AV Dedanim, ded a-nim; "~~ , <l <lhiln, "low," n^" 1 ! , ihlhnintn) : An Arabian people named in (len 10 7 as descended from Cush; in (len 25 3 as descended from Keturah. Evidently t hey were, like the related Sheba (Sabaeans), of mixed race (cf (len 10 7.2S). In Isaiah 21 Hi allusion is made to the "caravans of Dedanites" in the wilds of Arabia, and E/k mentions them as supplying Tyre with precious things (Ezekiel 27 20; in ver 1">, "Dedan" should probably be read as in LXX, "Rodan," i.e. Rhodians). The name seems still to linger in the island of Dadan, on the border of the Pers Ciulf. It is found also in Min. and Sab. inscriptions (Cllazer, II, 392 f f).


      DEDICATE, ded i-kat, DEDICATION, ded-i- ka shun (rcjlj , humikkah, "initiation," "consecra tion"; IB" , Icddhf xh, "to be clean," "sanctify"; D^n , hcrcm, "a thing devoted [to God]"): Often used in Hebrews of the consecration of persons, but usually in the EV of the setting apart of things to a sacred use, as of the altar (Xu 7 l()f. 84.88; cf Did 3 2.3, "the d. of the image"), of silver and gold (2 Samuel 8 11; 2 Kings 12 4), of the Temple (1 Kings 8 03; Ezra 6 10 f; cf Exodus 29 44), of the wall of Jerus (Xeh 12 27), of private dwellings (Deuteronomy 20 5). RV substitutes "devoted" for "dedicated" in Ezekiel 44 29. See COXSKCRATIO.north; SANCTIPICATION.

      DEDICATION, ded-i-ka shun, FEAST OF (TO. e-yKaivia, til i f/L iii nia , John 10 22): A feast held by the Jews throughout the country for eight days, commencing on the 2f>th Kislev (December), in commemoration of the cleansing of the temple and dedication of the altar by Judas Maccabaeus after their desecration by Antiochus Epiphanes (1 Mace 4 50.f>9). The feast was to be kept "with mirth and gladness." 2 Mace 10 0.7 says it was kept



      like the Feast of the Tabernacles, with the carrying of palm and other branches, and the singing _ of psalms. Jos calls it "Lights," from the joy which accompanied it (Ant, XII, vii, 7). At this winter feast Jesus delivered in the temple the discourse recorded in John 10 24 ff, at Jerus. JAMES OKU

      DEED, ded: I sed in its ordinary modern sense in EV. In the OT it is used to tr five Hob words: g mfddh, lit. "recompense" (Isaiah 69 IS); ddbhdr, lit. "word." "thing" (2 Chronicles 35 27 AV, KV "acts"; Est 1 17. IS; Jeremiah 5 2S); ma dsch (On 20 9; 44 15; Ezra 9 13); *aUlah (1 Chronicles 16 south AY, RV "do ings"; Psalm 105 1 AV, RV "doings"); pu al (Psalm 28 4 AV, RV "work"; Jeremiah 25 14). In the NT "deed" very frequently translates epyov, ergon (same root a s Eng. "work"; cf "energy"), which is still more frequently (esp. in RV) rendered "work." In Luke 23 51; Acts"l9 IS; Romans 8 13; Colossians 3 9 AY, RV "doings," it stands for Gr irpd^s, prd.rix (lit. ";i doing," "transaction ), each time in a bad sense, equivalent to wicked deed, crime, a meaning which is frequently associated with the pi. of praxis (cf Eng. "practices" in the sense of trickery; so often in Polybius; Deissmann maintains that praxis was a technical term in magic), although in Matthew 16 27 (AV "works") and Romans 12 4 the same Gr word has a neutral meaning. In Jas 1 25 AV "deed" is the tr of Gr -n-oiija-is, poicsis, more correctly ren dered "doing" in RY. D. MIALL EDWARDS

      DEEP (2"~P, , t e hom; cip^cro-os, dbusxos, Luke 8 31 AY; Romans 10 7 AY; Pa6os, bathos, Luke 5 4; P^Gos, but has, 2 Corinthians 11 25): The Ileb word ("water in commotion") is used (1) of the primeval watery waste (Genesis 1 2), where some suggest a connection with Bab Tiamat in the creation-epic; (2) of the sea (Isaiah 51 10 and commonly); (3) of the subterranean reservoir of water (Genesis 7 11; 82; 49 25; l)t 33 13; Ezekiel 31 4, etc). In the RV the Gr word first noted is rendered, lit., "abyss." See ABYSS; also

      AbTKONOMY, 111, 7.


      DEER, der ( ^ , ayydl, fern. nb^south , ayydldh, and r.5;)J<, ayyelelh [cf Arab, ayydl and iydl, "deer" and b^north , nyil, "ram," and Lat caprr and capra, "goat," capn-a, caprcolus, "wild goat," "chamois," or "roe deer"]; "VlTarP, yahinur [cf Arab. yah/>iur, "deer"] ; "blP , ya aldh, fern, of b^P , yd i l [cf Arab. wa l, "Pers wild goat"] ; "H? , fbh.1 , and fern. ~;^^ , f bhlyah [cf Arab, zabi and fern, zabi yah, "gazelle"] ; "lE^ , ophcr [cf Arab, yhafr and ghufr, "young of the mountain goat"]) :

      Of the words in the preceding list, the writer t)elieves that only the first two, i.e. miunl (with its fern, forms) and yahmur should be tr<i "deer," n.ijuiil for the roe (Icel and ydhmur for the fallow deer. Further, lie believes that yai l (incl. ya dliili) should be tr "ibex," and yi bhl, "gazelle." <0p/ier is the young of a roe deer or of a gazelle.

      A yydl and its fern, forms arc regularly in EV ren dered "hart" and "hind," terms which are more commonly applied to the male and female of the red deer, Cervus elaphus, which inhabits Great Britain, the continent of Europe, the Caucasus and Asia Minor, but which has never been reported as far south as Syria or Philestina-Canaan Land The roe deer, Caprcolus caprca, however, which inhabits the British Isles. the greater part of Europe, the Caucasus and Per sia, is certainly found in Philestina-Canaan Land The museum of the Syrian Protestant College at Buir&t possesses the skeleton of a roe deer which was shot in the moun tains near Tyre. As late as LS90 it, was fairly com mon in southern Lebanon and Carmel, but has now

      (1912) become very scarce. The fallow deer, drums damn, is a native of Northern Africa and countries about the Mediterranean. It is found in central Europe and Great Britain, where it has been intro duced from its more southern habitat. A variety of the fallow deer, sometimes counted as a separate species under the name of Cirrus Mesopolamicus, inhabits northeastern Mesopotamia and Persia. It may in former times have been found in Pal, and Tristram reports having seen the fallow deer in Galilee (Fauna ami F/nru uf 1 ah, but while Tris tram was a remarkably acute observer, he appears sometimes to have been too readily satisfied, and his observations, when unaccompanied, as in this case, by specimens, are to be accepted with caution. Now ayydl (and its fern, forms) occurs in the Bible 22 t, while yahnnlr occurs only twice, i.e. in the list, of clean animals in Deuteronomy 14 5, and in 1 Kings 4 23, in the list of animals provided for Solomon s table. In both places AV has "fallow deer" and RV "roe buck." In view of the fact that the roe deer has within recent years been common in Pal, while the occurrence of the fallow deer must be considered doubtful, it seems fair to render ayydl "roe deer" or "roebuck," leaving yahnnlr for fallow deer.

      The Arabs call the roe deer both ayydl and iraV. ITo / is the proper name of the Pers wild goat, dipra tn</a</rt<x, and is also often used for the Arab. or Sin ibex, Ca/jra l>l<n, though only by those who do not live within its range. Where the ibex is at home it is always called halcn. This looseness of nomenclature must be taken into account, and we have no reason to suppose that the Hebrews were more exact than are the Arabs. There are many examples of this in Eng., e.g. panther, coney, rab bit (in America), locust, adder and many others.

      Yd tl (incl. ya dldh) occurs 4 t. In Job 39 1; Psalm 104 IS; 1 Samuel 24 2, EV renders yd ii by "wild goat." For ya*aldk in Prov 5 19, AV has "roe," while II V has "doe," which is non-committal, since the name, "doe," may be applied to the female of a deer or of an ibex. Since the Arab. ?m /, which is etymologic-ally closely akin to yn tl, means the Pers wild goat, it might be supposed that that ani mal was meant, were it, not, that, it inhabits the plains of the Syrian desert, and not, the mountains of Southern Pal, where the ibex lives. At least two of the passages clearly indicate the latter locality, i.e. Psalm 104 is: "The high mountains are for the wild goats," and 1 Samuel 24 2: "Saul .... went to seek David and his men upon the rocks of the wild goats." The conclusion then seems irresistible that yd*i l, and consequently ya dlah, is the ibex.

      (, bhl (incl. <,"btilydh) is uniformly rendered "roe" or "roebuck" in AV, while; RY, either in the text or in the margin, has in most, cases "gazelle." In two places "roe" is retained in RV without comment, i.e. 2 Samuel 2 18: "Asahel was as light, of foot as a wild roe," and 1 Chronicles 12 8: "were as swift as the roes upon the mountains." Ayydl and r lilu occur to gether in Deuteronomy 12 15.22; 14 5; 15 22; 1 Kings 4 23; Cant 2 9.17, i.e. in 7 of the 1(5 passages in which we find c Wa. If therefore it be accepted that ayydl is the roe deer, it, follows that <; b/tl must be something else. Now the gazelle is common in Pal and satisfies perfectly every passage in which we find q e bhl. Further, one of the Arab, names of the gazelle is zabi, a word which is etymologically much nearer to <,"bltl than appears in this trans literation.

      *Ophcr is akin \\\\o d/>/idr, "dust," and has refer ence to the color of tin 1 young of the deer or gazelle, to both of which it is applied. John Cant 2 9. 17 and 8 14, we have *oplt< r ha- ayydllm, E V "young hart," lit. "fawn of the roe deer." In Cant 4 5 and 7 3, we have *oplidrli t onn; fbhlydh, AV "young roes that arc twins," RV "fawns that are twins of & roe,"

      Defame Delaiah



      RVm "ga/elle" (Tor "roe"). For further reference to these questions, sec ZOOUXJY.

      \\\\\\\\ iih the exception of mere lists of animals, as in Deuteronomy 14 and 1 Kings 4, the treatment of these animals is highly poetical, and shows much appreciation of their grace and beauty. AI.KHKD ELY DAY

      DEFAME, de-fam , DEFAMING, df-farn mg: These words occur hut twice in AV, and are trans lations of r~i3~ , dibbah, "slander," from ddl>lml/i, "to slander," or spread an evil report, and fi\\\\a<T- (ferj/new, blnxphemco, to speak injuriously" of anyone (Jeremiah 20 10; 1 Corinthians 4 13). "To defame" differs from "to revile" in that the former refers to /ml/lie slander, the latter to [tcrxonul abuse.

      DEFECT, de-fekt , DEFECTIVE, df-fekt iv ^TTt]p.a, liflirnia, "loss," "a defect"): Occurs in 1 Corinthians 6 7: "Xay, already it is altogether a defect in you |A\\\\ "there is utterly a fault among you"], t hat ye have lawsuits one with a not her." "Defect" means "want or absence of something necessary for completeness" (HYm "a loss to you"). The mean ing ol the passage in HY is that when Christians have lawsuits one with another it produces a lack of something which brings them short of completeness, they suffer a spiritual loss or defeat, and perhaps defect is not quite strong enough fully to express that idea.

      Defective: Sir 49 1 AY, KY committed tres pass." A. \\\\Y. Foim \\\\K

      DEFENCE, de-fens . See Corirrs, JrmriAi.. DEFENCED. Sec KOKTIFICATION.

      DEFER, dr-fur (""X, nl.iar [in Iliphil], TpX, Tirakh [in Hiphil], "11"? , ntdxhnkh [in Xiphal], "to postpone," more or less definitely; "delay";: In OT passages such as Isaiah 48 9; E/k 12 25.28; Did 9 19, the idea of indefinite postponement agrees with the Hebrews and with the context. In the only XT occurrence of the word (avapd\\\\\\\\w. anabdttd, in the middle voice, Acts 24 122) a definite postpone ment is implied.

      DEFILE, de-fil . DEFILEMENT, de-fll inent (AS afylaii, etc; ME dcfoulcn, "make foul," "pollute," renderJAV] 9 Hebrews roots [RV six]: b"3 , yd al, "de file"; **n , hdlal, defile" [from "untie, loosen, open, "i.e. "make; common," hence "profane"]; Cl^n, hdnt jih, "incline away" [from right or religion], hence profane, 1 "defile" [Jeremiah 3 9, ARV "pollute"]; north Cy , tame , the principal root, over 2.50 t, tr 1 "de file" 74 t, "to become, or render, unclean"; ri"J , tdna/ih, "to soil" (Cant 5 3] ; V~" , \\\\~dal, "deal severely, or decidedly, with," "roll" [Job 16 l.~>, A\\\\ , ARVm]; r~.Z, *anah, "humble" [Genesis 34 2 A\\\\ , ARV "humble"); 12 " , kadlutxh, "separate," "sanc tify," "devote to religious use," hence "forfeit" [I)t 22" 9 A\\\\ , ARV "forfeit," in "consecrated"). They also render 6" [AV] Cr roots [ARV, 4): KOLVOS, ki>in< >x, etc, "common" or "unclean," because appertaining to the outside world and not to the people of God, opposite of katharos, clean," used 13 t; tuaivu, miainu, (ilae/m, miasma, /iuaa>6s, miasmos, "stain," "tinge," "dye": "In their dreamings d. the flesh," Jude vcr 8; n.o\\\\vvu, ninlt utd, stain," "contaminate": "not d. their garments" [The The Revelation 3 4); ffiri\\\\6u, sjiiU td, "spot," "stain": "d. the whole body" [.las 3 ti]; (frtieipw, phthciro, "corrti])l," destroy": the temple of dud [1 Corinthians 3 17 AY, ARV "destroyeth") ; dp- crevo/voiT^s, arsenokoitcs: "d. themselves with men" [1 Tim 1 10 AV, ARV ubusersof"]):

      1. Defile ment in the OT

      Defilement in theOT was physical, sexual, ethical,

      ceremonial, religious, the last four, esp., overlapping. (1) Physical: "I have washed my feet; how shall I d. them?" (Cant 5 3). (2) Sexual: which might be cere monial or moral; of individuals by illicit intercourse (Leviticus 18 20), or by intercourse at forbidden times (15 21; 1 Samuel 21 5); of the land bv adultery: "Shall not that land be greatly defiled?" (Jeremiah 3 1 AKV "polluted," usually substituted where the moral or religious predominates over the ceremonial). (3) Ethical: "Your hands are defiled with blood" (Isaiah 59 3); "Xeither shall they d. themselves any more with .... any of their transgressions" (E/k 37 23). (I) Ceremonial: to render ceremonially unclean, i.e. disqualified for religious service or worship, and capable of communicating the disqualification. (a) Persons were defiled by contact with carcases of unclean animals (Leviticus 11 21); or with any ear- case (17 IT)); by eating a carcase (22 8); by contact with issues from the body, one s own or another s, e.g. abnormal issues from the genitals, male or female (15 2.2.")); menstruation (Leviticus 15 19); by contact- wit h anyone thus unclean (15 24) ; copu- lation (15 Hi IS); uncleanness after childbirth (12 2 .">>; by contact with unclean persons (5 3), or unclean things (22 (i), or with leprosy (esp. defil ing; 13 M), or with the dead (Xu 6 12), or with one unclean by such contact (19 22), or by funeral rites (Leviticus 21 1); by contact with creeping things (22 5), or with unclean animals (11 26). (b) Holy objects were ceremonially defiled by the contact, entrance or approach of the defiled (1531; Numbers 19 13); by the presence of dead bodies, or any remains of the dead (Ezekiel 9 7; 2 Kings 23 1C>: Josiah s defilement of heathen altars by the ashes of the priests); by the entrance of foreigners (Psalm 79 1; see Acts 21 28); by forbidden treatment, as the altar by being tooled (Exodus 20 2f>) ; objects in gen eral by contact with the unclean. Ceremonial defilement, strictly considered, implied, not sin, but ritual unfit ness. (f>) Religious: not always easily distinguished or entirely distinguishable from the ceremonial, still less from the ethical, but in which the central attitude and relationship to Jeh as covenant Clod and Clod of righteousness, was more fully in question. The land might be defiled by bloodshed (Xu 35 33), esp. of the just or inno cent ; by adultery (Jeremiah 3 1); by idolatry and idol atrous practices, like sacrificing children to idols, etc (Leviticus 20 3; Psalm 106 39); the temple or altar by disrespect (Mai 1 7.12); by offering the un clean (Hag 2 14); by any sort of unrighteousness (E/k 36 17); by the presence of idols or idolatrous paraphernalia (Jeremiah 7 30).

      The scope of defilement in its various degrees (direct, or primary, as from the person or thing de filed; indirect, or secondary, tertiary, 2. Defile- or even further, by contact with the ment in NT defiled) had been greatly widened by rabbinisrn into a complex and im mensely burdensome! system whose shadow falls over the whole XT life. Specific mentions are corn-

      Saratively few. Physical d. is not mentioned, exual d. appears, in a figurative sense: "These are they that were not defiled with women" (The The Revelation 14 4). Ceremonial d. is found in, but not approved by, the NT. Examples are: by eating with un washed, "common," not ceremonially cleansed, hands (Mark 7 2); by eating unclean, "common," food (Acts 10 14; Peter s vision); by intimate association with (lentiles, such as eating with them (not expressly forbidden in Mosaic law; Acts 11 3), or entering into their houses (John 18 28; the Pharisees refusing to enter the Praetorium) ; by the presence of Gentiles in the Temple (Acts 21



      2S). But with Christ s decisive and revolutionary dictum (Mark 7 19): "This ho said, making all meats clean," etc, and with the command in Peter s vision: "What God hath cleansed, make not thou common" (Acts 10 15), and with Paul s bold and consistent teaching: "All things indeed are clean" (Romans 14 20, etc), the idea of ceremonial or ritual d. ; having accomplished its educative; purpose, passed. Defilement in the NT teaching, therefore, is uniformly ethical or spiritual, the two constantly merging. The ethical is found more, predominantly in: "The things which proceed out. of the mouth come forth out of the heart; and they defile the man" (Matthew 15 IS); "that did not defile their gar ments" (The The Revelation 3 4); "defileth the whole body (Jas 3 G). The spiritual seems to predominate in: "defiled and unbelieving" (Tit 1 15); "conscience being weak is defiled" (by concession to idola try) (1 Corinthians 8 7); "lest any root of bitterness springing up trouble you, and thereby the many be defiled" (He 12 15). For the supposed origins of the idea and details of defilement, as from hy gienic or aesthetic causes, "natural aversions," "taboo," "totemism," associations with ideas of death, or evil life, religious symbolism, etc, see POLLUTION; PURIFICATION; UNTLEAX. Whatever use God may have made of ideas and feelings com mon among many nations in some* form, the Divine 1 purpose was clearly to impress deeply and indelibly on the Israelites the ideas of holiness and sacred- ness in general, and of Jeh s holiness, and their own required holiness and separateness in particular, thus preparing for the deep NT teachings of sin, and of spiritual consecration and sanctification. WF.XDKI.L CKAXXKLL DEFY, dC -fi (Cnn , Mrap/t, C?7 , za aw) : In 1 8 17 10.25.2G.3G.45 (the story of David and Goliath) and kindred passages, this word is used in its most familiar sense "to taunt," "challenge to combat" (Ileb haraph). In Numbers 23 7.south "denounce" would be a better tr than "defy" (Ileb ziTtnn).

      DEGENERATE, dr-jon or-at : Only in Jeremiah 2 21, where Judah is compared to a "noble vine" which it "t urncd into the degenerate branches of a foreign vine." It represents Ileb yilrlni = "stray" or "de generate (shoots)," from .si?r="to turn aside," esp. to turn aside from the right path (Gr /n l;r m. lit. "bitterness").

      DEGREE, d-gre (nbrE , ma nldh, "a going up" or "ascent," hence a staircase or ilight of steps: "rank": raireivos, tdjxi/i/ i,^, "low"): By derivation it should mean "a step down" (Lai, r/r, down, gradns, step). It is used, however, of any step, up or down; then of grade or rank, whether high or low. (1) In its literal sense of step (as of a stair), jt, is used in the pi. to translate Ileb ino nlolh ("steps"), in the || passages 2 Kings 209- 1 1 AV (5 1 ); Isaiah 38 8 AV (3 t), where we re;>d of the "degrees" (RV "steps") on the "dial of Aha// (Ileb "steps of Aha/"). See DIAL OF AJIAZ. It, seems to mean steps or progressive movements of the body toward a certain place in the phrase "A Song of Degrees" (RV "Ascents"), which forms the title of each of the Pss 120-34, probably because they were sung on the way up to the great feasts at Jems. See PSALMS. (2) The secondary (but now the more usual) sense of rank, order, grade is found in the following passages : (a) 1 Chronicles 15 18, "their brethren of the second (degree)," lit. "of the seconds" (Hebrews nrisfnntn; cf 2 Chronicles 28 7, "Elkanah that was next to the king," Ileb, "the king s second," i.e. in rank); (b) 1 Chronicles 17 17, "a man of high degree" (Hebrews ma aldh, "stop"); (c) Psalm 62 9, "men of low de gree .... men of high degree," a paraphrase of Hebrews "sons of man .... sons of man," the first

      "man" being Hebrews udhain ("common humanity"; cf Gr dnlhwpos, Lat hotno, Welsh <lyn), anil the second Hebrews Is/i (man in a superior sense; cf Gr anfr, Lai vfr, Welsh gwr)\\\\ (d) "of low degree" for Gr tapeittos in Sir 11 1; Luke 1 ft2;^Jas 1 9; (c) In 1 Tim 3 13 AV "a good degree" (Gr bathmos Av;A5.s, RV "a good standing") is assured to those who have "served well as deacons." Some take this to mean promotion to a higher official position in the church; but it prob ably means simply a position of moral weight and influence in the church gained by faithfulness in service (so Hort). D. MIALL EUWAKDS

      DEGREES, SONGS OF (rYsjnsn -nr, south Mr

      Jut-ma*aloth; LNX u>8^ TWV <xva.pa0fiu>v, ddf- ton ana- bathmon; Vulg cnnlicinn grail mi in, R V "a song of ascents"): The tit lo prefixed to 15 psalms (Pss 120 -34) as to the significance of which there are four views: (1) The Jewish interpretation . According to the Mish, Middolh 2 .5, Xulckak 51/>, there wasin the temple a semicircular flight of stairs with 15 steps which led from the court of the men of Israel down to the court of the women. Upon these stairs the Levites played on musical instruments on the even ing of the first day of Tabernacles. Later Jewish writers say that the 15 psalms derived their title from the 15 steps. (2) Gesenius, Delit/sch and others affirm that those psalms derive their name from the stop-like progressive rhythm of their thoughts. They are called Songs of Degrees be cause they move forward climactically by means of the resumption of the immediately preceding word. But this characteristic is not found in several of the group. (3) Thoodoret and other Fathers explain those 15 hymns as traveling songs of the returning exiles. In E/r 7 9 the return from exile is called "the going up [ha-ma*dldh] from Babylon." Several of the group suit this situation quite well, but others presuppose the temple and its stated services. (4) The most probable view is that the hymns were sung by pilgrim bands on their way to the three great festivals of the Jewish year. The journey to Jerus was called a "going up," whether the worshipper came from north or south, oast or west. All of the songs are suitable for use on such occasions. Hence 1 he title Pilgrim Psalms is pre ferred by many scholars. Sec DIAL OF AHAZ.

      JOMV RiciiAKi) SA.MPEY

      DEHAITES, df-hii lo/ (south Ttt . dehawe ; AV De- havitesj: A people enumerated in E/r 4 9 with Elamites, etc, as among those settled by the Assyr king Osnappar ( Assurbanipal) in Samaria. The identification is uncertain.

      DEHORT, de-hort (diroo-Tpe^xo, aposlrepho; RV DISSUADE): Not found in the Eng. Bible; once only in A poo (1 Alacc 9 9). An obsolete Eng. word; the opposite of "exhort." It means "to dis suade," "to forbid," "to restrain from."

      DEKAR, de kar (1]x* , drlfcr, "lancer"): Father of one of Solomon s commissaries (1 Kings 4 9 AV). See BEN-DEKEK.

      DELAIAH, de-la ya (rpb" , d laijah, "God has raised") :

      (1) A descendant of David (1 Chronicles 3 24; AV "Dalaiah").

      (2) One of David s priests and loader of the 23d course (1 Chronicles 24 IS).

      (3) One of the princes who pleaded with Jehoia- kim not to destroy the roll containing the prophecies of Jeremiah (Jeremiah 36 12. 25).

      (4) The ancestor of a post -exilic family whose genealogy was lost (Ezra 2 GO; Nehemiah 7 G2; 1 Esdras 6 37 in). See DALAX.

      (5) The father of timorous Shemaiah (Nehemiah 6 10).


      Deluge of Noah



      DELAY, de-la : The noun "delay" (Acts 25 17, I made no delay"; AV "without any delay") means "procrastination." The vb. "to delay" (.Exodus 22 2 .); 1HS , dh(ir) involves th(; idea "to stop for a time," the people being admonished not to discont inne a custom. The 1 il. pf. of TITS , bilnh (Exodus 32 1 ), "Moses delayed to come," expresses not, only the fact that he tarried, but also the disappoint ment on the part of the people, being under the impression that lie possibly \\\\vas put to shame and had failed in his mission, which also better explains the consequent action of the people. "To delay" (xpovifa, chron izu) is used transitively in Alt 24 -!south (RV "My lord tarrieth") and in Luke 12 4f>. The meaning here is "to prolong," "to defer."

      A. L. BiiKSLim

      DELECTABLE, de-lek ta-b l (~n , Ijiwrndh, "to desire"): Found only in Isaiah 44 9 AV: "Their delectable t hings shall not profit ," A Vni "desirable." ARV translates: "the things that, they delight in." The reference is to idols or images. Delitzsch renders the phrase: "Their durlt tnj* are good for nothing." The word may be traced back to the Lat dclcctabilis, "pleasant," or "delightful."

      DELICACY, del i-ka-si (TO o-rp-qvos, to strfnos): I ound only in The The Revelation 18 3 AV : "Tin! merchants of the earth are waxed rich through the abundance of her delicacies." RV has very properly changed delicacies to "wantonness," and "luxury" in the margin, which is much nearer to the original.

      DELICATE, del i-kfn, DELICATELY, del i-kat-li ("~ " , *edhen, -**" , *anogh; ev Tpv4>f), i-n trupht ) . "Delicate" usually an adj., but once a subst . (Jeremiah 61 :U AV), "He hath filled his belly [RV "maw ] with my delicates." RV retains the word, but ARV very properly has replaced it with "delicacies." In Sir 30 18, RV (j<illiu, "good things." The adj. seems to have two meanings, though not easily distinguished: (1) tenderly reared, and (2) wanton or voluptuous. In IK 28 >l.f>0; Isaiah 47 1; Jeremiah 6 2, "luxurious" or "daintily bred" would certainly be nearer the original than "delicate." "Delicate children" of Mic 1 10 AV is changed by RV to "children of thy delight," i.e. beloved children, rat her than children begotten in passion. Theadvb. "delicately" is employed in the same sense as the adj. (Lam 4 f>; Luke 7 2.">). In theoldEng. writers "delicate" is often used for voluptuous: "Dives for his delicate life to the devil went " (Piers Plowman). The meaning of "delicately" (maf&dhan) in 1 Samuel 15 32 (AV) is a real puzzle. The A V reads, "And Agag came unto him delicately," with a possible; suggestion of weakness or fear. ARV and RVm substitute "cheerfully." Others, by metathesis or change of consonants in the Ileb word, tr "in bonds" or "fetters." west AY. DAVIES

      DELICIOUSLY, de-lish us-li (o-TpT]viaa>, xtrrniao, "to live hard or wantonly") : "She [Babylon] . . . . lived deliciously" (The The Revelation 18 7.9 AV, RY "wantonly," RVm "luxuriously").

      DELIGHT, de-lit (vb., pEll , hdplicc, ra(;uh, JTTIJ , s/m a ," crwT|5o(, suntdomai) . "To delight" is most frequently expressed by hdpfn r, which means originally "to bend" (cf Job 40 17, "He moveth his tail"), hence, "to incline to," "take pleasure in." It is used of God s pleasure in His people (Xu 14 south; 2 Samuel 22 20; Psalm 18 19, etc), and in righteousness, etc (Isaiah 66 4; Jeremiah 9 24; Mic 7 18, etc), also of man s delight in God and His will (Psalm 40 south; 73 25; AV and RV, "There is none upon earth that I desire besides thee"), and in other objects (Genesis 34 19; 1 Samuel 18 22; Est 2

      14; Isaiah 66 3); ,s7mV, "to stroke," "caress," "be fond of," occurs in Psalm 94 19, "Thy comforts delight my soul"; 119 10.47.70, "1 will delight myself in thy statutes." Similarly, St. Paul says (Romans 7 22), "I delight [mtncdomai} in [m, RV "Gr with"] the law of God after the inward man." This is the only occurrence of the word in the NT.

      "To delight one s self" (in the Lord) is represented chiefly by anagh (Job 22 20; 27 10; Psalm 37 4.11; Isaiah 58 14).

      Delight (noun), chiefly hcp)icc f (1 Samuel 15 22; Psalm 1 2; 16 3), rCu-dn. (Prov 11 1.20; 12 22; 15 8), sha dshtflm (Psalm 119; Prov 8 30. 31). RV has "delight" for "desire" (Xeh 111; Psalm 22 8; 51 10), for "observe," different reading (Prov 23 20), "no delight in" for "smell in" (Am 5 21), "delightest in me" for "favorest me" (Psalm 41 11), "his delight shall be in" (in "Ileb scent ") for "of quick understanding" (Isaiah 11 3).

      The element of joy, of delight in God and His law and will, in the Ileb religion is noteworthy as being something which we are apt to fall beneath even in the clearer light of Christianity.

      YV. L . WALKKR

      DELIGHTSOME, de-lif sum: f EH , hcp/n(;, is rendered "delightsome": Mai 3 12, "Ye shall be a delightsome land," lit. "a land of delight."

      DELILAH, df-ll la (r^~, t Hllnh, "dainty one," perhaps; LXX AaX.ei.8a, Dalciil i, AaXiSa, l)alid(i): The woman who betrayed Samson to the Philis (Judges 16). She was presumably a Phili, though that is not expressly stated. She is not spoken of as Samson s wife, though many have understood the account in that way. The Philis paid her a tremendously high price for her services. The account indicates that for beauty, personal charm, mental ability, self-command, nerve, she was quite a wonderful woman, a woman to be admired for some qualities which she exhibits, even while she is to be utterly disapproved. See SAMSON.


      DELIVER, de-liv er (3$5, nucal, "PI , ndtlttnt; pvoficu, rhiitiHitii, irapaSiScofu, parodidomi) . Occurs very frequently in the OT and represents various Ileb terms. The Eng. word is used in two senses, (1) "to set free," etc, (2) "to give up or over."

      (1) The word most often tr 1 "deliver" in the first sense; is ttd^til, meaning originally, perhaps, "to draw out." It is used of all kinds of deliverance (Genesis 32 11; Psalm 25 20; 143 9, etc; Jeremiah 7 10; E/k 3 19, etc; Zeph 1 IS, etc). The Aram. ?rr;/ occurs in Dnl 3 29; 6 14; 8 4.7; yashu , "to save," in Judges 3 9.31 AV, etc; indlat, "to let or cause to escape," in Isaiah 46 2, "recover," etc. In the NT rliiiditiui, "to rescue," is most frequently tr (i "deliver" in this sense (Matthew 6 13 AV, "Deliver us from evil"); L-(il<n-</t <~>, "to make useless" or "without effect" (Romans 7 6 RV, "discharged"). In the NT "save" takes largely the place of "deliver" in the OT, and the idea is raised to the spiritual and eternal.

      (2) For "deliver" in the sense of "give over, up," etc, the most frequent word is tidlhan, the common word for "to give" (Genesis 32 10; 40 13 AV; Exodus 5 18). Other words are miighan (II os 11 8, AV and ERV "How shall I deliver thee Israel?" i.e. "How shall I give thee up?" as in the first clause of the verse, with a different word [nathan], ARV "How shall I cast thee off?"), if habit, Aram. (Ezra. 5 14). In the NT /KiradiddiHi, "to give over to," is most frequent (Matthew 5 25; 11 27, "All things have been delivered [given or made over] unto me of my Father"; Mark 7 13; Luke 1 2; 1 Tim 1 20, etc); charizomai, "to grant as a favor" (Acts 25 11. 10 AV).



      (3) Yfiladh, "to bring forth," is also rendered "deliver" in the sense of childbirth (den 26 24; Exodus 1 19, ete). In the NT this sense is borne, by TiKTco,nkto(Luke 1 57; 2 6; The The Revelation 12 2.4), and yewdu, gen iido (John 16 21).

      In RV there are many changes, such as, for "de liver," "restore" (den 37 22; 40 13; Exodus 22 2(3; Deuteronomy 24 13); for "delivered," "defended" (1 Chronicles 11 14); for "cannot deliver thee," "neither .... turn thee aside" (Job 36 IS;; for "betray," "betraved" we have "deliver," "delivered up," etc (Matthew 10 4 in; Mark 13 12; 14 l()f; Luke 21 10); for "delivered into chains," "committed to pits" (2 Pet 2 4, m "some ancient authorities read chains"; cf Wisd 17 17); "Deliver us from evil," omitted in Luke 11 4, m "Many ancient authorities add but deliver us from the evil one (or, from evil)." west L. WALKER

      DELOS, de los (AiiXos, l)el<>*): An island, now deserted, one of the Cyclades in the Aegaean Sea, about 3 miles long and 1 mile broad, with a rocky mountain (Cynthus) several hundred feet high in the center. In antiquity Delos enjoyed great prosperity. According to dr legend the island once floated on the surface of the water, until Poseidon fastened it on four diamond pillars for the wandering Leto, who, like lo, was pursued by the vengeful Hera. It was here that Apollo and Artemis were born; hence the island was sacred, and became one of the chief seats of worship of the two deities. Numerous temples embellished Delos. The most magnificent was that of Apollo, which contained a colossal statue of the god, a dedicatory offering of the Naxians. This temple was a sanctuary visited by all the dreeks, who came from far and near to worship at 1 he deity s shrine. There was a Dorian peripteral temple in Delos from the beginning of the 4th cent. BC. To the north was a remarkable altar composed entirely of ox-horns. The various Ionian cities sent sacred embassies (theortai) with rich offerings. There was also a celebrated oracle in Delos which was accounted one of the most trustworthy in the world. Every five years the famous Delian festival was celebrated with prophecies, athletic contests and games of every kind. All the nations of dreece participated.

      The earliest inhabitants of Delos were Carians; but about 1000 BC the island was occupied by lonians. For a long time it enjoyed independence. In 47S Delos was chosen as the place for the con vention of the representatives of the dr states for deliberation about means for defence against Persia. The treasury of the Athenian Confederacy was kept here after 470. The island became independent of Athens in 454. During the 2d and 1st cents. BC it became one of the chief ports of the Aegaean. Tliis was partly due to its location, and partly to the fact that the Romans, after 190 BC, favored the island as a rival to the sea-power of Rhodes. In 106 Delos was given to Athens; the inhabitants fled to Achaea, and the island was colonized by Athenians, together with Romans.

      The ruins of the city of Delos, which became a flourishing commercial port, are to the north of the temple. It became the center of trade between Alexandria and the Black Sea, and was for a long time one of the chief slave markets of the dr world. But Delos received a severe blow, from which it never recovered, in the war between Rome and Mithridates. The hitter s general landed in 88 BC and massacred many, and sold the remainder of the defenceless people, and sacked and destroyed the city together with the temple and its countless treasures. At the conclusion of peace (84) Delos came into the possession of the Romans, who later

      gave it back to Athens. Cnder the Empire the island lost its importance entirely.

      Delos was one of the states to which Rome addressed letters in behalf of the Jews (138-137 BC; see 1 Mace 15 10-23). Among those who came to Delos from the East must, have been many of this nation. Jos cites in full a decree passed in Delos which confirmed the Jewish exemption from military service (Ant, XIV, x, 4).

      The excavations of the French have laid bare 8 temples within the sacred inclosure (Apollo, Artemis, Dionysus). Numerous statues, dating from the earliest times of dr art down to the latest, have been discovered; also 2,000 inscriptions, among which was an inventory of the temple treasure.

      By the side of Delos, across a very narrow strait, lies Rheneia, another island which was the burying- ground of Delos; for on the sacred isle neither births, deaths nor burials were permitted. In 42(i BC Delos was "purified" by the Athenians by the removal of the bodies that had been interred then! previously.

      LITERATUReast Lcbe^ue. l{,;-li,-r,-h, n .titr DSlvfi (Paris, 1S7G); V. v. Schotl er, !)< />.// Insulae rebus, Berliner Stu, lien fiir A /d.s.-. / A/7. i Merlin. ISNUj; Honiolle. south Krinac-h and others, in the Hull, tin ,1, corresp. Ihili-n. (VI. 1-1(17; VII, KW-LT). :iL".i 73; VIII, 75-ir>south; XIV, :is-")ll: XV, 1 13-OSi : llomolle. Archive* tit I intendance sacree a Di-loa; Jebb, Journal of Hellenic Studies ilNSO),

      J. east HARRY DELUGE, del frj, OF NOAH, THE:

      1. The Biblical Account

      _!. " Noah s Lofj Mook"

      :i. The Kgyptian Tradition

      4. The Indian

      5. The Chinese (i. The Greek 7. The British

      south The American Indian Traditions 9. The Babylonian Tradition

      10. Cuneiform Tablets

      11. Was the Flood Universal?

      The means described in den 68 by which the Lord destroyed, on account of their wickedness, all

      the members of the human race except 1. The Noah and his family. According to

      Biblical the account, Noah was warned of the

      Account event 120 years before (den 6 3;

      1 Pet 3 20; 2 Pet 2 5). During all this time lie is said lo have been a "preacher of righteousness" "while the ark was a preparing, "when \\\\\\\\e may well suppose (according to the theory to be presently propounded) the physical events leading up to the final catastrophe may have given point to his preaching. When the catastrophe came, the physical means employed were twofold, namely, the breaking up of the "fountains of the great deep" and the opening of "the windows of heaven" (den 7 11). But the rain is spoken of as continu ing as a main cause only 40 days, while the waters continued to prevail for 150 days (vcr 24), when (8 2.3) "the fountains also of the dee]) and the windows of heaven were stopped, and the rain from heaven was restrained; and the waters returned from off the earth continually," so that after 10 months the ark rested upon "the mountains of Ararat" (not the peak of Mount Ararat, but the highlands of Armenia in the upper part of the valley of the Euphrates and Tigris; see ARARAT). Here it rested 40 days before the water subsided sufficiently to suggest disembarking, when a raven (which could easily find its food on the carcases of the animals which had been destroyed) was sent forth, and did not return (ver 7); but a dove sent out at the same time found no rest and returned empty to the ark (ver 9). After 7 days, however, it was sent out again and returned with a fresh olive leaf (ver 11). After 7 days more the dove was sent



      forth again and did not return. After f>t> days more of waiting Noah and his family departed from the

      ark. The following are the leading 2. "Noah s points in the story which has been Log Book" appropriately styled by Sir William

      Dawson "Noah s log book" (see south east Bishop s art. in Bib. Sac. [H)(W], /510-17, and The The Revelation. Joseph B. Davidson in the author s Scientific Con firmation* of ()T Hixtonj, 1SO-south-4).

      17 All enter (he ark: Cod shuts (In

      Ark floats. Ark sails swillly li 27 Kain stops. Floods keep pouring in ami

      water rising Ill)

      7 17 Ark touches bottom on top of high

      mountains and stays there. Waters

      stop rising. Water stationary 40

      south 27 Waters begin to settle. Settle fifteen

      cubits in 54

      10 1 Ark !"-ft. on dry land. Waters continue

      <o set tie. Noah waits 40

      11 11 Noah sends oat a rav. n. It returns

      not. Waters settle. Noah waits. ... 7 ] 1 IS north(.ah sends out a dove. It returns.

      Wilt ers settle. Noah waits 7

      11 25 Noah sends out dove again. Dove

      brings an olive leaf just grown. Wa ters settle. Noah waits 7

      12 2 Noah sends out (love again. It returns

      not.. Waters settle. Noah waits. . . 2 j

      1 1 Noah removes covering, looks all around.

      No water can be seen, (iround dries

      up. Noah waits 5(>

      2 27 God opens the door, and says. "<;<)

      forth." Total time of flood 370

      It will thus be seen that there is no need of sup posing any duplication and overlapping of accounts in the Bib. story. There 1 is continual progress in the account from beginning to end, with only such repetitions for literary effect as we are familiar with in oriental writings. InCien 6 "> 7 K5 the wicked ness of tlu 1 world is assigned as the reason which prevailed iti the Divine counsels for bringing about the contemplated catastrophe, \\\\\\\\hile emphasizing t he righteousness of Noah which led to his preserva tion, 6 13-21 contains the direction for the making of the ark and of the preparations to bring into it a certain number of animals. This preparation having been made, the order was given (7 1-4) for the embarkation which (ver 5) was duly accom plished. We are then told that Noah and his family, and beasts both clean and unclean, were shut up in the ark during the prevalence of the water and its final subsidence. Altogether the account is most graphic and impressive (see west Jl. (liven, Unity of t/ic Hook of (.Icinsis, <S3fl).

      Compared with other traditions of the Deluge, the Bib. account appears in a most favorable light, while the general prevalence of such traditions strongly confirms the reality of the Bib. story.

      An Egyp legend of the Deluge is referred to in

      Plato s Tini(it:iiN, where the gods are said to have

      purified the earth by a great flood of

      3. The water from which only a few shepherds Egyptian escaped by climbing to the summit of Tradition a high mountain. In the Egyp docu ments themselves, however, we find

      only that Ra the creator, on account of the insolence of man, proceeded to exterminate him by a deluge of blood which ilowed up to lleliopolis, the home of the gods; but the heinousness of the deed so affected him that lie repented and swore never more to destroy mankind.

      In Indian mythology there is no reference to

      the Flood in the Rig \\\\ c<hi, but in the laws of Mann

      we are told that a fish said to Manu,

      4. The "A deluge will sweep all creatures

      Indian away Build a vessel and wor-

      Tradition ship me. When the waters rise enter

      the vessel and I will save thee

      When the Deluge came, he had entered the ves

      sel Manu fastened the cable of the ship

      to the horn of the fish, by which means the latter made it pass over the mountains of the North. The fish said: T have saved thee; fasten the vessel to a tree that the water may not sweep it away while Ihou art in the mountain; and in proportion as the waters decrease, thoti shalt descend. Manu descended with the waters, and this is what is called the Descent of Manu on the mountains of the North. The Deluge had carried away all creatures, and Manu remained alone" (tr (l bv Max MUller).

      The Chinese tradition is embodied in sublime

      language in their book of Li-Ki: "And now the

      pillars of heaven were broken, the

      5. The earth shook to its very foundation; Chinese the sun and the stars changed their Tradition motions; the earth fell to pieces, and

      the waters enclosed within its bosom burst forth with violence, and overflowed. Man having rebelled against heaven, the system of the universe was totally disordered, and the grand har mony of nature destroyed. All these evils arose from man s despising the supreme power of the uni verse. He fixed his looks upon terrestrial objects and loved them to excess, until gradually he became transformed into the objects which lie loved, and celestial reason entirely abandoned him."

      The (ireeks, according to Plutarch, had five

      different traditions of the Deluge, that of Deucalion

      being the most important. Accord-

      6. The ing to this, Prometheus warned his son Greek Deucalion of the flood which Zeus Tradition had resolved to bring upon the earth

      by reason of its wickedness. Accord ingly Deucalion constructed an ark and took refuge in it, but with his vessel was stranded on Mount Parnassus in Thessaly, whereupon they disembarked and repeopled the earth by the fantastic process revealed to them by the goddess Themis of throwing stones about them, those which Deucalion threw becoming men and those 1 which Pyrrha threw becoming women. Lucian s form of the legend, however, is less fantastic and more nearly in line with Sem tradition. In the C.r legend as in the Sem, a dove is sent forth which returns both a first and a second time, its feet being tinged with mud the second time, intimating the abatement of the flood. But neither Homer nor Hesiod have this tradition. Probably it. was borrowed from the Semites or the I lindtis.

      In Britain there is a Druid legend that on account

      of the profligacy of mankind, the Supreme Being

      sent a flood upon the earth when "the

      7. The waves of the sea lifted themselves on British high round the border of Britain. Tradition The rain poured down from heaven

      and the waters covered the earth." But the patriarch, distinguished for his integrity, had been shut tip with a select company in a strong ship which bore them safely upon the summit of the waters (Ed. Da vies in his Mythology and h ilcx of UritMi Druidtt). From these the world was again repeopled. There are various forms of this legend but they all agree in substance.

      Among the American Indians traditions of the Deluge, were found by travelers to be widely dis seminated. Mr. Catlin says, "Among

      8. American the 120 different tribes which I visited Indian in North, South, and Central America, Traditions not a tribe exists that has not related

      to me distinct or vague traditions of such a calamity, in which one, or three, or eight persons were saved above the waters upon the top of a high mountain" (quoted by Wm. Restelle in Hili. Sac. [January, 1907], 1/57). While many, per haps most, of these traditions bear the stamp of



      Christian influence through the early missionaries, the Mexican legend bears evident marks of original ity. According to it the 4th age was one of water, when all men were turned into fishes except Tezpi and his wife Hochiquetzal and their children, who with many animals took refuge in a ship which sailed safely over the tumultuous waters which overwhelmed the earth. When the flood subsided the ship stranded on Mount Cohuaean, whereupon he sent forth a vulture which did not return, and then a humming bird which returned with some leaves in its beak. The Peruvian story differs from this in many particulars. According to it a single man and woman took refuge in a box and floated hundreds of miles from Cuzco to an unknown land where they made clay images of all races, and animated them.

      The Moravian missionary Cranz, in his History of Greenland, says that "the first missionaries among the Greenlanders found a tolerably distinct tra dition of the Deluge" to the effect that "the earth was once tilted over and all men were drowned" except one "who smote afterward upon the ground with a stick and thence came out a woman with whom he peopled the earth again." Moreover, the Greenlanders point to the remains of fishes and bones of a whale on high mountains where men never could have dwelt, as proof that the earth was once flooded. Among the North American Indiana generally legends of the Deluge are so embellished that they become extremely fantastic, but in many of them there are peculiarities which point unques tionably to a common origin of extreme antiquity.

      The unprejudiced reader cannot rise from the study of the subject without agreeing in general with Francois Lenormant, who writes: "As the case now stands, we do not hesitate to declare that, far from being a myth, the Bib. Deluge is a real and historical fact, having, to say the least, left its impress on the ancestors of three races Aryan, or Indo-European, Sem, or Syrio- Arabian, Chamitic, or Kushite that is to say on the three great civi lized races of the ancient world, those which consti tute the higher humanity before the ancestors of these races had as yet separated, and in the part of Asia together inhabited" (Contemporary Review, November, 1879).

      The most instructive of these traditions are those which have come down to us from Babylonia, which until recently were known to us only 9. The through the Cr historian Berosus of

      Babylonian the 4th cent. BC, who narrates that a Tradition great deluge happened at some indefi nite time in the past during the reign of Xisulhrus, son of Ardates. Xisuthrus was warned beforehand by the deity Cronos, and told to build a ship and take with him his friends and relations and all the different animals with all necessary food and trust himself fearlessly to the deep, whereupon he built "a vessel 5 stadia [3,000 ft.] long and 2 stadia [1,200 ft.] broad." After the flood subsided Xisuthrus, like Noah, sent out birds which returned to him again. After waiting some days and sending them out a second time, they returned with their feet tinged with mud. Upon the third trial they returned no more, whereupon they disembarked and Xisuthrus with hia wife, daughter and pilot offered sacrifice to the gods and were translated to live with the gods. It was found that the place where they were was "the land of Armenia," but they were told to return to Baby lon. Berosus concluded his account by saying that "the vessel being thus stranded in Armenia, some part of it yet remains in the Corcyraean mountains."

      An earlier and far more important tradition was found inscribed on cuneiform tablets in Babylonia

      dating from 3000 BC. These were discovered by George Smith in 1870 and filled as many as ISO lines. The human hero of the account , 10. Cune- corresponding to Noah of the Bible iform and Xisuthrus of Berosus, is Gilga-

      Tablets mesh, who lived in Shurippak, a city

      full of violence, on the banks of the Euphrates. He was warned of an approaching flood and exhorted to pull down his house and build a ship and cause "seed of life of every sort to go up into it." The ship, he says, was to be "exact in its dimensions, equal in its breadth and its

      length Its sides were 140 cubits high, the

      border of its top equaled 140 cubits I

      constructed it in 6 stories, dividing it into 7 com partments. Its floors I divided into 9 cham bers I chose a mast (or rudder pole), and

      supplied what was necessary. Six sars of bitumen I poured over the outside; three sars of bitumen over the inside." After embarking, the storm broke with fearful violence and the steering of the ship was handed over to Bezur-Bel, the ship man. But amidst the roll of thunder and the march of mountain waves the helm was wrenched from the pilot s hands and the pouring rain and the lightning flashes dismayed all hearts. "Like a battle charge upon mankind" the water rushed so that the gods even were dismayed at the flood and cowered like dogs, taking refuge in the heaven of Anu while Ishtar screamed like a woman in travail, and repenting of her anger, resolved to save a few and "to give birth to my people" till like "the fry of fishes they fill the sea." The ship was therefore turned to the country of Nizir (Armenia).

      It is worthy of notice that the cuneiform tablet exhibits as much variety of style as does the Bib. account. Plain narrative and rhetorical prose are intermingled in both accounts, a fact which effectually disposes of the critical theory which regards the Bib. account as a clumsy combination made in later times by piecing together two or more independent traditions. Evidently the piecing to gether, if there was any, had been accomplished early in Bab history. See BABYLONIA AND ASSYRIA.

      On comparing the Bib. account with that of the cuneiform tablets, the following similarities and contrasts are brought to light:

      (1) That the cuneiform inscription is from start to finish polytheistic (11. 3-17), whereas the narra tive in Genesis is monotheistic.

      (2) The cuneiform agrees with the Bib. narra tive in making the Deluge a Divine punishment for the wickedness of the world (11. 5, 6).

      (3) The names differ to a degree that is irrecon cilable with our present knowledge.

      (4) The dimensions of the ark as given in Genesis (6 1/J) are reasonable, while those of Berosus and the cuneiform tablets an; unreasonable. Accord ing to Genesis, the ark was 300 cubits (5u 2.! ft.) long, 50 cubits (93 j ft.) wide, and 30 cubits (56 ft.) deep, which are the natural proportions for a ship of that size, being in fact very close to those; of the great steamers which are now r constructed to cross the Atlantic. The "Celtic" of the White Star line, built in 1901, is 700 ft. long, 75 ft. wide and 49 ft. deep. The dimensions of the "Great Eastern," built in 1858 (692 ft. long, 83 ft. broad, and 58 ft, deep), are still closer to those of the ark. The cuneiform tablets represent the length, width and depth each as 140 cubits (2(12 ft.) (11. 22, 23, 38-41), the dimen sions of an entirely unsea worthy structure. Accord ing to Berosus, it was 5 stadia (3,000 ft.) and 2 stadia (1,200ft.) broad; while Origen (A(jainnt Ccl- sus, 4.41), represented it to be 135,000 ft. (25 miles) long, and 3,750 ft. (| mile) wide.

      (5) In the Bib. account, nothing is introduced conflicting with the sublime conception of holiness



      and the peculiar combination of justice and mercy ascribed to God throughout the Bible, and illus trated in the general scheme of providential govern ment manifest in the order of Nature and in history; while, in the cuneiform tablets, the Deluge is occasioned by a quarrel among the gods, and the few survivors escape 1 , not by reason of a merciful plan, but by a mist alee which aroused the anger of Bel (11. 146-50).

      (6) In all the accounts, the ark is represented as floating up stream. According to (Jen, it was not, as is usually tr 1 , on "Mount Ararat" (8 4), but in the "mountains of Ararat," designating an indefinite region in Armenia upon which the ark rested; according to the inscriptions, it was in Ni/cir (11. 115-20), a region which is watered by the Zab and the Tornadus; while, according to Berosus, it was on the Corcyraean Mountains, included in the same indefinite area. In all three cases, its resting-place is in the direction of the headwaters of the Euphrates valley, while the scene of the building is clearly laid in the lower part of the valley.

      (7) Again, in the Bib. narrative, the spread of the water floating the ark is represented to have been occasioned, not so much by the rain which fell, as by the breaking-up of "all the fountains of the great deep" (7 11), which very naturally describes phenomena connected with one of the extensive downward movements of (lie earth s crust with which geology has made us familiar. The sinking of the land below the level of t he ocean is equivalent , in its effects, to the rising of the water above it, and is accurately expressed by the phrases used in the sacred narrative. This appears, not only in the language concerning the breaking-up of the great deep which describes the coming-on of the Flood, but also in the description of its termination, in which it is said, that the "fountains also of the. deep .... wen; stopped, .... and the waters returned from off the earth continually" (8 2.3). Nothing is said of this in the other accounts.

      (8) The cuneiform tablets agree in general with the two other accounts respecting the collecting of the animals for preservation, but differ from Genesis in not mentioning the sevens of clean animals and in including others beside the family of the builder (11. 66-69).

      (9) The cuneiform inscription is peculiar in providing the structure with a mast, and putting it in charge; of a pilot (11. 45, 70, 71).

      (10) The accounts differ decidedly in the dura tion of the Flood. According to the ordinary inter pretation of the Bib. account, the Deluge continued a year and 17 days; whereas, according to the cuneiform tablets, it lasted only 14 days (11. 103- 7, 117-22).

      (11) All accounts agree in sending out birds; but, according to Genesis (8 8) a raven was first sent out, and then in succession two doves (8 8-12); while the cuneiform inscription mentions the dove and the raven in reverse order from Genesis, and adds a swallow (11. 121-30).

      (12) All accounts agree in the building of an altar and offering a sacrifice after leaving the ark. But the cuneiform inscription is overlaid with a poly theistic coloring: "The gods like flies swarmed about the sacrifices" (11. 132-43).

      (13) According to the Bib. account, Noah sur vived the Flood for a long time; whereas Nuh- napishtim and his wife were at once deified and taken to heaven (11. 177-80).

      (14) Both accounts agree in saying that the human race is not again to be destroyed by a flood (Genesis 9 11; 11. 162-6 .)).

      Close inspection of these peculiarities makes it evident that the narrative in Genesis carries upon its face an appearance of reality not found in the other

      accounts. It is scarcely possible that the reason able dimensions of the ark, its floating up stream, and the references to the breaking-up of the foun tains of the great deep should have been hit upon by accident. It is in the highest degree improbable that correct statements of such unobvious facts should be due to the accident of legendary guess work. At the same time, the duration of the Deluge, according to Genesis, affords opportunity for a gradual progress of events which best accords with scientific conceptions of geological movements. If, as the most probable interpretation would imply, the water began to recede after 150 days from the beginning of the Flood and fell 15 cubits in 74 days, that would only be 3j inches per day a rate which would be imperceptible to an ordinary observer. Nor is it necessary to suppose that the entire flooded area was uncovered when Noah disembarked. The emergence of the land may have continued for an indefinite period, permitting the prevailing water to modify the climate of all western and central Asia for many cents. Evidence; that, this was the case will be found in a later paragraph.

      In considering the credibility of the Bib. story we encounter at the outset the question whether the narrative compels us to believe the 11. Was Flood to have been universal. In the Flood answer, it is sufficient to suggest that Universal? since the purpose of the judgment was the destruction of the human race, all the universality which it is necessary to infer from the language would be only such as was sufficient, to accomplish that object. If man was at that time limited to the Euphrates valley, the submergence of that, area would meet all the necessary conditions. Such a limitation is more easily accepted from the fact that general phrases like "Everybody knows," "The whole country was aroused," an; never in literature literally interpreted. When it is said (Genesis 41 54-57) that, the famine was "in all lands," and over "all the face of the earth," and that "all countries came into Egypt .... to buy grain," no one supposes that it is intended to imply that the irrigated plains of Babylonia, from which the patriarchs had emigrated, were suffering from drought like Philestina-Canaan Land (For other examples of the familiar use of this hyperbole, see Deuteronomy 2 25; Job 37 3; Acts 2 25; Romans 1 8.)

      As to the extent to which the human race was spread over the earth at the time of the Flood, two suppositions an; possible. First, that of Hugh Miller (Testimony of the Jtoeks) that, owing to the shortness of the antediluvian chronology, and the violence and moral corruption of the people, popula tion had not spread beyond the boundary of western Asia. An insuperable objection to this theory is that the later discoveries have brought to light remains of prehistoric man from all over the northern hemisphere, showing that long before the time of the Flood he had become widely scattered.

      Another theory, supported by much evidence, is that, in connection with the enormous physical changes in the earth s surface during the closing scenes of the Glacial epoch, man had perished from off the face of the earth except in the valley of the Euphrates, and that the Noachian Deluge is the final catastrophe in that series of destructive events (see ANTKDILI VIA.NS). The facts concerning the Glacial epoch naturally lead up to this conclusion. For during the entire epoch, and esp. at its close, the conditions affecting the level of the land sur faces of the northern hemisphere were extremely abnormal, and continued so until some time after man had appeared on the earth.

      The Glacial epoch followed upon, and probably was a consequence of, an extensive elevation of all the land surfaces of the northern hemisphere at



      the close of the Tertiary period. This elevation was certainly as much as 2,000 ft. over the northern part of the United States, and over Canada and Northern Europe. Snow accumulated over this high land until the ice formed by it was certainly a mile thick, and some of the best authorities say 2, or even 3 miles. The surface over which this was spread amounted to 2,000,000 sq. miles in Europe and 4.000,000 in North America. The total amount of the accumulation would therefore be 6,000,000 cubic miles at the lowest calculation, or twice or three times that amount if the largest- estimates are accepted. (For detailed evidence see Wright, Ice Age in North America, 5th ed.) But in either case the transference of so much weight from the ocean beds to the land surfaces of the northern hemisphere brings into the problem a physical force sufficient to produce incalculable effects. The weight of 6,000,000 cubic miles of ice would be twenty-four thousand million million (24,000,000,000,000,000) tons, which is equal to that of the entire North American continent above sea level. Furthermore this weight was first re moved from the ocean beds, thus disturbing still more the balance of forces which secure the stability of the land. The geological evidence is abundant that in connection with the overloading of the land surfaces in the Northern Hemisphere, and probably by reason of it, the glaciated area and a considerable margin outside of it sank down until it was depressed far below the present level. The post-Glacial depression in North America was certainly 600 ft. below sea level at Montreal, and several hundred feet lower farther north In Sweden the post-Glacial sea beaches show a depres sion of the land 1,000 ft. below the. sea.

      The evidences of a long-continued post-Glacial subsidence of the Aral-Caspian basin and much of the surrounding area is equally conclusive. At Trebizond, on the Black Sea, there is an extensive recent sea beach clinging to the precipitous volcanic mountain back of the city 750 ft. above the present water level. The gravel in this beach is so fresh as to compel a belief in its recent origin, while it cer tainly has been deposited by a body of water stand ing at that elevation after the rock erosion of the region had been almost entirely effected. The deposit is about 100 ft. thick, and extends along the precipitous face of the mountain for a half-mile or more. So extensive is it that it furnishes an attractive building place for a monastery. When the water was high enough to build up this shore line, it would cover all the plains of southern Russia, of Western Siberia and of the Aral-Caspian depres sion in Turkestan. Similar terraces of correspond ing height are reported by competent authorities on the south shore of the Crimea and at Baku, on the Caspian Sea.

      Further and most interesting evidence of this post-Glacial land depression is found in the exist ence of Arctic seal 2,000 miles from the Arctic Ocean in bodies of water as widely separated as the Caspian Sea, the Aral Sea and Lake Baikal. Lake Baikal is now 1,500 ft. above sea level. It is evident, therefore, that there must have been a recent depres sion of the whole area to admit the migration of this species to that distant locality. There are also clear indications of a smaller depression around the eastern shores of the Mediterranean Sea, where there are abandoned sea beaches from 200 to 300 ft. above tide, which abound in species of shells identical with those now living nearby.

      These are found in Egypt, in the valley of the Red Sea, and in the vicinity of Joppa and Beirut. During their formation Asia and Africa must have been separated by a wide stretch of water connect ing the Mediterranean with the Red Sea. The

      effect of such lingering wide expanses of water upon the climate of Western Asia must have been pro found, and would naturally provide those condi tions which would favor the early development of the human race in Armenia (where even now at an elevation of 5,000 ft. the vine is indigenous), from which the second distribution of mankind is said to have taken place.

      Furthermore there is indubitable evidence that the rainfall in central Asia was, at a comparatively recent time, immensely greater than it has been in the historic period, indicating that gradual passage from the conditions connected with the Deluge to those of the present time, at which we have hinted above. At the present time the evapora tion over the Aral Sea is so great that two rivers (the ancient Oxus and the Jaxartes), coming down from the heights of central Asia, each with a volume as great as that of Niagara, do not suffice to cause an overflow into the Caspian Sea. But the exist ence of such an overflow during the prehistoric period is so plain that it has been proposed to utilize its channel (which is a mile wide and as distinctly marked as that of any living stream) for a canal.

      Owing to the comparatively brief duration of the Noachian Deluge proper, we cannot expect to find many positive indications of its occurrence. Nevertheless, Professor Prestwich (than whom there has been no higher geological authority in England during the last cent.) adduces an array of facts relating to Western Europe and the Mediterranean basin which cannot be ignored (see Phil. Trans, of the Koynl tioc. of Lond., CXX1V [1893], 903-84; SCOT, 238-82). Among these evidences one of the most convincing is to be found in the cave of San Ciro at the base of the mountains surrounding the plain of Palermo in Sicily. In this cave there was found an immense mass of the bones of hippo potami of all ages down to the foetus, mingled with a few of the deer, ox and elephant. These were so fresh when discovered that they were cut into ornaments and polished and still retained a con siderable amount of their nitrogenous matter. Twenty tons of these bones \\\\vere shipped for com mercial purposes in the first six months after their discovery. Evidently the animals furnishing these bones had taken refuge in this cave to escape the rising water which had driven them in from the surrounding plains and cooped them up in the amphitheater of mountains during a gradual depression of the land. Similar collections of bones are found in various ossiferous fissures, in England and Western Europe, notably in the Rock of Gibral tar and at Santenay, a few miles south of Chalons in central France, where there is an accumulation of bones in fissures 1,000 ft. above the sea, similar in many respects to that in the cave described at San Ciro, though the bones of hippopotami did not appear in these places; but the bones of wolves, bears, horses and oxen, none of which had been gnawed by carnivora, were indiscriminately com mingled as though swept in by all-pervading cur rents of water. Still further evidence is adduced in the deposits connected with what is called the rubble drift on both sides of the English Channel and on the Jersey Islands. Here in various locali ties, notably at Brighton, England, and near Calais, France, elephant bones and human implements occur beneath deep deposits of unassorted drift, which is not glacial nor the product of limited and local streams of water, but can be accounted for only by general waves of translation produced when the land was being reelevated from beneath the water by a series of such sudden earthquake shocks as cause the tidal waves which are often so destructive.

      _ Thus, while we cannot appeal to geology for direct proof of the Noachian Deluge, recent geologi-



      cal discoveries do show thai such a, catastrophe is perfectly crediNe from a scientific point, of view; and the supposition that there was a universal deviruction of the human race, in the northern hemisphere at least, in connection with (lie floods accompanying the melting off of the glacial ice is supported by a great amount of evidence. Then- was certainly an extensive destruction of animal species associated with man during that period. In Europe the great Irish elk, the nuichairodus, ihe cave lion, the rhinoceros, the hippopotamus and the elephant disappeared with prehistoric man. amid the floods at the close of the dlacial epoch. John North America equally large felines, together with horses, tapirs, llamas, great mastodons and ele phants and the huge megalonyx went to destruction in connection with the same floods that destroyed so large a part of the human race during the dra matic closing scenes of the period. It is, therefore, by no means difficult for an all-round geologist to believe in a final catastrophe such as is described in den. If we disbelieve in the Bib. Deluge it is not because we know too much geology, but too little. dKimcK. FRKDKRICK \\\\VUK;MT

      DELUSION, de-lu /hun: (1) Isaiah 66 4, "I also will choose their delusions" (RVm "mockings" i, lie!) l<i*alt~illni, which occurs only here and Isaiah 3 4 (where it is tr 1 "babes," RYm "childishness"). Its meaning is somewhat ambiguous. The best tr seems to be "wantonness, "caprice." "Their wanton dealing, i.e. that inflicted on them" (lil)ll). Other tr suggested are "insults" (Skinner), "freaks of fortune" (Choyne), "follies" (YY hit chouse). I AX has < >n/>(iir/>n<it(i, "mockings," Vulg illuxio/u x. (2) 2 Thess 2 l l AV, "dod shall send them strong delusion" (]{Y "dod sendeth them a working of error"), TrXd^?;, />l<i//c, "a wandering," "a roaming about," in the XT "error," either of opinion or of conduct. D. Mi ALL, EDWARDS

      DEMAND, de-mand : The peremptory, impera- t ive sense is absent from 1 his word in its occurrences in AV, where it means no more than "ask," "in quire" (cf Fr. iloiKtiuUr) one or the other of which RV substitutes in 2 Samuel 11 7; Alt. 2 4; Luke 311; 17 20; Acts 21 33. RV retains "demand" in Exodus 5 14; Job 38 3; 40 7; 42 4; Dnl 2 27; and inserts it (AY "require") in Nehemiah 5 18.

      DEMAS, de mas (A-qfids, DfindH, "popular"): According to Colossians 4 14; 2 Tim 4 10; 1 hilem ver 24, one who was for a time a "fellow-worker" with Paul at Rome (Colossians, 1 hilem), but at last, "having loved this present world," forsook the apostle and betook himself to Thessalonica (2 Tim). No oilier particulars are given concerning him. See APOSTASY; DKMKTRITS.

      DEMETRIUS, de-mf- tri-us t ArjiiTp-pios, Dunf- triiM, "of" or "belonging to Demeter," an ordinary name in dreece) :

      (1) Demetrius I, surnamed -wr?;p, Sotfr ("sav iour"), was the son of Seleucus IV (Philopator). lie was sent as a boy to Rome, by his father, to servo as a hostage, and remained there quietly dur ing his father s life. He was detained also during the reign of his uncle, A.vnorm s EI-II-HANKS (q.v.) from 175 to Kit IK ; but when Antiochus died De metrius, who was now a young man of 23 (Polyb. xxxi.1 2), chafed at a longer detention, particularly as his cousin, Antiochus Eupator, a boy of 9, suc ceeded to the kingdom with Lysias as his guardian. The Romans Senate, however, refused to listen to his plea for the restoration to Syria, because, as Polyb- ius says, they felt surer of their power over Syria with a men- boy as king.

      In the meantime, a quarrel had arisen between Ptolemy Philometor and Euergetes Physkon (Livy K[>il. 4(>; I )iod. Sic. fr xi), and dnaeus Octavius, who hail been sent to quell the disorder, was assassinated in Syria, while plundering the country. Demetrius, taking advantage of f he t roubled condition of affairs, consulted with his friend Polybius as to the advis ability of attempting to seix.e the throne of Syria (op. cit. xxxi.19). The historian advised him not to stumble twice on the same stone, but to venture something worthy of a king, so after a second un successful appeal to the Senate, Demetrius escaped to Tripolis, and from there advanced to Antioch where he was proclaimed king (102 BC). His first act was to put to death young Antiochus, his cousin, and his minister Lysias (Appian, tii/r., c. 47; Ant, XILx, 1; 1 Mace 7 1-4; 2 Mace 14 1.2).

      As soon as he was established in power, Deme trius made an attempt, to placate the Romans by sending them valuable gifts as well as the assassin of (!n. Octavius (Polyb. xxi.2. j); and he then tried to secure t he I lelleni/ing party by sending his friend BACCHIDES (q.v.) to make the wicked Aleimus high priest . After a violent, struggle and much treachery on the part of Bacchides (Ant, XII, x, 2), the latter left the country, having charged all the people to obey Aleimus, who was protected by an army.

      The Jews under Judas resented his presence, and Judas inflicted severe punishment on all who had gone over to Aleimus (I Mace 7 24). Aleimus, in fear, sent a message for aid to Demetrius, who sent to his assistance- Nicanor, the best disposed and most faithful of his friends, who had accompanied him in his flight from Rome (Ant, XII, x, 4). On his arrival in Judaea, he attempted to win by guile, but Judas saw through his treachery, and Nicanor was forced to fight openlv, suffering two signal defeats, the first at Capharsalama (1 Mace 7 31.32), and the second (in which Nicanor himself was killed), at Adasa (7 39 ff; 2 Mace 15 20 IT).

      In a short while, however, Demetrius, hearing of the death of Nicanor, sent Bacchides and Aleimus into Judaea again (1 Mace 9 1). Judas arose against them with an army of 3,000 men, but when these saw that 20,000 opposed them, the greater part of them deserted, and Judas, wit h an army of SOO, lost his life, like another Leonidas, on the field of battle- (1 Mace 9 4.(i.lS). Then Bacchides took the wicked men and made them lords of the country (I Mace 9 2">); while Jonathan, who was appointed successor to Judas, fled with his friends (1 Mace 9 29 ff).

      During the next seven years, Demetrius succeeded in alienating both the Romans (Polyb. x.xxii.20) and his own people, and AI.EXAXDKR BAF.AS (q.v.) was put forward as a claimant to the throne, his supporters maintaining that he was the son of An tiochus Epiphanos (1 Mace 10 1-21; Ant, XIII, ii, 1-3). Both Alexander and Demetrius made bids for the support of the Jews, the former offering the high-priesthood and the title of King s Friend (1 Mace 10 20), and the latter freedom from taxes, tributes and customs (10 28 ff). Alexander s bait proved more alluring, since the _ Jews "gave no credence" to the words of Demetrius, and with the aid of the Maccabees, he vied with Demetrius for the space of two years for the complete sovereignty of Syria. At the end of this time, a decisive battle took place, in which Demetrius was slain, and Alex ander became king of Syria (150 BC) (10 48-50; Ant, XIII, ii, 4; Polyb. iii.5; see also MACCABEES).

      (2) Demetrius II, surnamed Ni/cdraj/j, Nikdtor ("conqueror"), was the son of Demetrius Soter. When Balas was warring with Demetrius I, he sent his son to a place of safety in Crete. Three years after his father s death (147 BC), the unpopularity of Alexander gave the young man an opportunity



      to return and seize the government. He landed in Cilicia with Cretan mercenaries and secured the support of all Syria with the exception of Judaea (1 Mace 10 67 if). Apollonius, his general, the governor of Coelc-Syria, who essayed the conquest of the Jews, was defeated at Azotus with great loss.

      Ptolemy Philometor, whose daughter was the wife of Alexander Balas, now entered into the struggle, and taking Cleopatra, his daughter, from Alexander, he gave her to Demetrius (11 12). He then joined Demetrius army and the combined forces inflicted a defeat on Balas (145 BC), and from this Demetrius received his surname Nikator (Ant, XIII, iv, 8; 1 Mace 11 14 ff).

      Jonathan now concluded a favorable treaty with Demetrius, whereby three Samaritan provinces were added to Judaea and the whole country was made exempt from tax (1 Mace 11 20-37; Ant, XIII, iv, 9). Demetrius then dismissed his army except the foreigners, thinking himself safe with the loyalty of the Jews assured. In the meantime, Tryphon, one of Balas generals, set up the son of Alexander, Antiochus, as a claimant to the throne, and secured the assistance of the discarded army of Demetrius. Jonathan s aid was sought and he quelled the rebel lion, on condition that the Syrian garrison be re moved from Jerus (1 Mace 11 41-52; Ant, XIII, v, 2-3).

      The king, however, falsified all that he had said, and kept none of his promises, so the Jews, deserting him, took sides with Tryphon and supported the claims of the boy Antiochus (1 Mace 11 53-59; Ant, XIII, v, 5-11). Demetrius generals then entered Syria but were defeated by Jonathan at Hazor (1 "Mace 11 03-74), and by skilful general ship he made futile a second attempt at invasion (12 24 ff).

      Tryphon, who was now master of Syria, broke faith with Jonathan (12 40) and essayed the con quest of Judaea. Jonathan was killed by treachery, and Simon, his successor, made proposals of peace to Demetrius, who agreed to let bygones be bygones (1 Mace 13 30-40; Ant, XIII, vi, 7). Demetrius then left Simon to carry on the war, and set out to Parthia, ostensibly to secure the assistance of the king, Mithridates, against Tryphon (1 Mace 14 1). Here he was captured and imprisoned (14 3; Ant, XIII, v, 11; Jos, however, puts this event in 140 rather than 138 BC).

      After an imprisonment of ten years, he was re leased and resumed the sovereignty 128 BC, but becoming involved in a quarrel with Ptolemy Phy- skon, he was defeated in battle at Damascus. From this place, he fled to Tyre, where he was murdered in 125 BC, according to some, at the instigation of Cleopatra, his wife (Jos, Ant, XIII, ix, 3).

      (3) Demetrius III, Etf/ceupos, Eukairos ("the fortunate"), was the son of Antiochus Grypus, and grandson of Demetrius Nikator. When his father died, civil war arose, in which his two elder brothers lost their lives, while Philip, the third brother, secured part of Syria as his domain. Demetrius then took up his abode in Coele-Syria with Damas cus as his capital (Ant, XIII, xiii, 4; BJ , I, iv, 4).

      W"ar now broke out in Judaea between Alexander Jannaeus and his Pharisee subjects, who invited Demetrius to aid them. Thinking this a good opportunity to extend his realm, he joined the in surgent Jews and together they defeated Jannaeus near Shechern (Ant, XIII, xiv, 1; KJ , I, iv, 5).

      The Jews then deserted Demetrius, and he with drew to Beroea, which was in the possession of his brother Philip. Demetrius besieged him, and Philip summoned the Parthians to his assistance. The tables were turned, and Demetrius, besieged in his camp and starved into submission, was taken prisoner and sent to Arsaces, who held him captive

      until his death (Ant, XIII, xiv, 3). The dates of his reign are not certain. ARTHUR J. KIXSELLA

      DEMETRIUS, de-me tri-us (AT](iT|Tpi.os, Dcniflrios, "belonging to Ceres"): The name of two persons:

      (1) A Christian disciple praised by St. John (3 John ver 12).

      (2) A silversmith of Ephesus who manufactured the little silver shrines of the goddess Diana to sell to the visiting pilgrims (Acts 19 23 ff). Because the teachings of Paul were injuring the trade of the silversmiths, there arose a riot of which Demetrius was the chief. Upon an inscription which Mr. Wood discovered among the ruins of the city, there appeared the name Demetrius, a warden of the Ephesian temple for the year 57 AD, and some authors believe the temple warden to be identical with the ringleader of the rebellion. The name, however, has been most common among the Greeks of every age. Because of its frequent, use it cannot be supposed that Demetrius, the disciple of 3 John ver 12, was the silversmith of Ephesus, nor that Demas of 2 Tim 4 10, who bore the name in a contracted form, may be identified with him.

      east J. BANKS

      DEMON, dc mon, DEMONIAC, dr-md ni-a.k, DEMONOLOGY, de-mon-ol -o-ji (Acunoviov, ilni- iitonion, earlier form 8ai(j.a>v, tln inion =irv0(j.a a.Kd- Oaprov, irovqpov, pncunnt akdtharton, ponerdn, de mon," unclean or evil spirit," incorrectly rendered devil in AV) :

      /. Definition. The word dainwn or daimonion seems originally to have 1 had two closely related meanings; a deity, and a spirit, superhuman but not supernatural. In the former sense the term occurs in the LXX tr of Deuteronomy 32 17; Psalm 106 37; Acts 17 18. The second of these meanings, which involves a general reference to vaguely conceived personal beings akin to men and yet belonging to the unseen realm, leads to the application of the term to the peculiar and restricted class of beings designated "demons" in the NT.

      //. The Origin of Biblical Demonology. An in teresting scheme of development has been suggested (by Baudissin and others) in which Bib. demonism is brought through polytheism into connection with primitive animism.

      A simple criticism of this theory, which is now in

      the ascendant, will serve fittingly to introduce; what

      should be said specifically concerning

      1. The Evo- Bib. demonology. (1) Animism, which lutionary is one branch of that general primitive Theory view of things which is designated as

      spiritism, is the theory that all Nature is alive (see Ladd, I /iil. Rd., I, 89 f) and that, all natural processes are due to the operation of living wills. (2) Polytheism is supposed to be the out come of animism. The vaguely conceived spirits of the earlier conception are advanced to the posi tion of deities with names, fixed characters and specific functions, organized into a pantheon. (3) Bib. demonology is supposed to be due to the solvent of monotheism upon contemporary polytheism. The Hebrews were brought into contact with sur rounding nations, esp. during the Pers, Bab and Gr periods, and monotheism made room for heathen ism by reducing its deities to the dimension of demons. They are not denied all objective reality, but are denied the dignity and prerogatives of deity. The objections to this ingenious theory are too many and too serious to be; overcome. (Ij The

      genetic connection between animism

      2. Objec- and polytheism is not clear. In fact, tions to the the specific religious character of ani- Theory mism is altogether problematical. It.

      belongs to the category of primitive philosophy rather than of religion. It is difficult



      to trace the process by which spirits unnamed and with characteristics of the vaguest become deities esp. is it difficult to understand how certain spirits only are advanced to the standing of deities. More serious still, polytheism and animism have coexisted without close combination or real assimilation (see Sayce, Babylon id ami Axxyria, 232; Rogers, Riliyion of Babylonia and Assyria, 75 f) fora long course oi history.

      It looks as if animism and polytheism had a different raison d etre, origin and development. It is, at least, unsafe to construct a theory on the basis of so insecure a connection. (2) The inter pretation of heathen deities as demons by no means indicates that polytheism is the source of Bib. demonology. On general principles, it seems far more likely that the category of demons was already familiar, and that connection with polytheism brought about an extension of its application. A glance at the OT will show how comparatively slight and unimportant has been the bearing of heathen polytheism upon Bib. thought. The de monology of theOTis confined to the following pas sages: Leviticus 16 21.22; 177; Isal321; 3413; l)t 32 17; Psalm 106 37 (elsewhere commented upon; sec CoMMi Mox WITH DEMONS), (lesenins well says of Leviticus 16 21 that it is "vexed with the nu merous conject ures of interpreters." If the preva lent modern view is accepted we find in it an actual meeting-point of popular superstition and the reli gion of Jeh (sec A/.A/KL). According to Driver (IIDH, I, 207), this item in the Levitical ritual "was intended as a symbolical declaration that the land and the people are now purged from guilt, their sins being handed over to the evil spirit to whom they are held to belong, and whose home is in the desolate wilderness remote from human habitations (ver 22, into a land cut off). A more striking instance could scarcely be sought of the way in which the religion of Jeh kept the popular spiritism at a safe distance. Leviticus 17 7 (see COM.\\\\H \\\\I<>\\\\ WITH DKMOXS) refers to participation in the rites of heathen worship. The two passages Isaiah 13 20.21; 34 13.14 are poetical and really imply nothing as to the writer s own belief. Creatures both seen and unseen supposed 1 inhabit places deserted of man are used, as any poet might use them, to furnish the details for a vivid word-picture of uninhabited solitude. There is no direct evidence that the narrative of the Fall (den 3 1-19) has any connection with demonology (see JI1)B, I, 590 n.), and the suggestion of Whitehouse that the mention of satyrs and night-monsters of current, mythology with such creatures as jackals, etc, im plies "that demons were held to reside more or less in all these animal denizens of the ruined solitude" is clearly fanciful. It is almost startling to find that all that can possibly be affirmed of demonology in the OT is confined to a small group of passages which are eit her legal or poetical and which all furnish examples of the inhibiting power of high religious conceptions upon the minds of a naturally super stitious and imaginative people. Even if we add all the passages in which a real existence seems to be granted to heathen deities (e.g. Numbers 21 29; Isaiah 19 1, etc) and interpret them in the extreme sense, we are still compelled to affirm that evidence is lacking to prove the influence of polytheism in the formation of the Bib. doctrine of demons. (3) This theory breaks down in another still more vital par ticular. The demonology of the Bible is not of kin either with primitive animism or popular Sem de- monism. In what follows we shall address our selves to NT demonology that of the OT being a negligible quantity.

      ///. NT Demonology. The most marked and significant fact of NT demonology is that it provides no materials for a discussion of the nature and char

      acteristics of demons. Whitehouse says (HDB, I, 593) that NT demonology "is in all its broad char acteristics the demonology of the contemporary Judaism stripped of its cruder and exaggerated features." How much short of the whole truth this statement comes will appear later, but as it stands it defines the specific direction of inquiry into the NT treatment of demons; namely, to ex plain its freedom from the crude and exaggerated features of popular demonism. The presence among NT writers of an influence curbing curiosity and restraining the imagination is of all things the most important for us to discover and emphasize. In four of its most vital features the NT attitude on this subject differs from all popular conceptions: (a) in the absence of all imaginative details concern ing demons; (b) in the emphasis placed upon the moral character of demons and their connection with the ethical disorders of the human race; (r) in the absence of confidence in magical methods of any kind in dealing with demons; (d) in its in tense restrictions of the sphere of demoniacal opera tions.

      A brief treatment under each of these heads will serve to present an ordered statement of the most important facts.

      (a) In the NT we are told practically nothing about the origin, nature, characteristics or habits of demons. In a highly figurative passage (Matthew 12 43) Our Lord speaks of demons as passing through "waterless places, and in the story of the Gadarene demoniac (Luke 8 31 j the "abyss" is mentioned as the place of their ultimate detention. The method of their control over human beings is represented in two contrasted ways (cf Mark 1 23 ff; Luke 4 33 ff), indicating that there was no fixed mode of regard ing it. With these three scant items our direct information ceases. We are compelled to infer from the effects given in the limited number of specific instances narrated. And it is worthy of more than passing mention that no theoretical discussion of demons occurs. The center of interest in the (iospels is the person of Jesus, the sufferers and the cures. Interest in the demons as such is absent. Certain passages seem to indicate that the demons were able to speak (see Mark 1 24.26.34; Luke 4 41, etc), but comparing these statements with others (cf Mark 1 23; Luke 8 28) it is seen that no distinction is drawn between the cries of the tormented in the paroxysms of their complaint and the cries attrib uted to the demons themselves. In other particu lars the representation is consistent. The demons belong to the unseen world, they are incapable of manifestation except in the disorders which they cause there are no materializations, no grotesque narratives of appearances and disappearances, no morbid dealing with repulsive details, no license of speculation in the narratives. In contrast with this reticence is not merely the demonology of primi tive people, but also that of the non-canonical Jew ish books. In the Book of En demons are said to be fallen angels, while Jos holds that they are the spirits of the wicked dead. In the _ rabbini cal writings speculation has run riot in discussing the origin, nature and habits of demons. They are represented as the offspring of Adam and Eve in conjunction with male and female spirits, as being themselves sexed and capable of reproduction as well as performing all other physical functions. Details are given of their numbers, haunts and habits, of times and places where they are esp. dangerous, and of ways and methods of breaking their power (see EXORCISM). Full sweep is also given to the imagination in descriptive narratives, oftentimes of the most morbid and unwholesome character, of their doings among men. After read ing some of these narratives one can agree with



      Edersheim when he says, "Greater contrast could scarcely be conceived than between what we read in the NT and the views and practices mentioned in Rabbinic writings" (LTJM, II, 776).

      (b) It is also clearly to be noted that while in its original application the term daimonion is morally indifferent, in NT usage the demon is invariably an ethically evil being. This differentiates the NT treatment from extra-canonical Jewish writings. In the NT demons belong to the kingdom of Satan whose power it is the mission of Christ to destroy. It deepens and intensifies its representations of the earnestness of human life and its moral issues by extending the sphere of moral struggle to the invis ible world. It clearly teaches that the power of Christ extends to the world of evil spirits and that faith in Him is adequate protection against any evils to which men may be exposed. (For significance of this point see Mummer, ,south /. Luke [ICC], 132-33.)

      (c) The NT demonology differs from all others by its negation of the power of magic rites to deliver from the affliction. Magic which is clearly sep arable from religion at that specific point (seeGwat- kin, Knowledge of Cod, I, 249) rests upon and is dependent upon spiritism. The ancient Bab incan tation texts, forming a surprisingly large proportion of the extant documents, are addressed directly to t he supposed activities and powers of demons. These beings, who are not trusted and prayed to in the sense in which deities are, command confidence and call forth prayer, are dealt with by magic rites and formulas (see Rogers, op. cit., 144). Even the Jew ish non-canonical writings contain numerous forms of words and ceremonies for the expulsion of demons. In the NT there is no magic. The deliverance from a (lemon is a spiritual and ethical process (see EXORCISM).

      (<l) In the NT the range of activities attributed to demons is greatly restricted. According to Bab ideas: "These demons were everywhere; they lurked in every corner, watching for their prey. The city streets knew their malevolent presence, the rivers, the seas, the tops of mountains; they appeared sometimes as serpents gliding noiselessly upon their victims, as birds horrid of mien flying resist lessly to destroy or afllict, as beings in human forms, grotesque, malformed, awe-inspiring through their hideousness. To these demons all soils of misfortune were ascribed a toothache, a head ache, a broken bone, a raging fever, an outburst of anger, of jealous} , of incomprehensible disease (Rogers, op. cit., 14")). In the extra-canonical Jewish sources the same exuberance of fancy appears in attributing all kinds of ills of mind and body to innumerable, swarming hosts of demons lying in wait for men and besieging them with attacks and ills of all descriptions. Of this affluence of morbid fancy there is no hint in the NT. A careful analysis of the instances will show the importance of this fact. There are, taking repetitions and all, about 80 references to demons in the NT. In 11 in stances the distinction between demon-possession and diseases ordinarily caused is clearly made (Matthew 4 24; 8 10; 10 8; Mark 1 32.34; 6 13; 16 17. IS; Luke 4 40.41; 9 1; 13 32; Acts 19 12). The results of demon-possession are not exclusively mental or nervous (Matthew 9 32.33; 12 22). They are distinct ly and peculiarly mental in two instances only (Gada- rene maniac, Matthew 8 28 and parallels, and Acts 19 13 f). Epilepsy is specified in one case only (Matthew 17 lo). There is distinction made between demonized and epileptic, and demonized and lunatic (Matthew 4 24). There is distinction made between diseases caused by demons and the same disease not so caused (cf Matthew 12 22; 15 30). In most of the instances no specific symptoms are mentioned. In an equally large proportion, however, there are occasional fits

      of mental excitement often due to the presence and teaching of Christ.

      A summary of the entire material leads to the conclusion that, in the NT cases of demon-possession, we have a specific type of disturbance, Conclusions physical or mental, distinguishable not so much by its symptoms which were often of the most general character, as by its accom paniments. The aura, so to say, which surrounded the patient, served to distinguish his symptoms and to point out the special cause to which his suffering was attributed. Another unique feature of NT de monology should be emphasized. While this group of disorders is attributed to demons, the victims are treated as sick folk and are healed. The whole atmosphere surrounding the narrative of these inci dents is calm, lofty and pervaded with the spirit of Christ. When one remembers t he manifold cruelties inspired by the unreasoning fear of demons, which make the annals of savage medicine a nightmare of unimaginable horrors, we cannot but feel the world wide difference between the Bib. narratives and all others, both of ancient and modern times, with which we are acquainted. Every feature of the NT narratives points to the conclusion that in them we have trustworthy reports of actual cures. This is more important for NT faith than any other con clusion could possibly be.

      It is also evident that Jesus treated these cases of invaded personality, of bondage, of depression, of helpless fear, as due to a real superhuman cause, to meet and overcome which He addressed Himself. The most distinctive and important words we have upon this obscure and difficult subject, upon which we know far too little to speak with any assurance or authority, are these: "This kind can come out by nothing, save by prayer" (Mark 9 29).

      LITERATUReast (1) The most accessible statement of Baudissin s theory is in Whltehouse a art. "Demons," etc, in lllili. (i>) For extra-canonical .Jewish ideas use Lange, A i><>rryjih<i, lis. 1:5-1; Fdersheim, LTJM, Appen dices XIII, XVI. (:i) For spirit-lore in general see Ladd, / A//. !{<[., index s.v., and stand;* rd books on Anthropology and Philosophy of Religion under Spiritism. (\\\\) For Bab demonology see summary in Rogers, Religion of Babylonia and Assyria, 14-1 If.


      DEMOPHON, dem 6-fon (Aiitio4><ov, Dcmophon): A Syrian general in Pal under Antiochus V (Eupa- tor) who continued to harass the Jews after cove nants had been made between Lysias and Judas Maccabaeus (2 Mace 12 2).

      DEN ("ir??, ma* on, np5"52, m ^ondh, habita tion"; rn3T2, m *drdli, and o-ir/jXaiov, sptlaion, "cave"; rn SB, m Ttrdh [Isaiah 11 8], "alight-hole," fr "VIS?, or, "light," perhaps for m e *arah; :JO , sokh [Psalm 10 9 AV], and P12C , sukkah [Job 38 40], "a covert," elsewhere "booth"; D")south, creb/tLJob 37 8], "covert," as in RV; 33i,gobh; cfA.rab.jubb, "pit" [Dnl 6 7]; rVnnSlQ, minharoth, "fissure" or "cleft" [Judges 6 2]): In the limestone mountains of Pal, caves, large and small, are abundant, the calcium carbonate, of which the rock is mainly composed, being dis solved by the water as it trickles over them or through their crevices. Even on the plains, by a similar process, pits or "lime sinks" are formed, which are sometimes used by the Arabs for storing straw 7 or grain. Of this sort may have been the pit, bdr, into which Joseph was cast by his brethren (Genesis 37 20). Caves and crevices and sometimes spaces among piled-tip bowlders at the foot of a cliff or in a stream bed are used as dens by jackals, wolves and other wild animals. Even the people, for longer or shorter periods, have lived as troglodytes. Cf Judges 6 2: "Because of Midian the children of Israel made them the dens [ininhdrdth] which are in the mountains, and the caves [m e *ardh], and the strong-



      holds [m e gadh]." The precipitous sides of the valleys contain many caves converted by a little labor into human habitations. Notable instances are the val ley of the Kidron near Mdr-Sdlxi, and Wddi-ul- IJanidni near the Sea of Tiberias. See CAVK.


      DENARIUS, de-na ri-us (8r]vapi.ov, dcndrion,): A Horn silver coin, 2~> of which went to the aurcux, the standard gold coin of the empire in the time of Augustus, which was equal in value to about one guinea or &f).2~>; more exactly 1 .0.0 = $5. 00, the = $4.866. Hence the value of the denarius

      Denarius of Tiberius.

      would be about 20 cents and this was the ordinary wage of a soldier and a day laborer. The word is uniformlv rendered "pennv" in the AV and "shil ling" in the ARV, except in Alt 22 !<; Mark 12 15 and Luke 20 21, where the Lai word is used, since in these passsages it refers to the coin in which tribute was paid to the Horn government. See MONEY. H. PORTER

      DENOUNCE, de-nouns : Occurs in Deuteronomy 30 IS: "I denounce unto you this day, that ye shall surely perish." It is used here in the obsolete sense of "to declare," to make known in a solemn manner. It is not found in t he Bible with the regular meaning of "to censure," "arraign," etc.

      DENY, de-nl : This word is characteristic of the NT rather than the ( >T, although it translates three different Ileb originals, viz. TTHS , kdhash, "to lie," "disown" (den 18 15; Joshus 24 27; Job 8 IS; 31 2S; Prov 30 <)); " ." , imi\\\\ "to withhold," "keep back" (1 Kings 20 7; Prov 30 7); DIB, shubli, "to turn back," "say no" (1 Kings 2 1(1).

      In the NT, dvTL\\\\tyu, ti/il/lnjil. is once tr 1 " deny," in the case of the Sadducees who denied the resur rection (Luke 20 27 AV), and where it carries the sense of speaking against the doctrine. But the won! commonly is dpv<?o/, arncotnni, with or without the prefix a/>. In the absence of the pre fix the sense is "to disown," but when it is added it means "to disown totally" or to the fullest extent. In the milder sense it is found in Matthew 10 33; 26 70. 72; of Simon Peter, .Mark 14 tis.70 (Acts 3 13.1 I; 2 Tim 2 12.13; 2 Pet 21; 1 John 2 22.23; Jude ,ver -1; The The Revelation 2 13; 3 X). But it is significant that the sterner meaning is associated with Matthew 16 21 and its parallels, where Christ calls upon him who would be His disciple to deny himself and take up his cross and follow Him. See also PETKR, SIMON.


      DEPOSIT, de-poz it (irapae^KT), pnrathtke, 1 Tim 6 20; 2 Tim 1 12.14 RVm, paraphrased in both AV and HV into "that which is committed" [see COMMEND]) : The noun was used in the classical (Ir, just as its Eng. equivalents, for "that which is placed with another for safe keeping," a charge committed to another s hands, consisting often of money or property; ef Exodus 22 7; Leviticus 6 2. This practice was common in days when there were no banks. (1) In 1 Tim 6 20; also 2 Tim 1 11, the reference is to a deposit which Cod makes with man, and for which man is to give a reckoning. The context shows that this deposit is the Christian

      faith, "the pattern of sound words" (2 Tim 1 13), that which is contrasted with the "oppositions of the knowledge which is falsely so called" (1 Tim 6 20). "Keep the talent of the Christian faith safe and undiminished" (Vinccntius Lirenensisj. (2) Iii 2 Tim 1 12, the deposit is one which man makes with God. The key to the meaning of this expres sion is found probably in Psalm 31 5: "Into thy hand I commend my spirit : Thou hast redeemed me," i.e. "All that I am, with all my interests, have been intrusted to Thy safe keeping, and, therefore, I have no anxieties with respect to the future. The day of reckoning, that day, will show how faithful are the hands that hold this trust."

      H. east JACOBS DEPTH. See ABYSS.

      DEPUTY, dep fi-ti: This is the correct rendering of SSI, niggabh (1 Kings 22 47). In hist, 8 <) and 9 3 the term improperly represents ~r>C , xnyhiln, in AV, and is corrected to "governor" in RV . In the NT "deputy" represents d^t /Traros, antfuipatdn (Acts 13 7. s.l 2; 18 12; 19 3S), which RV correctly renders "proconsul" (q.v.). The Romans proconsuls were officers invested \\\\vith consular power over a district outside the city, usually for one year. ( )rigi- nally they were retiring consuls, but after Augustus the title was given to governors of senatorial prov inces, whether they had held the office of consul or not. The proconsul exercised judicial as well as military power in his province, and his authority was absolute, except as he might be held account able at the expiration of his office. See GOVERN MENT. WILLLIAM ARTHTR HEIDEL

      DERBE, dur be lA^pr,, Dcrbc, Acts 14 20.21; 16 1; Aeppcuos, Ihrlxi nix, 234; Aeppr|TT]s, J)crhf l( x, Strabo, Cicero): A city in the extreme southeast corner of the Lycaonian plain is mentioned twice as having been visited by Paul (on his first and second mis sionary journeys respectively), and it may now be regarded as highly probable that he passed through it on his third journey (to the churches of Galatia). The view that these churches were in South Galatia is now accepted by t he ma jority of Eng. and Am. scholars, and a traveler pass ing through the Cilician Gates to Southern Galatia must have traversed the territory of Derbe.

      Derbe is first mentioned as the seat of Antipater, who entertained Cicero, the Romans orator and gov ernor of Cilicia. When the kingdom 1. History of Amyntas passed, at his death in 25 BC, to the Romans, it was made into a province and called Galatia (see GAI.ATIA). This province included Laranda as well as Derbe on the extreme southeast, and for a time Laranda was the frontier city looking toward Cappadocia and Cilicia and Syria via the Cilician Gates. But between 37 and 41 AD Laranda was transferred to the "pro tected" kingdom of Antiochus, and Derbe became the frontier city. It was the last city on distinctively Romans territory, on the road leading from Southern Galatia to the east; it was here that commerce enter ing the province had to pay the customs dues. Strabo records this fact when he calls Derbe a linicn. or "customs station." It owed its importance (and consequently its visit from Paul on his first journey) to this fact, and to its position on a great Romans road leading from Antioch, the capital of Southern Gala tia, to Iconium, Laranda, Heraeleia-Cybistra, and the Cilician Gates. Romans milestones have been found along the line of this road, one at a point 15 miles northwest of Derbe. It was one of those Lycao nian cities honored with the title "Claudian" by the emperor Claudius; its coins bear the legend "Clau- dio-Derbe." This implied considerable importance and prosperity as well as strong pro-Romans feeling;



      yet we do not find Derbe standing aloof, like the Romans coloniae Iconium and Lystra, from the Com mon Council of Lycaonian cities ( Koinon Lyka- onias).

      Derbe remained in the province dalatia till about 135 A I), \\\\vhi-n it passed to the jurisdiction of the triple province Cilieia-lsauria-Lycaonia. It continued in this division till ^ J5 AD, and was then included in the newly formed province Isauria. This arrangement lasted till about 372 AD, when Lycaonia, including Derive, was formed into a separate province. The statement of Stephanos of Byzantium that Derbe was "a fortress of Isauria" originated in the arrangement which existed from 295 to 372 AD. Coins of the city represent Hera cles, Fortuna and a winged Victory writing on a shield (after the pattern of the Venus of Melos, in the Louvre, Paris). Derbe is mentioned several times in the records of the church councils. A bishop, Daphnus of Derbe, was present at the Council of Constantinople in 381.

      The site of Derbe was approximately fixed by the

      American explorer Sterrett, and more accurately by

      Sir west M. Ramsay, who, after care-

      2. Situation fully examining all the ruins in the

      neighborhood, placed it at Gudelisin. Up to 1911, certain epigraphic evidence fixing the site had not been found, but Ramsay s identifica tion meets all the conditions, and cannot be far wrong. On the east, Derbe was conterminous with Laranda, on the northeast with Barata in the Kara Dagh. It bordered on the territory of Iconium on the NAY., and on Isauria on the \\\\Y. Its territory touched the foothills of Taurus on the south, and the site com mands a fine view of the great mountain called Hadji liaha or the Pilgrim Father. The Greeks of the district say that the name is a reminiscence of St. Paul, over whose travels" the mountain "stood as a silent witness."

      The remains are mostly of the late Romans and Byzantine periods, but pottery of an earlier date has been found on the site. An inscription of a village on the territory of Derbe records the erection of a building by two archi tects from Lystra. A line of boundary stones, separating the territory of Derbe from that of Barata, is still stand ing. It probably belongs to an early delimitation of the territory of the frontier town of Cralatia (Ramsay),

      In Acts 14 20.21, it is narrated that Paul and Barnabas, after being driven out of Lystra, de parted to Derbe, where they "preached

      3. Paul at the gospel .... and made many Derbe disciples." But they did not go

      farther. Paul s mission included only the centers of Graeco-Romans civilization; it was no part of his plan to pass over the frontier of the prov ince; into non-Horn territory. This aspect of his purpose is illustrated by the reference to Derbe on his second journey (Acts 16 1). Paul started from Antioch and "went through Syria, and Cilicia, con firming the churches" (15 41). "Then he came to Derbe and Lystra" (16 1 AY). The unwarned reader might forget that in going from Cilicia to Derbe, Paul must have passed through a consider able part, of Antiochus territory, and visited the important cities of Heracleia-Cybistra and Laranda. But his work ends with the Romans Cilicia and begins again with the Horn Galatia; to him, the intervening country is a blank. Concentration of effort, and utilization only of the most fully prepared material wen; the characteristics of Paul s missionary jour neys in Asia Minor. That Paul was successful in Derbe may be gathered (as Ramsay points out) from the fact that he does not mention Derbe among the places where he had suffered persecution (2 Tim 3 11). Gains of Derbe (among others) accom panied Paul to Jems, in charge of the donations of the churches to the poor in that city (Acts 20 4).

      LITERATUReast The only complete account of Derbe is that given in Sir \\\\V. M . Ramsay s Cith-x of St. Paul, 385- 404. On Paul s mission there, see the same author s SI. i u ul tli^ Trarellrr and Hum Citizen, 110, 178. Many inscriptions of the later Kom period are collected in Sterrett, Wolfe eastr i,,-dilion In Axia Minor, Nos. 18-52. The principal ancient authorities, besides Acts, are Ci

      cero Ad Fam. xiii.73; Strabo xxx.569; Ptolemaeus, v.6, 17; Steph. Byz., Hierocl., 075; Notit. Episcop., I, 404, and the Acta Conciliorurn.

      \\\\V. M. CALDER

      DERISION, de--rizh un: Three vbs. are so tr 1 : fib, lu<;, "scorn" (Psalm 119 ,51); 3?b, la ogh, "mock" (2 4; 59 8; Ezekiel 23 32); and prrip , sahak, "laugh at" (Job 30 1; Exodus 32 25m, "a whisper ing"; cf Wisd 5 3). This word is found almost exclusively in the Psalms and Prophets; Jeremiah is fond of it. It, is used both as a subst. and a vb., the latter in the phrase "to have in derision."

      DESCEND, dP-send O1? , yuradh; Kara|3cuvw, katabaino, "go down"); DESCENT, de-sent (KO.TCI- PO.CTI.south, katdbasis) : Of Jeh (Exodus 34 f)) ; of the Spirit (Matthew 3 16); of angels (Genesis 28 12; Alt 28 2; John 1 51); of Christ (1 Thess 4 16; Ephesians 4 9). "He also descended into the lower parts of the earth" is variously interpreted, the two chief interpreta tions being the one of the incarnation, and the other of the "descent into hell" (1 Pet 3 19). The former regards the clause "of the earth," an appositive genitive, as when we speak of "the city of Rome," viz., "the lower parts, i.e. the earth." The other regards the genitive as possessive, or, with Meyer, as governed by the comparative, i.e. "parts lower than the earth." For the former view, see full discussion in Eadie; for the latter, Ellicott and esp. Meyer, in commentaries on Ephesians. H. east JACOBS


      DESCRIBE, de-skiib : This vb., now obsolete, in the sense used in Joshus 18 and Judges 8 14, is a tr of 2P2 , kdthabh, usually rendered "to write" or "inscribe." But in the above passages it has the OE meaning of dividing into parts or into lots, as for example: "Walk through the land, and de scribe it according to their inheritance" (Joshus 18 4); that is, describe in writing the location and size of the several parcels of land thus portioned out. In Judges 8 14 "described" should be tr 1 "wrote down a list of." "Describe" occurs twice in the AY of the NT (Romans 4 6 and 10 5), where Ae 7w, lego, and ypdfiu, gnipho, are, both rendered "describeth." RV corrects both, and substitutes "pronounce! h" in the first and "writeth" in the second passage.

      Description = "list" (1 Esdras 5 39).

      west west DAMES

      DESCRY, do-skri : This word like "describe" came into the Eng. through the Fr. dcscrire (Lat dc- scriberc); it occurs only in the AV of Judges 1 23: "And the house of Joseph sent to descry Bethel." "I^P , tur, the vb. thus tr 1 , signifies "to explore" or "examine," and RV correctly renders "sent to spy out."

      DESERT, dez ert ("aTO, rnidhbar, rQ-]n , l,or- bdh, "pTSp? , y shnnon, PO"}?, *ardbhdh, <"P2, <*lydh, *.r\\\\F\\\\, tohii; epT|[AOs, crcmos, pT)p.ia crc/nia): M i/lh- bdr, the commonest word for "desert," more often rendered "wilderness," is perhaps from r. ddbhar, in the sense of "to drive," i.e. a place for driving or pasturing flocks. Y 1 shim on is from yd- sham, "to be empty"; horbdh (cf Arab, kharib, "to lie waste"; khirbah, "a ruin"; khardb, "devasta tion"), from hdrabh, "to be dry"; cf also *drabh, "to be dry," and *drabhdh, "a desert" or "the Arabah" (see CHAMPAIGN). For ereq giydh (Psalm 63 1; Isaiah 41 IS), "a dry land," cf cl//7m, "wild beasts of the desert" (Isaiah 13 21, etc). Tohu, variously rendered "without form" (Genesis 1 2 AV), "empty space," AV "empty place" (Job 26 7), "waste," AV "nothing" (Job 6 18), "confusion," RVm "wasteness" (Isaiah 24 10 EHV), may be compared with Arab, tdh,

      Desert Destroyer



      "to go astray," at-Tth, "the desert of the wander ing." Li the XT we find crcmox and cn mia: "The child [John] .... was in tlie deserls till the day of his showing unto Israel" (Luke 1 SamuelO:; "Our fathers did eat manna in the desert" (John 6 31 AV).

      In the Desert of Kdom.

      The desert as known to the Israelites was not a waste of sand, as I hose are apt to imagine who have in mind the piet ures of 1 he Sahara. ( Ireat expanses of sand, it is true, are found in Arabia, but the near est one, an- \\\\ uf tld, was several days journey dis tant from the fart lies! southeast reached by the Israelites in their wanderings. Most of the desert of Sinai and of I al is land that needs only water to make it fruitful. I-], of 1 he Jordan, the line between "the desert" and "the sown" lies about along the line of the // ./< : railway. To the \\\\Y. there is barely enough water to support the crops of wheat ; to the K. t here is too lit I le. Near t he line of demarkat ion, Hie yield of wheat depends strictly upon the rain fall. A few inches more or less of rain in 1 he year determines whether (he grain can reach maturity or not. The latent fertility of the desert lands is demonstrated by the season of scant rains, when I hey become carpeted with herbage and flowers. It is marvelous, too, how the camels, sheep and goats, even in the dry season, will find something to crop where the traveler sees nothing but absolute barren ness. The long wandering of the Israelites in "the desert" was made possible by the existence of food for their flocks and herds. Cf I s 65 11.12:

      "Thou crownest the year with thy goodness; And thy paths drop fatness.

      They drop upon (lie pastures of (he wilderness, And the hills are girded with joy";

      and also Joel 2 22: "The pastures of the wilderness do spring."

      The desert" or "the wilderness" (ha-midhbar) usually signifies the desert of the wandering, or the northern part of the Sinaitic Peninsula. Cf Kx 3 1 AV: ; Moses .... led the flock [of Jethro| to the backside of the desert "; Kx 5 3 AY: "Let us go .... three days journey into the desert"; Kx 19 2 AY: "They .... were come to the desert, of Sinai"; Kx 23 31 AY: "I will set thy bounds from the Red Sea even unto the sea of the Philistines, and from the desert unto the river" (Euphrates). Other uncult ivated or past ure regions are known as Wilder ness of Beersheba (den 21 14). west of Judah (Judges 1 10), VY. of Kn-gedi (1 Samuel 24 1), west of dibeon (2 Samuel 2 24), west of Maon (1 Samuel 23 24), west of Da mascus; cf Arab. Badiyet-ush-Sham (1 Kings 19 ]">), etc. Midhbar ytini, "the wilderness of the sea" (Isaiah. 21 1), may perhaps be that, part of Arabia bordering upon the Pers dulf.

      Aside from the towns and fields, practically all the land was midlibdr or "desert," for this term in cluded mountain, plain and valley. The terms,

      "desert of En-gedi," "desert of Maon," etc, do not indicate circumscribed areas, but are applied in a general way to the lands about these places. To obtain water, the shepherds with their flocks traverse long distances to the wells, springs or streams, usu ally arranging to reach the water about the middle of the day and rest about it for an hour or so, taking shelter from the sun in the shadows of the rocks, perhaps under some overhanging ledge.


      DESIRE, dr-/Ir : The vb. "to desire" in the Scriptures usually means "to long for," "to ask for," "to demand," and may be used in a good or bad sense (cf I)t 7 25 AY). RY frequently renders the more literal meaning of the Ileb. Cf Job 20 20, "delight"; Prov 21 20, "precious"; Psalm 40 <>, "delight"; cuYt w, ailed (except Colossians 1 <)), and ffpwrctco, crdliid (except Luke 7 3(>) are rendered "to ask" and p;r<?w, zt tfd, "to seek" (cf Luke 9 9 et al.)- The Ileb TC2 , Av7.w/;//, lit. "to lose in value," is ti- j (Xeph 2 1) by "hath no shame" (KYm "long ing." AY "not desired"). The literal tr "to lose in value," "to degenerate," would be more in har mony with the context than the translations offered. The Ileb """2" , Ininduh (2 Chronicles 21 20, "without be ing desired"), means according to the Aral), "to praise," "to give thanks." The context brings in contrast the burial of the king Jehorain with that of his fathers. _ In the latter case there was "burning," i.e. recognition and praise, but when Jehoram died, there was no hcnidult, i.e. there; was no praise for his services rendered to the kingdom. For "desire" in Keel 12 5, see CAI-KKHEKHY. A. L. BHKSI.ICH

      DESIRE OF ALL NATIONS: This phrase occurs only in Hag 2 7 (AY, KRY "desirable things," ARYm "things desired"), and is commonly applied to i he Messiah.

      At the erection of the temple in K/ra s time, the older men who had seen the more magnificent house of Solomon were disappointed and distressed at the comparison. The prophet, therefore, is directed to encourage them by the assurance that Jeh is with them nevertheless, and in a little while will shake the heavens, the earth, the sea, the dry land and the nations, and "the desire of all nations" shall come, and t he house shall be filled with glory, so t hat "t he later glory of this house shall be greater than the former."

      (1) Many expositors refer the prophecy to the first advent of Christ . The shaking of the heavens, the earth, the sea and the dry land is the figurative setting of the shaking of the nations, while this latter expression refers to those changes of earthly dominion coincident with the overthrow of the Per sians by the dreeks, the d reeks by the Romans, and so on down to the beginning of our era. The house then in process of construction was filled with glory by the later presence of the Messiah, which glory was greater than the Shekinah of Solomon s time. Objections are presented to this view as follows: First, there is the element of time. Five cents., more or less, elapsed between the building of K/ra s temple and the first advent of Christ, and the men of Ezraa s time needed comfort for the present. Then there is the difficulty of associating the physical phenomena with any shaking of the nations occurring at the first advent. Furthermore, in what sense, it is asked, could Christ, when He came, be said to be the desire of all nations? And finally, what comfort would a Jew find in this mag nifying of the Gentiles?

      (2) These difficulties, though not insuperable, lead others to apply the prophecy to the second advent of Christ. The Jews are to be restored to Jerus, and another temple is to be built (Kzk 40- 48). The shaking of the nations and the physical



      phenomena find their fulfilment in the "Great Tribulation" so often spoken of in the OT and The The Revelation, and which is followed by the coming of Christ in glory to set up His kingdom (Mai 3 1; Matthew 24 29. 30 and other places). Some of the difficulties spoken of in the first instance apply here also, but not all of them, while others are common to both interpretations. One such common difficulty is that Ezraa s temple can hardly be identified with that of the time of Herod and Christ, and certainly not with that of Ezekiel; which is met, however, by saying that all the temples, including Solomon s, are treated as but one "house" the house of the Lord, in the religious sense, at least , if not archi tecturally. Another such difficulty touches the question of time, which, whether it includes five centuries or twenty, is met by the principle that to the prophets, "ascending in heart to Clod and the eternity of God, all times and all things of this world are only a mere point." AYhon the precise time of particular events is not revealed, they sometimes describe them as continuous, and sometimes blend two events together, having a near or partial, and also a remote or complete fulfilment. "They saw the future in space rather than in time, or the per spective rather than the actual distance." It is noted that the Lord Jesus so blends together the destruction of Jerus by Titus, AD 70, and the days of the anti-Christ at the end of this age, that it is difficult to separate them, and to say which belongs exclusively to either (Matthew 24). That the words may have an ultimate fulfilment in the second advent of Christ receives strength from a compari son of vs 21 and 22 of the same chapter (ch 2) of Hag with He 12 26.27. The writer of that epistle condenses the two passages in Hag 2 6.7 and 21. 22, implying that it was one and the same shaking, of which the former vs denote the beginning, and the latter the end. The shaking, in other words, began introductory to the first advent and will be finished at the second. Concerning the former, of Matthew 317; 27 51; 28 2; Acts 2 2; 4 31, and concerning the latter, Matthew 24 7; The The Revelation 16 20; 20 11 (Bengel, quoted by Canon Faussett).

      (3) Other expositors seek to cut the Gordian knot by altogether denying the application to the Mes siah, and translating "the desire of all nations" by "the beauty," or "the desirable tilings of all nations," i.e. their precious gifts (see Isaiah 60 5.11; 61 G). This application is defended in the following way: (a) The Hebrews word means the quality and not the ttiint/ desired; (b) the Messiah was not desired by all the nations when He came; (r) the vb. "shall come is pi., which requires the noun to be under stood in the pi., whereas if the Messiah be in tended, the noun is singular; (a 1 ) "The silver is mine," etc (Hag 2 8) accords with the tr "the de sirable things of all nations"; (c) the agreement of the Sept and Syr VSS with such rendering.

      All these arguments, however, can be fairly met by counter-arguments, leaving the reader still in doubt, (a) An abstract noun is often put for the concrete; (b) the result shows that while the Jews rejected Christ, the Gentiles received and hence desired Him; (c) where two nouns stand together after the manner of "the desire" and "nations," the vb. agrees in number sometimes with the latter, even though the former be its nominative; (<1) the 8th ver of the prophecy can be harmonized about as easily with one view as the other; (c) the AV is sustained by the Vulg and early Jewish rabbis.


      DESOLATE, des 6-lat (very frequently in the OT for C12EJ , shamem, and its derivatives; less fre quently, 3 "in , harebh, and its derivatives, and other words. In the NT it stands for

      [Matthew 23 38; Acts 1 20; Galatians 4 27], ercmoo [The The Revelation 17 16], and monoo [1 Tim 5 5]): From Lat dc, intens., solus, alone. Several shades of meaning can be distinguished: (1) Its primary sense is "left lonely," "forlorn," e.g. Psalm 25 16, "Have mercy upon me; for I am desolate" (Hebrews ydhldh, "alone"); 1 Tim 6 5, "she that is a widow indeed, and deso late" (Gr memonomene, "left alone"). (2) In the sense of "laid waste," "destitute of inhabitants," e.g. Jeremiah 4 7, "to make thy land desolate, that thy cities be laid waste, without inhabitant." (3) With the meaning "comfortless," "afflicted," e.g. Psalm 143 4, "My heart within me is desolate." (4) In the sense of "barren," "childless," "unfruitful," e.g. Job 15 34; Isaiah 49 21 (Hebrews >,nlnldh).

      I). Mi ALL EDWARDS


      DESPAIR, de-spar : The subst . only in 2 Corinthians 4 8, "perplexed, but not in [HV "yet not unto"] despair," lit. "being at a loss, but not utterly at a loss." "I nto despair" here conveys the force of the Gr prefix t .r ("utterly," "out and out"). Desperate, in Job 6 26: Isaiah 17 11. In the latter instance, the Hebrews adj. is derived from a vb. = "to be sick," and the lit. rendering would be "incurable" (cf Job 34 6, "my wound is incurable"). Desper ately in Jeremiah 17 9 AY. where the heart is said to be "desperately [i.e. incurably] wicked" or "sick."

      DESPITE, dr-spit , DESPITEFUL, dn-splt fool: "Despite" is from Lat (lcs/>cclun, "a looking down upon." As a noun ( = "contempt") it is now gen erally used in its shortened form, "spite," while the longer form is used as a prep. ( = "in spite of"). In EV it is always a noun. In the OT it translates Hebrews sh f at, in Ezekiel 25 6, and in HV Ezekiel 25 15; 36 5 ("with despite of soul"). In He 10 29 ("hath done despite unto the Spirit of grace") it stands for Gr enubrizo, "to treat with contempt." The adj. "despiteful" occurs in AV E/k 25 15; 36 5; Sir 31 31 ("despiteful words," RV "a word of re proach"); Romans 1 30 (RV "insolent." = Gr hubris- tex, fr huper, "above"; cf Eng. "uppish").


      DESSAU, des 6, des a-u (Aeo-o-aov, Dcssaou [2 Mace 14 16]): RV LESSAT (which see).

      DESTINY, des ti-ni (MENI): A god of Good Luck, possibly the Pleiades. See ASTKOI.OCJY, 10; MENI.

      DESTROYER, de-si roi er: In several passages the word designates a supernatural agent of de struction, or destroying angel, executing Divine judgment. (1) In Exodus 12 23, of the "destroyer" who smote the first-born in Egypt, again referred to under the same title in He il 28 RV (AV "he that destroyed"). (2) In Job 33 22, "the destroy ers" (lit. "they that cause to die") = the angels of death that are ready to take away a man s life during severe illness. No exact || to this is found in the OT. The nearest approach is "the angel that, destroyed the people" by pestilence (2 Samuel 24 16.17 i| 1 Chronicles 21 15.16); the angel that smote the Assyrians (2 Kings 19 35 = Isaiah 37 36 2 Chronicles 32 21); "angels of evil" (Psalm 78 49). (3) In the Apoc, "the destroyer" is once referred to as "the minister of punishment" (RV; lit. "him who was punishing"), who brought death into the world (\\\\\\\\isd 18 22-25). (4) In 1 Corinthians 10 10, "the destroyer" is the angelic agent to whose instrumentality Paul attributes the plague of Numbers 16 46-49.

      In later Jewish theology (the Tgs and Midr), the "destroyer" or "angel of death" appears under the name Sammaol (i.e. the poison of God), who was once an arch angel before the throne of God, and who caused the ser-



      pent to tempi. Kve. According to Debcr, he is not to he distinguished from Satan. The ehief distinction hetween the " destroyer" of early thought and the Sam- mael of later Judaism is that the former was regarded as (lie emissary of Jell, and subservient to His will, and sometimes was not clearly distinguished from Jeh Him self, whereas the latter was regarded as a perfectly dis tinct individuality, acting in independence or semi-inde- pendence. ami from purely malicious and evil motives. The change was largely due to the influence of Pers dual ism, which made good and evil to he independent powers.

      D. All ALL EDWARDS

      DESTRUCTION, d5-struk shun: In AV this \\\\vord translates over 30 Hch words in the OT, and 4 words in (lie NT. Of these (he most interesting, as having a technical sense, is alt/tadiion (from vh. /lli/idilfi, "to he lost," to perish")- It is found 6 t in (he Wisdom Literature, and nowhere else in (he OT; of The The Revelation 9 11. See ABADDOX.


      DETERMINATE, de-tur mi-na( (tbpio-fu vos, horis-

      menus, "determined," "fixed"): Only in Acts 2 12:5, "by (lie determinate counsel and foreknowledge of (!od." (!r hurixiiH ttoK, 1 r liorho, "to sei bound aries," "determine." "settle" (cf Eng. word "hori zon" lit. "that which bounds"). It is remarkable that Pet or in one and the same sentence speaks of (he death of Christ from (wo quite distinct points of view. (1) From the historical standpoint, it was a crime perpetrated by men who wore morally responsible for their deed ("him .... ye by the hand of lawless men did crucify and slay"). (2) From the standpoint of Divine teleology, it was part of an eternal plan ("by the determinate," etc). No effort is made to demonstrate the logical con sistency of the (wo ideas. They represent (wo as pects of the one fact. The same (!r word is used in Luke 22 22, whore Christ speaks of His betrayal as taking place "as it was [RV "hath boon"] deter mined" (k<itd to hdrism&nori) . Cf Luke 24 20.


      (1) "To resolve," "decide." This is the primary moaning of the word and it is also (lie one that is the most common. In the NT (ho (ir word KP IVU, kr ind, is tr 1 "determine," and it has (he above mean ing (Acts 20 Ki; 25 2f>; 1 Corinthians 2 2). The word occurs froquentlv in the OT with this meaning (see Exodus 21 22; 1 Samuel 20 7.9.33).

      (2) "To dec-roe," "ordain," "mark out." The Clr word that is rendered "determine" with this meaning is hnr izi~>. See DKTKHMI. \\\\.\\\\TK.

      The Hob term Ijdruq is tr 1 "determine" with (he above moaning; as "his days are determined" (Job 14 .")); "a destruction Is determined" (Isaiah 10 22); "desolations are determined" (Dnl 9 26). The Hob term inixhput, which means "judgment" or "sentence," is tr 1 "determination" in Zeph 3 8.

      A. west FORTUNE .

      DETESTABLE, dcMcs ta-b l, THINGS (f^TO, ,s7/i/,-/,-/7e; f "$ , shckee, synonymous with FD5HP , /r/r/)//r7//, "abomination," "abominable thing") : The tr of alnkkiic im in Jeremiah 16 18; E/k 6 11; 7 20; 11 18.21; 37 23; a term always applied to idol-worship or to objects connected with idolatry; often also tr 1 "abomination," as in 1 Kings 11 5.7 (6is); Jeremiah 4 1; Ezekiel 20 7.8.30. McA-co, tr 1 "abomination," is applied in the Scriptures to (hat which is ceremoni ally unclean (Leviticus 7 21), creatures forbidden as food, as water animals without fins or scales (11 10- 12), birds of prey and the like (ver 18), winged creeping things (vs 20.23), creeping vermin (vs 41 f). Cf also Isaiah 66 17. By partaking of the food of the animals in question one makes himself detestable (Leviticus 11 43; 20 25). Similarly the idolatrous ap

      purtenances are to be held in detestation; nothing of the kind should be appropriated for private use (Deuteronomy 7 26). See ABOMINATION.


      DEUEL, clu el, do-u ol (3K13H, d^il el, "knowl edge of Clod"): A Gadife, the father of Eliasaph, the representative of the tribe of (lad in the census- taking (Numbers 1 14), in making the offering of the tribe at the dedication of the altar (7 42.47), and as leader of the host of the tribe of the children of Cad in the wilderness (10 20). Called Reuel in Numbers 2 14, "I (d) being confused with 1 (r).

      DEUTERO-CANONICAL, du-ter-o-ka-non i-kal, BOOKS: A term somelimos used to designate certain books, which by the Council of Trent wore included in the OT, but. which the Protestant churches designated as apocryphal (see APOCRY PHA), and also certain books of the NT which for a long time were not accepted by the whole church as Scripture. Webster says the term pertains to "a second Canon or ecclesiastical writing of inferior authority," and the history of (hose books shows that (hoy wore all at times regarded by a part of the church as being inferior to the others and some of them are so regarded today. This second Canon includes Tob, J(h, Wisd, Eeolus, 2 Esdras, 1 Mace and 2 Mace of the OT, and He, Jas, 2 Pet, 2 John, 3 John, Jude and The The Revelation of the NT.

      The OT books under consideration wore not in the Hob Canon and they were originally designated as apocryphal. The LXN contained 1. The OT many of (he apoc books, and among Books those wore most of those which we

      have designated doutero-eanonioal. The LXX was perhaps (he (ir Bible of NT times and it continued to be the OT of the early church, and hence (hose books wore widely distributed. It seems, however, that they did not continue to hold their place along with the other books, for Athana- sius, bishop of Alex, in his F< still Epixllc in 367 gave a list of the books of the Bible which wore to be read, and at the close of this list he said: "There are also other books besides those, not, canonized, yet _ set by the Fathers to be read to those who have; just, come up and who wish to be informed as to the word of godliness: Wisd, Sir, Est, Jth, Tob, the so-called Teaching of the Apos, and the Shepherd of Hernias." Jerome also made a distinction between the apoc 1 looks and the others. In his Preface, after enu merating the books contained in the Hob Canon, he adds: "This prologue I write as a preface to the books (o bo translated by us from the He!) into Lat, that we may know that all the books which are not of this number are apoc; therefore Wisd, which is commonly ascribed to Solomon as its author, and the book of Jesus the son of Sir, Jth, Tob and the Shop are not in (he Canon." Rufinus made the same distinction as did Jerome. He declared that "these books arc; not canonical, but have been called by our forefathers ecclesiastical." Augustine in cluded these books in his list which he published in 3 ( .)7. He begins the list thus: "The entire canon of Scripture is comprised in these books." Then fol lows a list of the books which includes Tob, Jth, 1 Mace, 2 Mace, 2 Esdras, Wisd and Ecclus, and it closes with these words: "In these 44 books is com prised all the authority of (he OT." Inasmuch as these books were regarded by the church at large as ecclesiastical and helpful, and Augustine had given (hem canonical sanction, they rapidly gained in favor and most of them are found in the great MSS. See CANON OF THK OT.

      It is not probable that (here was any general counc-il of (he church in (hose: early centuries that, set apart the various books of the NT and canon ized them as Scripture for the whole church. There



      was no single historical event, which brought to gether the NT books which were everywhere to be

      regarded as Scripture. These books 2. The NT did not make the same progress in the Books various provinces and churches. A

      careful study of conditions reveals the fact that there was no uniform NT canon in the church during at least the first 3 cents. The Ethi- opic church, for example, had 35 books in its NT, while the Syrian church had only 22 books.

      From an* early date the churches were practi cally agreed on those books which are sometimes designated as the protocanonical, and which Euse- bius designated as the homologoumena. They differed, however, in regard to the 7 disputed books which form a part of the so-called deutero-canon, and which Eusebius designated as the antilegomena. They also differed in regard to other ecclesiastical writings, for there was no fixed line between canoni cal and non-canonical books. \\\\Yhile there was perhaps no council of the church that had passed on the books and declared them canonical, it is un doubtedly true that before the close of the 2d cent, all the books that arc in our NT, with the exception of those under consideration, had become recognized as Scripture in all orthodox churches.

      The history of these seven books reveals the fact that although some of them were early used by the Fathers, they afterward fell into disfavor. That is esp. true of Ho "and The The Revelation. Generally speaking, it can be said that at the close of the 2d cent, the 7 books under consider ation had failed to receive any such general recognition as had the rest ; however, all, with perhaps the exception of 2 Pet had been used by some of the Fathers. He was freely attested by dement of Rome and Justin Martyr; .las by Hernias and probably by Clem of Home; 2 John, :i .In and Judo by the Muratorian Fragment; The The Revelation by Hernias and Justin Martyr who names John as its author. See CANON OF THE XT.

      Jerome, who prepared the Vulg in the closing years of the 4th cent., accepted all 7 of the doubtful books, yet he held that 2 John and 3 John were written by the Presbyter, and he intimated that 2 Pet and Jiide were st ill rejected by some, and he said the Latins did not receive He among the canonical Scriptures, neither did the Gr churches receive The The Revelation. Augustine, who was one of the great leaders during the last part of the 4th cent, and the first part of the 5th, accepted without question the 7 disputed books. These books had gradually gained in favor and the position of Jerome and Augustine practically set tled their canonicity for the orthodox churches. The Council of Carthage, held in 397, adopted the catalogue of Augustine. This catalogue contained all the disputed books both of the NT and the OT.

      Since the Reformation. The Canon of Augustine became the Canon of the majority of the churches and the OT books which he accepted were added to the Vulg, but there were some who still held to the Canon of Jerome. The awakening of the Reformation inevitably led to a reinvestigation of the Canon, since the Bible wa;j made the source of authority, and some of the disputed books of the NT were again questioned by the Reformers. The position given the Bible by the Reformers led the Romans church to reaffirm its sanction and definitely to fix t he books that should be accepted. Accordingly the Council of Trent, which convened in 1546, made the Canon of Augustine, which included the 7 apoc books of the OT, and the 7 disputed books of the NT, the Canon of the church, and it pronounced a curse upon those who did not receive these books. The Protestants at first followed the example of Rome and adopted these books which had long had the sanction of usage as their Bible. Gradually, however, the questioned books of the OT were sepa rated from the others. That was true in Cover- dale s tr, and in Matthew s Bible they were not only separated from the others but they were prefaced

      with the words, "the volume of the book called Hagiogrupha." In Craniner s Bible, Flagiographa was changed into Apoc, and this passed through the succeeding ed into the AV. A. west FORTI-NE

      DEUTERONOMY, du-ter-on 6-mi:

      1. Name

      2. What Deuteronomy Is

      3. Analysis

      4. Ruling Ideas

      5. Unity

      0. Authorship

      7. Deuteronomy Spoken Twice

      8. Deuteronomy s Influence in Israel s History

      9. The Critical Theory LITERATURE

      In Hebrews D nittn H>X , click ha-t! l>h(inm, "these

      are the words"; in Gr, Aeurepo^o/xtov, Deiitcronomion,

      "second law"; whence the Lat <lcntcm-

      1. Name nomii, and the Eng. Deuteronomy.

      The Gr title is due to a mistrans lation by the Sept of the clause in Deuteronomy 17 IS ren dered, "and he shall write for himself this repetition of the law." The Ileb really means "and he shall write out for himself a copy of this law." However, the error on which the Eng. title rests is not serious, as Deuteronomy is in a very true sense a repetition of the law. Deuteronomy is the last of the five books of the Pent, or "five-fifths of the Law." It possesses an indi viduality and impressiveness of its

      2. What own. In Exodus-Numbers Jeh is represented Deuteronomy Is as speaking unto Moses, whereas in

      Deuteronomy, Moses is represented as speaking at Jeh s command to Israel (1 1-4; 5 1 ; 29 1). It is a hortatory recapitulation of various addresses delivered at various times and places in the desert wanderings a sort of homily on the constitution, the essence or gist of Moses instructions to Israel during the forty years of their desert experience. It is "a Book of Reviews"; a tr of Israel s redemp tive history into living principles^ not so much a history as a commentary. There is much of re^tro- spect in it, but its main outlook is forward. The rabbins speak of it as "the Book of Reproofs." _ It is the text of all prophecy; a manual of evangelical oratory; possessing "all the warmth of a St. Ber nard, the flaming zeal of a Savonarola, and t he tender, gracious sympathy of a St . Francis of Assisi." The author s interest is entirely moral. His one supreme purpose is to arouse Israel s loyalty to Jeh and to His revealed law. Taken as a whole the book is an exposit ion of the great commandment , "Thou shalt love Jeh thy Ciod with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy might." It was from Deuteronomy Jesus summarized the whole of the Old Covenant in a single sentence (Matthew 22 37; cf Deuteronomy 6 5), and from it He drew His weapons with which to vanquish the tempter (Matthew 4 4.7.10; cf Deuteronomy 8 3; 6 16.13).

      Deuteronomy is composed of three discourses, followed by three short appendices: (1) 1 14 43, historical;

      a review of God s dealings with Israel, 3. Analysis specifying in great detail where and

      when delivered (1 1-5), recounting in broad oratorical outlines the chief events in the nation s experience from Horeb to Moab (1 (5

      3 29), on which the author bases an earnest appeal to the people to be faithful and obedient, and in par ticular to keep clear of all possible idolatry (4 1-40). Appended to this first discourse is a brief note (vs 41-43) concerning Moses appointment of three cities of refuge on the east side of the Jordan. (2)

      4 4426 19, hortatory and legal; introduced by a superscription (4 44-49), and consisting of a resume of Israel s moral and civil statutes, testimonies and judgments. Analyzed in greater detail, this second discourse is composed of two main sections: (a) chs 5-11, an extended exposition of the Ten Com mandments on which the theocracy was based;



      chs 12-26, ;i code of special statutes concerning worship, purity, tit lies, the three annual feasts, the administration of justice, kings, priests, prophets, war, and the private and social life of the people. The spirit of this discourse is most ethical and reli gious. The tone is that of a father no less than that of a legislator. A spirit of humanity pervades the entire discourse. Holiness is its ideal. (3) 27 1 31 30, predictive and minatory; the subject of this third discourse being "the blessings of obe dience and t hi curses of disobedience." This section begins with directions to inscribe these laws on plastered stones to be set upon Alt. Ebal (27 1-10), to be ratified by an antiphonal ritual of blessings and cursings from the two adjacent mountains, Gerizim and Ebal (vs 11-20). These are followed by solemn warnings against disobedience (28 1 29 1), and fresh exhortations to accept the terms of the new covenant made in Moab. and to choose between life and death (292-3020). Moses farewell charge to Israel and his formal commission of Joshua close the discourse (ch 31). The section is filled with predictions, which were woefully veri fied in Israel s later history. The three appendices, spoken of above, close the book: (a) Aloses Song (ch 32), which the great Lawgiver taught the peo ple (the Law was given to the />r/< north/north, 31 24-27); (l>) Moses Blessing (ch 33), which forecast the future for the various tribes (Simeon only being omitted); (c) a brief account of Aloses death and burial (ch 34) with a noble panegyric on him as the greatest prophet Israel ever had. Thus closes tliis majestic and marvelously interesting and prac tical book. Its keyword is "possess"; its central thought is ( Jeh has chosen Israel, let Israel choose Jeh."

      The great central thought of Dl is the unique relation which Jeh as a unique God sustains to

      Israel as a unique people. "Hear () 4. Ruling Israel; Jeh our God is one Jeh." The Ideas monotheism of I)t is very explicit.

      Following from this, as a necessary corollary almost , is the other great teaching of the book, t he unity of the sanctuary. The motto of the book might be said to be, "One Clod, one sanctuary."

      (1) Jehovah, a unique god. Jeh is the only God, "There is none else besides him" (4 35.39; 6 4; 32 39). "He is Cod of gods, and Lord of lords" (10 17), "the living God" (6 20), "the faithful Cod, who keepeth covenant and lovingkindness with them that love him and keep his commandments" (7 9), who abominates graven images and every species of idolatry (7 25.20; 12 31; 13 14; 18 12; 20 IS; 27 15), to whom belong the heavens and the earth (10 14), who rules over all the nations (7 19), whose relation to Israel is near and personal (28 f)south), even that of a Father (32 0), whose being is spiritual (4 12.1")), and whose name is "Rock" (32 Being such a Cod, He is jeal ous of all rivals (7 4; 29 24-20; 31 10.17), and hence all temptations to idolatry must be utterly removed from the land, the Canaanites must be completely exterminated and all their altars, pillars, Asherim and images destroyed (7 1-5.10; 20 10-18; 12 2.3).

      (2) Israel, a unique people. The old Israel had become unique through the covenant which Jeh made with them at Horeb, creating out of them "a king dom of priests, and a holy nation" (Exodus 19 0). The nor Israel who had been born in the desert were to inherit the blessings vouchsafed to their fathers, through the covenant just now being made in Aloab (Deuteronomy 26 10-19; 27 9; 29 1; 5 2.3). Uy_means of it they became the heirs of all the promises given unto their fathers the patriarchs (4 31; 7 12; 8 18; 29 13); they too became holy and peculiar, and especially beloved of Jeh (7 0; 14 2.21; 26 18.19;

      28 9; 4 37), disciplined, indeed, but, for their own good (8, to be established as a people, a. Jeh s peculiar lot and inheritance (32 0.9; 4 7).

      (3) The relation heltreen Jehovah and Israel a unique relation. Other nations feared their deities; Israel was expected not only to fear Jeh but to love Him and cleave to Him (4 10; 5 29; 6 5; 10 12. 20; 11 1.13.22; 13 3.4; 17 19; 19 9; 28 58; 300.10.20; 31 12.13). The highest privileges are theirs because they are partakers of the covenant blessings; all others are strangers and foreigners, except they be admitted into Israel by special per mission (23 1-south).

      The essential unity of the great kernel of Deuteronomy

      (chs 5-26) is recognized and freely allowed by

      nearly everyone (e.g. Kautzsch, Kue-

      5. Unity nen, Dillmann, Driver). Some would

      even defend the unity of the whole of chs 1-26 (Knobel, Graf, Kosters, Colenso, Kleinert). No other book of the OT, unless it be the prophecies of Ezekiel, bears such unmistakable; signs of unity in aim, language and thought. "The literary style of Deuteronomy," says Driver, "is very marked and indi vidual; in his command of a chaste, yet warm and persuasive eloquence, the author of Deuteronomy stands unique among the writers of the OT" (Deuteronomy, Ixxvii, Ixxxviii). Many striking expressions characterize the style of this wonderful book of oratory: e.g. "cause to inherit"; "Hear O Israel"; the oft- repeated root, meaning in the Kal vb. -species "learn," and in the Piel vb. -species "leach"; "be willing"; "so shalt thou exterminate the evil from thy midst"; "as at this day"; "that it may be well with thee"; "the land whither thou goest in to possess it"; "with all thy heart and with all thy soul"; and many others, all of which occur fre quently in Deuteronomy and rarely elsewhere in theOT, thus binding, so far as style can, the different sections of the book into one solid unit. Barring various titles and editorial additions (1 1-5; 4 44-49;

      29 1; 33; 34 1) and a few archaeological notes such as 2 10-12.20-23; 3 9.11.14; 10 0-9, and of course the last chapter, which gives an account of Aloses deal h, there is every reason necessary for supposing that the book is a unit. Few writings in the entire field of literature have so clear a unity of purpose or so uniform a style of address.

      There is one passage bearing upon the authorship

      of Deuteronomy wherein it is stated most explicitly that Aloses

      wrote "this law." It reads, "And

      6. Author- Moses wrote; this law, and delivered ship it unto the priests the sons of Levi.

      .... And it came to pass, when Moses had made an end of writing the words of this law in a book, until they were finished (i.e. to the end], that Aloses commanded the Levites, that bare the ark of the covenant of Jeh, saying, Take this book of the law, and put it by the side of the ark of the covenant of Jeh your God, that it may be then; for a witness against thee" (Deuteronomy 31 9.24- 27) . This passage is of more t han 1 radit ional value, and should not be ignored as is so often done (e.g. by Kyle, art. "Deuteronomy," IIDB). It is not enough to say that Aloses was the great fountain-head of Hebrews law, that he gave oral but not written statutes, or, that Aloses was only the traditional source of these statutes. For it is distinctly and emphat it-ally stated that "Moses wrote this law." And it is further declared (31 22) that "Aloses wrote this song," contained in ch 32. Now, these statements are either true, or they are false. There is no es cape. The authorship of no other book in the OT is so explicitly emphasized. The present writer believes that Moses actually wrote the great body of Deuteronomy, and for the following general reasons:

      (1) Deuteronomy as a whole is eminently appropriate to what we know of Moses times. It closes most fittingly



      the formative period of Israel s history. The his torical situation from first to last is that of Moses. The references to foreign neighbors Egypt , Canaan, Ainalek, Ammon, Moab, Edom are in every case to those who nourished in Moses own times. As a law book its teaching is based upon the Ten Com mandments. If Moses gave the Ten Command ments, then surely he may have written the Book of Deuteronomy also. Besides, the Code of Hammurabi, which antedates Moses by at least 700 years, makes it possible certainly that Moses also left laws in codified or written form.

      (2) Deuteronomy is represented as einnmdiiKj from Moses. The language is language put into Moses mouth. Nearly forty times his name occurs, and in the ma jority of instances as the authoritative! author of the subject-matter. The first person is used pre dominatingly throughout: T commanded Joshua at that time" (3 21); and "1 charged your judges at that time" (1 10); "And I commanded you at that time" (ver 18); "I have led you forty years in the wilderness" (29 5). "The language surely purports to come from Mo^es; and if it was not actually used by him, it is a most remarkable case of impersonation, if not of literary forgery, for the writer represents himself as reproducing, not what Moses might have said, but the exact words of Moses" (Zerbe, The Antiquity of Ilcb \\\\Vritiinj and Lit., 1911, 261).

      (3) Deuteronomy is a military Into liook, a code of conquest, a book of exhortation. \\\\\\\\! was intended primarily neither for Israel in the desert nor for Israel settled in Canaan, but for Israel on the borderland, eager for conquest. It is expressly stated that Moses taught Israel these statutes and judgments in order that they should obey them in the land which they were about to enter (4 .5.11; 5 31). Thev must expel the aborigines (7 1; 9 1-5; 20 17; * 31 3), but in their warfare they must observe certain laws in keeping with the theocracy (20 1 20; 23 9-14; 21 10-14; 31 6.7), and, when they have finally dis possessed their enemies, they must settle down to agricultural life and live no longer as nomads but as citizens of a civilized land (19 11; 22 8 10; 24 19-21). All these laws arc regulations which should become binding in the future only (cf Kittel, His tory of the Hcbri-u-s, 1,32). Coupled with them are prophetic exhortations which seem to be genuine, and to have had their birth in Moses soul. Indeed the great outstanding feature of Deuteronomy is its parenetic or hortatory character. Its exhortations have not only a military ring as though written on the eve of battle, but again and again warn Israel against allowing themselves to be conquered in religion through the seductions of idolatry. The book in short is the message of one who is interested in Israel s political and religious future. There is a paternal vein running throughout it which marks it with a genuine Mosaic, not a merely fictitious or artificial, stamp. It is these; general features, so characteristic of the entire book, which compel one to believe; in its Mosaic authorship.

      Certain literary features exist in Deuteronomy whie h le ael the present writer to think that the bulk of the {tool;

      was spoken; one-e, 1e> the 1 first 7. Deuteronomy generation between Horeb and Kaelesh-

      Spoken barnea in the 2d year of the Exodus

      Twice wanderings, and a second time 1 to the

      ne W generation, in the; plains of Moab in the 40th year. Several considerations point in this direction:

      (1) The names of the widely separated geographical places mentioned in the title (1 1.^). "These are; the words which Moses spake unto all Israel beyond the Jorelan in the> wilderness, in the Arabah over against Suph, between Paran, and Tophel, and Laban, anel Hazeroth, anel Di-zahab"; to which is addeel, "It

      is eleven days jemrney from llorel) by the way of Mount Seir unto Kadesh-barnea." If these state ments have any relevancy whatever- te> the 1 contents of the book which they introduce, they point to a wide area, from Iloreb te> Metal), as the historico- geographical background of the bex>k. In other words, Deuteronomy, in part at le ast, seems to have been spoken first on the way be twe-en Hoivb anel Kadesh- barnea, and later again when Israel we re- ene-amped em the plains of Moab. And, ineleeel, what would be more natural than for Moses when marching northward from Hore-b expee-ting to enter Canaan from the smdh, to exhort the- Israel of that day in te-rms of chs 5-26? Being baftle d. howeve-r, by the adve-rse ivport of the spies and the 1 faithlessness of the pe ople, and being forced to wait and waneler for 38 ye ars, what would be- more natural than for Moses in Moab, when about to resign his position as le ade-r, to repe-at the e xhorlat ions of e-hs 5-26, adapting the in te> the ne eels of the new desert- traineel generation anel prefacing the whole by a historical introduction sue-h as that i ounel in chs 1-4 ?

      (2) The double (illusion lo the cities of refuge (4 41-- f >: 19 1-13). On the suppe>sition that chs 5-26 were spoken first betwevn Horeb and Kadesh- barne-a, in the 2d ye-ar of the 1 Exexlus, it coulel not be expended that in this section, the name s of the three cilie south e hosen I 1 ]. e>f the .Ionian should be given, and in fact 1 hey are 1 neit (,19 1-13 1; the terri tory of Sihem and ( )g had no! yei be en conquered anel the 1 cities of refuge, accordingly, hael not yet been designated (cf \\\\u 35 2 11). But in 4 41-43, on the cemtrary. which forms a part eif the historical introduction, whie-h < .< /ii/pollnsi was delivereel just at the 1 end of the- 39 years wanelerings, after Sihon anel Og had bee ii subelue d and their 1errite>ry di- videel, the 1 (hive 1 cities of refuge east e>f the 1 Jordan are actually named, just as might be expected.

      (3) The tied ion 4 //. /-, /. >, which, in its original form, very probably introduce-d chs 5-26 before these chapters we iv adapteel to the 1 new situation in Moab.

      (4) The phrase bei/an Moses to iliclnrc this lino" (1 ,5), suggesting that the givat lawgive-r found it necessary te) expound what he had elelive-reel at some pre vious time . The Ile-b weird tr 1 "to ele-clai e" is found else-where in the- ( )T only in Deuteronomy 27 8 and in Hab 2 2, and signifies "to make plain."

      (o) The author s < rn/i id alii in nt lo iih ntifi/ the new fjeneridioii in Moult irilli l/ir />a/ riarehs. "Je h made ne>t this covenant with our fathers, but with us, even us, who are all e>f us }ie>re alive this day," i.e. with us whe) have surviveel the 1 desert discipline (Deuteronomy 5 3). In view of these facts, we conclude that the book in its present form (barring the exe-eptions above mentioneel) is the- product of the whole 39 ye ars ejf desert experience from Horeb e>n, adapted, however, te> meet the exigene-ies of the Israelites as they stoexl between the victe>rie s alre-aely wem on the east e>f the; Jemlan and those ant ie-ipate el on the YV. The 1 impression give ii throughout is that the> age>d lawgiver s work is elone, and that a ne W era in the people s history is about to begin.

      The 1 influence of Deuteronomy, began to be iVlt from the very beginning eif Israel s care-cr in Canaan. Though

      the> references te> Deuteronomy in Joshus, Judges, south and 8. Deuteronomy s K are comparatively lV, yet they are

      Influence suflicie iit to slmw that not only the in Israel s principle s of Deuteronomy were known anel ob- History se-rve d but that they we-re knenvn in

      written form as codified statute s. For example, when Jerie-ho was taken, the city and its s]>oil we re "elevoteel" (Je>sh 6 17.18) in keeping with Deuteronomy 13 ir>ff (<-f Joshus 10 40; 11 12.1f> with Deuteronomy 7 2; 20 1(5.17). Achaii trespasseel and he- and his household were stoned, anel afterward burned



      with (ire (Joshus 7 2.">: cf Deuteronomy 13 10; 17 5). The fact that his sons ;md his daughters were put to death with him seems at first sight to contradict Dl 24 Iti, but there is no proof that they suffered for their father s sin (see A< MAN ; ACHOR); besides the Hebrews recognized the unity of the house hold, even that of Rahab the harlot (Joshus 6 17). Again when Ai was taken, "only the cattle and the spoil" did Israel take for a prey unto themselves (Joshus 8 27), in keeping with Deuteronomy 20 11; also, the body of 1 he king of Ai was taken down before night fall from the tree on which he had been hanged (Joshus 8 29), which was in keeping with Deuteronomy 21 23 (cf Joshus 10 2( ). _ 7j. As in warfare, so in worship. For instance. Joshua built an altar on Matthew. Ebal (Joshus 8 30.3h. "as Moses the servant of Jeh commanded" (Deuteronomy 27 4-(>), and he wrote on them a copy of the law (Joshus 8 32), as Moses had also enjoined (Deuteronomy 27 3.south). Moreover, the elders and ollicers and judges stood on either side of the ark of the covenant between Ebal and (ierizim (Joshus 8 3)5), as directed in Deuteronomy 11 29; 27 12.13, and Joshua read to all the congregation of Israel all the words of the law, the blessings and the cursings (Joshus 8 34.3")), in strict accord with Deuteronomy 31 11.12. But the passage of paramount importance is the story of the two and a half tribes who, on their return to their home on the east side of the Jordan, erected a memorial at the Jordan, and, when ac cused by their fellow-tribesmen of plurality of sanctuary, emphatically disavowed it (Joshus 22 2 ( .l; cf Deuteronomy 12 ")). Obviously, therefore, Deuteronomy was known in the days of Joshua. A very few instances in the history of the Judges point in the same direc tion: e.g. the utter destruction of Zephath (Judges 1 17; cf Deuteronomy 7 2; 20 IGfj; (iideon s- elimination of the fearful and faint-hearted from his army (Judges 7 1-7; cf Deuteronomy 20 1-9); the author s studied con cern to justify (iideon and Manoah for sacrificing at altars other than at Shiloh on the ground that thev acted in obedience to Jeh s direct commands (Judges 6 2.") 27; 13 1(1); esp. the case of Micah, who congratulated himself that Jeh would do him good seeing he had a Levite for a priest , is clear evi dence that Deuteronomy was known in the days of the Judges (Judges 17 13; cf Deuteronomy 10 X; 18 1-south; 33 8-11). In

      I south 1 1-9.21.24 the pious Elkanah is pictured as going yearly to worship Jeh at Shiloh, the central sanctuary at that time. After the destruction of Shiloh, when the ark of the covenant had been cap tured by the 1 hilis, Samuel indeed sacrificed at Mi/ pah, Ramah and Bethlehem (1 Samuel 7 7-9.17; 16 f>), but in doing so he only took advantage of the elas ticity of the Deuteronomic law: "\\\\\\\\ hcn .... he giveth you rest from all your enemies round about, so that ye dwell in safety; tin n it shall come to pass that to the place which Jeh your (iod shall choose, to cause his name to dwell there, thither shall ye bring all that 1 command you: your burnt-offerings, and your sacrifice s" (Deuteronomy 12 10.11). It was not until Solomon s time that Israel s enemies were all sub dued, and even then Solomon did not observe strictly the teachings of Deuteronomy; "His wives turned away his heart," so that lie did not faithfully keep Jeh s covenant" and "statutes" (1 Kings 11 3.11). Political disruption followed, and religion necessarily suffered. Yet Jchoiada the priest gave the youth ful Joash "the crown" and "the testimony" (2 Kings

      II 12; cf Deuteronomy 17 IS). King Amaziah did not slay the children of the murderers who slew his father, in conscious obedience apparently to the law of Deuteronomy (2 Kings 14 G; cf Deuteronomy 24 Hi). Later on, Hezekiah, the cultured king of Judah, reformed the cult us of his day by removing the high places, breaking down the pillars, cutting down the Asherahs, and even breaking in pieces the brazen serpent which Moses had made (2 Kings 18 4.22). Hezekiah s reforms

      were unquestionably carried through under the 1 influence of Deuteronomy .

      It is equally certain that the prophets of the Sth cent, were not ignorant of this book. For example, llosea complains of Israel s sacrificing upon the tops of the mountains and burning incense upon the hills, and warns , Judah not to follow Israel s exam ple in coming up to worship at ( iilgal and Beth-aven (Hosea 4 13.1")). He also alludes to striving with priests (Hosea 4 4; cf Deuteronomy 17 12), removing land marks (Hosea 5 10; cf Deuteronomy 19 11), returning to Egypt (Hosea 8 13; 9 3; cf Deuteronomy 28 G8), and of Jeh s tender dealing with Ephraim (Hosea 11 3; cf Deuteronomy 1 31; 32 10). The courage of Amos, the sh< pherd- prophet of Tekoa, can best be explained, also, on the basis of a written law such as that of Deuteronomy with which he and his hearers were already more or less familiar (Am 3 2; cf Deuteronomy 7 G; 4 7.8). lie con demns Israel s inhumanity and adultery in t he name of religion, and complains of their retaining over night pledges wrested from the poor, which was dis tinctly forbidden in Deuteronomy (Am 2 G-south; cf Deuteronomy 24 12- ]">; 23 17). Likewise, in the prophecies of Isaiah there are conscious reflections of Deuteronomy s thought and leaching. Zion is constantly pictured as the center of the nation s religion and as Jeh s secure dwelling- place (Isaiah 2 2-4; 8 18; 28 1G; 29 1.2; cf Mic 4 1-4). In short, no one of the, four great prophets of the Sth cent. BC Isaiah, Micah, Amos, llosea ever recognized "high places" as legitimate centers of worship.

      Over against the Bib. view, certain modern critics since DC YVettc (ISO.")) advocate a late origin of Deuteronomy, claiming that it was first published in 9. The G21 BC, when Hilkiah found "the

      Critical book of the law" in the temple in the

      Theory 18th year of King Josiah (2 Kings 22 Samuelff).

      The kernel of Deuteronomy and "the book of the law" discovered by Hilkiah are said to be identical. Thus, Dr. (1. A. Smith claims that "a code like the Book of Deuteronomy was not brought forth at a stroke, but was the expression of the gradual results of the age long working of the Spirit of the Living (lod in the hearts of His people" (Jerusalem, 11, 115). Accord ing to Dr. Driver, "Deuteronomy may be described as the pro phetic reformulation and adaptation to new needs, of an older legislation. It is probable that there was a tradition, if not a written record, of a final legislative address delivered by Moses in the steppes of Moab: the plan followed by the author would rest upon a more obvious motive, if he thus worked upon a traditional basis. But be that as it may, t he bulk of t he laws contained in 1 )t is undoubtedly

      far more ancient than the author himself

      What is essentially new in Deuteronomy is not the ninth r, but

      the for iii The new element in Deuteronomy is thus

      not the laws, but their parenetic setting" (J)l,\\\\\\\\\\\\, Ivi). This refined presentation of the mailer would not be so very objectionable, were Drs. Smith and Driver s theory not linked up with certain other claims and allegations to the effect that Moses in the l">th cent. BC could not possibly have promul gated such a lofty monotheism, that in theological teaching "the author of Deuteronomy is the spiritual heir of llosea," that then; are discrepancies between it and other parts of the Pent , that in the early history of Israel down to the Sth cent, plurality of sanc tuaries was legally permissible, that then- are no traces of the, influence of the principal teachings of a irrilti tt Deuteronomy discoverable in Hebrews lit. until the time of Jeremiah, and that the book as we possess it was originally composed as a program of reform, not by Moses but in the name of Moses as a forgery or pseudepigraph. For example, F. 11. Woods says, "Although not a ncccxxari/ result of accepting the later date, the majority of critics believe this book of the law to have been the result of a pious fraud



      promulgated by Ililkiah and Shaphan with the intention of deceiving Josiah into the belief that the reforms which they desired were the express com mand of God revealed to Moses" (II DB, II, 368). Some are unwilling to go so far. But in any case, it is claimed that the law book discovered and pub lished by Hilkiah, which brought about the reforma tion by Josiah in 621 BC, was no other than some portion of the Book of Deuteronomy, and of Deuteronomy alone. But there are several considerations which are opposed to this theory: (1) Deuteronomy emphasizes centralization of worship at one sanctuary (12 5); Josiah s reformation was directed rather against idolatry in general (2 Kings 23 4ff). (2) In Deuteronomy 18 6-8, a Levite coming from the country to Jerus was allowed to minister and share in the priestly per quisites; but in 2 Kings 23 9, "the priest s_ of the high places came not up to the altar of Jeh in Jerus, but they did eat unleavened bread among their brethren." And according to the critical theory, "Lcvites" and "priests" are interchange able terms. (3) The following passages in Exodus might almost equally with Deuteronomy account for Josiah s reformation: 20 3; 22 1S.20; 23; 34 13.14-17. (4) The law book discovered by Ililkiah was recognized at once as an ancient code which the fathers had disobeyed (2 Kings 22 13). Wore they all deceived? Even Jeremiah (cf Jeremiah 11 3.4)? "There were many persons in Judah who had power ful motives for exposing this forgery if it was one" (Raven, OT Introduction, 112). (5) One wonders why so many archaic and, in Josiah s time, ap parently obsolete laws should have been incorpo rated in a code whose express motive was to reform an otherwise hopeless age: e.g. the command to ex terminate the Canaanites, who had long since ceased to exist (Deuteronomy 7 18.22), and to blot out Amalek (Deuteronomy 25 17-19), the last remnants of whom were com pletely destroyed in Hezekiah s time (1 Chronicles 4 41- 43). Esp. is this true of the score and more of laws peculiar to Deuteronomy, concerning building battlements on the roofs of houses (Deuteronomy 22 8), robbing birds nests (vs 6.7), the sexes exchanging garments (ver 5), going out to war (20 1 IT), etc. (6) Esp. remarkable is it that if Deuteronomy were written, as alleged, shortly before the reign of Josiah, there should be no anachronisms in it betraying a post-Mosaic origin. There are no allusions to the schism between Judah and Israel, no hint of Assyr oppres sion through the exaction of tribute, nor any threats of Israel s exile either to Assyria or Babylonia, but rather to Egypt (Deuteronomy 28 68). "Jerusalem _ is never mentioned. From a literary point of view, it is psychologically and historically well-nigh im possible for a writer to conceal all traces of his age and circumstances. On the other hand, no Egyp tologist has ever discovered any anachronisms in Deuteronomy touching Egyp matters. From first to last the author depicts the actual situation of the times of Moses. It is consequently hard to believe, as is alleged, that a later writer is studying to give "an imaginative revivification of the past."

      (7) The chief argument in favor of Deuteronomy s late origin is its alleged teaching concerning the unity of the sanctuary. Wellhausen lays special emphasis upon this point. Prior to Josiah s reformation, it is claimed, plurality of sanctuaries was allowed. But in opposition to this, it is possible to point victoriously to Hezekiah s reformation (2 Kings 18 4. 22), as a movement in the direction of unity; and especially to Exodus 20 24, which is so frequently mis interpreted as allowing a multiplicity of sanctuaries. This classical passage when correctly interpreted allows only that altars shall be erected in every place where Jeh records His name, "which pre sumably during the wanderings and the time of the judges would mean wherever the Tabernacle was"

      (Mackay, Intro to OT, 110). This interpretation of this passage is confirmed and made practically certain, indeed, by the command in Exodus 23 14-19 that Israel shall repair three times each year to the house of Jeh and there present their offering. On the other hand, Deuteronomy s emphasis upon unity of sanc tuary is often exaggerated. The Book of Deuteronomy requires unity only after Israel s enemies are all overcome (Deuteronomy 12 10.11). "When" Jeh giveth them rest, "then" they shall repair for worship to the place which "God shall choose." As Davidson remarks: "It is not a law that is to come into effect on their entry into Canaan; it is to be observed from the time that Jeh shall have given them rest from all their enemies round about; that is, from the times of David, or more particularly, Solomon; for only when the temple was built did that place become known which Jeh had chosen to place His name there" (OT Theology, 361). Besides, it should not be forgotten that in Deuteronomy itself the command is given to build an altar in Matthew. Ebal (27 5-7). As a matt er of fact, the unity of sanctuary follows as a neces sary consequence of monotheism; and if Moses taught monotheism, he probably also enjoined unity of worship. If, on the other hand, monotheism was first evolved by the prophets of the 8th cent., then, of course, unity of sanctuary was of 8th-cent. origin also.

      (8) Another argument advanced in favor of the later origin of Deuteronomy is the contradiction between the laws of Deuteronomy and those of Leviticus-Numbers concerning the priests and Lcvites. In Numbers 16 10. 3.~>. 40, a sharp distinction is drawn, it is alleged, between the priests and common Lcvites, whereas in Deuteronomy 18 1-8, all priests are Levites and all Levites are priests. But as a matter of fact, the passage in Deuteronomy does not invest a Levite with priesdi/ but with Levitical functions (cf 18 7). "The point insisted upon is that all Levites shall receive full recognition at the sanctuary and be accorded their prerogatives. It goes without saying that if the Levite be a priest he shall serve and fare like his brethren the priests; if he be not a priest, he shall enjoy the privileges that belong to his brethren who are Levites, but not priests" (J. D. Davis, art. "Deuteronomy," in DB, 117). The Book of Deuteronomy teaches not that all the tribe, but only the tribe of Levi may exercise priestly functions, thus restricting the exercise of priestly prerogatives to one and only one tribe. This was in perfect harmony with Leviticus-Numbers and also in keeping with the style of popular discourse.

      (9) Recently Professor Ed. Naville, the Egyptolo gist, has propounded a theory of the origin of "the Book of the Law" discovered by Ililkiah, which is not without some value. On the analogy of the Egyp custom of burying texts of portions of "the Book of the Dead" at the foot of statues of gods and within foundations of temple walls, as at Hermopolis, he concludes that Solomon, when lie constructed the Temple, probably deposited this "Book of the Law" in the foundations, and that when Josiah s workmen were about their tasks of repairing the edifice, the long-forgotten docu ment, came to light and was given to Hilkiah the priest. Hilkiah, however, upon examination of the document found it difficult to read, and so, calling for Shaphan the scribe, who was more expert in deciphering antique letters than himself,_ he gave; the sacred roll to him, and he in turn read it to both Ililkiah and the king. The MS may indeed have been written in cuneiform. Thus, according to Naville, "the Book of the Law," which he identifies with Deuteronomy, must be pushed back as far as the age of Solomon at the very latest. Geden shares a similar view as to its date: "some time during the pros perous period of David and the United Monarchy" (Intro to the II eb Bible, 1909, 330).



      But why not ascribe the book to Iho traditional author? Surely there can be no philosophical objection to doing so, in view of the now-known Code of Hammurabi, which antedates Moses by so many hundreds of years! No other age account s 80 well for its origin as that of the great lawgiver who claims to have written the bulk of if. And the history of the disintegration of the book only shows to what extremes a false method may lead; for ex ample, Steuernagel separates the "Thou" and "Ye" sections from each other and assigns them to differ ent authors of lat(; dale: Kennel t, on the other hand, assigns the earliest strata to the period of the Exile (Jour, of Tlunl. Studies, HUM), On the whole, no theory is so satisfactory as that which, in keep ing with I)t 31 22.24, ascribes to Moses the great, bulk of the book. See also CRITICISM; PENTA- TEUCH.

      LITERATUReast On the conservative side: James Orr, The Prohleni of the OT, The Hross I ri/.e, 1900; urt. "Deuteronomy," Illustrated Bihlc Did.. 190X; James Robertson, Tin- Knrlu Religion of Israel, IM(L : art. "Deuteronomy," The Temple Jiihlc. Dirt., 11)10; John I). Davis, art. " Deuteronomy," Davis Dirt, of the liihic, 1911; John II. Raven. OT Intro, 1906; A. south (ieden, 1,,/ro to the 11,1, liihle. 1909; \\\\V. Moller, Are the Critics Knjhi. 190:5; II. JJ. Cirdlo- stono. The Student s Deuteronomy. 1S99; Ilu^h Pope, Tin- Dnl, of the Composition of Deuteronomy, 1911; A. south /erbe, The Antiquity of Hi!, \\\\\\\\-ritina a,ul Lit., l!)ll; Ivl. Xaville, The Discovery of ^ the Book of the La iv under Kind Josiah, 1911; K ( Bissell, The Pent: Itn Or, ,,, ,, mid Structure, 1SS5; (i L Robinson, The Expositor, "The (ienesisof 1)1." October and November, JX9X, February, March, May, 1X99- \\\\V. II. Creen, .V .-<,< and the Prophets, IS .ll; The Higher Criticism of the Pent, 1X95; A. M. Mackay, The Church man s Intro to the OT, I .Hll; J. \\\\Y. Beardsloe, Outlines of an Intro to the OT. 190:5; (i. Vos, The Mosaic Origin of the Pentateuchal Codex, IXXli.

      On the other side: s. K. Driver, .1 Cn i. and Exeg. Comm. on Deuteronomy, 1X95; The Hexateuch, by J. Estlin Car penter and G. Harford-Battersby, I, II, moo; (;. A. Smith, Jerus, II, 190X; \\\\V. Robertson Smith, The OT in the Jewish Church. 1x1(5: A. Knenen. The II exuteueh ISXfr II. K. Ryle, art. "Deuteronomy," 11DH, 1X9X; (i. F. Moore, art. "Deuteronomy," Knr. liihl., 1X99; J. A. Paterson, art. " Deuteronomy," Jim- Brit, VIII, 11(10.

      In (ierman: De Wotto, Dissert, crit-exeget., 1S05; Kleinert, L>.s- Deuteronomy u. ,1. Deuteronomiker, 1X72; Well- hausen, Die Com p. ,le.i lies. u. ,/. hist, liitehir dr AT. 1XS9; Gesch. Isnirl*, 1X1(5; Steuernagol, Dvr Itahmen dt H Deuteronomy, 1X94; Entstt-h. it< s tit. Gesetzes, lX9t>.


      DEVICE, de"-vis : "A scheme," "invention," "plot." In the OT it stands for six Hob words, of which the most common is >nohaxlu l>luth (from fyashabh, "to think," "contrive"). In the NT it occurs only twice, once for Gr cnlhuiin siti (Acts 17 29), and once for nm tna (2 Corinthians 211). Sometimes the word means simply that which is planned or invented, without any evil implication, as in 2 Chronicles 2 14;^ Acts 17 29 (of artistic, work or invention), and Eccl 9 10 (in the general sense of reasoning or contriving). But more frequently it is used in an evil sense, of a wicked purpose or plot, "Let us devise devices against, Jeremiah" (Jeremiah 18 18); "For we are not ignorant of his [i.e. Satan s] devices" (2 Corinthians 2 11), etc. 1). MIAU. Kmv AKDS

      DEVIL, dev"l. See DEMON; SATAN.

      DEVOTED, de-vot ed, THINGS (south^Pl , ticrnn). See CUKSK; DEDICATeast

      DEVOTION, dr-vo shun, DEVOTIONS (crepao-- fiara, scbdsmala): For AV "your devotions" (Acts 17 23), RV has "the objects of your worship," which is probably the intended meaning of AV. RV reads "devotion" for AV "prayer" in Job 15 4 (RVm "meditation," HebsiA).

      DEVOUT, de-vout (ev\\\\a(3T|s, culabfs, t\\\\xrtfi-r\\\\<s, eusebts, <rt$opai, scbomai, "pious," "dutiful," "rever ential") : The word is peculiar to St . Luke. Applied to Simeon (Luke 2 25), Cornelius (Acts 10 2.7), Ananias (22 12). "Devout proselytes" (13 43,

      AV "religious proselytes"), with possible reference to the proselytes of righteousness as distinguished from the proselytes of the gate (see PKO.SEIATKJ. "Devout women of honorable estate" (13 50), proselytes to Judaism and wives of the men in high position among the heathen (see Jos, BJ , II, x\\\\, 2). "Devout Creeks" (17 4), probably, though not necessarily, proselytes of the gate, heathen by birth, who attended t he synagogue services and wor shipped (tod. "Devout persons" (vcr 17), prose lytes of the gate. M . O. EVANS

      DEW, du (bt?, in I; 5 P 6o-o south , r/mso.s): Two things

      are necessary for the formation of dew, moisture

      and cold. In moist countries there is

      1. Forma- less dew because the change in tem- tion of Dew perature between day and night is too

      small. In the deserts where the change in temperature between day and night is sometimes as much as 40 F., there is seldom dew because of lack of moisture in the atmosphere. Pal is fortu nate in being near the sea, so that then! is always a large percentage of water vapor in the air. The skies are clear, and hence there is rapid radiation beginning immediately after sunset, which cools t lie land and the air until the moisture is condensed and settles on cool objects. Air at a low tempera ture is not capable of holding as much water vapor in suspension as warm air. The ice pitcher fur nishes an example of the formation of dew. Just as the drops of water form on the cool pitcher, so dew forms on rocks, grass and trees.

      In Pal it does not rain from April to October, and wen- it not for the de\\\\v in .summer all vegetation

      would perish. Dew and rain are

      2. Value of equally important. If there is no rain Dew in the winter gra.-s and harvests fail; Palestine if no dew, the late crops dry up and

      there is no fruit. Failure of either of these gifts of Nature would cause great want and hardship, but the failure of both would cause famine and death. Even on the edge of the great Syrian desert in Ami-Lebanon, beyond Jordan and in Sinai, a considerable vegetation of a certain kind flourishes in the summer, although there is not a drop of rain for six mont hs. The dews are so heavy that the plants and trees are literally .soaked with water at night, and they absorb sufficient moisture to more than supply the loss due to evaporation in the day. It is more surprising to one who has not seen it before to find a flourishing vineyard prac tically in the desert itself. Some of the small ani mals of the desert, such as the jerboa, seem to have no water supply except the dew. The dew forms most heavily on good conductors of heat, such as metals and stones, because; they radiate their heat faster and cool the air around them. The wetting of Gideon s fleece (Judges 6 3.south) is an indication of the amount of dew formed, and the same phenomenon might be observed any clear night in summer in Philestina-Canaan Land Dew was a present necessity to the people of Israel as it, is today to the people of the same lands, so Jeh says, "I will be as the dew unto

      3. Impor- Israel" (Hosea 14 5). Dew and rain tance to are of equal importance and are spoken Israel of together in 1 Kings 17 1. It was esp.

      valued by the children of Israel in the desert, for it supplied the manna for their suste nance (Exodus 16 13; Numbers 11 9).

      Isaac in blessing Jacob asked that the "dew of heaven" (Genesis 27 28) may be granted to him; that

      these things which make for fertility

      4. Symbol and prosperity may be his portion, of Blessing "The remnant of Jacob shall be in the

      midst of many peoples as dew from Jeh" (Mic 5 7), as a means of blessing to the na tions. "Blessed of Jeh for . . . . dew" (Deuteronomy 33 13).



      Dew is the means of refreshing and reinvigor- ating all vegetation. Many Scripture references carry out this idea. The song of 5. Symbol Moses says, "My speech shall distil of Re- as the dew" (Deuteronomy 32 2). "A cloud of

      freshment dew" (Isaiah 18 4) refreshes the har vesters. "Mv head is filled with dew (Cant 5 2). "Like the dew of Hermon" (Psalm 133 3). "Thou hast the dew of thy youth" (Psalm 110 3). "Thy dew is as the dew of herbs" (Isaiah 26 19). Job said of the time of his prosperity, "The dew lieth all night upon my branch" (Job 29 19).

      Other figures use dew as the symbol of stealth, of that which comes up unawares (2 Samuel 17 12), and of inconstancy (Hosea 6 4; 13 3). God s knowl edge covers the whole realm of the phenomena of Nature which are mysteries to man (Job 38 2S; Prov 3 20). ALFRED II . JOY

      DIADEM, dl a-dern: There are seven Bible ref erences to the diadem, four in the ()T and three in the NT. The Hebrews words do not mark any clear distinctions.

      (1) Ci" 1 !^, qariiph, Cfi2S, qdnoph, nS^ZS, qamphah (all from 022* , ganaph, primarily "to wrap," "dress," "roll" ) mean a headdress in the nature of a turban or piece of cloth wrapped or twisted about the head. The word is also rendered "hood," "mitre." Job 29 14: "My justice was as a robe and a diadem" (RVm, "turban"); Isaiah 62 3: "a royal diadem in the hand of thy God."

      (2) rn n S2J, fplnrdh, means "a crown," "diadem/ i.e. .something round about the head; Isaiah 28 fr "a diadem of beauty, unto the residue of his people."

      (3) PEj-^P > mignepheth, means an official turban or tiara of priest or king, tr 1 also "mitre." Ezekiel 21 20: "Remove the mitre, and take off the crown."

      (4) 5td5ti/j.a, diddema, the Gr word in the NT for "diadem," means "something bound about th:; head." Found 3 t, all in The The Revelation 12 3: "a great red dragon .... and upon his heads seven diadems" (AV "crowns"); 13 1: "a beast .... and on his horns ten diadems"; 19 11.12: "a white horse; .... and upon his head arc; many diadems." See CROWN. WILLIAM EDWARD RAFFETY

      DIAL, dl al, OF AHAZ, a haz, THE:

      1. Hezekiah s Sickness and the Sign 2. The Sign a Real Miracle :j The "Dial" a Staircase

      Time of Day of the Miracle

      Hezekiah s Choice of the Sign

      Meaning of the Sign

      The Fifteen " Songs of Degrees"

      One of the most striking instances recorded in Holy Scripture of the interruption, or rather rever sal, of the working of a natural law is 1. Heze- the going back of the shadow on the kiah s Sick- dial of Ahaz at the time of Hezekiah s ness and recovery from his illness. The record the Sign of the incident is as follows. Isaiah was sent to Hezekiah in his sickness, to say:

      "Thus saith Jehovah, the God of David thy father, I have heard thy prayer, I have seen thy tears: behold, I will heal thee; on the third day them shalt go up unto

      the house of Jehovah And Hezekiah said unto

      Isaiah, What shall he the sign that Jehovah will heal me, and that 1 shall go up unto the house of Jehovah the third day ? And Isaiah said, This shall be the sign unto thee from Jehovah, that Jehovah will do the thing that he hath spoken: shall the? shadow go forward ten steps, or go back ten steps ? And Hezekiah answered, It is a light thing for the shadow to decline ten steps: nay, but let the shadow return backward ten steps. And Isaiah the prophet cried unto Jehovah; and lie brought the shadow ten steps backward, by which it had gone down on the dial of Ahaz" (2 Kings 20 5-11). And in Isaiah 38 8, it is said, "Behold, I will cause the shadow on the steps, which is gone down on the dial of Ahaz with the sun, to return backward ten steps. So the sun returned ten steps on the dial whereon it was gone down."

      The first and essential point to be noted is that

      this was no ordinary astronomical phenomenon, nor

      was it the result of ordinary astro-

      2. The Sign nomical laws then unknown. It was a Real peculiar to that particular place, and Miracle to that particular time; otherwise w r e

      should not- read of "the ambassadors of the princes of Babylon, who sent .... to in- quire of the wonder that was done in the land" (2 Chronicles 32 31). It is impossible, therefore, to accept the suggestion that the dial of Ahaz may have been improperly constructed, so as to produce a reversal of the motion of the shadow at certain times. For such a maladjustment would have occasioned the repetition of the phenomenon every time the sun returned to the same position with respect to the dial. The narrative, in fact, informs us that the occurrence was not (hie to any natural law, known or unknown, since Hezekiah was given the choice and exercised it of his own free will, as to whether a shadow should move in a particular direction or in the opposite. But there are no alternative 1 results in the working of a natural law. "If a state of things is repeated in every detail, it must lead to exactly the same consequences." The same natural law cannot indifferently produce one result, or its opposite. The movement of the shadow on the dial of Ahaz was, therefore 1 , a rnirae le in the strict sense of the term. It cannot be explained by the working of any astronomical law, known or un- known. We have no information as to the as tronomical conditions at the time; we can only inquire into the setting of the miracle.

      It is unfortunate that one important word in the narrative has been rendered in both AV and RV

      by a term which describes a recog-

      3. The nized astronomical instrument. The "Dial" a word "dial" (ma aldth) is usually tr 1 Staircase "degrees," "steps," or "stairs," and

      indeed is thus rendered in the same verse. There is no evidence that the structure referred to had been designed to serve as a dial or was anything other than a staircase, "the staircase of Ahaz." It was probably connected with that "covered way for the sabbath that they had built in the house, and the king s entry without," which Ahaz turned "round the house of Jeh, because of the king of Assyria" (2 Kings 16 IS RVm). This staircase, called after Ahaz because the alteration was due to him, may have been substituted for David s "causeway that goeth up," which was "westward, by the gate of Shallecheth" (1 Chronicles 26 10), or more probably for Solomon s "ascent by which he went up unto the house of Jehovah" which so impressed the queen of Sheba (2 Chronicles 94). At certain times of the day the shadow of some object

      fell upon this staircase, and we learn

      4. Time of from both 2 Kings and Isaiah that this Day of the shadow had already gone down ten Miracle steps, while from Isaiah we learn in addi tion that the sun also was going down.

      The miracle therefore took plae e in the afternoon, when the sun moves on its downward course, and when all shadows are thrown in an easterly direc tion. We are not told what was the object that cast the shadow, but it must have stood to the west of the staircase, and the top of the staircase must have passed into the shadow first, and the foot of the staircase have remained longest in the light. The royal palace is understood to have been placed southeast of the Temple, and it is therefore probable that it was sonic part of the Temple buildings that had cast its shadow down the stairway in full view of the dying king, as he lay in his chamber. If the afternoon were well advanced the sun would be moving rapidly in altitude, and but little in azi muth; or, in other words, the shadow would be ad-



      vancing down the steps ai its quickest rate, but !>< moving only slowly toward t he left of I hose who were mounting them. It may well have been the case, therefore, that the time had come when the priests from Ophel, and the officials and courtiers from the palace, were going up the ascent, into the house of the Lord to be present at the evening sacrifice ; pass ing from t lie bright sunshine at the foot of the stairs into the shadow that had already fallen upon the upper steps. The sun would be going st might down behind the buildings and the steps already in shadow would sink into deeper shadow, not to emerge again into the light until a new day s sun had arisen upon the earth.

      \\\\Ve can therefore understand the nature of the

      choice of the sign that was offered by the prophet

      to the dying king. AYould he choose

      5. Heze- that ten more steps should be straight- kiah s w ay engulfed in the shadow, or that Choice of ten steps already shadowed should be the Sign brought back into the light? Either

      might serve as a, sign that he should arise on the third day and go up in renewed life to the house of the Lord; but the one sign would be in accordance with the natural progress of events, and t he ot hei 1 would be direct ly opposed to it . It would be a light thing, as He/.ekiali said, for the shadow to go forward ten steps; a bank of cloud rising behind the Temple would effect that, change. But no disposit ion of cloud could bring t lie shadow back from that part- of the staircase which had already passed into it, and restore it to the sunshine. The first change was, in human estimation, easily possi ble, "a light- thing"; the second change seemed impossible. Ile/ekiah chose the seemingly impos sible, and the Lord gave the sign and answered his prayer. \\\\Ve need not ask whether the king showed more or less faith in choosing the "impossible" rather than the "possible" sign. His father Aha/ had shown his want- of faith by refusing to put the Lord to the test, by rel u.Miig to ask a sign, whether in the heaven above or in the earth beneath. The faith of Ile/ekiah was shown in asking a sign, which was at- once in the heaven above and in the earth beneath, in accepting the choice offered to him, and so putting the Lord to the test. And the sign chosen was most fitting. He/ekiah lay dying, whether of plague or of cancer we do not know, but his disease was mortal and beyond cure; lie was already entering into the shadow of death. The word of the Lord was sure to him ; on "t he third day" he would rise and go up in new life to the house of Clod. But what of the sign? Should the shadow

      of deatli swallow him up; should his

      6. Meaning life be swiftly cut- off in darkness, and of the Sign be hidden until a new day should dawn,

      and the light, of a new life, n life of resurrection, arise? (Cf John 11 24.) Or should the shadow be drawn back swiftly, and new years be added to his life before death could come upon him? Swift death was in the natural progress of events; restoration to health was of the impossible. lie chose the restoration to health, and the Lord answered his faith and his prayer.

      We are not- able to go farther into particulars. The first, temple, the royal palace, and the staircase of Aha/ were all destroyed in the destruction of Jerus by Nebuchadnezzar, and we have no means of ascertaining the exact position of the staircase with respect- to Temple or palace, or the number of the steps that it contained, or the time of the day, or the season of the year when the sign was given. It is possible that if we knew any or all of these, a .yet greater significance, both spiritual and astro nomical, might attach to the narrative.

      Fifteen years were added to the life of Hezekiah. In the restoration of the second temple by Herod

      fifteen steps led from the Court of the YVomcn to the Court of Israel, and on these; steps the Levites

      during the Feast of Tabernacles were 7. The accustomed to stand in order to sing

      Fifteen the fifteen "songs of degrees" (Pss

      "Songs of 120-34). At the head of these same Degrees" steps in the gateway, lepers who had

      been cleansed from their disease pre sented themselves to the priests. It- has been suggested that Hezekiah himself was the compiler of these fifteen "songs of the steps," in thankfulness for his fifteen years of added life. Five of them are ascribed to David or as written for Solomon, but the remaining ten bear no author s name. Their subjects are, however, most- appropriate to t he great crises and desires of He/ekiah s life. His great Pass over, to which all the tribes were; invited, and so many Israelites came; the blasphemy of Rabshakeh and of Sennacherib s threatening letter; the danger of the Assyr invasion and the deliverance from it; He/ekiah s sickness unto death and his miraculous restoration to health; and the fact, that at. that time he would seem to have had no son to follow him on the throne all these subjects seem to find fitting expression in the fifteen Psalms of the Steps.

      !]. \\\\\\\\ . MAIXDKK

      DIAMOND, dl a-numd. See STONES, PKK- cious.

      DIANA, dl-an a (ARTEMIS) ("Aprejus, A

      "prompt," "safe"): A deity of Asiatic; origin, the mother goddess of the earth, whose seat of worship was the temple in Kphesus, the capital of the Romans province of Asia. Diana is but the Latini/ed form of the (!r word Artemis, yet the Artemis of Ephesus should not be confused with the (Ir goddess of that name.

      She may, however, be identified with the Pybele of 1 lie Phrygians whose name slit also hi) re. and with several other deities who were worshipped under dill erent names in various parts of the Orient. In Cappadoeia she was known as >la; to the Syrians as Atarsatis or Mylitla; ainonjj; the I hoenicians as Astarte, a name which appears among the Assyrians as Ishtur; the modern name Esther is derived from it. The same goddess seems to have been worshipped by the Ilittites, for a female deity is sculptured on the rocks at Yazili Kaya. near the llittite cit-y of Honha/keui. It may be shown ultimately that the various goddesses of Syria and Asia Minor all owe their origin to the earlier Assyrian or Babylonian Jshtar, the goddess of love, whose chief attributes they possessed. The several forms and names under which she appears are due to the varying developments in different regions.

      Tradition says that Diana was born in the woods near Ephesus, where her temple was built, when her image of wood (possibly ebony; Pliny, Nil, xvi. 40; Acts 19 35) fell from the sky (see also ASTRON OMY, I, south [2]). Also according to tradition the city which was later called Ephesus was founded by the Ama/ons, and Diana or Cybelo was the deity of those half-mythical people. Later when Ephesus fell into the possession of the (Ireeks, Gr civili/a- tion partly supplanted the Asiatic, and in that city the two civili/ations were blended together. The (lr name of Artemis was given to the Asiatic god dess, and many of the Gr colonists represented her on their coins as Greek. Her images and forms of worship remained more Asiatic than Gr. Her ear liest, statues were figures crudely carved in wood. Later when she was represented in stone and metals, she bore upon her head a mural headdress, repre senting 11 fortified city wall; from it, drapery hung upon each side of her face to her shoulders. The upper part of her body was completely covered with rows of breasts to signify that she was the mother of all life. The lower arms were extended. The lower part of the body resembled a rough block, as if her legs had been wrapped up in cloth like those of an Egyp mummy. In later times her Gr fol lowers represented her with stags or lions standing



      at her sides. The most renowned of her statues stood on the platform before the entrance to her temple in Ephesus. As the statues indicate, she impersonated the reproductive powers of men and of animals and of all other life.


      At the head of her cult was a chief priest, originally a eunuch who boro tlio name and later the title Megabyzos. Under him were priests known as Kssenes. appointed, perhaps from the city officials, for but a single year; it was their duty to olTer the sacrifices to the goddess \\\\n behalf of the city. Other subordinate classes of priests known as Km/n t,^. Krolmini and Ililmi performed duties

      wtiicli are now obscure. The priestesses were even more numerous, and. probably from their great numbers, they were called .\\\\filix.ini or bees; the Kphesian symbol there fore which appears commonly upon the coins struck in the city, is a bee. The ,l/< //.<;/, which in the early times were all virgins, were of three classes; it is no longer known just what the special duties of each class were. The ritual of the temple services consisted of sacrifices and of ceremonial prostitution, a practice which was common to many of the religions of the ancient Orient, and which still exists among some of the obscure tribes of Asia Minor.

      The temple of Diana was not properly the home of the goddess; it was but a shrine, the chief one, devoted to her service. She lived in Nature; she was everywhere wherever there was life, the mother of all living tilings; all offerings of every possible nature were therefore acceptable to her; hence the vast wealth which poured into her temple. Not. only was she worshipped in her temple, but in the minute shrines or nnoi which were sometimes mod eled after the temple. More frequently the shrines were exceedingly crude objects, either of silver or stone or wood or clay. They were made at Ephesus by dependents of the temple, and carried by the pilgrims throughout the world. Before them Diana might also be worshipped anywhere, just as now from the soil of the sacred Mesopotamia!! city of Kerbela, where the sons of Ali were martyred, little blocks are formed and are carried away by the Shiah Moslems that they may pray upon sacred ground wherever they may be. The makers of the shrines of Diana formed an exceedingly large class among whom, in Paul s time, was Demetrius (Acts 19 24). None of the silver shrines have been dis covered, but those of marble and of clay have ap

      peared among the ruins of Ephesus. They are exceedingly crude; in a little shell-like bit of clay, a crude clay female figure si I s, somet hues wit h a tam bourine in one hand and a cup in the other, or with a lion at her side or beneath her foot. Though the shrines were sold as sacred dwelling-places of the goddess, that the pilgrims who carried them to their distant homes, or buried them in the graves with their dead, might be assured of her constant pres ence, their real purpose was to increase the temple revenues by their sale at a price which was many times their cost. With the shrines of Diana may be compared the household gods of clay found in abundance among the ruins of the earlier Bab cities, esp. those cities in which temples to the goddess Ishtar stood. east ,1. BANKS

      DIASPORA, dl-as p6-ra. See DISPKHSIOX.

      DIBLAH, dib la (rtt, dihhldh, "circle"; AP- \\\\a0a, J)cbl(iltifi): The name occurs only in Ezekiel 6 14 (AV "Diblath"), and the place has no t been iden tified. If the reading is correct it may possibly be represented by Dibl, a village in ("pper Galilee, south of Tibnln. But more likely it is a scribal error for Riblah.

      DIBLAIM, dib la-im, dib-la im (ZpblH , ,libh- layim, "two cakes"): A native of Northern Israel and father of Goiner, the wife of Hoseaea (Hosea 1 3).

      DIBLATH, dib lath. See DIBLAII.

      See ALMON-DIB-

      DIBLATHAIM, dib-la-tha im.


      DIBON, di bon, DIBON-GAD "washing"; Aai(3wv, D/iibnn):

      (1) A city of Moab captured by the Amorites (Nil 21 30), and held by them at the invasion by Israel. It was taken and given to the tribe of Gad, whence it is called Dibon-gad (Xu 32 34; 33 45). In Joshus 13 17 it is reckoned to Reuben. Along with other cities in the territory north of the Arnon, Dibon changed hands several times between Moab and Israel. Mesha claims it (MS), and in Jeremiah 48 IS. 22 it is named among the cities of Moab. The form of the name, Dimon, in Isaiah 15 V), may have been given to make it resemble the Hebrews dam, "blood," to support the play upon words in the verse ( III) II, s.v.). It is represented by the modern Dlnban, about 4 miles north of Aroer (*Ard*ir), on the line of the old Romans road. The ruins that spread over two adjacent knolls are of no importance: walls, a tower, cistern, etc. Near Dibon the famous Moabitc Stone was found.

      (2) A town in Judah, occupied after the exile (Nehemiah 11 2o). It may be the same as Dimonah (Joshus 15 22); unidentified. \\\\V. EWING

      DIBRI, dib n fnrH , dibhrl, "eloquent" [?]): A Danite, whose daughter Shelomith married an Egyptian. Their son was "cut- off" (stoned) for blasphemy (Leviticus 24 11).


      DICTIONARIES, dik shun-a-riz: A dictionary is a word-book or a list of words arranged in some fixed order, generally alphabetical, for ready refer ence, and usually with definitions or longer treatises. The vocabulary or glossary is a mere list of words, often without definitions; the Lexicon or dictionary of language! (words or concepts) has bare definitions, and the alphabetical encyclopaedia or dictionary of knowledge or information (objects, things, subjects, topics, etc) has longer treatises, but they are all



      dictionaries: the alphabetical order being the main essential in modern use. Then; is, however, his torically no good reason why the dictionary should not be logical or chronological. The earliest, use of the word as quoted by Murray s Dictionary (John. de (larlandia, cir 1225) was of a collection of words classified and not alphabetical. So, too, almost the earliest use in Eng. (J. Withal s Dirtiotutric, loot)) was of a book of words classifier! by subjects. A book like Roget s Tlit snuruN, which is a list of classi fied words without definition, or a systematic en cyclopaedia of treatises like Coleridge s unfortunate experiment, the Encyclopedia Metropolitans, is a dictionary in the historic sense. The earliest books usually quoted in the lists of Bib. dictionaries were also in fact classified or chronological, and not alphabetical (Eusebius Onomasticon; _ Jerome s De viris illi<xtrilmx}. Classified word lists, sylla baries, etc, of pre-alphabetic times, as well as in Chinese and other non-alphabetic languages of to day, are of course also non-alphabetic, but strictly dictionaries.

      In pre-alphabetic times the dictionaries includes besides the syllabaries of which there were many examples in Assyria, Babylonia, Egypt, Cyprus, etc, and the word lists proper, chronological lists of kings and various classified lists of tribute, and of astronomical or other objects. They include, in short, all the many lists where the material is grouped round a series of catchwords.

      The alphabetical dictionary began with the alpha bet itself, for this is a list of names of objects. The earlier alphabetical dictionaries were sometimes called alphabets. In a sense the alphabetical acrostics are dictionaries rather than acrostics, and Psalm 119, where considerable material is grouped under each letter of the alphabet, comes rather close to the dictionary idea.

      So long as the quantity of literary material re mained small, there was very little need for the development of the alphabetical dictionary, ami the examples are rather few, the Lexicon^of Suidas being perhaps the most noteworthy. With the im mense increase in literary material then 1 was a rapidly growing appreciation of the advantage of alphabetical arrangement, over the chronological or the systematic, in all cases where the object- is to refer to a specific topic, rather than to read a book through or survey many topics with reference to their relation to one another. The number of alpha betical dictionaries of knowledge increased rapidly with the growth of learning from the 13th cent.: now it has become 1 legion and there are few subjects so narrow that they cannot boast their dictionary of information.

      The earliest Bible dictionary is usually counted ihrOiioin of Eusebius, a geographical encyclopaedia; then came Jerome s DC nominibus 1. Bible ht ltraicis, and his DC viris illuxlriliux Dictionaries (chronological). The more noteworthy steps in the history of Bible diction aries are represented by the names of Alsted, Cal- met, Winer, Kit to, William Smith, Fairbairn, Schenkel. The best recent dictionaries among the larger works are the Encyclopaedia Biblica, stand ing for the extreme higher critical wing; Hastings, representing the slightly less radical; and this present International Standard Bible Encyclopaedia, which represents a growing distrust of the extreme positions of the 19th cent, higher critics. All of these arc on a large scale and stand for the latest and best scholarship, and the same quality is re flected in at least two of the recent single-volume dictionaries, A Standard Bible Dictionary (M. west Jacobus), and the single-volume Hastings diction ary. Both of these in tendency stand between Cheyne s Encyclopaedia Biblicaand this dictionary,

      Hastings facing rather toward Chcyne, and Jacobus toward this present work.

      The. John Crcrar Library list of encyclopaedias forms an excellent guide to the lit. of general en cyclopaedias within its scope, which 2. Bibli- includes chiefly technology and physi ography cal and social sciences, but includes among its reference books very admir ably chosen first -reference dictionaries to language, history, fine arts, and even philosophy and religion.

      Kroeger, Alice B. Guide to the Study and Use of Refer ence Hooks. 2(1 od, Boston. 190S. is an admirable intro duction. Its select lists and bibliographical references supplemented by the John Crerar and other reference library lists will give complete orientation.

      Following is a list of previous dictionaries:


      Ayre. .1. Treasury of H, hi, Knon-lednc. London, 1X00.

      Barnum, Samuel Vv". .1 Coin prehei/sire Dictionaru of the liihlc. New York: Applcton. Is(i7.

      Barr, John. .1 Complete I ml, .r ami Concise Dictionary of the II, dn Bihl<. New York: Methodist, Book Con cern, 1852.

      Bastow, J. A. Biblical Dictionary. London, 1848, 3 vols; condensed ed. London. 1859; 4th ed. 1X77.

      Beck. J. C. Vollstfind. bihl. Wortcrbuctt. Basel, 1770,

      2 vols.

      Besser, II. Hi/, I. Wortrrhuch. Gotha. 1800.

      Bible Cyclopaedia. The. London: Parker. 1X41.

      Bost, J. A. Dictionnaire de la Bible, Paris, 1X05.

      Boura/,an, F. A. San-cd Dictionary. London: Nisbet, 1890.

      Brown, John. .1 Dictionaru of the Holy Hihlc. Edin burgh, 1768. 4th ed; London: Murray, 1707; American ed, from the 12th Edinburgh ed, New York: Harper, 1X46.

      Caltnet, A. Diet, histori/iiic, critique, chronologique, yco- ,/raphiqne et litteral de In Kilile. Paris. 17 10.

      Calmet, Augustine. Dictionary of the if,,/// Bible. , r >th

      ed. revised and enlarged, 5 vols, London: lloldsworth,

      1X29; new ed. London: Bohn. 1X47; abridged by

      Buckley, new ed, London: Koutledge. 1X02. Cassell s Bible Dirtiomir!/. Illustrated with nearly GOO

      engravings; London and New York. 2 vols: Cassell,

      1X00; new ed. ]XO<). Cheyne. T. K. and Black. J. south Encyclopaedia Bihlica.

      London, 1X99 1903, 4 vols. Cornier, F. K. and C. R .1 Handbook to the Bible.

      London: Longmans. 18(9; 2d ed, 1XXO, New York:

      Randolph, n.d. |lxx()]. Dalmasjus .1. A. Dictionarium manuale biblicum. Aug.

      Yind., 1770, 2 vols. Davis. J. I). Dictionary of the Bihl,. Philadelphia,

      1X9X; new cd, 1903. Eadie, John. A Biblical Cyclopaedia. London: Rcl. Tr.

      Soc., ixlx; 14th ed, London: (irilfin. is, 3. East on. M. O. Illustrated Bible Dictionary. London:

      Nelson; New York: Methodist Book Concern. 1X93. Fairbairn. Patrick. The Imperial liihlc Dictionaru.

      London: Blackie, 1800. 2 vols. Farrar. John. .1 Biblical ami Theological Dictionary.

      London: Mason, 1852; new ed, London: "VVesl. Conf.

      Off., 18X0. Faussett. A. R. The Englishman s Bihlc Encyclopaedia.

      London: Hodder. 1878. Kepublished with title.

      Bihlc Cyclopaedia, Critical, and Expository. New York:

      Funk, 1891.

      Gardner, J. Christian Encyclopaedia. Edinburgh, n.d. Gebhardt, G. L. Bihlisehes \\\\Vorterb. Lemgo, 1793-90,

      3 vols.

      Goodhue, "VV. and Taylor, "VV. C. Pictorial Dictionary

      of th, Hoi, i Hihle. London, 1X4:5, 2 vols. Granbery, John C. Bible Dictionary. Nashville: So.

      Meth. Pub. Soc., 18X3. Green, south Biblical and Theol. Dictionary. London, 1840,


      Cuthe, H. Kurzcs Bibelworterbuch. 1903. llagen. Lexicon biblicum. Paris, 1905-, 4 vols (Roman

      Catholic). Hamburger. Realencyklop&die far Bihd und Talmud.

      New ed, 1890-97; 2 vols and 4 sup. vols (Jewish point

      of view). Hamburger, J. Biblisch-talmudisches Wortcrburh. Stro-

      litz, 1800. Hastings. Dictionary of the Bible. Edinburgh and New

      York. 1898-1902, 4 vols and sup. vol, 1904. 1-vol

      ed, 1909. Hastings, James, and others. Dictionary of Christ and

      the Gospels. New York: Scribner; Edinburgh: Clark.

      1900-8, 2 vols. Haupt, C. G. Bibl. Real-Encyklopadie. Quedlinb.,

      1820-27, 3 vols. Hezel, "VV. F. Biblisches Real-Lexikon. Leipzig, 1783-

      85, 3 vols. Hoffmann, A. C. All/em. Volks-Bibellexikon. Leipzig




      Hunter, R. Concise Bible Did. London: Cassell. 1S94.

      Iiiglis James. Bible Text Cyclopaedia. London: Houl- ston, 1801; new ed, Rel. Tr. Soc., 1865, Philadelphia: Lippincott. 1877.

      Jacobus, M. \\\\V. A Standard Bible Dictionary. New York: Funk, 1909.

      Jones, William. The. Biblical Cyclopaedia; or Dictionary of the Iluli/ Scripture*. London: Wightman, 1840; newed, Tegg, 1847; revised, 1873.

      Kitto John. Cyclopaedia uf Biblical Literature. 3d ed, ed Alexander. Edinburgh, 1802-05, 3 vols (best ed of Kitto . and after.

      Krehl. \\\\> utestamentl. Handu-Orterbuch. Gottingen, 185, .

      Lawson J P. Bible Cyclopaedia. London, 1849, 3 vols.

      Leun. F. G. Bibl. Encyklopadie. Gotha, 1793-98, 4 vols.

      Mat-bean, A. Dictionary of the Bible. London, 1779.

      Macpherson, John. The L nirersal Bible Dictionary. London: Hodder, 1892,

      Malcoin, Howard. \\\\ew Bible Dictionary. Boston: Gould; New York: Sheldon. 1852.

      Malcoin, II. Dictionary <>f the Hibl,\\\\ London. 1854.

      Oetinger, F. C. Biblisches U iirtcrh. Stuttgart. 1849.

      Oliver, P. Scripture Lexicon. Birmingham, 1784; Lon don. 1843.

      Otho, J. II. I. ex. Rabbi nico-philologicum. Geneva, 1075.

      Kand. \\\\V. west -1 Dictionary of the Holy Bible. New- York: Am. Tr. Soc., ii.d. [1859|: rev. ed. 1880.

      Ravanel, P. Bibliothera fiacra. Geneva. 1000.

      Rawson. A. L. The Bible Handbook^ fur Sunday Schools. 4th ed. New York: Thompson, 1870.

      Rechenberglus, A. Uierolexicon rente collectum. Leip zig und Frankfort, I/ 14. 2 vols.

      Rice Edwin west People s Dictionary of the Bible. Phila delphia: Am. southsouth T.. 1893.

      Riehm and Bathgen. Handicorterbuch des biblischen Alt,, -turns. Bielefeld. 1893-94. 2 vols.

      Roberts, Francis. Claris Bibliorum. 1075.

      Robinson, K. Dictionary of the Bible. New York: \\\\Vorthington, 18, 9.

      Schalf, Philip. -4 Dictionary of the Bible. Philadelphia: Am SS I ., 1880; 5thed, 1890.

      Schenkel. Bibel Lexikon. 1809-75, 5 vols.

      Schneider, M. C. F. U orlerb. ub. d. Bibel. Leipzig, 1795-1817. 4 vols.

      Simon, Richard. Grand dictionnaire de la Bibl,. Lyons,


      Smith. west Dictionary of the Bible. London, 1800-03, 3

      vols; 2d ed, Smith and Fuller, 1893. Smith, AY. Dictionary of tin Bibu . Boston, n.d., 4 vols.

      Smith. west Bible Dictionary. Acme ed. New York:

      Alden, 1885. Vigouroux. Dictionnaire de In Bible contenant tun* lex

      norns ile personnes, <ie lieux .... mentionnes duns l< .s

      s. Ecritures. Paris, 1895-.

      Vollbeding, J. C. Bibl. warterb. Berlin, 1800-1805, 3 vols. Watson. K. Bi/ilienl and / /,,,</. Dictionary. London,

      1831: New York, also Nashville.

      Wahl C. A. Bibl. Handworterb. Leipzig. 1828, 2 vols. Walbreeht, C. L. Bihli*ch. Wdrterbuch. Gottingen, 1837. Westeott. A., and Watt. J. Concise Bil l, Dictionary.

      London: Isbister, 1893. Wilson. T. Complete Christian Dictionary. London,

      1661. Winer, G. B. Biblisches Real u-ortcrb. 3d ed, 1M7-48,

      2 vois (still useful). Zeller, II. Biblisches WiJrterb. Stuttgart, 1855-58, 2


      Other recent one-vol. dictionaries are: Angus (190o, Bevis i 1900 , Gamble (1900), Kwing (1910), Hyamson < 1907j, Pierey ( 1908).

      Next ill importance for Bible students to tho Bible dictionaries arc ihc general diciioiiarics of religious knowledge. Many of the more recent 3. General of these, such as the Ilatick ed of it east Religious the new Sch-IIor/, Jew Enc, the Encyclo- ("dtholir Encyclopaedia, and in general paedias all the larger and some of the smaller

      recent ones have arts, of real impor tance for Bible study, often better than some of the specific Bible dictionaxies.


      Abbott, Lyman. .4 Dictionary of Religious Knowledge. New York: Harper, 1875.

      Addis, William east .4 Catholic Dictionary. New York: Cath. Pub. Soc. Co., 1884; 4th ed, revised, London: Paul, 1893.

      Aschbach. Kirchenle.rikon. n.p. 1840-51, 4 vols.

      Benham, William. Dictionary of Religion. London and New York: Cassell, 1887.

      Buchberger. Kirchliches Handlexikon. Miinchen, 1907 (short but comprehensive).

      Buck, Charles. A Theological Dictionary Enlarged by Dr. Henderson. London: Tegg, 1847; Am. ed, re vised and enlarged by George Bush; Philadelphia: Desilver, n.d.

      Ceccaroni, A. Dizionaro ecclesiastico illustrate, Milano.

      Owight. H. O., Tupper, H. O., Jr. and Bliss. east M. The Encyclopaedia of Minion*. New York, 1904.

      Eadie, J. The Ecclesiastical Encyclopaedia. London: Griffin. 1847; newed, 1875.

      Eden, Robert. The Churchman s Theological Dictionary. 2d ed, London: Parker, 1840; new ed, 1859.

      Encyclopaedia of Religious Knou-ledge, The: or. Dictionary of the Bible. The The Revelation. ed, Philadelphia: Claxton, 1870.

      Farrar, John. An Ecclesiastical Dictionary. London: Mason, 1.853. revised. 1871.

      Gardner, James. The Christian Encyclopaedia. London: Groombridge, 1854; new ed, 1858.

      Glaire, J. B. Dictionnaire universel des sciences ecclesi- astiques. Paris, 1808, 2 vols.

      Herbcrmann, Pace, Pollen, Shahan and Wynne. Catholic Encyclopaedia. New York, 1900-, 15 vols.

      Ilerzog. Realencyclo pailie fur protestantische Theologie u. Kirche. 1853-68, 21 vols; 3d ed, ed Hauck, 1896- 1908, 21 vols, tr north i-w York, 1908- (best of all eccle siastical dictionaries).

      Ilerzog, J. J. A Protestant, Theological, and Ecclesiastical Encyclopaedia. Yols I and II. Philadelphia: Lind say. 1858 00.

      Holtzmann and Zopffel. Lexikon far Tlirl<>r/ie. und

      Kirchenwexen. 2(1 ed. Brunswick. 1888 (Prot). Jackson, Samuel Macauley. Concise Dictionary of Reli-

      Ilious K ii nirle lue ami Gazetteer. New York: Christian

      Lit. Co.. 1890, 1891; 3d ed. New York: Maynard,

      1893. Jackson. south M. The Xeir Xchaff-IIrrzog. New York:

      Funk, I .IOS. s<|. (good and modern). Jewish Encyclopedia. New York, 1901-0. 12 vols (most

      scholarly). Liehtenhergcr. F. Diet, des sci. cccl. Paris, 1877-82,

      15 vols (French Protestant). MeClintock. John ami Strong, James. Cyclopaedia of

      Biblical. Theological, and Ecclesiastical Literature. 10

      vols. Xew York: Harper, 1807-81. With sup. in

      2 vols, 1890. Marsden, J. B. .4 Dictionary of Christian Churches and

      Sects. London: Bent ley, 1857. Migne. Enc yd. theoloyique. Paris, 1844-75 (over 100

      special lexicons). Moroni. Dizionnrio di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica,

      Venice, 1840-79, 103 vols, and Index, vols.

      Among the older ones the huge encyclopaedia of Migne, which is a classified series of alphabetical dictionaries, and the Moroni, with its 109 vols, are still of great usefulness to the scholar on out-of- the-way topics, not so much for Bib. topics but at least for Bib. related matters.

      Perthes. Handlcrikon fiir evanyelische Thcol. Gotha,

      1890-1901. 3 vols. Robinson. John. Theological, Bib/in, I and Ecclesiastical

      Dictionary. London: \\\\Yhittakcr.l815; 4th ed, 1835. Schaff, Philip and Jackson, Samuel Macauley. .1 Rr-

      ligious Encyclopaedia. New York: Christian Lit. Co.,

      Iss2; 3d ed, New York: Funk, 1891. Together with

      an Enci/clopniilia of Lirini] Dirincx. etc. Schaffer. llandlcxikon tier kath. T/ieo/oi/ie. Ratisbon,

      1881-91, 3 vols. Schiele. Die Relii/inn in Geschichte und Gegenwart.

      Tiibingen. 1909 . 5 vols.

      Shipley, Orby. .1 (ll<iss<iry of Ecclesiastical Forms. Lon don : Rivingtons, 1871. Staunton, William. An Ecclesiastical Dictionary, New

      York: Prot, Ep. southsouth U.. 1801. Vacant and Mangenot. Dictionnaire de. theologie catho-

      lique. Paris. I903-. Wetzer and \\\\Yelte. Kirchenlexicon. Freiburg, 1847-

      00; 2d ed. 1880-91. 13 vols, and index, 1903 (Roman

      Catholic scion tide best).

      The monumental dictionary in this class super seding all others is Hastings Encyclopaedia of Re- lii/ion and Ethics, but Forlong has 4. Diction- served a useful purpose and some of the aries of special dictionaries like Roscher arc

      Compara- Quite in the same class with Hastings.


      Balfour, east Cyclopaedia of India, and of east and So. Asia. 3d ed, London, 1885, 3 vols.

      Beale, Th. west Oriental Biographical Dictionary. Cal cutta, 1881; London, 1894.

      Brewer, east C. Dictionary of Phrase and Fable. London, 1905.

      Encyclopaedia of Islam. London: Luzac.

      Forlong, J. G. R. Faiths of Man; a Cyclopaedia of Re ligions. London, 1906, 3 vols.

      Hastings, James. Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics. Edinburgh, Clark; New York, Scribner, 1908 .

      Hazlitt, west C. Faiths and Folklore; a Dictionary oj National Beliefs. London, 1905.

      Hughes, T. P. Dictionary of Islam. London, 1885.



      The admirable Jewish and Catholic, encyclo paedias mentioned above, like the Methodist Al Clintock and Strong, belong rather 5. Denom- to general than denominational en- inational cyclopaedias, but the Catholic. die- Dictionaries tionaries of Addi.s and of Thien are denominational in the same sense as those of the Episcopal, Lutheran, etc, churches, mentioned below, among which perhaps the best executed example is the Lutheran Encyclopaedia of Jacobs.


      Addis, west K. ,1 Catholic Dictinnanj, 3d cd, New York,

      L884. Benton, A. A. The Church C i/rloimi-itin. Philadelphia,

      1 s.s 1 . Burgess, O. A. Free iin/itixt Cyclopaedia. Chicago:

      I- rce liapt . Cyclop. Co.. 18,89. Cai.hcart., Win. Tin- linptist Encijcl/>im, di/i. Philadel

      phia, issi, 2 vols. Cntholi, Encyclopaedia. New York, 11107 s |. Set

      General Religious Encyclopaedias. Hook, Waller F. .1 Chroniclesurch Dictionary. Philadelphia:

      Butler, is.-,:}; 7th ed. Tibl.als, 1875. .lacohs, II. K. and Haas. J. A. west / /,< Lutheran Cyclo-

      iii-iliii. north ew York, 1905. Jewish !: "i-ifi-lo /a i/ni. See General Theological Kacy-

      clopacdias. Xevin. A. Encyclopaedia of the Presbyterian Clmn-h in

      (he United State* of America. Philadelphia, ls-,1. Simpson, M. ( ycli>i>a> din of Mrtlmdixm. Philadelphia,

      ! S7S.

      Them, .1. Eccletinsticnl Dictionary. New York, 1900 (.Human ( at hollo.


      ii I.-TOHY

      Blunt. J. II. Dicti

      1892. Blunt, .1. IT. Dictionary of Doctrinal and Historical

      Theology. Philadelphia, 1.S70. Brewer, K. C. .1 Dictionary of Miracle*. Philadelphia,

      issi. Brodrick, M. Concise Dictinnnr:/ /if E/iyptinn Archacol.

      London. 1902. Cabrol. Dictionnaire d archeologie chretienne ct /lc litur-

      gi, . Paris. 11107 . Chevalier, I l. lie in-rtnirc /lex sources l/i*t. /In mnyrn-<: /i .

      Bio-bibliog. Paris. 1905 7.

      ki /a rtoire ,/,.< sources historiqurs t/ moyen-age,

      Topo-bibliog. Montbeliard, 1894 1903, 2 vols. Fahricius, .1. A. liihlintln ,-n Intinn mediae it infimae

      aetatis. Patavii, 1754, G vols in 3. Julian. .1. I d. .1 Dictionary of II i/mn/il/nrj. New York,

      1892. Kraus. Real-Encyklopadie der chriatlichcn Matthewcrthiimer.

      Freiburg i. Br., 1.882 stl. 2 \\\\-ols. Lee. F. (i. .-1 Glossary of Litnr//ir,il an/l Ecclc*in>itirnl

      Ti rrns. London, ls7i . Martigny. Dietinnnnirr dix nntinuitfx chretien HC*. 2d

      ed, Paris, is77. Pauly. Krnlenciik. di-r klaxx. Altertumswissenschaft.

      St ut t Karl. lM-_> (id. (i vols; ed Wissowa, 1894 and

      later. Roscher, west II. Lei-ikon der griechischen und rinntxrhen

      Matin , Ion,, . Leipzig. 1884-1902. 5 vols.

      Smith, Will. Dietion/ii- / nf Greek ami Koinnn lii/n/rapli i/

      and Mythology. Boston. IsHl. :>, vols. Smith, Will. />ii-tiiiii(iri/ of Grcrk and Roman (irinjraphn.

      Boston, isr.l -57, 2 vols. Smith, Sir William. Wayte, William, and Marindiu, (..

      L. Dictionary of Greek and liomnn Atttiquilie*. M

      ed, enl. J>ondon: Murray; Boston: Little, is; HI ill.

      2 vols. Smith. west and Cheetham, .1 Diction, in/ ,,f Chri^ti/in

      Antiquities. Boston, 1S75-1880, 2 vols. Smith, west and Wace. 11^ .1 Dictinnnnj <>f Christian

      l-iioi/rn i,hi/. Boston, 1S77-87, 4 vols; abridged ed by

      Wace and Piercy. 11)1 1.

      Stadler and Ileim. Heiligenlexikon. IS.Vs S2. 5 vols. Wolcott, Mackenzie east C. Xucrcd Archaeology. Lon

      don: Reeve, isd.s.

      What has been said of general religious ency clopaedias applies almost equally to Bib. articles

      in the good general encyclopaedias. 6. Univer- Among these the Encyclopaedia Bri- sal Ency- tminiai, of which a new ed appeared clopaedias in 11)11, is easily first, and has main

      tained through its many edd a high standard. The previous ed was edited by Professor Robertson Smith, who gave; a peculiarly high quality of scholarship to its I5il>. articles, while at the same time rather tingeing them with extreme views.

      Among the British encyclopaedias, Chambers is still kept up to a high standard. The recent Ameri can edd include the Ni w International, the Nelson, and the Americana, the former, perhaps, contribut ing most on Bible matters. The annual supple ment to the International gives a useful resume of the progress of Bib. archaeology during each year.


      .1 mer-ica <md Kni/hnid

      Adams, Charles Kendall. Universal CitrJ/ipncdia and

      Atlas. New York: Appleton. 1905. 12 vols. American Cyclopaedia. north ew York, 1S5S-I:4. Id vols;

      new ed. Is7:i 7d (" Apploton s encyclopaedia"). Chambers. Kphraim. ( i/i-l/i/im din. London, 1728. Chambers K nci//-l/>i>/irdi<i. London, LSdO-dS, ]() vols;

      new ed. 11)01. Colby, Frank Moore. X/ Ison s Knci/clopacdin. (c 11K).~>-

      (i), 12 vols. f: /a- 1// -IO/HII ilia Americana. New York: The Americana

      Co. (c 11)0:5-4). Id vols. Encyclopaedia Britannica. 1771; Oth ed. 1875-80. 20

      vols and Index, sup.. II vols, I ndex and at las. li)i)2-:j;

      llth ed, Cambridge, Kngland. 11)10-11.28 vols. (iilmaii. I).

      York: Dodd. 11)07 (c 1002 7), 20 vols. Hunter. Encyclopaedic Dictionary. London, north ew York,

      1S70-88, 7 vols. Johnsons New Universal Encyc. New York, 1874-78.

      4 vols; new ed. 181):?-1I5, ,s vols. Knight. Kn/ilixh Cyclopedia. London, 1854-73, 27

      vols, 4 sup.

      New International Ytr Book. New York: Dodd, 1008-. Kees. New Encyclopaedia. London. 1802-20. 45 vols. Schem. Dcntxch-nmrriknnixclirx Romans rrxalinn.t-Lcx. Now

      York, 1870-74.

      Smedley (Coleridge?). Encyclopaedia Metropolitana. 1818-45, 30 vols (classed with some alphabetical .sec tions; .


      Bayle. Diet, liixtorii/itc rt critique. Rotterdam, 1(11)5-

      07 (very widely circulated). Bert helot, Derenbourg and others. La t/rande ency-

      (/.(/(//(. See below.

      Corneille, Thomas. [Diet.] Paris, 1C.04. liii t inn iniirr ilr In conversation < : t ile lii lecture. 185158,

      Id vols. Diderot, and D Alembert. Eci/clo] die. Paris, 1751

      52. 28 vols; 5 sup. vols. Amsterdam, 177d 77; 2 vols

      Index, Paris, 1780.

      (Also Voltaire. Uousscau. etc. This is in the history

      of diet ionary encyclopaedias " the encyclopaedia " par

      excellence and epoch-making in I he history of "free

      thought." Many edd; 1st ed. 30,000 copies.) Enc>/rt<>i>cdir r/rx gens /In monde. 1833-45, 22 vols. Encyclopedic //>< XIX siecle. 1837-50, 75 vols; 3d ed,

      1867 i 2. Continues as Annuaire encyc. Encyclopedic moderne. 184(1 51; new ed, 185(1-72, 30

      vols, 12 sup. vols, atlas, 2 vols. Furetiere. [ Diet. ] Rotterdam, 1690. (intndr , ncn,-l,, } ifdi< . Paris: Lainirault, 1885-1003, 31

      \\\\ols (known as Lamirault si. Larousse. !>!<!. univ., isd.l 00, I/ vols: IK>W ed, 1895.

      . Diet, complet illustre. 120th ed, 1003. Moerill. (irnnd diet, h i.^/orii/ u( . L\\\\ OI1S, 1(>74. Nouveau Larousse illustre. I aris. 1898 1904, 8 vols. PanckoilCke and Agasse. Eno/i-lo/u dif mi th/n/ir/ur.

      Paris. I782-1S32. Kid vols, text, 51 vols, illus. (classed

      -alphabetic method like Miguel.


      All</i mi i uf Realencyklopadie fiir dux knthnlixche Dcutsch-

      l/ind. 184(i-49, 13 vols; 4th ed, 1880-90. Brockhaus. Konversationslexikon. 14thed, 1901 (B. and

      Meyer are the standard (ierrnan encyclopaedias). Ersch and Gruber. Allncmrine encyklopadie. 1813-90,

      90 +43 +.25 vols (scholarly and exhaustive; many arts.

      are complete treatisesi. Herder. Konversationslexikon. Freiburg. 1853-57, 5

      \\\\ols; 3d ed, 1901-8, 8 vols (Roman Catholic; high

      grade). Hiibner. Rralcx-, Slant*-, Zcituni/x- und Konrcrsalions-

      Lciikon; 31st. ed, Leipzig. 1824-28. Jablonski. Lrxikon. . . . Leip/ig, 1721. Kiister and Roos. [En<-nr.\\\\ Frankfort. 1778-1804, 23

      vols (stops at " Kinol";. Kriinit/ land others]. Orkonomisch-technolo/j. Enajkl.

      Berlin, 1773-1858, 242 vols. Ludewig, Y. .). von. Grtmxcx, vollstandiges, I nirrrftal-

      Leiikim. Leip/Jg, 1 7: , 1 -54. (18 vols C /edler," which

      was publisher s name; most admirable and still useful;

      on account of the vast number of topics it often serves

      when all other sources fail). Meyer. Konoersations-lexikon. Leipzig, 1840-52, 37

      vols; Oth ed, 1902, 20 vols; 7th ed, abridged, 1907,

      (i vols (Meyer and Brockhaus are the standard German

      encyclopaedias). Pierer. Universallexikon. 7th ed, 1888-93, 12 vols.




      BMTi. Encyclopedia po polar e. economica. Milan, 1871. Coronelli. Bibliotcca un-icersalc. Venice, 1701, 7 vols

      (incomplete). Lcssona and V r alle. Dizionario universale. Milan, 1874

      83. A worn aide, pupulure italiano. Turin, 184151, 14 vols;

      Oth eel, 1S75-JS9, 25 vols, sup., 1889-99. Piccola cncidopedia Ilut-pli. Milan, 1891.

      Z>c alycmecnc \\\\cdcrlandsche Encyclopedic, Ziitplien, 1SO;5-08, 15 vols.

      Lobel. \\\\Encyc.} Amsterdam, 17 .)0-]810 ("first enc according to inodrrn ideas").

      Mollerup. Nordixk Konversationsleksikon. 3d ed, Co penhagen. 1883-94.

      Nieuwenhuis \\\\Voordc.nboek. Leyden, 1S51-08.

      Sijthoii . \\\\Voordeiibock voor Km/tts en Kunst. Leyden, 1891.

      Winkler Prins. Gc iUuxiri-i-rdc Encyclopedic. Amster dam, 1U05, sq. lid ed.

      Meijer. Kunverxati iiiislekxi kon. ISXO-OI.

      Brockhaus and KCron. Kntc.iklopedicheskij Sloeai. St.

      Petersburg, 1890-1902. 35 vols. Jushakow. Boljunja E/tdklopi dija. St. Pet .Tsburg,


      Sikoroski, Warsaw, 1890. Orgelbrand. Encjklopedya Powxzeclma. Warsaw, 1859-

      08, 2>south vols.


      Blangstrup. ,s7o/v Illustererede Konverisationxlekxikoii.

      Copenhagen, 1891-1001, 12 vols. Johiisen, \\\\ursk I! nan, (I, o,]. 1879-88. Nordivl; Fn miljthok; Km, versationslexikon. Stockholm,

      187(5-99, 20 vols. Salmonsen. Store Illuxtrcredc Konversationsleksikon.

      Kjobenhavii, 1893-1007, 18 vols.

      Dicrionario Popular /fist. Geo/jr. .If ytholoy. Bioyraph. Lis-

      l)on, 187(5-90, 1(5 vols. Encyclopedia L in rtrvul Illustrada Europeo- Americana.

      Barcelona, 1907- (Catliolici. Costa. Diccionario Universal I nrt III/HCZ. Lrinos. Enriclapcilia Portnyucza Illnstrada. 251 I1OS. to

      1903. Mellados. Encyclopedia moderna. Madrid, 1848-51,34

      vols; 3 vols of charts. Montaner y Si/non. Diccionario Endc llispano- Ameri-

      canu. Barcelona, 1887-09, 25 vols.

      Arabian Encyc. Discontinued when it reached the 9th

      vol. Beirut, 187(1-87. Enciclop. Rumand. HeiTinannstadt , 189(5-190: ., 3 vols


      Kober. Slovnik Xancny. Prague, 1800-87, 12 vols. Otto. Ottin- Slnr/iik Nancny. Prague, 1888-1901, 17

      vols. Pallas Nagy Lexikona. Budapest, 1893-97, 16 vols; sup.


      The dictionaries of philosophy of ton bear on Bible study almost as much as the religious dic tionaries. Baldwin s Dictionary of 7. Diction- Philosophy and Psychology, which is aries of the most comprehensive work, is also

      Philosophy very full in its bibliographical refer ence, and has in vols III and IV a colossal bibliography of philosophy continued and kept up to date in the Psychological Index. The dictionary of Eisler is on the historical principle and of very groat importance in interpreting the doctrines of Bib. theology.


      Baldwin, .1. M. Dictionary of Pliilosoplnj and Psychology,

      New York, 1901 sq. Eisler, R. Philosophisches H drierbucli. Berlin, 1904,

      2 vols; new ed, 3 vols. Frank. Dictionnairc des sciences philosophiques. 3d ed,


      The dictionaries of architecture often treat of Egyp, Bab, and sometimes Palestinian matters.

      The dictionaries of painting, engraving, music, etc, have less direct matter but are important and neces sary in view of the fact that so large a part of the

      best work is on Bib. themes. 8. Diction-

      f 1 : ART

      aries of Art

      and Mn^ir Architectural Publication Society. Dic tionary of Architecture. London, 1852- 92, vols.

      Bryan, Michael. Bryan s Dictionary of Painters and En- urarers. New ed. London: Bell, 1 903-5, 5 vols.

      Champlin, John Denison, Jr. Cyclopedia of Painters and Painting. New York: Scribner, 1892 (c 1885-87), 4 vols.

      Clement, Mrs. Clara Erskinc. Handbook of Christian Symbols.

      Gwilt, Joseph. Encyclopaedia of Architecture. New ed. London: Longmans, 1888.

      James, Ralph north Painters and Their Works. London, 1896.

      M tiller, Hermann Alexander. Allgemeines Kunstler- lexicon. 3d ed. Frankfurt a. M., 1895-1901, 5 vols.

      Nagler, G. K. Xeues alli/emeines Kunstlerlexikon. 2. Aufl. Linz., 1904-7, vols 1-10.

      Seubert. Allyemeines Kunstlerlex. Frankfurt, 1879, 3 vols.

      Sturgis, Russell. Dictionary of Architecture and Build ing. New York: Macmillan, 1901, 3 vols.

      Thieme, ririch, and Becker, Felix. Allycmcines Lexi kon der bildcnden Kilnstlcr. Leipzig, 1907.

      Viollet-le-Duc, Eugene Emmanuel. Dictionnaire rai- sonne de I architecture. Paris, 1868, 10 vols.

      Baker, Theodore. Biographical Dictionary of Musicians.

      New York: Schirmer, 1900. Champlin, John Denison, Jr. Cyclopedia of Music and

      Musicians. New York: Scribner, 1893. Eitner, R. Biog-bibliog. Lexikon d. Musiker. Leipzig,

      1900-4, 10 vols. Ffitis, Francois Joseph. Bioi/raphie unirerselle dcs mn-

      siciens. 2d ed. Paris, 1860-66, 8 vols; 2d sup.

      1875-81. Grove, George. Dictionary of Music. London: 1878-

      89, 4 vols and sup. 2d ed by J. A. Fuller Maitland,

      1905. Kornmiiller. Lexikon der kirchlichen Tonkunst. 2d ed.

      Ratisbon. 1891-95, 2 vols. Mendel and Reissmann. Musikalisches Konversations-

      Icxikon. Berlin, 1870-83, 12 vols and sup. Riemann, Hugo. Mnnik-Lexikon. 4th ed, 1894. . Dictionary of Music. London [1899].

      Many of these bear occasionally or indirectly on Bib. topics.


      9. Diction- Birkmeyer. Encykl. der Rechtswissenschaft. aries of Berlin, 1901.

      Qr^Jol Bliss, William Dwight Porter. New Ency

      clopedia of Social Reform. New York:

      Science Funk, 1908.

      Bluntscllli. Dcutschps Staatsworterbuch.

      1857-70, 2 vols; new ed, 1869-74, 3 vols. Brud(T. Htaats-Lesikon <>f tin- (lijrres Xin-iety. Freiburg

      i. Br., 1889-07, 5 vols; 4th ed, ed Bachcm, 1008-

      ( Roman Catholic). Buisson, F. Dictionnaire de pedagogie. Paris, 1882, 4

      vols. Conrad, J. Handirorterbuch der Staatsicissenschaften.

      Jena, 189S sq. 3d ed to Vol XV IIl (1911). Conrad. Elster, Lexis and Loening. llandmorterbuch

      der Staatswissenschaften. 1889-98, vols; 2 sup.

      vols. Cyclopaedia of Temperance and Prohibition. New York:

      Funk, 1891. Elster. Wortcrbuch der Volkswirtschaft, 1808, 2 vols;

      2d ed, 1907-. Fay and Chailley. Nouneau dirt, d economie politique.

      Paris: 1891-92, 2 vols. Ilolt/endorff, F. von. Encyk. der Rechtswissenschaft.

      (5th ed, 1903-. Lalor, J. J. Cyclopaedia of Political Science. New York,

      1889-90, 3 vols. Palgrave, R. H. I. Dictionary of Political Economy.

      London, 1894-96, 3 vols. Reichesberg. Ilandworterbuch der schiveizer. Volks-

      u irtschaft. 1901. Rotteck and Welcker. Staatslex. Altona, 1835-44, 15

      vols; 3d ed, 185(5-66, 14 vols.

      Schmid, K. A. Encyclopadie d. Erziehunt/siresens. Gotlia. Sonneiischein, west south Cyclopaedia of Education, arr. and

      ed. by A. west Fletcher, Syracuse, 1899. Wagener, II. Ktaats- und Gesellschafts-Lex. Berlin,

      ] 859-08, 20 vols.

      The modern gazetteers are indispensable for identifications.

      Dictionaries Dionysia



      M o i) F. it \\\\ c; A 7, I:TT F. K us

      Chisholm, (leorgc (ioudic. LOIKJ man* <i(i:ittt tr of the. Worlil. LoiHlon, 1902.

      Hunter. \\\\Y. \\\\V. Imperial Gazetteer of 10 Diction- India. London, 1881, <J vols. aripc; n f Lippincotf* \\\\cir Gazetteer. Plliladelphia:

      Lippincott, I .KHi.

      Geography A>,, / .- ueouraphisch-xtatixtische* Lexikon. !). umgeurb. Anil. Leipzig. I .)().""> f>. 2 vols. Vivien <lr Saint Martin, Louis. \\\\uurcau dictionnaire tie tjiiujrii iilin- uniccrselle. I aris, Is79- .l5, 7 vols.

      Tin great modern biographical dictionaries, al- though of lit lie use for Scripture names, are of much

      value to the Bib. student for ihe \\\\vrit- 11. Bio- inns on Bib. subjects, and in t he ease graphical of ancient biography, of much value Diction- for contemporary persons in other aries lands.

      An. Anton Jacobus van der. Kii>nrai>hisch Woorden- bnck de.r \\\\eilerlamlrr. Haarlem. isr<> 7S. :> t vols.

      Academic royale dc Uelido,uc. liini/rn /i/iii- nutiniuilc. Hruxelles. ISfifi- I .107. vols I I .).

      Alli/i iiifin, denUciie liioarai>hie. l.eip/ig, 1S75-1 .)()( >, 52 vols.

      Allyeineini deutxche Biographic. Leip/ig: Dunckcr. 1875- I .ioo, ir> vols.

      Allibonc, south A. .1 Critical Dictionary of Entilixh Litera ture. Philadelphia, 1-.7O 72. :; vols; Is .tl. 2 vols.

      Appleton s ( ijrluiiacilia f A nn-rii-iin lii n,,ra /)//.(/, cd. by .]. O. Wilson. New south ork: Appleton, ISSS-l .(((), 7 vols.

      K-i<><ir,itiL t Lexikon ofver namnkunnitje scenske Man. Stockholm. ls7 -I. :. :; \\\\ ols.

      liiouraiihixclii K Juhrhuch und deutscher Xekroloa. Berlin, l.v.)7 I .ioi 1 ,. 9 vols.

      Bricka, Carl Krcderik. Lexikon. 1SN7- 1905, ! . vols.

      Century Cuclopeilia "./" Xnme*. cd. by It. K. Smith. New- York: < Vnl nry ( o. (c I v.l 1 1.

      Dii-tiiinarn of National liiiiijra phij, cd. by Leslie Slcphcn. London: Smith; Xew York: .Macmillan, ISS5 I JOO,

      <>:< vols.

      Keller, K. X. de. Biographic unirerorJle on diction naire

      historiqur. I aris. 1X-1-50. south vols in t. (Jiles, Herbert Allen. .1 Chroniclesinese iiioijra iilii<;il Diction-

      arii. London: (^niirilcli. isns.

      Glasius, IS. (.ipdeleerd \\\\e<terland. isr>l -.-><i, :; vols. llocfci 1 . Ferdinand. Noutelle liioi/ni iihic unirerselle.

      I aris: Didot. l.s.">^- (iti. -Hi vols. TlofbelV. Herman. tiernxkt l,i:i,!r,:ll-<!;t II, null, .ri/;<> n .

      Stockholm, 1 !>()(>. vols I _ . Jocchcr. O. G. Alluemeitics Gelehrten- Lexikon. Lcip-

      /iii. 17.">0 51. Lfiml, * Biiiuraphictil Dictionary ,,f thi- United States.

      Boston. 1 1100- l .H, 7 vols. Midland. Joseph l- nmcoi.s. Jii:></r<! /i/iie unieerselle.

      I aris. |SlL> C>.-,. -I. ) vols. National Cyclopaedia of American Biography. Xew

      York: White, ls.)i>-T.i()(i, i: . vols. SchalV and Ja<-kson. Encyclopedia of I.irin i Divines ami

      Christian Workers. New York. 1SS7. Yapcrcau. L. (i. Diction nnir<- uninerxel il<-x littfrntrxrx.

      Paris, Is7ii. Vaperi au. Dirtimi /un n- d -x contemporains. Paris, is. i.s;

      (ith cd, is 1 .*:;: sup. is 1 .).".. . Dictionnaire des litterateurs. ls7f>; -Jd cd,

      1SS4. Wurzbach, O. von. Rii>,iravhi$clir* Lexikon Oesterreichs.

      ls.-)C>- .)i, no vols. . Biographisches Lexikon den Kaiserthums Ite.-i-

      terreichs. Wicn: Zamarski, 1S5(> -1)1 , (H) \\\\ ols.

      The lexicons of the Rib. languages and versions are treated tinder the head of the respective lan guages. The chief dictionaries in 12. Diction- Eng. are the great Murray and the aries of encyclopaedic Century. The best one- Language vol dictionaries are perhaps the titdtul- urtl and the last ed of Webster.


      Brown, F., Driver, south U., Brings, C. A. .1 Hcbrcn- and Kn iiixh Lexicon of the O l . Boston. 100(1.

      Thayer, ,1. II. A Greek-Enf/lish Lexicon of the NT. New York, 1SS7: corrected cd, lss<>.

      Century-Dictionary, tin Encyclopedic T^ .ricon . Xev York: Century Co. ( c iss-.i-l .tui I, vols.

      Murray, James Augustus llcnr. ( Diction ary on Jlislitririil Principles. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1SS8-.

      Standard Dictionary uf the English Language. New York: Funk.

      Stor month s Dictionary of the English Language. New York: Scribncr, 1S90.

      Webster, Noah. I international Dictionary of the English

      Lantiiiaijf. Springlk-ld (Mass.), 1891 (c 1804-90);

      new ed, I JO .i. \\\\\\\\ orcester. Joseph Emerson. Dictionary of the English

      I.niii/uai/c. New ed, enl. Philadelphia: Lippincott,


      The art. "Dictionary in the new Enc Brit tilth ed) covers the whole matter of dictionaries of language with extraordinary fulness.


      DIDACHE, did a-ke. See I..ITI-:HATI:KK, Suu- APOSTOLIC.

      DIDRACHMA, dl-drak ma: Two drachmas. See DHACIIMA, DRAM.

      DIDYMUS, did i-mus (AiSujios, Dnlnmos, i.e. "twin"j : The surname of THOMAS ((j.v.).

      DIE (T ^ C , ninth, ^"*5 , (/aim*; aTro9vT|<rKa), cipo- thni sko, TeXevTdco, telcutdo) . "To die," etc, is of very frequent occurrence, and in the OT is general ly the 1r of -in ill h, meaning ])erhaps originally, "to be stretched out" or "prosl rate. "To die," should be the consequence of eating the forbidden fruit iCen 2 17; cf 20 7; 2 Kings 1 *\\\\.(>). "Die" is coni- monly used of nahirtil ilni Ji (C .en 5 south; 25 south). It is used also of riu/nil duilh (Cen 26 0.11; Kx 21 20); punitive (K\\\\ 19 12; 21 12.1-t; 28 -43; Numbers 4 15; K/,k 3 1 SamuelIT); ax the result of -u-ilfiilncss or indif- fcrence (Prov 10 21; 15 K); 19 Hi). To die "the i/i alii of tfir ri(/litc<mn" is something to be desired 1X11 23 10).

      In the XT the word for "to die," etc, is generally fi/iul/iiicx/co, "to die off or away," used of dying in all forms: of nnliinil i/i-nllt (Ml 22 24); of violent ilmlh (.In 11 f>0..">l; 197; Acts 25 11); of the ili nth of Christ (.In 12 !:>); of death as the consc- i/iK-nci- of .s//i (.In 8 21.24; Horn 8 13); tclcnlao, "to end [life]," also occurs several times (Matthew 15 4) ; /hnfslco, "to die," occurs once (John 11 21), and n/>nllnnn\\\\ "to destroy" (John 18 14); in Acts 25 16 ( TR) \\\\ve ha\\\\ e < is <i/>ul< i<ni, "to destruction."

      The figurative use of "to die" is not frequent, if indeed it ever occurs. In 1 Samuel 25 37 it may be equivalent to "faint ," "1 1 is heart died Figurative wil hin him, and he became as a stone," Use but t his may be meant literally. In Am

      2 2 it is said that Moab "shall die," i.e. perish as a nation. Paul describes the condition of the apostles of Christ as "dying, and behold, \\\\ve live" (2 Corinthians 6 .)), and says, "I die daily" (1 Corinthians 15 31), but the references may be to exposure to death. When in Horn 7 9 he says, "When the commandment came .... I died," he may mean that it rendered him liable to death. In Horn 6 2 we have "we who died to sin," i.e. in Christ, and in our acceptance of His death as representing ours; similarly we read in 2 Corinthians 5 14, "One died for all, therefore all died" (KY), i.e. representatively, and in Colossians 2 20 "if ye died with Christ"; 3 3, "for ye died," RV (in Christ). Cf 2 Tim 2 11; 1 IVt 2 24.

      Of the changes in RV may bo mentioned "abode" for "died" ((leu 25 18, in " or settled. Hob fell") ; "lie that is to die" for "worthy of death" (Deuteronomy 17 0) ; "died" for "are dead" (.In 6 49. 5S. and ARV 8 52.5:1); "though he die" for "were dead" (John 11 25); "many died" for "were dead" (Romans 5 15); "died for nought" for "in vain" ((ial 2 21 i: " when his end was nigh" for " died " (He 11 22). of special importance are the changes from "be. are, were, dead" in Kom 6 2.7.south; 2 Corinthians 5 14; Ool 2 20; 3 :i; 2 Tim 2 11, and "having died" for "being dead" in 1 Pet 2 24. as bringing out the truth that in the sight of God all men died in Christ. See also DEATH.

      west L. WALKER

      DIET, dT et (PirP.X , ciruhdh, "prescribed"): A daily allowance or portion of food, as that given by King Evil-merodach to Jehoiachin, king of Judah (Jeremiah 52 34 AV; cf 2 Kings 25 30).



      DIG (Tip , kur, "to dig", ^PH , hathar; Siopvo-o-to, diorusso, "to dig through"): "I have digged and drunk strange waters" (2 Kings 19 24). In his cam paigns on foreign soil, where the enemy had stopped up the watersprings, Sennacherib would at once dig fresh wells for his armies. "They dig through houses" (Job 24 16; cf Alt 6 19.20m). Walls of eastern houses are often made of mud or clay, and frequently have no windows; and as the thresh old of a Syrian house is sacred, the thief breaks in through the wall (see Trumbull, The Threshold Covenant). M. (). EVANS

      DIGNITIES, dig ni-tiz, DIGNITY, dig ni-ti (Hebrews marom, s r cth, g dhulldh): Rank or position, not nobility or austerity of personal character or bearing, is denoted by this word in its OT occur rences (Genesis 49 3; Est 6 3; Eccl 10 6; Hab 1 7). In 2 Pet 2 10; Jude ver south "dignities" (S6cu, doxai) are angels, lofty spiritual beings, possible objects of blasphemy; cf the context in both pas sages.

      DIKE, di ke (Stioi, dike, "justice"): The aveng ing justice of God personified as a goddess (Acts 28 4). See JVSTICK.

      DIKLAH, dik lii (rV:p~ , diklah , place of palms") : One of the "sons" of Joktan (den 10 27; 1 Chronicles 1 21). Perhaps a south-Arabian tribal or place-name connected with a palm-bearing district.

      DILEAN, dil e-an ("^Vl, dil an, "cucumber"): \\\\ town in the She]>helah of Judah named with Mig- dal-gad and Mizpeh (Joshus 15 38, EHV "Dilan"), which lay probably on the north of Lachish and Eglon. It has not been identified.


      LY, dil i-jent-li: This word is used in various senses in our Eng. Bible.

      In Ezra 5 8, "with diligence" means "with care";

      in Ezra 6 12; 7 17, "with speed," "speedily"; in

      Prov 4 23 "watchfulness"; in Deuteronomy 4

      1. In the 9; 6 17; 19 18; Psalm 77 6; Prov 27 OT 23; Isaiah 65 2; Mic 7 3, "with care."

      "scrupulously," "earnestly." Some times it means "early," "with haste" (Job 8 5; Prov 8 17). It may mean "industrious," "exact ing" (Prov 10 4; 12 27; 22 29).

      The American revisers have rendered "diligence" for various words in AV, e.g. for "business" in

      Romans 12 11; "giving diligence" for

      2. In the "endeavoring" (Ephesians 4 3); "give dili- NT gence" for "study" (2 Tim 2 15), for

      "labor" (He 4 11); "diligently" for "carefully" (Phil 2 28; He 12 17); "be diligent in" for "meditate upon" (1 Tim 4 15). It is well also to remember that the Old Eng. meaning of diligence is "with love," from diliyo, "to love."


      DILL. See AXISK.

      DIMINISH, di-min ish: RV has retained nearly all passages of AV where "to diminish" is used. Some; of these uses have become obsolete: Deuteronomy 4 2, "neither shall ye diminish from it." "Diminish" generally means "to reduce," "to lessen." In this sense it is employed in Ezekiel 5 11 from the Hebrews y?3 , gara*, lit. "to shear." The picture of shearing the beard, expressing degradation and loss of man hood, may underlie this passage.

      DIMNAH, dim nil (Hy E n, dimndh, "dung"; Aajivd, Damnd): A city of the Merarite Levites in the territory of Zebulun (Joshus 21 35). The name is probably a clerical error for Rimmon.

      DIMON, dl mon, DIMONAH, di-mo na. See DIBON.

      DINAH, dl na ("pi, dlndh, "justice"): The daughter of Jacob and Leah, whose violation by Shechem, son of Humor, caused her brothers, esp. Simeon and Levi, to slay the inhabitants of Shechem, although they had induced the Shechernites to be lieve, if they would submit to circumcision, Shechem, the most honored of all the house of his father, would be permitted to have the maiden to whom his soul clave for wife (Genesis 34 1-31). The political elements of the story (cf vs 21-23 and 30) suggest a tribal rather than a personal significance for the narrative. NATHAN ISAACS

      DINAITES, di na-its (X" 1 :^ , din //<" ): A people mentioned in Ezra 4 9, as settled in the city of Sa maria by Osnappar (Assurbanipal) . The identifi cation is uncertain.

      DINHABAH, din ha-ba, din-ha ba (ran: 1 ! , din- hublidh): The royal citv of Bela, son of Beor, king of Edom (Genesis 36 32;" 1 Chronicles 1 43). There may be a resemblance in the name of Hodbat ct-Tcnt /!>, about south miles east of Ileshbon; but this is in the land of Moab, and probably much too far to the north No satisfactory identification has been proposed.

      DINNER, din er (apio-rov, drislon; Matthew 22 4; Luke 11 38 [RVm "breakfast"]; 14 12; cf Ruth 2 14; John 21 13): In oriental as in classical lands it was customary, anciently, as now, to have but two meals in the day, and the evidence, including that of Jos, goes to show that the second or evening meal was the principal one. The "morning morsel," as the Talm calls it, was in no sense a "meal." The peasant. or artisan, before beginning work, might "break [his] fast" (John 21 12.15) by taking a bit of barley bread with some simple relish, but to "eat [a full meal] in the morning" was a reproach (Eccl 10 16). The full meal was not to be taken until a little before or after sunset, when the laborers had come in from their work (Luke 17 7; cf the supper time" of 14 17). The noon meal, taken at an hour when climatic conditions called for rest from exertion (the ariston of the Greeks, rendered "dinner" in EV, Matthew 22 4; Luke 11 38, RVm "breakfast"), was generally very simple, of bread soaked in light wine with a handful of parched corn (Ruth 2 14), or of "pottage and bread broken into a bowl" (Bel 33), or of bread and broiled fish (John 21 13). Many, when on a journey especially, are content with one meal a day, taken after sunset. In general, eating at other times is casual and informal; evening is the time for the formal meal, or feast. See MKALS.

      Gi;o. B. EAGER

      DIONYSIA, dl-o-nish i-a (Aiovvo-ia, Dionusia, "festivals of Dionysus" [Bacchus];: The rural (vintage) Dionysia were celebrated in the month of Poseideon (19th day), which is roughly our Decem ber. The celebration consisted of feasts, proces sions, songs and (sometimes) scenic performances. The Ascolia formed one of the most prominent fea tures. After sacrificing a goat to the god, they filled the wine-skin with wine, made it slippery on the outside with oil, and then tried to hop on it with one leg. Whoever fell down furnished great sport for the spectators, but if anyone succeeded in main taining an upright position to the end, he was de clared victor. The demarch conducted the festival, the expenses of which were paid by the deme.

      The Lenaea were celebrated on the 12th of Ga- melion (January) in Athens, and later in Ionia in Asia Minor. At this festival also the new 7 wine was tasted. A procession was formed and they marched through the city, indulging in all sorts of



      jesting and buffoonery, to attend the pantomimic performances.

      The Anlhesteria (Flower-Feast) came in (lie month of Anthosterion (February), when the first flowers appeared. This festival resembled some what, our Christmas. On the first day (1 1th of the month) the wine-cask was opened; on the second was Ihe feast of pitchers. Wine was drunk, and contests in trumpet-playing were held. At the drinking contest everybody was permitted to make 1 as much merriment as he pleased. There was also a mystic marriage of the king archon s wife to Dionysus (compare the marriage of the Doges of Venice to the sea). On the third day they offered pots filled with vegetables to Hermes, Conductor of the Dead. This day was sacred to the gods of (lie nether world and to the spirits of the departed (All Souls Day); and the people celebrated Per sephone s resurrection and reunion with the god.

      The (Jreater, or City Dionvsia, were held in Klaphebolion (March,) as a spring festival. This is t lie most important of all the Dionvsia (for us), since practically all the great tragedies of Aeschylus. Sophocles and Euripides wen 1 performed in con junction with this festival. All the denies took part. They accompanied the ancient image of Dionysus Eloutherios (from Eleutherae in Boeotia, one of the first places in which the worship of tin- god was established in (! recce), as it was carried in solemn procession from the Lenaeon (the original center of his cult in Athens) to a small temple in the Ceramicus in the northwestern part of the city, while choruses of men and boys sang the ditlnimin- IHIN (the ancient hymn to Dionysus). Crowned with the vine and dressed in unusual costumes, they greeted the god with loud shouts of joy.

      The festival was revived with grout pomp by the Pisislratidae. In I lie theater of Dionysus all the people beheld an imposing rehearsal of their groat, achieve ments. Kven the poorest and humblest were given an opportunity to see and hear the contests between the professional rhapsodists, who recited Homer, between choruses specially trained to sing the dithyrambs, and between poets, whose great dramatic productions were presented for t he first time. The state set aside a special fund for the purchase of tickets for those who were too poor to buy for themselves. Comedies, tragedies and satyr dramas were presented after elaborate preparation and at a great expenditure of money. The prize, a bron/e tripod, was erected with an appropriate inscrip tion on the Street of Tripods. The awarding of prizes to I lie victors concluded the festival.

      The quinquennial festival ai lirauron in Attica was also celebrated with extraordinary license and merri ment. The- city of Athens sent delegates regularly to attend the festival.

      There were also Dionysiac clubs in Athens at the time of the Peloponnesian War. Those had peculiar doctrines and (ib<ervanees. They had their foundation in Orphic mysticism. The members refrained from eating the flesh of animals. They possessed holy scriptures and had peculiar propitiatory rites. The Dionysiac religious observance continued as a state cult down to 30(> A I). See \\\\l \\\\( cm-s.

      J. east II.YKKY

      DIONYSIUS, dt-6-nish i-us (Aiovvo-ios, Diotn i- 8><>n, surnamed "the Areopagite") : One of the few Athenians converted by Paul (Acts 17 3-1). Wo know nothing further about him (see AREOPAGUS). According to one account he was the first bishop of the church at Athens; according to another he suffered martyrdom in that city under Domitian. Wo are even told that lie migrated to Rome and was sent to Paris, when- lie was beheaded on Mont- mart re (Mount of the Martyr). The patron saint of France is St. Denys; cf the French "Denys d llalicarnasse" (Dionysius of Halicarnassus). The mystical writings which were circulated in the Middle Ages and are still extant, are pronounced by the best authorities to be forgeries, and date from a period not earlier than the oth cent.

      J. east II ARU Y

      DIONYSUS, dl-o-nl sus (BACCHUS) (Aiowo-os, Dionusos) : The youngest of the Gr gods. In

      Homer he is not associated with the vine. In later Gr legend he is represented as coming from India, as traversing Asia in a triumphal march, accom panied by woodland beings, with pointed ears, snub noses and goat -tails. These creatures wen; called satyrs. The vine was cultivated among European-Aryans first in Thrace, and here Diony sus is said to have established his worship first in Europe. Then the cult of Dionysus passed down through the Balkan peninsula to Thebes; and in the localized form of the myth the deity was born here son of Zeus and Semele.

      "Offspring of Zeus on high

      Thou t hat rarest for all Who on Hacchus in Italy call And in Deo s sheltered plain Of Kleusis lord dost reign.

      Whither worshippers repair! O Bacchus that dwellest in Thebes, On whoso broad and fertile globes Fierce warriors from the dragon s teeth rose, Whore Ismenus softly flows.

      The city that Semele bare!"

      Sophocles, Antigone.

      Among all the Gr deities none appealed more vividly to the imagination than Dionysus. Gr tragedy is a form of worship, the ritual cult of the god of wine, who makes the initiate wise and the un godly mad. Dionysus speaks most strongly to the sense and to the spirit at the same time. There is nothing monotonous in the Dionysiac legend; it is replete with both joy and sorrow in some aspects it is a passion, in others a triumph. All the passion plays of the world (even the Oberammergau Sclm\\\\isi>ich are in the ancient spirit. One Dionysus after another has been substituted, but from the first there has been a desire on the part of the devotee to realize his god vividly with thrilling nearness, to partake of his joys and sorrows and triumphs in his manifold adventures. In the early myths Diony sus was one of the lesser gods; he is mentioned only twice in the lliwl and twice in the O///.s,sr//; but he is always represented as being more nearly akin to man than the great august deities of Olympus. He is a man-god, or god-man. To the inhabitants of the vine-clad slopes of Attica, to which his cult had been brought, from Phrygia through Thracian Boeotia, he was particularly dear. At their vint age feasts last year s cask of wine was opened; and when the new year brought life again to the vines, the bountiful god was greeted with songs of joyful praise. The burial of the wine in the dark tomb of the jars through the winter, and the opening of these jars at the spring festival symbolized the great awakening of man himself, the resurrection of the god s worshippers to a fuller and more joyous life. The vine was not the only manifestation of the god oil and wheat were also his; he was the god of ecstasy, the giver of physical joy and excite ment, the god of life, the god of certain laws of Nature, germination and extinction, the external coming into being and the dying away of all things that are, fructification in its widest aspect whether in the bursting of the seed-grain that lies _ in treas ured in the earth, or in the generation of living crea tures. Hence the prominence given to the phallus in the solemn processions in honor of the god.

      Nicanor (2 Mace 14 33) and Antiochus Epiphanes (2 Mace 6 7) thought, that, the cult of Dionysus would not be objectionable to the Jews. Ptolemy Philopator branded the Jews with an ivy-leaf (3 Mace 2 29), which was sacred to Dionysus. See also BACCHUS. J. east HAKRY

      DIOSCORINTHIUS, dl-os-ko-rin thi-us : A cer tain (unidentified) month (2 Mace 11 21). See CALENDAR; TIMeast



      DIOSCURI, dl-os ku-rl (Aioo-Koupoi, Di^ronroi.; in Acts 28 11, AV Castor and Pollux, RV THE TWIN BROTHERS; in in, "Dioscuri"): The sign of the ship on which Paul sailed from Melita to Syracuse and Rhegium. The Dioscuri (i.e. sons of Zeus), Castor and Pollux, are the two chief stars in the constellation of the Twins. Some 4,000 years BC they served as pointers to mark the beginning of the new year by setting together with the first new moon of springtime. The constellation of the Twins was supposed to be esp. favorable to sailors, hence ships were often placed under the protection of the twin gods. east west MAUNDER

      DIOTREPHES, dl-ot re-fez

      ioTpecHs, Dio-

      tnphts): A person mentioned in 3 John vs 9.10 as contentiously resisting the writer s authority and forbidding others from exercising the Christian hospitality which he himself refused to show. The words "who loveth to have the preeminence, among them" may indicate that he was a church official, abusing his position.

      DIP: Priests when offering a sin offering were required to dip a finger into the blood of the sacri ficed bullock and "to sprinkle of the blood seven times before Jeh" (cf Leviticus 4 0, et al.). See also tin- law referring to the cleansing of infected houses (Leviticus 14 51) and the cleansing of a leper (Leviticus 14 16). In all such cases "to dip" is "to moisten," "to besprinkle," "to dip in," the Ileb " J , tabhal, or the Gr /MTTTW, bupto. See also ASHIOR. In Psalm 68 23 "dipping" is not tr 1 from the Hebrews, but merely employed for a better understanding of the passage: "Thou mayest crush them, dipping thy foot in blood" (AV "that thy foot may be dipped in the blood"). The The Revelation 19 13 is a very doubtful passage. A V reads: "a vesture clipped in blood" (from bapto, "to dip"); RV following another reading (either rlittino, or rhanlizo, both "to sprinkle"), translates "a garment sprinkled with blood." RVm gives "dipped in." See also SOP. A. L. BRESLICH

      DIPHATH, di fath (P,? 1 " , til phalli): A son of Comer, son of Japheth, son of Xoah (1 Chronicles 1 (>), called RIPIIATH (q.v.) in the corresponding geneal ogy in Genesis 10 3.

      DISALLOW, dis-a-lou : "To disallow" as used in the Scriptures means either "to oppose," "not permit" (Hebrews /if/, Numbers 30 5.south11), or "to reject" ((ir <iixl(ikitti<ho, lit. "to consider useless," 1 Pet 2 4.7 AV, RV "rejected").

      DISANNUL, dis-a-nul . See ANNTL.

      DISAPPOINT, dis-a-point : "To disappoint" may be used transitively or intransitively. In the former case it naturally has a more forceful meaning. Therefore RV changes the tr of AV wherever "dis appoint" is used with an object: Job 5 12, "frus- trateth"; Psalm 17 13, "confront him," RVm "fore stall"; Jth 16 6, "brought them to nought"; but RV retains "disappoint," where the person who dis appoints is not expressed. Cf Prov 15 22.

      DISCERN, di-zurn : Five Hebrews words are thus tr 1 : bin, yadha\\\\ nakhar, ra dh and shamcf. It may simply mean "observe" (bin), "I discerned among the youths" (Prov 77); or discriminating knowl- ege, "A wise man s heart discerneth time and judg ment" (Eccl 8 5, yailha*); "He discerned him not, because his hands," etc (Genesis 27 23, nakhnr)-, "Then shall ye return and discern between the righteous and the wicked" (Mai 3 IS, ra uh); "So is my lord the king to discern good," etc (2 Samuel 14 17, shama ).

      In the NT the words (ntulcrino, iliiikr nnl and <lo- kimdzo are thus Ir 1 , expressing close and distinct- acquaintance with or a critical knowledge of things. Used in 1 Corinthians 2 14 AV of "the things of the spirit of God"; in 1 Corinthians 11 29 of "the [Lord s] body" in the sacrament; in Matthew 16 3 of "the face of the heaven"; in He 5 14 of a clear knowledge of good and evil as the prerogative of a full-grown man. See also next art. HENRY east DOSKER

      DISCERNINGS, di-zurn inz, OF SPIRITS (Siaic- po-is TrvV|Aa.Tiov, (lidkr tM is pneumdton, "judicial estimation," "through judgment or separation"): Occurs in 1 Corinthians 12 10 as being one of the gifts of the Spirit. The Gr word occurs in He 5 14; and Romans 14 1: "But him that is weak in faith receive ye, yet not for decision of scruples." This tr scarcely expresses the meaning, which Thayer has freely rendered, "not- for the purpose of passing judgment on opinions, as to which one is to be pre ferred as the more correct." Taking these three passages together it is evident- that the Gr term which is rendered "discerning" means a distin guishing or discriminating between things that are under consideration; hence the one who possessed the gift of "discernings of spirits" was able to make distinction between the one who spoke by the Spirit of God and the one who was moved by a false spirit. This gift seems to have been exercised chiefl.v upon those who assumed the role of teachers, and it was esp. important in those days, because there were many false teachers abroad (see 2 John ver 7; Acts 2029.30). See also SPIRITUAL GIFTS.

      A. west FORTUNE

      DISCIPLE, di-si p l:

      (1) Usually a subst. (/j-aO^rris, malhetZs, "a learner," from inanthiuio, "to learn"; Lat disci- l>nlux, "a scholar"): The word is found in the Bible only in the Gospels and Acts. But it- is good Greek, in use from Herodotus down, and always means the pupil of someone, in contrast- to the master or teacher (5i5d<rKa\\\\os, du/as/cafos) . See Matthew 10 24; Luke 6 40. In all cases it implies that the person not only accepts the views of I he teacher, but that he is also in practice an adherent . The word has several applications. In the widest sense it refers to those who accept the teachings of anyone, not only in belief but in life. Thus the disciples of John the Baptist (Matthew 9 14; Luke 7 IS; John 3 25); also of the Pharisees (Matthew 22 Hi; Mark 2 IS; Luke 5 33); of Moses (John 9 2S). Hut its most common use is to designate the adherents of Jesus, (a) In the widest sense (Ml- 10 42; Luke 6 17; John 6 (Hi, and often). It is the onlv name for Christ s followers in the Gospels. But (In esp. the Twelve Apostles, even when they are called simplv the disciples (Matthew 10 1; 11 1; 12 1, et al.). In the Acts, after the death and ascension of Jesus, disciples are those who confess Him as the Messiah, Christians (Acis 6 1.2.7; 9 30 [fern., mallit lrid}; 11 2(5, "The disciples were called Christians"). Even half-instructed be lievers who had been bapti/ed only with the bap tism of John are disciples (Acts 19 1-4).

      (2) We have also the vb., /j-aO^revu, matheteud, "Jesus disciple" (lit-, "was discipled to Jesus," Matthew 27 57); "Make disciples of all i he nations" (AV "teach," Matthew 28 19); "had made many disciples" (AV "taught many," Acts 14 21); "every scribe who hath been made a disciple to the kingdom of heaven" (AV "instructed," Matthew 13 52). The dis ciple of Christ today may be described in the won Is of Farrar. as "one who believes His doctrines, rests upon His sacrifice, imbibes His spirit, and imitates His example."

      The OT has neither the term nor the exact idea, though there is a difference between teacher and scholar among David s singers (1 Chronicles 25 south), and



      among the prophetic guilds the distinction between the rank and file and the leader (1 Samuel 19 20; 2 Kings 65). G. 11. THEVER

      DISCIPLINE, dis i-plin pcitt , in tlsur) : In AV only in Job 36 10, where it refers to moral dis cipline, the strenuous cultivation of the righteous life; RV "instruction." RVin2 Tim 1 7 has "dis cipline for a (!r word (sophronismos) meaning "sobering"; in 2 Tim 3 10 in, for (ir /xiuli in, "in struction." In classic Cr jxiiilda means "educa tion," mental culture. Through the influence of the LXX, which translates the lleb muydr by /xtidda, the meaning of "chastisement." accompanies i><ti<l< i/i in the XT. Cf He 12 5.7. south 11. See CHASTISEMENT; ami for ecclesiastical discipline see Curucii.

      DISCOMFIT, dis-kum fit, DISCOMFITURE, dis-

      kum ii-tnr (-"", hfun, rV2 r r"i ^ . nr hrnndh): These words are now obsolete or at least obsolescent, and are confined in Bib. lit. wholly to the OT. The meaning in general is "to annoy," "harass," "con fuse," "rout" and "destroy." The most common usage is that based upon the root meaning, "to trouble" or "annoy," sometimes to the point of destruction (Joshus iO 10; Judges 4 15; 1 Samuel 7 10; 2 Samuel 22 15).

      The AV errs in the tr in Isaiah 31 Samuel, where the meaning is obviously "to become subject to task work" or "to place a burden upon one." There seems also to be an unwarranted use of the word in Xu 14 45, where it means rather "to bruise" or "strike 1 ." The purest use is perhaps in 1 Samuel 14 20, where the statement is made that "every man s sword was against- his fellow, and there was a very great discomfiture." WALTER (1. CLIPPINGER

      __ DISCOURSE, dis-kors : In RY of Acts 20 7.9, the tr of (ir duili i/uinai (AY "preach"), else where rendered, according to the implications of the context, "reason" or "dispute," as Acts 17 2; 19 !) (AV disputing," RV "reasoning"); Jude ver 9.

      DISCOVER, dis-kuv er: In modern usage the word "discover" signifies "to get first sight or knowl edge of," "to ascertain," or "to explore." Such usage appears in 1 Samuel 22 (i of the discovery of David s hiding-place, where the Hebrews uses 3?"? , ytldha . In AY the word "discover" often occurs in a sense now archaic- or even obsolete. , (Xote in the cases cited below the Hebrews word is H53 , i/dlafi, except Jeremiah 13 2(5 ["tpn , hashaph, "to make bare"] and Hab 3 13 ["H^ , *drar, "to make naked"].) (1) "To exhibit," "uncover" (or "betray"), in which examples ERV also reads with AV "dis cover"; ARV "uncover" (Exodus 20 20; Job 12 22; Isaiah 57 8 ("discovered thyself" AV and ERV]; Jeremiah 13 20; Lam 2 14; Hosea 7 1; Xah 3 5). (2) "To cause to be no longer a covering," "to lay bare" (2 Samuel 22 10 AV). (3) "To bring to light," "dis close" (1 Samuel 14 8.11 [ERV with AV "discover"]). (4) "To unmask" or "reveal oneself" (Prov 18 2 AV). (5) "To take away the covering of" (Isaiah 228AV). (0) "To lay bare" (Hab 3 13). In Psalm 29 9, AV reads: "The voice of the Lord .... discovereth the forests," where RV reads, "strippeth the forests bare," i.e. "strippeth the forests of their leaves" (Perowne, The Psalms, I, 24S); "strippeth bare the forests" (Briggs, Psalms, I, 251, 253).

      In the XT (AV), the word "discover" occurs as a tr of the Gr anaphdnantes in Acts 21 3, and for katcnooun in Acts 27 39, where RV reads in the first instance "had come in sight of," and in the latter case "perceived." west X. STEARNS

      DISCREPANCIES, dis-krep an-siz, BIBLICAL,

      bib li-kal: By this term should be understood sub stantial disagreements in the state-

      1. Defini- merits of Bib. writers. Such disagree- tion ments might, subsist between the

      statements of different writers or be tween the several statements of a single writer. Contradictions of Bib. views from extra-Bib, sources as history, natural science, philosophy, do not fall within the scope of our subject.

      Observant Bible readers in every age have noted, with various degrees of insight, that the Scriptures

      exhibit manifold interior differences

      2. Criticism and contrasts. Differences of literary v. Doctrine form and method have ever seemed, of Inerrancy except to those who maintained a me chanical theory of inspiration, wholly

      natural and fitting. Moreover, that there was prog ress in the Bib. revelation, esp. that the XT of Jesus Christ signifies a vastly richer revelation of God than the ()T,has been universally recognized. In fulfilling the law and the prophets Christ put a marked distance between Himself and them, yet He certainly affirmed rather than denied them. The Christian church has ever held to the essential unity of the Divine library of the Holy Scriptures. Moreover, the evangelical churches have recog nized the Bible as "the only and sufficient rule of both faith and practice." Indeed, in the generation following the Reformation, the strictest and most literal theory of inspiration and inerrancy found general acceptance. Over against such a body of presuppositions, criticism, some generations later, began to allege certain errors and discrepancies in the Bible. Of course the orthodox sought to repel all these claims; for they felt that the Bible, what ever the appearances might seem to indicate, tnust be free from error, else it could not be the word of God. So there came with criticism a long period of sturdy defence of the strictest doctrine of Bib. inerrancy. Criticism, however, kept on its way. It has forced the church to find a deeper and surer ground of confidence in the authority of the Bible as the witness to God s self-revelation to man. In our day the church has for the most part overcome the notion that the certainty of the saving grace of God in Christ stands or falls with the absolute iner rancy of each several statement contained in the Bible. Still there remains, and doubtless ever must remain, a need of a clear understanding of the issue involved in the allegation along with other "hu man limitations" of Bib. discrepancies.

      Alleged discrepancies pertain (1) to statements

      of specific, concrete facts, and (2) to the utterance of

      principles and doctrines. Under the

      3. Synopsis first head fall disagreements respect- of the ing numbers, dates, the form and order Argument of historical events, records of spoken

      words, geography, natural history, etc. Under the second head fall disagreements respecting moral and religious truths, the "super historical realities and values. Our inquiry resolves itself into three parts: (1) to determine whether there be discrepancies, of either or both sorts, in the Bible; (2) to obtain at least a general understanding of the conditions and causes that may have given rise to the discrepancies, real or apparent; (3) to de termine their significance for faith.

      As to the first point, it should be observed that apparent inconsistencies may not be real ones; as so often in the past, so again it may come about that the discovery of further data may resolve many an apparent contradiction. On the other hand, the affirmation a priori that there can be and are no real discrepancies in the Bible is not only an outrage upon the human understanding, but it stands also in contradiction to the spirit of



      freedom that is of faith. Besides, it. should not he overlooked that the discoveries of modern histori cal and archaeological research, which 4. Alleged have tended to confirm so many Bib. Discrepan- statements, seem just a.s surely to cies Per- reveal error in others. In any event taining to \\\\ve must how to reality, and we may Facts do this with fearless confidence in "the

      God of things as they are." But are there real discrepancies in the Bible? It is no part of the present plan to attempt the impossible and at all events useless task of exhibiting definite statis tics of all the alleged discrepancies, or even of all the principal ones. Passing by the childish folly that would find a "discrepancy" in mere rhetorical antitheses, such as that in Prov 26 4.f> ("Answer not a fool," and Answer a fool according to his folly"), or instances of merely formal contrariety of expression, where the things intended are mani festly congruous (e.g. Matthew 12 30; Luke 11 23 con trasted with Mark 9 40; Luke 9 50: "He that is not with me is against me," "He that is not against us is for us"), it will serve our purpose to notice a few representative examples of real or apparent discrepancy. The chronologies of K and Chronicles are inconsistent (cf CHRONOLOGY OF OT). The gene alogies in Cien 46; Xu 26; 1 Chronicles 2-7 show con siderable variations. The two lists of exiles who returned with Zerubbabel (Ezra 2; Nehemiah 7 ff ) show many discrepancies, including a marked dif ference in the enumeration. The accounts of the creation in (Jen 1 and 2 (cf CREATION : to take an example dependent upon the results of modern criticism are mutually independent and in impor tant particulars diverse. But the center of interest in our inquiry is the gospel history. Since Tatian and his Dinh HNiiroit in the 2d cent., the variations and contrasts in the Gospels have not only been noted and felt, but many have striven to "harmo nize" them. After all, however, there remain some irreducible differences. The Gospels, generally speaking, do not give us ipst sKinid r< rhti of Jesus; in reporting His discourses they show many varia tions. In so far as the essential meaning is the same in all, no one speaks of discrepancies; but where the variation clearly involves a difference of meaning (e.g. Matthew 12 39.40 and Luke 11 29.30), one may say that at least a technical discrepancy exists. In recording sayings or events the evangel ists manifestly do not always observe the same chronological order; Luke, e.g. records in wholly different connections sayings which Matthew includes as parts of the Sermon on the Mount (e.g. the Lord s Prayer, Matthew 6 Off; Luke 11 1-4; cf JESTS CHRIST; CHRONOLOGY OF NT). We have two distinct genealogies of Jesus (Matthew 1 1-10; Luke 3 23 ff; cf GENEALOGY). We may oven note that Pilate s superscription over the cross of Jesus is given in four distinct forms. Here, however, the discrep ancy is not real except in the most technical sense, and is worth mentioning only to show that the evangelists interest does not lie in a mere objec tive accuracy. That a perfect agreement as to the significance of an event exists where there are un deniable discrepancies in external details may be illustrated by the two accounts of the healing of the centurion s servant (Matthew 8 5ff; Luke 7 1 if). Of enormously greater interest are the various accounts of the appearances of the risen Christ. If a com plete certainty as to the form and order of these events is necessary to faith, the case is not a happy one, for the harmonists have been unable to render a perfect account of these matters (cf JESUS CHRIST; RESURRECTION). Turning from the Gospels to apostolic history, we meet some real problems, e.g. how to relate Paul s autobiographical notes in Galatians 1 with the accounts in Acts.

      The discrepancies thus far noted pertain to his torical matters, and not one of them involves the contradiction of a fact in which faith

      5. Alleged is interested. But are there also real Discrepan- or apparent discrepancies in matters cies Per- of doctrine? Many scholars maintain, taining to for instance 4 , that the ideal of the Doctrine prophets and that of the priestly class

      stand in a relative (not absolute) oppo sition to each other (cf, e.g. Isaiah 1 11; Mic 6 south with the ritualism of Leviticus and Deuteronomy). Or, to turn to the NT, some would assert among them Luther that James stands in opposition to Paul in respect to faith and works (cf Jas 217 ff in contrast with Galatians 2 10 and many other passages in Paul). But i particular interest- attaches to the problem of Christ s attitude toward the OT law. His "but I say unto you" (Matthew 5 22 and passi w) has been inter preted by many as a distinct contradiction of the OT. Another question of acute interest is the agreement of the .lohannine picture of Jesus with that of the Synoptists.

      It can scarcely require proof that some of these alleged discrepancies are not such at all. For ex ample, Jesus attitude 1 toward the OT was one of profound reverence and affirmation. He was per fectly conscious that- the OT law represented a stage in the Divine education of mankind. His "but I say unto you" was not a denying of the de gree of advancement- represented by the OT law, but a carrying out of the principle of the law to its full expression (cf L\\\\w; 1 Yi.Kii.MKvr). Of course, the Divine education of Israel did not mean the mere inculcation of the truth in a fallow ajid hith erto unoccupied soil. There was much superstition and error to be overcome. If then one should insist that the errors, which revelation was destined to overcome, still manifest themselves hen; and there in the OT, it may be replied that at all events the one grand tendency of Divine revelation is unmis takably clear. An idea, is not- "Scriptural" simply by virtue 1 of its having been incidentally expressed by a Biblical writer, but because it essentially and inseparably belongs 1e> the 1 organic whole of the Biblical testimemy. In the case of James v. Paul the antithesis is one of emphasis, not- of contradiction eif a first principle. And as fe>r the 1 variations in the 1 gospel history, these do not deserve to be calle>d real discrepancies so long as the 1 Gospels unite- in giving erne 1 harmonious picture and testimony con cerning the 1 personal life and the 1 work and teaching of Jesus. Even from this point of view, John, though so much more 1 theological, preaches the same 1 Chroniclesrist, as the 1 Samuelynoptists.

      As to the 1 conditions under which discrepancies may arise, it may sullice, first, te> e-all attention to

      the 1 gene-ral law that Ge>el in revealing

      6. Causes Himself to men and in moving men by of Dis- His Spirit- to speak e>r write, never crepancies lifts them en it of t lie normal relations of

      human intelligence, so far as matters of history or science are 1 concenie d. It is their witness to Himself and His will which is the 1 result of revela tion and inspiration. Their references to history and Nature are 1 not therefore in any se nse 1 super human; accordingly they have no direct authority for faith (cf REVELATION; INSPIRATION). On thi s basis the divergences of human traditions or docu ments as exhibited in different- genealogies, chronol ogies and the like 1 are 1 natural in the best sense anel wholly fitting. As for the rest, errors of copyists have played a part .

      Faith, however, has no interest in explaining away the human limitations in God s chosen wit nesses. It is God s way to place the- heavenly "treasure in earthen vessels" (2 Corinthians 4 7). It seems that God has purposely led the church to see,



      through the necessity of re-cognizing (lie human limitations of the Bible, just, where her faith is

      grounded. (iod lias made Himself 7. Their known through His Son. The Scrip- Significance hires of the NT, and of the OT in for Faith preparation for Him, give us a clear

      and sufficient testimony to the Christ of (!od. The clearness and persuasive power of that testimony make all questions of verbal and other formal agreement essentially irrelevant. The cer tainty that ( iod has spoken unto us in I [is Son and that we have this knowledge through the Script ure testimony lifts us above all anxious concern for the possible errors of the witnesses in matters evidently nonessent ial.

      LITERATUReast Besides tho lit. noted under REVELA- TION and INSPIRATION, .1. \\\\V. Haley. An Examination of

      tin All,;/,-,! Discrepancies <>{ tin- Bible, Andover, 1873; M. south Terry, Hil>. llermeneutics, New York, INS:}; Kaliler, Zur Bibtijruijr, Leipzig, 1907.

      ,1. R. VAN PKLT

      DISCUS, dis kus (8io-Koa, tlixkoH, "the summons of the discus," 2 Mace 4 11 m, "to the game of the discus," AV "the game of discus"): The dinc>iH was a round stone slab or metal plate of considerable weight (a kind of quoit), the contest of throwing which to the greatest distance was one of the oxer- rises in t he ( Ir i/1/inniixiri, being included in the pi nla- thlon. It was introduced into .lerus by Jason the high priest, in the time of Antiodius Kpiphanes, 17.") Kit BC, in the Palaestra he had formed there in imitation of the (!r games. His conduct led to his being described in 2 .Mace 4 13.14 as that "un godly man through whom even the priests forsook their duties to play at the e//.sr//north A statue of a discobolos (discus-thrower) is in the British Museum. 1 Yom r//.sr//.s we have the words "disc," "dish, "desk." See OA.MKS. \\\\Y. L. WAI.KKK

      DISEASE, di-zez , DISEASES, di-zez iz (nbn , haltlli, "CH , (toll; vocros, HOXOK) : Palestine, from its position and physical conditions, ought to be a healthy country. That it is not so depends on the unsanitary conditions in which the people live and the absence of any attempts to check the intro duction or development of zymotic diseases. The number of marshes or pools is fairly small, and the use of active measures to destroy the larvae of mos- quitos might easily diminish or abolish the malarial fevers which now prevail all over the country. The freeing of Ismailieh and Port. Said from these pests is an object-lesson in sanitation. Y\\\\ he>n one ex- imines the conditions of life in towns and villages all over the country, the evidences of the ravages of these fevers and their sequelae appear on every hand as they affect all ages from infancy to middle age, and one meets but few individuals of extreme old age. The absence of any adequate system of drainage and the pollution of the water supplies are also factors of great importance in preserving this unhealthiness.

      In ancient limes it was regarded as healthier than Egypt, as it. well might- be, hence the diseases of Egvpt are referred to as being worse than those of Pal (Deuteronomy 7 1">; 28 (50; Am 4 10). The sanitary regulations and restrictions of the PC would doubt less have raised the standard of public health, but it is unlikely that those were ever observed over any large area.

      The types of disease which arc referred to in the Bible are those that still prevail. Fevers of several kinds, dysentery, leprosy, intestinal worms, plague, nervous diseases such as paralysis and epilepsy, insanity, ophthalmia and skin diseases are among the commonest, and will be described under their several names. Methods of treatment are described under MKDICINE; PHYSICIAN. The word "disease" or "diseases" in AV is changed to "sickness" in RV

      in 12 Kings 1 2; 8 X; Matthew 9 :*."), and left out in .In 5 -1 ; while in Alt 8 17 "sicknesses" is replaced by "diseases." RV also changes "infirmity" in Luke 7 21 to "diseases," and in I s 38 7 "a loathsome! dis ease" is changed to "burning."



      DISH: Tho rendering in EV in some connections of three Hob and one ( !r word. The k ^lrah of Exodus 25 2<); 37 1(5; Numbers 4 7 was apparently a kind of salver, in this case of gold, for holding the loaves of the "presence bread." The same word represents

      Slave Bearing Covered Dishes.

      the silver "platters" ( Numbers 7 13 ff) brought by the princes as a dedication gift. The x<~i>fi< l of ,lgs 5 2.") was a large bowl, so tr 1 in Judges 6 oX. "Lordly dish" is lit. "hoirl of [fit for] nohlcx." The yillo/jtitli of 2 Kings 21 i:J; Prov 19 24; 26 1.", (last tvvo AV "bosom" after LX\\\\) refers probably to the wide, deep dish in which the principal part of the meal was served. Of somewhat similar form may have been the trublion (LXX for l; f <lr<lli} mentioned in connection with the Passover meal (Alt 26 2)5; Mark 14 20). Bi A-.iAMiM Ri;\\\\o DOWXKH

      DISHAN, di shan, DISHON, eli shon ( t^T , r/7- shan, ]^south" l r [,dliihon, "antelope 1 ," "pygarg"): A Ilorito clan, mentioned as the youngest "son" and else where as the "grandson" of Seir. The form Dishon occurs several times in the list, of Ilorito clans, to gether with many other totem names ((ion 36 passim; 1 Chronicles 1 38.41). See Cray, IIl north, south J.

      DISHONESTY, dis-on os-li: Only in 2 Corinthians 4 2, the AV rendering of Or uixi-hunf-; AV elsewhere and RV uniformly, "shame."

      DISOBEDIENCE, dis-ii-be di-ens, DISOBE DIENT (i~np , inartih; cnrt(.Qt(a, upcillu d, irapa- Kova>, p(tr(tlc<n i(~i): Tho word used chiefly in the NT has the general meaning of a lack of regard for authority or rulorship. The stronger meaning of actual stubbornness or violence is perhaps conveyed inlhcOT (I K 13 2(5; Nehemiah 9 2(5; of 1 Kings 13 21).

      In tho NT there seem to be two rather clearly defined uses of the word, one objective and practi cal, the other ethical and psychological. The first refers more to conduct , the second to belief and one s mental attitude; toward (he- object of disobedience. To the first belong such passages as refer to the overt act of elisobe-die-noe to one s parents (Remi 1 M); 2 Tim 3 2). Illustrating this more- fully, the- tr according to the AY of 1 Tim 1 9 is given as "unruly" in the 1 RV. By far the groat (T emphasis, henvever, is plaee-d upon the (list inctly ethical quality in which disobedience is re-ally an attitude of the- mind anel finds its essence- in a heart of unbelief and unfaithfulness (1 Pet 2 7.X; Ephesians 2 2; 5 (5; Colossians 3 15). In the latter three references "children [sons] e>f disobedience" are- me-ntione-d, as if erne should



      become the very offspring of such an unhappy and unholy state of mind. The classic phrase of NT lit. (Acts 26 19) contains both the practical and the ethical aspects. Paul s convictions \\\\vere changed by the vision and his conduct was made to conform immediately to it. WALTIOH G. CLIPPIMJKH

      DISORDERLY, dis-6r der-li (araKros, dtaktos): The word is found four times in the Epp. to the Thess (1 Thess 5 14; 2 Thcss 3 0.7.11), "With draw yourselves from every brother that walketh d."; "We behaved not ourselves d."; "We hear of some that walk among you d." The word is a military term and has reference to the soldier who does not keep the ranks (inordinnttts, Liv). Then it refers to people who refuse to obey the civil laws, and thus it gets its meaning, "disorderly." It points to members in the early church, who, by their lives, became a reproach to the gospel of Christ (cf 1 Thess 4 11.12). HKNKY east DOSKEK

      DISPATCH, dis-pach : Occurs Tob 7 south in the sense of dispatch of business, "Let this business be dispatched" (RV "finished"); 2 Mace 12 IS, "be fore he had dispatched anything" (RV "without accomplishing";; Wisd 11 19 [20] in the sense of finishing, destroying, "dispatch them at once" (RV consume"); 2 Mace 9 4 "dispatch the journey" (Icalani irin), which may mean "finish it quickly." RV spells "despatch."

      DISPENSATION, dis-pen-sa shun: The Gr word (oiko nomla) so tr (l signifies primarily, a stewardship,

      the management or disposition of affairs intrusted to one. Thus 1 Corinthians 9 17, AV "A dispensation of the gospel is committed unto me," RV "1 have a stewardship intrusted to me." The idea is similar in Ephesians 3 2 Colossians 1 2.j (RVm "stewardship"). In Ephesians 1 10 God s own working is spoken of as a "dispensation."

      DISPERSION, dis-pur

      diasponi) :

      1. (iolah and Dispersion

      2. Purpose of

      3. Causes of

      4. Kxtt iH of

      5. Tlu- Eastern (I. The Egyptian

      7. Testimony of Aramaic


      south Jewish Temple at Sycne y. Theories of the Syene


      10. Importance of the Dis


      11. A New Chapter of OT


      12. Alexandrian Judaism 1:5. The Jews and Hellenism It. The Septuagint

      15. Early Evidence of a

      Jewish Community 1 ti. The Dispersion iu Syria

      17. In Arabia

      18. In Asia Minor

      shun, THE (Siocriropd,

      . Among ( ! reeks Proper . The Roman Dispersion . Jews and Pompey . Jews and the First Cao-


      . Influence of Jews in the

      Early Roman Empire,

      Jews in Italy, (iaul.

      Spain and north Africa.

      . The Numbers of the


      . Jewish Proselytism . Internal Organization . L nity of the Jewish

      People . Dispersion Influenced

      by Creek Thought . The Dispersion a Prep aration for the Ad vent of Christ . The Dispersion an Aux iliary to the Spread of the Ciospel

      The Dispersion is the comprehensive designation applied to Jews living outside of Pal and maintaining

      their religious observances and eus- 1. Golah toms among the Gentiles. They were and known as the (, oldh (Aram, (iulutha),

      Diaspora the captivity an expression describing

      them in relation to their own land; and the Diaspora, the Dispersion, an expression describing them in relation to the nations among whom they were scattered. On a notable occasion Jesus said, "Ye shall seek me, and shall not find me: and where I am, ye cannot come. The Jews there fore said among themselves, Whither will this man go that we shall not find him? Will he go unto the Dispersion among the Greeks, and teach the Greeks?" (John 7 34.35).

      In 2 Mace certain priests of Jerus are represented as praying to God: "Gather together our Disper sion, set at liberty them that are in

      2. Purpose bondage among the heathen" (2 Mace of the 1 27; cf 2 Esdras 2 7; Jas 1 1; 1 Pet Dispersion 1 1). Tin.; thought of such a Disper sion as a punishment for the disobe dience of the people finds frequent expression in the Prophets: Hoseaea (9 3), Jeremiah (8 3; 16 15, etc), Ezekiel (4 13), and Zechariah (10 9). And it ap pears also in the Deuteronomic Law (Deuteronomy 28 25; 30 1). That the Dispersion of the Jews was for the benefit of the Gentiles is a conception to which expression is given in utterances of psalmists and prophets (Psalm 67; Mic 5 7, etc). It is found also in the Apoc Bar, a work belonging to the 1st cent. AD: "I will scatter this people among the Gentiles, that they may do good to the Gentiles" d 7).

      The causes of the Dispersion most obvious to the

      student of OT history were the Assyr and Bab

      captivities, when the king of Assyria

      3. Causes carried Israel away into his own land of the and placed them in Ilalah, and in Dispersion 1 labor by the river of Gozan, and in

      the cities of the Medes (2 Kings 17 5ff); and when in the reign of Nebuchadrezzar, king of Babylon, Judah was carried away into Babylonia (2 Kings 24 14). See CAPTIVITY. But there were other captivities which helped to scatter the chil dren of Abraham. Ptolemy I of Egypt (322- 2S5 BC) by his expeditions to Pal and his capture of Jerus added largely to the Jewish population of Alexandria. Antiochus the Great of Syria (223- 1S7 BC) removed from the Jewish communities in Mesopotamia and Babylon 2,000 families and settled them in Phrygia and Lydia (Jos, Ant, XII, iii, 4). Pompey after his capture of Jerus in 63 BC carried off hundreds of Jews to Rome, where they were sold as slaves, but, afterward, many of them obtained their freedom and civic rights.

      There was, besides, a voluntary emigration of Jewish settlers for purposes of trade and commerce

      into the neighboring countries, and

      4. Extent esp. into the chief cities of the civilized of the world. The successors of Alexander, Dispersion and their successors in turn, encouraged

      immigration into their territories and the mingling of nationalities. They needed colo nists for the settlements and cities which they estab lished, and with the offer of citizenship and facilities for trade and commerce they attracted many of the Jewish people.

      "In this way." says Philo, "Jerus became tho capital, not only of Judaea, but of many other lands, on account of the colonies which it sent out from time to time into the bordering districts of Egypt. Phoenicia, Syria, Coele- Syria, and into the more distant regions of Pamphylia, Cilicia, tho greater part of Asia Minor as far as Bithynia, and the remotest corners of Pont us. And in like manner into Europe: into Thessaly, and Hoeotia, and Macedonia, and Aetolia, and Attica and Argos, and Corinth, and into the most fertile and fairest- parts of the Peloponnesus. And not only is the continent full of Jewish colonists, but also the most important islands, such as Euboea, Cyprus, and Crete. I say nothing of the countries beyond tho Euphrates. All of them except a very small portion, and Babylon, and all the satrapies which contain fruit ful land, have Jewish inhabitants" (Philo, Leg ad Caium, 3(5).

      About the middle of the 2d cent . BC the Sibylline Oracles could say of the Jewish people: "Every land and every sea is full of thee" (3 271). About the same period the Romans Senate, being anxious to extend protection to the Jews, had a circular letter written in their favor to the kings of Egypt, Syria, Pergamum, Cappadocia and Parthia, and to a great number of provinces, cities and islands of the Medi terranean, where presumably there was a larger or smaller number of Jews (1 Mace 15 15 ff). It



      is no surprise, therefore, to read that for the I east of Pentecost at Jerus, were present after the ascen sion of Jesus: "Parthians and Medos and Islamites, and the dwellers in Mesopotamia, in .Judaea and Cappadocia, in Pont us and Asia, in Phrygia and Pamphylia, in Egypt and (he parts of Libya about Cyrene, and sojourners from Home, both jews and proselytes, Cretans and Arabians" (Acts 2 <)-12j.

      The Eastern Dispersion, caused by the Assyrian and Babylonian eaptivities, seems to have increased

      and multiplied, and to have enjoyed a 6. The considerable measure of liberty, and

      Eastern of prosperity. When the return from

      Dispersion the captivity took place under Zerub-

      babel, it was only a small proportion of the exiles who sought a home again in the land of their fathers. Nor did the numbers who accom panied Ezraa from Babylon greatly diminish the exiles who remained behind. In the time of Christ . Jos could speak of the Jews in Babylonia by "in numerable myriads" (.I/,/, XI, v, 2). He also tells us of the 2,000 Jewish families whom Antiochus transferred from Babylon and Mesopotamia to Phrygia and Syria. Of the peculiarities of the Jews a.s a people living apart, and observing their own customs and arousing the ill-will of the neighbors, we have a glimpse in the Pers period in the Book of Est (3 south). Babylonia remained a focus of eastern Judaism for centuries, and from the discussions in rabbinical schools there were elaborated the Talm of Jerus in the f>th cent . of-our era, and the Talm of Babylon a cent, later. The two chief centers of Mesopotamia!! Judaism were Nehemiahardea, a. town on the Euphrates, and Nisibis on the Mygdonius, an affluent of the Chaboras, which were also centers of Syrian Christianity.

      The Egyp Dispersion is of special interest and importance, and recent discoveries have thrown

      unexpected light upon it. As far

      6. The back as the days of Sheshenq, the Egyptian founder of the >d Dynasty, the Shi- Dispersion shak of 1 Kings 14 2f> f ; 2 Chronicles 12 2 f,

      who invaded Pal in the l()th cent. BO, and engraved on the south wall of the great Temple of Karnak the names of many districts and cities he had captured, prisoners of war and hostages may have been carried off to Egypt by the conqueror. At a later time Jewish mercenaries are said to have fought in the expedition of Psammetichus 1 1 against Ethiopia, to which expedition belong the famous inscriptions of Abu Simbel (;"><) l-f)south<) BC). So we learn from the well-known Letter of Aristeas. But the clearest and best -known example of a settle ment of Jews in Egypt is that connected with the prophet Jeremiah. When Cedaliah, the governor of Judaea, after the destruction of Jems in f>XI> BC, had been treacherously murdered, the depressed and dispirited remnant under Johanan, the .son of Kareah, resolved to take flight into Egypt, against the counsel of Jeremiah. A host of fugitives, in cluding Jeremiah and his friend Baruch, accordindv set out thither, and settled at Migdol and Tali- panhes and Xoph (Memphis), and in the country of Pathros in upper Egypt (Jeremiah 43, 44). It was in Egypt with those fugitives that Jeremiah ended his life. Many of the fugitives were taken prisoners by Nebuchadrezzar on one of his latest expeditions to the west, and were transported to Babvlon (Jos, Ant, X, is, 7; cf Jeremiah 43 Sf).

      Of this colony of Jews it is natural to see a strong con firmation in the recent discovery of Aram, papyri at Assouan, the Syene of the ancients. The

      7. 1 esti- papyri were the contents of a deed box of a mony of member of a Jewish colony in upper Egypt, A rnair and tlie deeds refer to house property in r which Jews are concerned. FTere then at Papyri Assouan, about 470 BC is a colony of Jews

      who have acquired houses and oilier proper ty, and have become bankers and money lenders, within a

      8. Jewish Temple at Syene

      cent, of the death of Jeremiah. In the papyri there; is evi dence of the existence 1 of a tribunal of (.lie Hebrews a court where cases could be decided, as fully recognized bv law as any of the other courts. Egyp or Pers, for Egypt, "the basest of kingdoms," was then" subject to a Pers suzerain Most significant of all. Jeh is acknowledged as the (iod of the Jews, and the existence of a chapel and even of an altar of sacrifice is beyond all doubt. Evidently these Jews in Egypt did not consider that an altar of Jeh could not stand anywhere else than at Jerus, or that, outside Jerus the worship of the synagogue was the only worship of the (iod of their fathers. These facts are rendered still more striking when we regard them as a fulfilment of Esaiah s prophecy: "In that dav there shall be live cities in the land of Egypt that speak the language of Canaan, and swear to Jehovah of hosts; one shall be called i lu city of destruction. In that day there shall bean altar to Jehovah in the midst of the land of Egypt, and a pillar at the border thereof to Jehovah" (Isaiah 19 is. MM. These papyri give information similar to that which the clav tablets discovered at Nippur give regarding the house o f Murashu Sons (see CAPTIVITY) about the same time the time when Ezraa was setting out from Babylon to restore at Jerus the worship of the temple which Zerub- babel had rebuilt. It was just about a cent, from the time that Jeremiah had gone down to Egypt that we have the first of these deeds, and it was the grandfathers, or great-grandfathers, of the persons concerned whom he had accompanied thither so much against his will.

      These papyri were disco\\\\ered in Mull, and a year or two later, additional papyri were discovered in a mound \\\\\\\\hich stands on the site of the ancient Elephantine or Veb. an island in the Nile, on the frontier also. One of these papyri contains a petition from the Jewish colony in Elephantine addressed to Uanolii (called Bagoas by Jos, Ant, XI. vii, 7), the Pers governor of .ludah. about 40S B( . They ask for assistance to enable them to rebuild the temple of Jeh in Elephantine, which had been destroyed at the instigation of the priests of t he ram-headed Egyp god Khnub, who had a temple in the fortress of Veb or Elephantine. This Jewish temple had been erected to Jeh at leasl I L>.~> years before and had been spared by ( amb\\\\ ses in f>^."> |i( when he destroyed all the temples erected to the gods of Egypt. The destruction of the temple at Ycb occurred in" the 14th year of Darius. 41 1 BC. It contained an altar for burnt sacrifice, and there were gold and silver vessels in which the blood of sacrifice was collected. The head of the college of priests presenting this petition is Jedoniah, a name found in an abbreviated form in Jadon ( Nehemiah 37). An attempt has been made to show that the bearers of these lleb names were descended from t he capth it y of the Northern Kingdom. It, is suggested 9. Theories that they had come into Egypt with the of the >(TS ll iny under Cambyses from their

      % adopted homes in Assyria and the cities

      of the Modes and had obtained possessions Settlement on the southern frontier of Egypt. Names believed to point to the Northern King dom, like Ilosea and Menahem. occur very frequently, but this is too narrow a foundation for such a theory, and the Israelitish origin of the Syene colonists is not established (,IQI{ [M)()7|. Ill IV. There is more to be. said in favor of the view that they were the descendants of a Jewish military colony. That Jewish mercenaries fought in the campaigns of the Pharaohs we- have already seen. And that Elephantine" was an important garri son town on the frontier is also certain. Jos ( .1 nt, XI V. vi, 2) mentions a Jewish military colony holding a post at, Pelusium in the cent, before Christ, and this might be a similar garrison stationed at the opposite extremity of the land in the .~>th cent. Such a garrison would attract Jews engaged in business and in the occupations of civil life, and so a distinct Jewish community would be formed. It has even been suggested that, the tidings of the de struction of the temple at Jerus furnished the motive to these Egyp Jews to build the temple and rear the altar 1 of burnt offering which the heathen priests of Khnub had destroyed.

      While the petition to the religions authorities at Jerus indicates that the priests of Elephantine regarded their temple as dependent upon the temple at Jerus. it is significant that they were also, as is shown in their letter, in com munication with Delaiah and Shelemiah the sons of Sanballat, the governor of Samaria. That this was Nchemiah s enemy (Nehemiah 4 1; 6 1, etc; is impossible, for he lived nearly a cent, earlier. But the association with descendants of his, themselves Samaritans, gives a schismatical appearance; to the position of the Elephan tine temple. The existence of this temple with its priest hood, its altar of sacrifice, and its offerings, from ">()() years BC, is an important fact in the history of the Dis persion. It was meant to keep those Jewish exiles true to the religion of their fathers and in religious fellowship with their brethren in Philestina-Canaan Land For a like purpose the Temple of Onias at Leontopolis was erected in the early years of the Maccabean struggle. Onias had to flee from Jerus with a number of priests and Levites, and for the aid he rendered to Ptolemy Philometor, the king of Egypt, he received a gift of land upon which he built a

      10. Importance of the Discovery



      temple like to the Temple at .lerus. Professor Flinders Petrie believes he has discovered this temple of Onias IV at Tel el-Yehudiyeh (** and Israelite Citie*, 31). The discovery confirms the account given of the temple by Jos, who "is our only authority for its erection (Ant, XIII, iii, -2; XIV, viii, 2).

      The Elephantine-Syene papyri have added a ne\\\\v

      and valuable chapter to OT history. We know

      now of a Jewish temple, in Egypt which

      11. A New certainly reaches 400 years fart Inn- Chapter of into antiquity than the temple of OT Onias IV at Leontopolis, and we obtain History important information as to the rela tions of its priesthood with the leaders

      of the Jerus Jews and the Samaritans. We know now from unbiased authorities that the Jewish settlements in the Valley of the Nile are much older than has hitherto been believed. We have valuable confirmation not only of the notices in the Book of Jeremiah, but also of the statements in the later Helle nistic lit. Moreover, it is now shown that the skep ticism which has prevailed in some quarters as to the very existence of any considerable Egyp Dis persion^ before the time of Alexander the (ireat is unwarranted (Peters, Die jfulixclie dcniciixh ran Elephaniint-Syene, 50 f; Schiirer, (1JV 4 , III, 19 f).

      What exactly were the fortunes of this Jewish

      community at a later time, no record has yet been

      found to tell. Possibly it decayed in

      12. Alex- course of time, for Herodotus who andrian visited Egypt about 450 BC makes no Judaism mention of it and found no Jews in

      sufficient numbers to attract, his atten tion. It was undoubtedly with the founding of Alexandria in 332 BC that the flourishing period of Judaism in Egypt commenced. Alexander the Great had hastened from the field of victory at Issus 333 BC, through Syria by way of Tyre, the siege of which occupied him some months, showing clemency to the inhabitants of Jerus and severity to the recalcitrant inhabitants of Gaza till by its eastern gate he entered Egypt and took possession of the land of the Pharaohs. The Jews appear to have been friendly to Macedonian conquest, and in Alexander s new city they received the rights of citizenship and two quarters all tothemselves. That, they were restricted to their own quartersdoes not appear, and in the time of Philo, at the commence ment of the Christian era, they had synagogues and places of prayer in all parts of the city. Alexander died in 323 B C but the favor which he had accorded to the Jews was continued by the Ptolemies who succeeded to his Egyp empire. The first Ptolemy, Lagi or Soter (322-2S5 BC), increased the Jewish population of Alexandria by raids into Pal on which he brought back a large number of captives, both Jews and Samaritans. Other Jews, hearing of his liberality and of the prosperity of their coreligion ists, were attracted to Egypt and settled in Alex andria of their own accord (Jos, Ant, XII, i, 1). Under their own ethnarch they enjoyed great pros perity and had full religious liberty. The principal synagogue of the city was on a scale of great mag nificence. In the reign of Ptolemy Philometor (1X2- 140 BC) they were allowed to set up the temple at Leontopolis, as we have already noticed. In the time of Philo the Jewish colony in Egypt was con sidered to number a million.

      It was in Alexandria that the Jews first came so

      powerfully under the influence of Hellenism, and

      here that the peculiar Graeco-Jewish

      13. The philosophy sprang up of which Philo Jews and was the most notable representative. Hellenism The same soil was eminently favorable

      to early Christianity which had from the end of the 2d cent, onward its greatest teachers and their learned catechetical school. See ALEX ANDRIA.

      The great monument of Hellenistic Judaism, which

      had its chief seat in Alexandria, is the LXX tr of the

      ()T. which became such a powerful /i/ u-

      14. The i,,,,;iti evangelicn, and was the Bible of Seotuaeint l 10 Apostles and the first. Christians, even

      of the Lord Jesus Christ Himself. It is ascribed in the Li-tlrr <>/ .\\\\risli-n* to the interest of Ptolemy II Philadelphia PJS. r >-247 BC) in a proposal to secure a copy of the Jewish Law in an accessible 1 tr for the famous Royal Library. It is more likely that as familiarity with their Hebrews tongue diminished in their new surroundings, the need of an intelligible, version of the Law to begin with was felt, and Jewish hands were set to work to produce it. In course of time the rest followed, but from the tradition of its being the work of 70 or 72 translators it is known as the LXX. See SEP-


      The question has been raised whether too much has not been made of a Jewish community in Alex andria so early, audit has been asserted

      15. Early that we can scarcely speak of a Jewish Evidence of Dispersion anywhere before the Macca- a Jewish bean period in the second half of the Community 2d cent . BC. The evidence as we have

      seen points to the existence of Jewish communities continuously from the days of Jere miah. Papyri prove the presence of Jews in Egypt, not only in the towns but in country districts from a comparatively early period. A remarkable in scription has recently come to light showing that at Schedia, some 20 miles from Alexandria, there existed a Jewish community which had built a syna gogue and dedicated it to the honor of Ptolemy III Euergetes (247-222 BC) and his queen Berenice. If such a community was organized in the little town of Schedia at that date, we can well believe the cosmopolitan city of Alexandria to have had a considerable Jewish community at a still earlier date.

      When we turn to Syria, we find large numbers of

      Jews, notwithstanding the hatred of Greeks and

      Syrians. Jos (li,l , VII, iii, 3) says

      16. Disper- that it is the country which has the sion in Syria largest percentage 1 of Jewish inhabit ants, and Antioch among the towns

      of Syria had the preeminence. In Damascus, which seems to have had a Jewish quarter or Jewish ba zaars in the days of Ahab (1 }\\\\ 20 34 and Burney s note ad loc.), the Jewish population was numbered by thousands. From Galilee 1 and Gilead and the region of the Hauran, Judas Maccabaeus and his brother Jonathan brought bodies of Jews, who were settlers among a pagan population, for safety to Judaea (1 Mace 6J.

      Even in Arabia Judaism had considerable footing. Edward Glaser, who prosecuted valuable archaeological

      researches in Arabia tsee Hilprecht, Recent J7 j n Hixi-nrrlux in liitili J.tinih, 131 ff ), prof esses

      . , . to have found Himyaritic inscriptions of

      Aratua ^ e 4(,j 1 an( i -,(] 1 cents, of our era which

      are monotheistic, and therefore Jewish, but there is still uncertainty as to this. In the beginning of the 6th cent, a Jewish king actually reigned in Arabia, and because of his persecution of the Christians he was attacked and overthrown by the Christian king of Abys sinia.

      Of the widespread distribution of the Dispersion in Asia Minor there is abundant testimony, not only in the texts of the apostles, but in clas- 18. In Asia sical and early Christian lit. and in the Minor epigraphic lit. which has been accumu

      lating for the last 30 years. At Per- gamum, in Lydia, in Karia, at Magnesia, at Tralles, at Miletum, in Cappadocia, Bithynia, and Pont us, considerable Jewish communities existed at the be ginning of the Christian era. At Smyrna the Jews played a prominent part in the death of Polycarp 155 AD, being esp. zealous in heaping up fagots upon the fire that consumed the martyr. In his Cities and Bishoprics of Phrygia Sir William Ram say mentions numerous indications found on inscrip tions of Jewish settlers, and his chapter on "The Jews in Phrygia" focuses the results of his inquiries



      (op. cit., 007 IT; rf 649 IT). lie has also made it extremely probable that long before St. Paul s day there was a st rong body of Jews in Tarsus of Cilicia, and he holds that a .Jewish colony was settled 1 here as early as 171 BC. "The Seleucid kings," he says, like the Ptolemies, "used the Jews as an element of the colonies which they founded to strengthen their hold on Phrygia and other countries." But it is difficult to trace out the profound influence they exerted in the development of their country from the fact that they adopted to such an extent Gr and Romans names and manners, and were thus almost indistinguishable. At Laodicea and Hierapolia there have been found many evidences of their presence: for example, at the latter place an in scription on a gravestone tells how the deceased Publius Aelius Glycon mortified a sum of money to provide for the decoration of his tomb every year lit the Feast of Tnleavened Bread.

      The Dispersion among the Greeks proper had

      attained to considerable dimensions in the time of

      Christ. Philo, as noticed above, men-

      19. Among lions Thessaly, Boeotia, Macedonia, Greeks Aetolia, A I tica. Argos, Corinth and the Proper fairest and most fertile parts of the

      Peloponnesus a.s having .Jewish in habitants. Inscriptions recovered from Delphi and elsewhere relating to the manumission of slaves in the Jd cent. BC contain the names of Jews (Deiss- niann, Lujhl from I he. Audi lit 7 , <;.s7, 325 f). In Sparta and Sicyon, Jews lived in the days of the Maccabees (1 Mace. 16 23). At Philippine know from Acts 16 lit there was a />/vw;/r//<~, or place of of prayer, and at- Thessalonica, Herea, Athens, Corinthians inth there were synagogues in St. Paul s time. On the islands of the Greek archipelago and the Mediter ranean there were Jews. Cyprus, the home of Bar nabas, had a large Jewish population; and Kuboea and Crete are named by Philo as Jewish centers. Rhodes has the distinction of having produced two opponents of Judaism in the first half of the 1st cent. BC. Clearchus <.f Soli, a disciple of Aristotle, introduces in one of his dialogues a Jew from Coele- Syria, Hellenic not in speech only but in mind, rep resenting him as having come in his travels to Asia Minor and there conversed with Aristotle. Such an experience may have been rare so early; the incident may not be fact, but fiction; yet such as it is it. tells a tale of the spread of Judaism.

      The relations of Rome with the Jewish people

      lend special interest to the Dispersion there. Jews

      do not appear to have been settled in

      20. The Rome before the Maccabean period. Roman There is a certain pathos in the appeal Dispersion made to the Romans state by Judas Mac-

      cabaeus, amid the difficulties that were gathering round his position, for "a league of amity and confederacy" with the Romans people (1 Mace 8 17-32). His brother and successor, Jonathan, fol lowed this up later (12 And in 140 BC Simon sent a delegation which concluded a treaty, offensive* and defensive, with Rome, which was duly intimated by the Senate to their allies in various countries, esp. of the East. During the stay of the mission at. Rome its members seem to have made attempts at religious propagandism, and the praetor Hispalus compelled them to return to their homes for attempting to corrupt Romans morals by introduc ing the worship of Jupiter Saba/ius which is no doubt the Romans interpretation of the Lord of Hoseats (Jehovah Sabaoth). But ere long in Rome, as in Alexandria, they formed a colony by themselves, occupying Trastevere, the Transtiberine portion of the city, together with an island in the Tiber. Their prosperity grew with their numbers. When Cicero in 59 BC was defending Flaccus he speaks of gold being sent out of Italy, and all the provinceSj to

      Jems, and there was present among his listeners

      a large body of Jews interested in the case. When

      Pompey had captured Jerus in 63 BC,

      21. Jews he brought back with him to Rome and a number of Jewish captives. They Pompey were sold as slaves, but many of them

      received their freedom and rights to citizenship. When Julius Caesar, who was a great patron and protector of the Jews, was assassinated,

      they wept over him for nights on end.

      22. Jews Augustus protected and encouraged and the them. Tiberius, however, adopted re- First pressive measures toward them, and Caesars 4,000 Jews were deported by him to

      Sardinia while others were driven out of the city. With the downfall of Sejanus, the unworthy favorite of Tiberius, this repressive policy was reversed and they were allowed to return to Rome. Claudius again devised measures against them (c 50 AD), and they were banished from the city. They had, however, so multiplied and they

      had attained such influence that it was

      23. Influ- impossible to get rid of them alto- ence of get her. Their customs and religious Jews in the observances brought down upon them Early Ro- the scorn of Juvenal and others, while man Empire their faith and worship had attractions

      for the though t ful and the superstitious. "The Jews from the time of the first Caesar," says Sir Samuel Dill, "have worked their way into every class of society. A Jewish prince had inspired Caligula with an oriental ideal of monarchy. There were adherents of Judaism in the household of thc^ri-at freedmen of Claudi us, and their growing influence and turbulence compelled that emperor to expel the race from his capital. The worldly, pleasure-loving 1 oppaea had, perhaps, yielded to t he mysterious charms of the religion of Moses. But it was under the Flavians, who had such close associations with Judaea, that Jewish influences made themselves most felt. And in the rcijrn of Domitian. two members of the imperial house, along; with many others, suffered for following the Jewish mode of life" (Human Xm-iety from \\troto Marcus Aurctiun, 84).

      In recent excavations, which have laid bare much of subterranean Rome, main- Jewish tombs have been examined and have yielded much additional knowledge of the conditions of Jewish life in the capital of the Caesars. Probably Jews gracing Pompey s triumph after his Syrian campaign, 61 BC, made the first. Romans catacombs similar to those on Jewish hillsides and esp. round Jerus; and in these Jewish catacombs pagans and Christians were never laid.

      In Italy, apart from Romans and Southern Italy,

      where they were widely spread, the number of Jews

      at the beginning of our era was not

      24. Jews in large. In Southern Gaul they were Italy, Gaul, numerous and in Spain they were nu- Spain and merous and powerful. In North Africa North there were Jewish communities in Africa many centers, and Cyrene was the

      home of a large and flourishing Jewish population.

      It is not easy to form a trustworthy estimate of the Jewish population of the world in the times of

      Christ. Harnack reckons up four or

      25. Numbers- four and a half millions (Expansion of bers of the Christianity, I, 10) within the Romans Dispersion Empire. The Judaism of the Disper sion would at least be several times

      more numerous than the Judaism of Philestina-Canaan Land

      The question has been discussed how far the Jews

      of the Dispersion recruited their ranks by proselyt-

      ism. That they should maintain a

      26. Jewish propaganda on behalf of their ancestral Proselytism faith would only be in keeping with

      the character of their religion as a religion of revelation. Although they had to live within "the hedge of the Law" to protect them against the corruptions and idolatries of the Gentiles,



      there was nevertheless at the heart of Judaism a missionary purpose, as we see from the universalism of the Pss and the Prophets. Judaism was bur dened with a message which concerned all men, to the effect that there was one God, holy and spiritual, Creator of heaven and earth, who had committed to the family of Abraham in trust for the world His Law. To witness for the Living Clod, and to pro claim His Law, was the chief element of the Jewish propaganda in the Romans empire, and their system of proselytism enabled them to gain adherents in numbers." In this the OT Scriptures and the ob servance of the Sabbath wen; important factors, and enabled them to win the adherence of intelligent and educated people.

      That the Jews of the Dispersion had an internal organization with courts of their own, having con siderable jurisdiction, not only in spirit-

      27. Internal ual but in civil affairs, there is no Organiza- doubt. This would only be in accord- tion ance with the analogy of their consti tution as seen in the XT, and of their

      commercial organization in many lands to this day.

      In all the lands of their Dispersion the Jews never

      lost touch with the land of their fathers, or Jerus,

      the city of the Greal King. The bond

      28. Unity of unity was maintained by the pilgrim- of the Jew- ages they made from all the countries ish People where they were scattered to their

      three great national feasts; by the payment of the half-shekel toward the services of the Temple as long as it stood; and by their volun tary submission, so long as they had a_ national polity, to the decrees of the great Sanhedrin.

      That Judaism was influenced in its Dispersion by contact of the larger world of life; and thought in

      which the Jews had their place outside

      29. Disper- of Pal we can see by the example of sion Influ- Alexandria. It was there that it felt enced by most powerfully the penetrating and Greek pervasive influence of (ir thought, and Thought the large apocryphal and _ apocalyptic

      lit. which sprang up there is one of the most notable results. "The Alexandrian Jew was in reality both a Jew and a Greek; he held the faith of Jeh and sincerely worshipped the (Jod of his fathers, but he spoke the (ir language, had received a Or education, and had contracted many Or ideas and habits. Still those in his position were Jews first, and Greeks afterward, and on all the funda mentals were in thorough sympathy with their Palestinian brethren" (Fairweather, From the Exile to the Advent, 10!) f;.

      The Jewish people thus widely distributed over

      the Romans world with their monotheism, with their

      Scriptures, and with their Messianic

      30. The hopes, did much to prepare the way Dispersion for the advent of the Redeemer who a. Prepara- was to be the fulfilment of Jewish ex- tion for the pectation and hope. 11 was due to Advent of the strange and unique influence of Christ Judaism and to the circulation of the

      glowing visions of Israel s prophets among the nations, that there was so widespread an expectation, mentioned by Tacitus, by Sue tonius and by Jos, that from Judaea would arise a Ruler whose dominion would bo over all. It is now believed that Virgil s conception of the Better Age which was to be inaugurated by the birth of a child was derived from Isaiah s prophecies. And not only did the Jewish Dispersion thus prepare tin- way for the world s Redeemer in the fulness of the time, but when He had come and suffered and died and risen and ascended, it furnished a valuable auxil iary to the proclamation of the gospel. Wherever the apostles and the first preachers traveled with the good news, they found Jewish communities

      to whom they offered first the great salvation. The synagogue services lent themselves most effect ively to the ministry of St. Paul and 31. An his colleagues, and it was to the syna-

      Auxiliary goguethat they first repaired in every to the city they visited. Even to this day this

      Spread of preservation of "the dispersed of Israel" the Gospel is one of the marvels of the Divine government of the world, proving the truth of the word of God by one of the earliest prophets: "I will sift the house of Israel among all the nations, like as grain is sifted in a sieve, yet shall not the least kernel fall upon the earth" (Am 9 9).

      LITERATUReast Schiirer.i/ ,/!" , III. 1 (T; ITarnack, Expan sion of Christianity, I, 1 Kings); Fairwrat her, line l;,j round of the Go*i>,l and From tin- AV//V to th,- Advent; Jew Ktic, art. "Diaspora" ; Sayec and Co winy. Am m.l u i>;/ri Dhcm-ere/l at Axxuun; Oc-stcrlcy and liox, Itcliijio/t and \\\\ oryhip of the

      T. NICOL


      DISPOSITION, dis-po-/.ish un (Siara-yaC, din- tn(jtti): Only in Acts 7 .">:>, "received the law by the disposition of angels," where it bears the meaning of "administration"; RV "as it was ordained by angels.

      DISPUTATION, dis-pu-ta shun: In Acts 15 2,

      RV reads "questioning" for AY "disputation" (Gr suzftctsix). In Horn 14 1, AV "doubtful disputa tions" becomes in RV "decision of scruples" (Gr <ii<tl:r ix< /.s ilinliKjisnidn, lit. "discussions of doubts"). The Gr in neither case implies what the word "dis pute" has come to mean in modern Eng., but rather "to discuss" or "argue."

      DISTAFF, dis taf (!f "south, pdckh): This word oc curs once in Prov 31 19; "spindle" is found in the same passage. In RV the meanings of the two words have been exchanged. See SPINNING.

      DISTIL, dis-til : Only found twice in the Eng. Bible (Deuteronomy 32 12; Job 36 27), in both cases in its original meaning of "to fall in drops," as dew or rain (derived through IV. from Lat <lc, "down," stillo, "to drop"). It does not occur in its later tech nical sense, for the process we call distillation was not known in ancient times.

      DISTINCTLY, dis-tinkt li: Only Nehemiah 8 8, "They read in the book, in the law of God, distinctly. Probably the better rendering is RVm "with an interpretation," i.e. translating into Aram. The Ileb word is a part, of vb. /H irusli = "to make distinct." The corresponding Aram, word occurs in E/r 4 18 = "plainly" AV and RV, better "translated" RVm.

      DITCH, dich : The word is used indiscriminately in AV to represent at least three different ideas : a conduit or trench (2 Kings 3 Iti); a reservoir or cis tern; or simply a pit or hole in the ground. In RV this distinction is observed more carefully. Gf Job 9 31; Psalm 7 15 ("pit"), and Isaiah 22 11 ("reser voir"), the former meaning a pit or any similar place of destruction or corrupt ion; the latter a reser voir or cistern of water. The NT usage (Matthew 15 14 AV) corresponds somewhat with the former. See also 2 Kings 3 10 ("trenches").

      DIVERS, di verz, DIVERSE, dl-vfirs , DIVER SITIES, dl-vur si-tiz: "Divers" meaning "vari ous," "different in kind," is now obsolete and used only as a synonym of "several," i.e. more than one. The distinction between "divers" and "di verse" in AV seems to be that the former is the



      wider term, (he latter being restricted to the mean ing of "different in kind," while "divers" is also used to express difference of number. RV retains diverse" in all instances but changes "divers" nearly everywhere, except where it lias the meaning "several." _ Cf Matthew 24 7; Luke 21 11; He 9 10, et al. It is hard to understand why RV retains "divers" as a tr of 7r<x/a Xos, -//oik/los, in Alt 4 24; Mark 1 3L et al., because poikilos certainly cannot have the meaning "several" but "different in kind," and the idea expressed in these passages is not that some of the people had several diseases but that different people had different kinds of diseases. The same is true in lie 13 1) where "divers" does not refer to number but to various kinds of leach ing. He 2 4 and .las 1 2 rightly change the read ing of AV "divers" to "manifold."

      In other passages RV changes "divers" to "di verse," and thus renders the idea of the original text "different in kind." Cf Deuteronomy 25 13 f; Prov 20 10.2)5. Other passages are changed the better to render the original text: Deuteronomy 22 9, "two kinds of seed"; ,Judges 5 30, "dyed"; 2 Chronicles 30 11, "certain men"; Mark 8 3 and Acts 19 5), "some." AV reads in all these passages "divers." RV changes AV He 1 1 "at sundry times and in divers manners," an expression often found in ( )ld Eng., to "by divers portions and in divers manners."

      "Diversities" is found twice as tr of <5iafy)ecrts, (/tain sis, lit. "distribution" (1 Corinthians 12 4ff), but RV changes AV, 1 Corinthians 12 2S, "diversities" to "divers kinds," as 1r of 7^, <jvne, "kinds."

      A. L. BKESLICH

      DIVES, dl vez. See LAZARUS.

      DIVIDE, di-vld : It is difficult to decide whether "" "? nli//, a (.Job 26 12; Isaiah 61 ir>; Jeremiah 31 3r>) should be rendered "to stir up" or "to still." The HeJ) has both meanings. Some render "He causes the sea to tremble." RV reads "to stir" in text and "to still" in margin, while AV has "to divide" in all three cases. 2 Chronicles 35 13, "carried them quickly" (AV "divided them speedily"). Since p?H, halak, may mean either "to distribute 1 " or "to be smooth," Hosea 10 2 reads "t heir heart is divided" in the text, but offers "smooth" in margin (AV "divided"). The (!r opfloro^w, ortholomeo, means "to cut straight," hence the more lit. 1r of 2 Tim 2 15, "handling aright the word of truth" (note "holding a straight course in the way of truth" or "rightly dividing the word of truth"; AV "rightly divid ing";. A. L. BKESLICH

      DIVINATION, div-i-na slmn:

      1. Definition

      2. Kinds of Divination

      . ,. iMindament ;il Assumption in Divination

      I. Legitimate and Illegitimate Divination

      5. The Bible and Divination

      ti. Modes of Divination Mentioned in the Bible: Those

      Approved and Those Condemned

      7. Terms I sed in the ()T

      north Divination and 1 rophecy


      Divination is the act of obtaining secret knowl edge, esp. that which relates to the future, by means within the reach almost exclusively of

      1. Defini- special classes of men.

      tion Of this there are two main species:

      (1) artificial, (2) inspirational, or, as it was called in ancient times (Cicero, Lord Bacon, etc), natural divination. Artificial divination de pends on the skill of the agent in read-

      2. Kinds of ing and in interpreting certain signs Divination called omens. See AIMU RY. In in spirational or natural divination the

      agent is professedly under the immediate influence of some spirit or god who enables the diviner to see

      the future, etc, and to utter oracles embodying what he sees. Among the Romans artificial divination prevailed almost exclusively, the other having vogue largely among the Greeks, a proof surely of the more spiritual trend of the Gr mind. Yet that great Roman, Cicero, in his memorable treatise on Divina tion, says he agrees with those who take cognizance of these two distinct kinds of divination. As ex amples of inspirational divination he instances men dreaming or in a state of ecstasy (Da Dirinatinne, i. IS). But though Cicero arranges diviners accord ing to their pretentious, he does not believe in any superhuman communication. Thus he explains dreams on psychological principles much as modern psychologists would (op. cit. ii.(>3ff). Asa matter of fact Cicero was an atheist, or at least an agnostic.

      The Lai word dirinalio was confined almost ex clusively to divination by outward signs, though its etymology (ileus, "god") suggests that it denoted originally the other kind that due to the inspira tion of superhuman beings. Chrysippus (d. at Athens 207 BC), though himself a Gr philosopher, defines the word in a way which would have com manded the approval of nearly every Romans, includ ing Cicero himself who gives it. "Divination," Cicero makes him say (op. cit. ii.63), is "a power in man which foresees and explains those signs which the gods throw in his way." The Greeks were, on jthe other hand, a more imaginative and emotional people, and with them inspirational divination held much the larger place. The Gr mantis (/xdvru) bears a close resemblance to the OT prophet, for both claimed to be inspired from without and to be superhumanly informed. The Gr term for divina tion (he) manlike ( = he Manlike tec/me) has refer ence to the work of the mantis, and it hardly ever means divination of the lower sort that by means of signs.

      Underlying all methods of divination there lay

      the belief that certain superhuman spiritual beings

      (gods, spirits) possess the secret

      3. Funda- knowledge desired by men, and that, mental As- on certain conditions, they are willing sumption in to impart it.

      Divination (1) The word "divination" itself, fromdeus, "god," or dims, "pertaining to god," carries with it the notion that the informa tion obtained came from deity. Similarly the Gr manlike implies that the message comes to the mantis from gods or spirits by way of inspiration.

      (2) Astrology, or astromancy, is but one form of divination and it rests upon the ultimate belief that the heavenly bodies are deities controlling (he des tinies of men and revealing the future to those who have eyes to see. According to the Weltanscfiau- un<i or conception of the universe advocated by Hugo Winckler, Alfred Jeremias (see The OT in the Lii/f/t of the East) and others, terrestrial events are but shadows of the celestial realit ies (cf Plalo s doc trine of ideas). These latter represented the mind of the gods (see ASTKOLOCY sees. 1,2).

      (3) On hepatoscopy, or divining from the liver, see below, 6, (2), (c).

      (4) It can be proved that among the ancient peoples (Babylonians, Egyptians, Greeks, Homans, etc) the view prevailed that not only oracles but also omens of all kinds are given to men by the gods and express the minds of these gods.

      Among the ancient Babylonians, Egyptians,

      ( 1 reeks and Romans (he diviner stood in the service

      of t he state and was officially consulted

      4. Legiti- before wars and other great enterprises mate and were undertaken. But among these Illegitimate and other ancient- peoples certain Divination classes of diviners were prohibited by

      the government from exercising their calling, probably because they were supposed to be



      in league with the gods of other and hostile nations. The gods of a people were in the beliefs of the time the protectors of their people and therefore the foes of the foes of their proteges. It is on this account that witchcraft has been so largely condemned and punished (see WITCHCRAFT). Necromancy is uni formly forbidden in the OT (see Leviticus 19 31; Deuteronomy 18 11; Isaiah 8 19; 19 3), probably on account of its con nection with ancestor worship. But among other ancient peoples it was allowed and largely practised. Note that the Hebrews words tr 1 (Deuteronomy 18 11) "consulter with a familiar spirit" and "wizards" denote alike such persons as seek oracles from the spirits of the dead (see the present writer s Magic, Divination, ami Demonology among tin- Hebrews, 85 ff). The early Fathers believed that in the divination of heathenism we have 1 the work of Satan who wished to discredit the true religion by producing phe nomena among pagan races very similar to the prophetical marvels of the chosen people. This of course rests on a view of the OT prophet which makes him a "predicter" and little if anything more.

      Sec PltOl HKCY.

      The attitude of the Bible toward divination is on

      the whole distinctly hostile and is fairly represented

      by Deuteronomy 18 10 f, where the prophet of

      5. The Yahweh is contrasted with diviners of

      Bible and all kinds as the only authorized medium

      Divination of supernatural revelation. Yet note

      the following:

      (!) Balaam (Numbers 22-24) was a heathen diviner whose words of blessing and of cursing were believed to have magical force, and when his services are en listed in the cause of Yahwism, so that, instead of cursing he blessed Israel, there is not a syllable of disapproval in the narrative.

      (2) In Isaiah 3 2 diviners are ranked with judges, warriors and prophets as pillars of the state. They are associated with prophets and seers in Jeremiah 27 9; 29 south; E/k 22 2S (cf 13 .); 12 24). It is true that the prophets and diviners mentioned in these passages use ulter falsehoods, saying peace where there is none; all the same the men called prophets and diviners are classed together as similar func tionaries.

      Pure Yahwism in its very basal principle is and must ever have been antagonistic to divination of every kind, (hough inspirational divination has resemblances to prophet ism and even affinities with it. Why then does the Bible appear to speak with two voices, generally prohibiting but at times countenancing various forms of divination? In the artual religion of the ( )T we have a syncretism in which, though Yahwism forms the substructure, t here are constituents from t he religions of t lie nat ive aborigines and the nations around. The underlying thought in all forms of divination is that by em ploying certain means men are able to obt a in knowl edge otherwise beyond their reach. The religion of Israel made Yahweh the source of that knowledge and (lie prophet the medium through which it came to men. We have an analogous example of syncre tism resulting in the union of opposite elements in ancient Zarathusl raisin (Zoroastrianism) which, though in its central principle inconsistent with divination by omens, yet took on from the native Turanian cults of Persia certain forms of divination, esp. that by lot (see Lenormant, La Divination, 22 ff). Nor should it be forgotten that the Bible is a library and not a book, and where so many writers, living at widely separated times, have been at work it is natural to look for diversity of (caching, (hough no one can deny that in fundamental matters Bible authors are wonderfully consistent.

      For modes of divination in vogue among the an cient, Babylonians, Egyptians, Greeks, Romans, etc, see the relevant works and dictionary articles.

      The species of divination spoken of in the Bible may be arranged under two heads: (1) those ap parently sanctioned, and (2) those 6. Modes condemned in the Bible, of Divina- (1) Methods of divination tacitly or tion Men- expressly sanctioned in the, Bible. (a) tioned in The following are instances of inspira- the Bible tional divination:

      (a) The case of Balaam has already been cited. He was a Moabite and therefore a heathen soothsayer. His word of blessing or of curse is so potent that whether he blesses or curses his word secures its own realization. So far is his vocation from being censured that it is actually called into the service of Yahweh (see Numbers 22-24).

      (/3) To dreams the Bible assigns an important place as a legitimate means of revealing the future. Such dreams are of two kinds:

      (i) Involuntary or such as come unsought . Even these arc regarded as sent for guidance in human affairs. The bulk of the dreams spoken of in the Bible belong to this class: see (Jen 20 3.0 (Abimelech); 28 2 f; 3110-14 (Jacob); 375-9 (Joseph; see ASTRONOMY, 11, 0); 40 5-21 (Pha raoh s butler and baker) ; 41 1-35 (Pharaoh); Judges 7 9-14 (Gideon and an unnamed man); Dnl 1 17 (Daniel had understanding of dreams); Dnl 2 1- 49 (Nebuchadnezzar s dream and its interpretation by Daniel); Matthew 1 20; 2 13f.l9f (Joseph, hus band of Mary the virgin): 27 19; see also Jeremiah 23 25 ff, where the lawfulness of prophetic dreams is assumed (cf ver 32, where "lying dreams" imply genuine ones). In the document usually ascribed by modern critics to the Elohist (E), dreams bulk largely as the above examples serve to show. Among the Babylonians belief in the significance of dreams gave rise to a science (onciromancy) so elaborate that only special interpreters called seers (sing, b/iru) were considered able to explain them (see Lenormant, op. cit., 143, for examples).

      (ii) The other species of dreams consists of such as are induced by what is called "incubation," i.e. by sleeping in a sacred place where the god of the place is believed to reveal his secrets to the sleeper. Herodotus (iv.172) says (hat the Nasa- monians, an Egyp tribe, used to practise divination by sleeping in (he graves of their ancestors. The dreams which then came to them were understood to be revelations of (heir deified ancestors. See Herod. i.lSl for another instance of incubation in Nineveh. We have a reference to (his custom in Isaiah 65 4 ("that sit among the graves"), where Yahweh enters into judgment with the Jews for their sin in yielding to this superstition. Solomon s dream (1 Kings 3 5-15) came to him at the high place of Gibeon. See also DRKAM, DKKAMKK.

      (b) But the Bible appears in some places to give its approval to some kinds of artificial or (as it may be called) ominal divination.

      (a) Sortilege or divination by lot . The use of the lot as a means of ascertaining the will of Deity is referred to at least without expressed censure, and, as the present, writer thinks, with tacit approval, in many parts of (he Bible. It was by lot that Aaron decided which of the two goats was to be for Yahweh and which for Aza/el (Leviticus 16 7-10). It was by lot that the land of Canaan was divided after the conquest ( Xu 26 50 ff; Joshus 18, 19). For other Bib. instances see Joshus 7 14 (Achan found out bv lot); 1 Chronicles 6 51 IT; 24 5 IT; 25 south f; 26 13 f; Est 3 7 ("They cast. Pur, that is, the lot"; see Century Bible in be.); Nehemiah 10 34; 11 1; Jon 1 7 ("The lot fell upon Jonah"); Matthew 27 35; Acts 1 20. In the TRIM AND THI MMIM (q.v.), as ex plained by modern scholars, the same principle is applied, for these two words, (hough etymologically still obscure, stand for two objects (pebbles?;, one



      denoting yes or its equivalent, and the other no. Whichever the high priest took from his ephod \\v;is believed to be the answer to the question asked. In all cases it is taken for granted that the lot cast was an expression and indication of the Divine will. See Arc;ruY, IV, . .i.

      C/3) Hydromancy, or divination by water. In Genesis 44 o Joseph is represented as practising this kind of divination and not a word of disapproval is expressed. See Arca itv, IV, 2.

      (7) We read in the OT of other signs or omens which are implicitly approved of, thus Judges 6 3(>- 40 (Gideon s fleece): 1 Samuel 14 south--K3 (Jonathan de cides whether or not lie is to attack the Phi lis by the words which he may happen to hear them speak).

      (2) Moiles of (Urination condemned. The follow ing met hods of divination are explicitly or implicitly condemned in t he ( )T:

      (a) Astromancy ( = Astrology). See ASTROLOGY.

      (6) Rhabdomancy, or the use of the divining rod, referred to apparently in Hosea 4 12 (which may be paraphrased: "My people ask counsel of a bit of wood, and the rod made thereof answers their ques tions"); E/k 8 17 ("They put a rod [KV "the branch"] to their nose").

      (r)^By an examination of the liver of animals; see Ezekiel 21 21. This mode of divining, hepatos- copy, as it is has been called, was very widespread among the Babylonians, ( Irecks, Romans, et c, of the ancient world, and it is still in vogue in Borneo, Burmah and Tganda. We have no evidence that it was practised among the Israelites, for in the above passage it is the king of Babylon (Nebuchad nezzar) who is said to have "looked in the liver."

      Opinions differ as to how the state of the liver could act as an onu-n. .Jast-row says the liver was considered to be the seat of life, and that where t lie liver of the ani mal sacrificed (generally a slice])) was accepted, it took on the character of the deity to whom it, was offered. The soul of the animal as seen in the liver became then a reflector of the soul of the j<od (see EH. XX, 102 f). On the other hand. Alfred Jeremias says that in the view of the ancient Babylonians the lines and forms of the sheep s liver were regarded as reflecting t he universe and its history (Tin DT in tl,< I. ,</>,/ of the Ancient East, \\. <>1 i Neither of these explanations is made probable bv its advocates.

      ( /) By teraphim (cf TKRAPHIM); see 1 Samuel 15 3 Ezekiel 21 21; Zee 10 2.

      (i ) Necromancy, or consulting the dead see Leviticus 19 HI; 20 G; Deuteronomy 18 1 1 ; isa 8 1 .); 19 :{; see above.

      (/) Divination through the sacrifice of children by burning (see Deuteronomy 18 10). The context makes it almost certain that the words tr 1 "that maketh his son or his daughter to pass through the fire" (KV; but, read and render "that burns his son or his daughter in the fire") refer to a mode of obtaining an oracle (cf 2 Kings 3 27). The Phoenicians and Carthaginians sacrificed their children to Kronos in times of grave national danger or calamity (Por phyry A pud EuKeb. I raep. Ev. iv.04,4; Diod. Sic. xx. 14).

      These are examined in detail in T. Witt on Davies Magic, Divination, and ])ett/onoli)i/// tinmnij the He brews anil Their Neighbors. See also 7. Terms the art. "Divination" in Eli by the Used in same writer. The following brief notes the OT in must suffice here.

      Connection (1) CCJ5 , keRem, generally rendered with "divination," is a general term for div-

      Divination ination of all kinds. In Ezekiel 21 21 [2(i] it stands for divination by arrows while in 1 Samuel 28 8 it is used of divination through the medium of an obh ("familiar spirit"). On the derivation of the word see EB, art. "Magic," 3.

      (2) IHiyQ , m f dnen, probably from a Sem root (cf Arab. *annn) which denotes to emit a hoarse nasal sound such as was customary in reciting the

      prescribed formula (see CHARM). For "oak of the i" onun" see Aucru s OAK. Some say the word means ^one who divines from the clouds, deriving from ~^y , dndn, "a cloud," though nothing in the context suggests this sense, and the same remark applies to the meaning "one who smites with the evil eye," making the term a denominative from *ayin, "eye." The usual rendering in AV is pi. "observers of times" and in RV "them that prac tise augury" (Deuteronomy 18 10.14).

      (3) The vb. rn:, m hesh, of which EJilb , lifjesh, is but a variant, is probably a denominative from EH!, nahnxh, "a serpent" (/ and n interchange in Ileb), denoting "to hiss," "to whisper" (like a ser pent), then "to utter divinatory formulae." As it is used for so many kinds of divination, west R. Smith concludes that it came to be a general term for divine. The part, of this vb. is tr 1 "enchanter" in Deuteronomy 18 10, the cognate vb., "to use enchantments" in Leviticus 19 2li; 2 Kings 21 (i; 2 Chronicles 33 (i, and the corresponding noun "enchantment" in Numbers 23 ;i- 24 1.

      ( 4 ) TIT}, (juz nn, lit. "cutters," i.e. such as kill (in Arab, the cognate vb. = "to slaughter") for the purpose of examining the liver or entrails as omens. Perhaps the etymology implies "sacrifice," animals being sacrificed as an appeal to deity. The word occurs only in Dnl (2 27; 4 7(4]; 5 7.11), and is tr 1 "soothsayers." Some think they were "astrolo gers/ the etymology in that case referring to the dividing of the heavens with a view, by casting the horoscope, to forecasting the future 1 .

      (.")) TUX, <ixh*hrt/>h (AV "astrologer," RV "en chanter"), occurs only in Dnl in the Hebrews (1 20; 2 2) and in the Aram. (2 10; 4 4 [7], etc) parts of the book. The term is probably taken from the Bab and denotes a magician and esp. a n exorcist rather than a diviner.

      (0) "" X Til p , Ictisfla Tm, the same word as the Gr Chnldmoi (XaXScuoi) (EV "Chaldeans"), denotes in Dnl (1 4, etc) where alone it occurs, not the people so designated but a class of astrologers. This usage (common in classical writers) arose after the fall of the Bab empire, when the only Chaldaeans known were astrologers and soothsayers. See further MA<;IC. For "spirit of divination" (Acts 16 10) see PYTHON; Puii.ii i i.

      Inspirational divination and OT prophecy have much in common. Both imply the following con ditions: (1) the primitive instinct that 8. Divina- craves for secret knowledge, esp. that tion and relating to the future; (2) the belief Prophecy that such knowledge is possessed by certain spiritual beings who are willing on certain terms to impart it ; (. !) such secret knowl edge is imparted generally to special classes of men (rarely women) called diviners or (Bab) seers and prophets.

      Many anthropologists (Tylor, Frazer, etc) and OT scholars (Wellhausen, west Robertson Smith, etc) consider prophecy to be but an outgrowth and higher form of divination. The older theologians almost to a man, and a goodly number of moderns, take precisely the opposite view, that divination is a corruption of prophecy. Probably neither view is strictly true. Sometimes in human life we find evidences of progress from lower to higher. Some times the process is the very reverse 1 . It is impor tant to take notice of the differences as well as the resemblances between the diviner and the prophet.

      (1) The OT prophet believes in a personal God whose spokesman he considers himself to be. When he spoke or wrote it was because he was, at least professedly, inspired and informed by Yahweh. "Thus says Yahweh," was the usual formula with



      which ho introduced his oraclo.s. Tho Or and Romans mantis, on the other hand, worked himself up to the necessary ecstatic state by music, drugs (intoxi cants, etc), sacrificial smoke and the like. Some times it has been thought a sufficient means of divination to swallow the vital portions of birds and beasts of omen. It was believed that by eat ing the hearts of crows, or moles, or of hawks, men took into their bodies the presaging soul of the creature (Frazer, (loldi-n Hough 1 , II, 355).

      (2) The mantis practised his art as a remuner ative occupation, charging high fees and refusing in most oases to ply his calling without adequate remuneration. The local oracle shrines (Delphi, Clavis, etc) were worked for personal and political ends. The OT prophet, on the other hand, claimed to speak as he was bidden by his God. It was with him a matter of conviction as to what lives men ought to live, what state of heart they should cul tivate 1 . So far from furthering his own material interests, as he could by saying what kings and other dignitaries wished to hear, he boldly de nounced the sins of the time, even when, as often, he had to condemn the conduct of kings and the policy of governments. Look, for example, at Isaiah s fearless condemnation of the conduct of Ahaz in summoning the aid of Assyria (Isaiah 7ff), and at the scathing words with which Jeremiah censured the doings of the nation s leaders in his day (Jor 2 36, etc), though both these noble proph ets suffered severely for their courage, esp. Jere miah, who stands out as perhaps the linest recorded example of what, in the face of formidable opposi tion, the religious teacher ought ever to be. Of Micaiah ben linlah, King Ahab of Israel said, I hate him; for he doth not prophesy good concern ing me, but evil." What reward did this prophet have for his fidelity to his conscience and his (lod? Imprisonment (1 Kings 22 1-35). Had he pleased the king by predicting a happy, prosperous future t hat- was never to be, ho would have 1 been clothed in gor geous robes and lodged in a very palace.

      LITERATUReast Tn addition to the references above and the full bibliography prefixed to the present writer s book named above (.W<n/iV, etc), note the following: JJouehe- Leelcre(|. Histoire de In divination dans I antiquite; K. H. Tylor, Primitive Culture 3 , I, 7s si: 117-33: II. I .">.": J. G. Frazer. Golden Bough 1 , I, 34<1; II. 3.V>; III. 312, tt passim, and the arts, in I he principal Bible dictionaries.




      DIVISION, di-vi/h un: Used in EV in the follow ing senses:

      (1) A separate body of people (n> of the tribal divisions of Israel (Joshus 11 23; 12 7; 18 10); (l>) of sections of a t ribe, "t he divisions of Reuben" i Judges 5 15. 10 AY; but RV rightly substitutes "the water courses of Reuben"; in Job 20 17 the same word is rendered "rivers"); (r) of the (late) organization of priests and Levites into classes or families who ministered in the temple in rotation; tr 1 "courses" generally in AV, and always in RV (1 Chronicles 24 1 ; 26 1.12.19; _Noh 11 3(5; of 2 Chronicles 35 5). Much prominence is given by the Chronicler to the 21 classes of priests, singers, and doorkeepers, who served in turns in the temple (cf Luke 1 5.south).

      (2) Separation, distinction: "I will put a division [RVm "si&n of deliverance"] between my people and thy people" (Exodus 8 23). The Hebrews word hern is pfdhuth = "r&nsom," "redemption" (of Psalm 111 9), but the reading is doubtful. AV and RV follow LXX, Syr and Viilf?, which render "set a distinction," perhaps on the basis of a dilluruiit reading from that of our Hebrews text.

      (3) In the NT, dissension, disunion, schism (Luke 12 . r >l ; Romans 16 17; 1 Corinthians 3 3 AV, omittedin RV; 1 Corinthians 1 10; 11 18; Galatians 5 20).


      DIVORCE, di-vdrs , IN OT: Woman, among the Hebrews, as among most nations of antiquity, oc cupied a subordinate position. Though

      1. Subor- the Hebrews wife and mother was treated dinate Posi- with more consideration than her sister tion of in other lands, even in other Sem Woman countries, her position nevertheless

      was one of inferiority and subjection. The marriage relation from the standpoint of Hebrews legislation was looked upon very largely as a business affair, a mere question of property. A wife, never theless, was, indeed, in most homes in Israel, the husband s "most valued possession." And yet while this is true, the husband was unconditionally and unreservedly the head of the family in all do mestic relations. His rights and prerogatives were manifest on every side. Nowhere is this more evi dent than in the matter of divorce. According to the laws of Moses a husband, under certain circum stances, might divorce his wife; on the other hand, if at all possible, it was certainly very difficult for a wife to put away her husband. Unfortunately a double standard of morality in matters pertaining to the sexes is, at least, as old as Moses (see Exodus 21 7-11).

      The OT law concerning divorce, apparently quite clear, is recorded most fully in Deuteronomy 24 1 ff. A

      perusal of the commentaries will,

      2. Law of nevertheless, convince anyone that Divorce: there are difficulties of interpretation. Deuteronomy 24:1-4 The careful reader will notice that the

      renderings of the AV and RV differ materially. AV reads in the second part of ver 1: "///</( It I him write 1 a bill," etc, RV has "that he shall write," etc, while the Hebrews original has neither "then" nor "that," but the simple conjunction "and." There is certainly no command in the words of Moses, but, on the other hand, a clear purpose to render the proceeding more difficult- in the case of the husband. Moses aim was "to regulate and thus to mitigate an evil which he could not extir pate." The evident purpose was, as far as possible, to favor the wife, and to protect her against an un ceremonious expulsion from her home and children. As already suggested, marriage among the He brews, as among most, Orientals, was more a legal

      contract- than the result of love or

      3. Marriage affection. It would be, however, a a Legal great mistake to assume that deep love Contract was not often present, for at all times

      the domestic, relations of the Hebrews married couple have compared most favorably with those of any other people, ancient or modern. In its last analysis it. was, nevertheless, a business transaction. The husband or his family had, as a rule, to pay a certain dowry to the parents or guard ians of the betrothed before the marriage was con summated. A wife thus acquired could easily be regarded as a piece of property, which, without great- difficulty, could be disposed of in case the husband, for any reason, were disposed to rid himself of an uncongenial companion and willing to forfeit the ntultar which In; had paid for his wife. Tho advan tage 1 was always with the husband, and yet a wife was not utterly helpless, for she, too, though prac tically without legal rights, could make herself so intolerably burdensome and hateful in the home that almost any husband would gladly avail him self of his prerogatives and write her a bill of divorcement. Thus, though a wife could not di vorce her husband, she could force him to divorce her.

      The following words of Professor Israel Abrahams, Cambridge, England, before "the Divorce Com-



      mission" (London, November 21, 1910), are to the

      point: "In all such cases where the wife was

      concerned as the moving party she

      4. Divorce could only demand that her husband Applicable should divorce her. The divorce was Only to always from first to last, in Jewish Wives law, the husband s act ." The common

      term used in the Bible for divorce is rVc X rP2TIJ , xliilln"h islixiidh, "the sending away of a wife" (IK 22 11). 120). We never read of "the send ing away of a husband." The fern, part., JTil"*^! , (/ rilx/i/lh, the woman thrust out." is the term ap plied to a divorced woman. The masc. form is not. found.

      The Mosaic law apparently, on the side of the husband, made it as difficult as possible for him to

      secure a divorce. No man could un-

      5. Process ceremoniously and capriciously dismiss and Exodus- his wife without, the semblance of a ceptions trial. In case one became dissatisfied

      with his wife, (1) he had to write her a BILL (IF DIVOHCK (q.v.) drawn up by some con stituted legal authority and in due legal form. In the very nature of the case, such a tribunal would use moral suasion to induce an adjustment; and, failing in this, would see to it that the law in the ease, whatever it might be, would be upheld. (2) Such a bill or decree must be placed in the hand of the divorced wife, (o) She must be forced to leave the premises of her former husband. Divorce was denied two classes of husbands: (1) The man who had falsely accused his wife of antenuptial infidelity (Deuteronomy 22 13 ff), and (2) a person who had seduced a, virgin (Deuteronomy 22 2Sf). In addition, a heavy penalty had to be paid to the father of such damsels.

      It is probable that a divorced wife who had not contracted a second marriage or had been guilty of adultery might be reunited to her husband. But in case she had married the second time she was forever barred from returning to her first husband, even if the second husband had divorced her or had died (Deuteronomy 24 of). Such a law would serve as an obstacle to hasty divorces.

      Divorces from the earliest times wore common among the Hebrews. All rabbis agree that a sepa ration, though not desirable, was quite lawful. The only source of dispute among them was as to what constituted a valid reason or just cause.

      The language in Deuteronomy 24 1 ff has always been in

      dispute. The Hob words, "Q~ ~- < > ^ I lrntk ila-

      h/i/lr, on which a correct interpretation

      6. Grounds depends, are not easy of solution, of Divorce though many exegetes, influenced (Doubtful possibly by some preconceived notion, Meaning of pass over them quite flippantly. The Deuteronomy 24:1) phrase troubled the Jewish rabbis of

      olden times, as it does Jewish and Christian commentators and translators in our day. AV renders the two words, "some uncleanness," and in the margin, "matter of nakedness." The latter, though a literal t r of the Hob, is quite unin telligible. KV and AHA 7 both have: "some un seemly thing." Professor Driver translates the same words "some indecency." The (lor. II V (Kautzsch) has "<//m.s Widerwdrtiges" ("something repulsive"). We know of no modern version which makes ^cricath dalthdr the equivalent of fornication or adultery. And, indeed, in the very nature; of the case, we are forced to make the words apply to a minor fault or crime, for, by the Mosaic law, the penalty for adultery was death (D1 22 20 ff). It is, however, a question whether the extreme penalty was ever enforced. It is well known that at, and some time before, the t imeof our Saviour, there wen; two schools among the Jewish rabbis, that of Sham- ma! and that of Hillel. Sluimmai and his followers

      maintained that *cnrath <l<ibh(tr signified nothing less than unchastity or adultery, and argued that only this crime justified a man in divorcing his wife. Hillel and his disciples went to the other extreme. They placed great stress upon the words, "if she find no favor in his eyes" immediately preceding \\rirn//i iliihl/flr (Deuteronomy 24 1), and contended that di vorce should be granted for the flimsiest reason: such as the spoiling of a dish either by burning or careless seasoning. Some 1 of tin; rabbis boldly taught that. a. man had a perfect right to dismiss his wife, if he found another woman whom he liked better, or who was more beautiful (Mish, Ciin/i, 14 10). Here are some other specifications taken from the same book: "The following women may be divorced: She who violates the Law of Moses, e.g. causes her husband to eat food which has not

      been tithed She who vows, but does not

      keep her vows She who goes out on the

      street, with her hair loose, or spins in the street., or converses [flirts] with any man, or is a noisy woman. What is a noisy woman? It is one who speaks in her own house so loud that the neighbors may hear her." It would be easy to extend the list, for the Mish and rabbinic writings are full of such laws. From what, has been said, it is clear that adultery was not the only valid reason for divorce. Besides, the word adultery had a peculiar significance in Jewish law, which recognized polygamy and con cubinage as legit imate. Thus a Hebrew might have two or more wives or concubines, and might have intercourse with a slave or bondwoman, even if married, without being guilty of the crime of adul tery (Leviticus 19 20), for adultery, according to Jewish law, was possible onlv when a man dishonored the "free wife" of a Hebrew (20 10 IT).

      Divorcement, Bill of: This expression, found in Deuteronomy 24 1.:}; Isaiah 50 l; Jeremiah 3 8 is the tr of the Hebrews nrPIS "ISC. si phcr k rllhuth. The two words, lit. rendered, signify ii document or hook of cutting off. i.e. a cert ilicate of divorce given by a husband to a wife, so as to afford her the opportunity or privilege of marrying another man. Tin; JLeb term is rendered by the L\\X /iiBAior aita- liililion apoxtaalon. This is also found in tin- NT (Mark 10 4). Matthew 5 :U lias "writing of divorce ment" in KV, but Matthew 19 7 AV has writing." while KV and AKV have; "bill." The certificate of divorce is called t^Tt- . / /. pi. "pliS. uittiit,in the, Talm. Then; is an entire chapter devoted to the subjects in the Mish. It is not positively known when the custom of writing bills of divorcement commenced, but there are references to such documents in the earliest Hebrews legislation. The fact that Joseph had in mind the putting away of his espoused wife. Mary, without the formality of a bill or at least of a public procedure proves that- a decree was not regarded as absolutely necessary (Matthew 1 1 J). The following was the usual form of a decree:

      " On the day of the week in the month

      in the year from the beginning of the world, accord ing to the common computation in the province of I the son of - by whatever name 1 may be known, of the town of with entire consent of mind, and with out, any constraint., have divorced, dismissed and ex pelled thee -daughter of - by whatever name thpu art called, of the town - who hast been my wife hitherto; But now I have dismissed thec the daugh ter of by whatever name thou art called, of the town

      of so as to be free at thy own disposal, to marry

      whomsoever thou pleasest. without- hindrance from any one, from this day for ever. Thou art therefore free for anyone (who would marry thee]. Let this be thy bill of divorce from me. a writing of separation and ex pulsion, according to the law of Moses and Israel.

      , the son of , witness

      , the son of , witness

      Spirit mil d/i/>licalion. The Hebrews prophets regard ed Jeh not only as the father and king of the chosen people, and thus entitled to perfect obedience and loyalty on their part , but they conceived of Him as a husband married to Israel. Isaiah, speaking to his nation, says: "For thy Maker is thy husband; Jehovah of hosts is his name" (54 f>). Jeremiah too makes use of similar language in the following: "Return, () backsliding children, saith Jehovah; for 1 am a husband unto you" (3 14). It is per-



      fectly natural that NT writers should have regarded Christ s relation to His church under the same figure. Paul in 2 Corinthians says : "I am jealous over you with a godly jealousy: for I espoused you to one husband, that I might present you as a pure virgin to Christ" (11 2); see also Matthew 9 15; John 3 29; The The Revelation 19 7. Any unfaithfulness or sin on the part of Israel was regarded as spiritual adultery, which necessarily broke off the spiritual ties, and divorced the nation from God (Isaiah 1 21; Ezekiel 16 22; The The Revelation

      2 22). See also MARRIAGeast

      LITERATUReast Amram, Jeiri.fh Law of Divorce nccord- iiia to the Bible and Talmud, London, 1897; Abrahams, Jewish Life in the Mi/ldli 1 Ai/fx, London. 189(5; Mackie. Bible Manners and Ciiiftomx, London, 1S9S; / / Mi.-shna, Tr l into Eng., De Sola and Raphall, London, 1843; Ben- zinger, Ilebraischr A rr/ia/iloi/ie. Freiburg, 1894; Nowack, Lchrbuch dcr hebrdisctien Arcltaoluyie, 1894.

      west west DAVIES

      DIVORCE IN NT (TO diroo-Tao-tov, to aposldxioii): The Scripture doctrine of divorce is very simple. It is contained in Matthew 19 3-12.

      We are not called upon to treat of divorce in the Mosaic legislation (Deuteronomy 24 1-4). That was passed upon by Jesus in the above discussion and by Him ruled out of existence in His system of religion. After Jesus had spoken as above, the Mosaic per mission of divorce became a dead letter. There could not be practice under it among His disciples. So such OT divorce is now a mere matter of anti quarian curiosity.

      It may be of interest in passing to note that the drift of the Mosaic, legislation was restrictive of a freedom of divorce that had been, practised before its enactment. It put in legal proceedings to bar the personal will of one of the parties. It recog nized marriage as a social institution which should not be disrupted without reference to the rights of society in it. In this restrictive character "the law is become our tutor to bring us unto Christ" ((!al

      3 24). But here, as in numerous other instances, Christ went behind the enactments to primitive original principles whose recognition would make the law of none effect, because no practice was to be permitted under it. Thus the OT is disposed of.

      Of course what Jesus said will dominate the New. In fact, Jesus is the only author in the NT who has treated of divorce. It has been thought that Paul had the subject in hand. But we shall find on ex amination, farther along, that he did not. We need then look nowhere but to this 19th ch of Matthew for the Scripture doctrine of divorce.

      True, we havo other reports of what Jesus said (Mark 10 2-12; Luke 16 18). But in Matthew 19 we have the fullest report, containing everything that is reported elsewhere and one or two important observations that the other writers have not included. Luke lias but one ver where Matthew has ten. Luke s ver is in no necessary connection with context. It seems to be a mere memorandum among others of the spiritual or ethical teachings of Christ. Luke however caught the gist of the whole teaching about divorce in recording the prohibition to put away one wife and marry another. The records in Matthew 19 and Mark 10 cover one and the same occasion. But there is nothing in Mark that is not in Matthew; and the latter contains nearly a third more of text than the former. There is nothing, however, essential in Matthew that is not in Mark, save the clause "except for fornication." That exception will be treated farther along. We seem to be justified then in saying that the total doctrine of the Scripture pertaining to divorce is contained in Matthew 19.

      Attention must be called to the fact that, in the Sermon on the Mount (Matthew 5 27-32). Jesus treated of divorce, and that in every essential particular it agrees with the elaboration in ch 19. Jesus there as plainly as in the argument with the Pharisees put Moses permission of divorce under ban; as plainly there declared the putting away of one partner to marry another person to be adul tery. This may also be noticed, that the exception to the absolute prohibition i.s in the text of the Sermon on the Mount.

      We have then a summary of the NT doctrine of divorce stated by Christ Himself as follows: "Who soever shall put away his wife, except for fornication, and shall marry another, committeth adultery" (Matthew

      19 9). This puts Him in line with the ideal of the monogamic, indissoluble family which pervades the whole of the OT.

      It may be well here to treat of the exception which Christ made in His rule to the indissolubility of marriage. It is very widely inain- 1. The tained in the Christian church that

      Family there should be no divorce 1 for any

      cause whatever. This position is in plain contradiction to Christ s teaching in Matthew 5 and 19. One of the grounds adduced for this denial of divorce in case a partner is guilty of adultery is that Luke and Mark do not record the exception. It is a difficult matter to invade the psychology of writers who lived nearly two thousand years ago and tell w r hy they did not include something in their text which someone else did in his. Neither Luke nor Mark were personal disciples of the Lord. They wrote at second hand. Matthew was a personal disciple of Christ and has twice recorded the excep tion. It will be a new position in regard to judg ment on human evidence when we put the silence of absentees in rank above the twice expressed report of one in all probability present one known to be a close personal attendant.

      This may be said: Matthew s record stands in ancient MS authority, Greek and also the Versions. And on this point let it be noted that the testimony of the MSS was tip before the English and American Revisers, and they have deliberately reaffirmed the text of 1611 and given us the exception in Christ s rule in each place (Matthew 5 o2; 19 9). This makes the matter as nearly res adjudicata as can be done by human wisdom.

      Let us consider the rationality of the exception. That feature has had scant, attention from theolo gians and publicists, yet it. will bear the closest scrutiny. In fact it is a key to much that is ex planatory of the basic principle of the family. To begin with, the exception is not on its face an after thought of some transcriber, but was called out by the very terms of the question of the Pharisees: "I.s it lawful for a man to put away his wife for crcry cause . " This plainly called for a specification from Jesus of exceptions which he would allow to the rule against divorce. It is fortunate that the Phari sees asked the question in the form they did, for that put on Jesus the necessity of enumerating such exceptions as he would allow. He mentioned one, and but one in reply. That puts the matter of ex ceptions under the rule in logic: Expressio iiniiis exdusio altcrius. All other pretences for divorce were deliberately swept- aside by Christ a fact that should be remembered when other causes are sought to be foisted in alongside this one allowed by Christ. The question may come up, Whose insight is likely to be truest?

      Why, then, will reason stand by this exception? Because adultery is per sc destructive of monogamic family life. Whoever, married, is guilty of adultery has taken another person into family relation. Children may be born to that, relation are born to it. Not to allow divorce in such case is to force an innocent party in marriage to live in a polygamous state. There is the issue stated so plainly that "the wayfaring man need not. err therein," and "he who runs may read," and "he who reads may run."

      It is the hand of an unerring Master that has made fornication a ground for divorce from the bond of matrimony and limited divorce to that single cause. Whichever way we depart from strict, practice under the Saviour s direction we land in polygamy. The society that allows by its statutes divorce for any ot her cause than t he one t hat breaks the monogamic bond, is simply acting in aid of polygamy, consecu tive if not contemporaneous.

      Advocates of the freedom of divorce speak of the



      above view as "the ecclesiastical." That is an attempt to use the argument ml inriditini. The church of Christ held and holds its views, not he- cause ecclesiastics taught it, but because Christ taught it, and that in His teaching \\ve have a state ment X)ut from the righteousness, wisdom, insight and rationality of the all-wise ( lou.

      Paul is the only other NT author besides Christ who has been supposed to treat of divorce. But a careful examination of Paul s writing 2. Paul will disclose the fact that he has no

      where discussed the question for what cause or causes a man might put away his wife, or a woman her husband, with liberty of mar riage to another person. If Paul has treated of divorce at all it is in 1 Corinthians 7. But even a careless reading of that chapter will disclose the fact that Paul is not discussing the question for what causes marriage might be disrupted, but the question of manners and morals -in the relation. Paul has not modified Christ in any respect. It has been sup posed that in ver lo Paul has allowed divorce to a believing partner who has been deserted by one unbelieving, and so he has been sometimes under stood as adding desertion to the exception Christ made as cause for divorce.

      But Paul has not said in that verse or anywhere else that a Christian partner deserted by a heathen may be married to someone else. All he said is: "If the unbelieving departeth, let him depart: the brother or the sister is not under bondage [ilcdotiloltii] in such cases: but (!od hath called us in peace." To say that a deserted partner "//</ // /ml bun cnxlarcd" is not to say that he or she may be r<- nuirriciL What is meant is easily inferred from (In spirit that dominates the whole chapter, and that is that everyone shall accept the situation in which God has called him just as he is. "Be quiet" is a direction that hovers over every situation. If you are married, so remain. If unmarried, so remain. If an unbelieving partner deserts, le( him or her desert. So remain. "(!od hath called us in peace." Nothing can be more beautiful in the morals of the marriage relation than the direction given by Paul in this chapter for the conduct of all parties in marriage in all trials.

      Many reasons might be given why Paul could not have given liberty of remarriage, besides 1 1n- one that he did not in his texl ; but attention should be called to the fact that such an assumption of authority in divorce would soon have brought him into conflict with the Horn government. Paul s claim that he was a Horn citizen was of SOUK- value- to himself. Would not some Horn citizen have claimed to scrutinize- pretty closely Paul s right to issue a decree of divorce against him because- he had "departed" from a wife- who had become a Chris tian? There would be two sides to such divorces. Would not Paul, careful, shrewd, politic as he was, have known that, and have avoided an open rup ture with a government that did not tolerate- much interference with its laws? That neither Paul nor anyone else ever put such construction upon his language, is evidenced by the fact that (he-re is no recorel in history of a single- case where- it was at tempted for 40() years after Paul was in his grave-, and the Romans Empire had for a century been Chris tian. Then we wait 400 years more before we find the suggestion repeat eel. That no use was ever made of such construction of Paul in the 1 whole era of the adjustment of Christianity with heathenism is good evidence that it was never there to begin with. So we shall pass Paul as having in no respe-ct modified the doctrine of divorce laiel down by Christ in Matthew 19.

      In all civilized countries the machinery of legisla tion and law can always be open for removal or

      relief e>f troubles in marriage- without proceeeling to its annulment. If a father is cruel to his children, \\ve-elo not abolish the parental 3. Reme- relation, but. punish the- father fen- his dies for cruelty. If he- deserts his children, we-

      Marriage nee-d not assist him 1e> rear other chil- Ills dre-n whom he- can desert in turn, but

      we- can punish him for his desertion. Y\\ hat can be done by law in case of parent and child can be done in case of husband and wife. By put- ling in absolute- diveirce (frequently fe>r guilty and innocent alike-) we invite the- very evils we- se-e-k to cure. We- make 1 it the interest of a dissatisfied party to create a situation that a cemrt will regard as intolerable, anel so he- or she 1 may ge> free-.

      Then by affemling an easy way out of the- troubles of married life we- are- inviting carelessness about entering marriage 1 . We- say by divorce- statutes 1e> a young wennan: "If your husband eleserts you, you may have another. If he- is cruel, you may have another. If he- fails to suppe>rt you. you may have another. If he 1 is drunken, you may have- another. If he is incompatible e>r makes ye>u unhappy, you may have anothe-r" and yet others beyond these. When an easy road is thus made- out etf marriage-, will there- be- proper caution about entering inte> marriage-? By just as much as a crevice for re-lie-f of the miseries e>f married life is opened by divorce, by so much the fle>od gates are- opened into those 1 miseries. The more- solemnly society is impresse-d that the- door e>f marriage de>es ne>t swing outward as well as inward the more- of happiness and blessing will it find in the- institution. See FAMILY.

      C. CAVKUNO

      DI-ZAHAB, dl /a-hab, diz a-hab (3~u~i". , ,17-za- hilltli; LXX Karaxpvtrsa, Kulac/in twa, lit. "abound ing in ge>lel") : The- name- ex-curs in a list apparently intended to fix definitely the situation of the camp of Israel in the plains of Moab (Dl 1 1). Xe> place in the 1 region has been found with a name 1 suggest ing this; anel the-re- is ne> othe-r clue to its identifica tion. Some- names in the- list are 1 like those 1 e>f stations earlier in the wanderings. Thinking that em<- of these- may be- intendeel Bure-kharelt suggeste-d Minn edh-Dhahab, a boat harbor between Jfas Moluinii(i(l and ^Ai/nlxi. Che-yne- gets over the difliculty by accepting a suggest iem of Sayce- that Di-zahab ce>nvspe>nels to Me-/ahab (Oe-n 36 39); this Litter he- then transforms inte> Mitzraim, anel identifies il with the 1 North Arabian M uxri (EB s.v.). The- changes, however, seem greater than can be justified. west Ewixo

      DOCTOR, dok ter: In Luke 2 10 (SiSdo-KaXos,

      ilitlaxkdloK) "docteir" is e<(uivalent te> "te-acheT," which latter is the tr of RV. So in Luke 5 17; Acts 5 34, AV and RV "eloctors," "doctor," of the law (nomodiddskalos) . See EIHTATION; KAHHI; SCRIUeast

      DOCTRINE, elok trin: Lat doctriua, from doccn, "to teach," denotes both the act of teaching and that which is taught; now use-el e-xclusive-ly in the latter sense.

      (1) In the OT fe>r (a) Ickah "what is received," he-nce- "the- matter taught" (Deuteronomy 32 2; Job 11 4; Prov 4 2; Isaiah 29 24, ARV "instruction"); (b) sh r - imTah, "what is heard" (Isaiah 28 9, RV "message," RVm "report"); (c) musar, "eliscipline" (Jeremiah 10 8 m, "The stock is a doctrine: [RV "inst rue-lion"] of vanities," i.e. "The discipline e>f unreal gods is wex>d (is like 1 themselves, destitute of true moral force)" (BDB).

      (2) In the NT for (i) <li<lasl;aUa=(a) "the act of teaching" (1 Tim 4 13.10; 5 17; 2 Tim 3 10. 10), all in RV "teaching"; (b) "what is taught" (Matthew 15 9; 2 Tim 4 3). In some passages the meaning is ambiguous as between (a) and (b). (ii)



      didacM, always tr 1 "teaching" in RV, except in Romans 16:17, where doctrine" is retained in the text and "teaching" inserted in m = () the act

      1. Meaning of teaching (Mark 4 2; Acts 2 42, AY of Terms doctrine"); (b) what is taught (John 7

      16.17; The The Revelation 2 14.lo.24, AY "doctrine"). In some places the meaning is ambiguous as between (a) and (1>) and in Matthew 7 2S; Mark 1 22; Acts 13 12, the manner, rather than the act or matter of teaching is denoted, namely, with author ity and power.

      The meaning of these words in the XT varied as

      the church developed the content of its experience

      into a system of thought, and came to

      2. Christ s regard such a system as an integral Teaching part of saving faith (cf the development Informal of the meaning of the term "faith"):

      (1) The doctrines of the Pharisees were a fairly compact and definite body of teaching, a fixed tradition handed down from one generation of teachers to another (Matthew 16 12, AV "doctrine"; cf Matthew 15 9; Mark 7 7). (2) In contrast with the Pharisaic system, the teaching of Jesus was uncon ventional and occasional, discursive and unsystem atic; it derived its power from His personality, character and works, more than from His words, so that His contemporaries were astonished at it and recognized it as a new teaching (Matthew 7 2S; 22 33; Mark 1 22.27; Luke 4 32). So wefind it in theSynoptic Gospels, and the more systematic form given to it in the Johannine discourses is undoubtedly the work of the evangelist, who wrote rather to interpret Christ than to record His ? /;.s/.W/// rcrlid (John 20 31).

      The earliest, teaching of the apostles consisted essentially of three propositions : (n) that .Jesus was

      the Christ (Acts 3 IS); (h) that He

      3. Apostolic was risen from the dead (Acts 1 22; Doctrines 2 24.32); and (r) that- salvation was

      by faith in His name (Acts 2 3S; 3 16). \\Yhile proclaiming these truths, it was neces sary to coordinate them with Ileb faith, as based upon OT revelation. The method of the earliest reconstruction may be gathered from the speeches of Peter and Stephen (Acts 2 14-36; 5 29 32; 7 2-53). A more thorough reconstruction of the coordination of the Christian facts, not only with lleb history, but with universal history, and with a view of the world as a whole, was undertaken by Paul. Both types of doctrine are found in his speeches in Acts, the former type in that delivered at Antioch (13 16-41), and thelatterin the speeches delivered at Lystra (14 15-17) and at Athens (17 22-31). The ideas given in out line in 1 liese speeches tire more fully developed into a doctrinal system, with its center removed from the resurrection to the death of Christ, in the epistles, esp. in Galatians, Romans, Ephesians, Phil and Colossians. But, as yet it is the theological system of one teacher, and there is no sign of any attempt to impose it. by authority on the church as a whole. As a matter of fact the Pauline system never was generally accepted by the church. Cf James and the Apostolic Fathers.

      In the Pastoral and General Epistles a new state of things appears. The repealed emphasis on

      "sound" or "healthy doctrine" (1 Tim

      4. Begin- 1 10; 6 3; 2 Tim 1 13; 4 3; Tit 1 nings of 9; 2 1), "good doctrine" (1 Tim 4 6) Dogma implies that a body of teaching had

      now emerged which was generally Ac cepted, and which should serve as a standard of orthodoxy. The faith has become a body of truth "once for all delivered unto the saints" (Jude ver 3). The content of this "sound doctrine" is nowhere formally given, but it is a probable inference that it corresponded very nearly to the Romans formula that became known as the Apostles Creed. See DOGMA.

      T. REES

      DOCUS, dd kus. Sec DOK.

      DODAI, dd dl, dd da-I (1 Chronicles 27 4). See DODO.

      DODANIM,dd da-nim (-" r"" , dodhamm, "lead ers"): In Genesis 10 4, the son of Javan, the son of Japheth. This would place the Dodanim among the lonians. The passage 1 Chronicles 1 7, with the LXX and south, has, however, "Rodanim," which is probably the true reading. This identifies the people with the Rhodians (cf on Exodus.k 27 15 under DKDAX).

      DODAVAHU, dci-dav a-hu (in J- n , dodhawuhu, "loved of God"; AY Dodavah): Father of Eliezer of Mareshah, a prophet in the days of Jehoshaphat (2 Chronicles 20 37).

      DODO, dd dd, DODAI (iTn, dodhu, iTfl, dodhay, "beloved") :

      (1) The grandfather of Tola of the tribe of Is- sachar, one of the judges (Judges 10 1).

      (2) "The Ahohite," father of Eleazar, one of David s heroes, and (2 Samuel 23 9; 1 Chronicles 11 12) him self the commander of one of the divisions of the army (1 Chronicles 27 4).

      (3) The Bethlehemitc, father of Elhanan, one of David s mighty men (2 Samuel 23 24; 1 Chronicles 11 26).

      DOE, do. See DKKH.

      DOEG, dd eg pX" , jX~ , ducgh, "anxious," "cared for"): "The Kdomite," a servant of Saul, who watched David s intercourse with the priest Ahimclcch, then denounced the priest to the king, and later executed his command to slay the priests at Nob. The position lie held is described as that of "the mightiest" of south s herdsmen (1 Samuel 21 7 m). LXX reads: "tending the mules." Rabbinical legends speak of him as the greatest scholar of his time. The traditional title of 1 s 52 associates the composition of that Psalm with the events that led to the slaying of the priests (1 Samuel 21 7; 22 9.18.22).


      DOG (lb3, kdcbfi; [cf Arab, kelb, "dog"]; KVWV, kiwn.; and dimin. Kvvdpiov, h nnnrion): References to the dog, both in the OTand in the XT, arc usually of a contemptuous character. A dog, and esp. a dead dog, is used as a figure of insignificance. Go liath says to David (1 Samuel 17 43): "Am 1 a dog, that

      Pariah Dog at, Beirut.

      thou comest to me with slaves?" David says to Saul (1 Samuel 24 14): "After whom dost, thou pursue? after a dead dog, after a flea." Mephibosheth says to David (2 Samuel 9 south): "\\\\hat is thy servant, that thou shouldest look upon such a dead dog as 1 am?" The same figure is found in the words of Hazael to Elisha (2 Kings 8 13). The meaning, which is ob scure in AY, is brought out well in RV: "But what is thy servant, who is but a dog, that he should do



      this great thing?" The characteristically oriental interrogative form of these expressions should bo noted.

      Other passages express by mleretice the low es teem in \\vliicli dogs are held. Nothing worse could happen to a person than thai, his body should bo devoured by dogs ( 1 Kings 14 1 1 ; 164; 21 1<).23. etc). .Job 30 1 says of the youth who deride him that he disdained to set their lathers witli the dons of his Hock. In Phil 3 2 and Kev 22 15, dogs are coupled with evil-workers, sorcerers, etc. In Ml 7 fi we read: "(.Jive not. thai, which is holy unto the dogs, neither cast, your pearls before the swine."

      .Job 30 1 (cited above) refers to the use of dogs to guard flocks; and the comparison of inefficient watchmen wit h dumb dogs (Isaiah 56 10) implies that at least some dogs are useful. In the apocryphal Book of Tot), Tobias dog is his companion on his travels (Tob 5 lt>; 11 4; on this see A .r/w.s T, XI, 25S; ///>/> , IV, <>south<); (Jeiger, Cirilizuliun ,,J K . Iranians, I , S5 IT).

      There is further the reference to the greyhound (Prov 30 : >1 Kings V > as one (if the four tilings which are "stately in 1 heir going." Hut the rendering, "greyhound," rests solely upon inference, and is contrary to the LXX and Vulg, \\shich have respecti\\ely <i/i/.-iiir and i/ullux, i.e. "cock." AVin "horse." The Hebrews has ^/-cir inut/i nai/i m, which AYm renders "girt in (he loins." RVm has war- horse," lleb "well girt [or, well knit] in the loins." In support of the meaning, "girt," for zarzir, there is the word ~ i r, which, with :ur:ir. is assigned to the olis root :<~intr and the Aral), zirr, "button." from zarr, "to but ton," "to compress." Kurt her. to render zarzir by "cock" logically requires a change in (he text, for mt/i- tuii/iiii, "loins." becomes superlative and inappropriate (see Ett, s.v. "Cock"). On the other hand, the Arab. r.nrzfir is a starling (cf Arab. z<ir:<ir, "to litter cries." saiil of birds; xarxnr, "to cry out " ; xnrsitr. "cockroach." or "cricket"). Also, according to Kli (s.v. "Cock"), (he Talmudic zarzir .... means some bird (a kind of raveni." If the text stands, there appears to be no better rendering than "girt, in t he loins." which might fairly be taken to refer to a \\\\ ar horse or to a greyhound. The I ers greyhound would in that case be understood, a hairy race, which, according to the A "//<i/ \\ntnrnl ///*- turn, is less licet than t he Kng. breed and is used in cours ing ga/elles and in hunting t he wild ass, and which accord ing to Doughty (Ariiliiu J)i.iirtn) is kept by the Bedawin. "These dogs are said to be sometimes girdled by their owners ID pre\\ent them from oxer-eat ing anil becoming fat" (.I.,- Fletcher, British Afwseum [Natural History]).

      Domestic dogs have, probably been derived from various species of wolves and jackals. In this con nection, it, is noteworthy that the dogs of certain regions greatly resemble the wolves of those regions. The pariah dogs of Syria and Pal resemble the jack als, esp. in color and in the tail, differing in their greater si/e and in the shape of muzzle and ears. It is fair to assume that they are much the same as existed in Bible times. They are in general meek and harmless creatures, and are valuable as scav engers, but. disturb the night, with their barking. Each quarter of the city has its own pack of dogs, which vigorously resents any invasion of its terri tory. A dog which for any reason finds itself in foreign territory gets home as quickly as possible, and is lucky if it does not have to run tin; gauntlet of a pack of vicious foes. The pariah dog is some times brought, up to be a sheep dog, but the best. shepherd dogs are great wolfish creatures, which are usually obtained from Kurdistan.


      DOGMA, dog ma (So-y^a, doijnid, from 8oKa>, doL cu, "that, which seems," "an opinion," partic ularly the opinion of a philosopher) : In 1. As Law the decadent period of Clr philosophy, and the opinion, or //w <li.cit, of the master

      Ordinance of a philosophical school came to be quoted as authoritative truth; also, the opinion of a sovereign imposed as law upon his subjects: a decree or ordinance of the civil author ity. The word never appears in EV, although it is used 5 t in the (!r NT, but with the one exception

      of Acts 16 4, in a sense widely different from that which ecclesiastical usage has given to it. from the 2d cent, downward. "Dogma" is used in the NT, (1) of Romans laws: "a decree [Gr do^roa] from Caesar Augustus" (Luke 21); "the decrees of Caosar" (Acts 17 7)= the whole body of Horn law; (2) of ordi nances of religious law: "the law of commandments contained in ordinances" (Kph 2 15); "the bond written in ordinances" (Colossians 2 14) = the Mosaic ordi nances as expressing the moral law which condemned the sinner, and whose enmity Christ abolished by His death. It is a significant revelation of the spirit of (Ir theology that all the Gr commentators under stood by ordinances in these two places, the gospel as a body of dogmas which had removed the com mandment, or bond that was against, us (see Light- foot, Colossians, ad loc.); (3) of the decrees of the Council of Jems (Acts 15 20), which Paul and his com panions delivered to the gentile churches (Acts 16 1). Here we have one element that entered into the later ecclesiastical meaning of the word. These dogmas were decisions on religious mat ters, imposed by a more or less authoritative council of the church as a condition of admission to its membership.

      There is however one important difference. These decrees relate to moral and ceremonial matters,

      but from the 2d cent, downward, dog- 2. As ma means esp. a theological doctrine.

      Formulated In (ir theology "doctrine" and "dog- Teaching ma" meant the same thing. Each had

      its origin in the opinion of some great teacher; each rested upon revelation and claimed its authority; each meant an exposition of a par ticular truth of the gospel, and of the whole Chris tian truth, which the church adopted as the only right exposition. Each word might be used for the teaching of a philosopher, or of a heretic, although for the latter, "heresy" became the regular term. On the one side stood the doctrines or dogmas of the majority or the "Catholic" church, and on the other side, those of the heretics. So long as t he "Catholic" ideal of orthodoxy and uniformity of belief held the field, there was no room for the distinction now made between "doctrine," as a scientific and systematic expression of the truth of the Christian religion, and "dogma," as those truths "authoritatively ratified as expressing the belief of the church. This distinction could only arise when men began to think that various expressions of Christian truth could coexist in the church, and is therefore qtiite modern and even recent . Dogma in this sense denotes the ancient conception of theology as an authoritative system of orthodoxy, and doctrine, the modern conception, outside the dogmatic churches, where theology is regarded as a scientific exposition of truth.

      LITERATUReast Harnack, History of I)o</ma, I, ch i; Drumnioild, Stmli?s in Christian Doctrine, 1-7.

      T. HKKS

      DOK, ddk (AwK, Do/,-, Aav<0v, Daqoti): A small for tress, "little stronghold" near Jericho (1 Mace 16 15), built by Ptolemy, son of Abubus, where he entertained and murdered his father-in-law Simon Alaccabaeus and his two sons. Jos (Ant, XIII, viii, 1; BJ , I, ii, 3) calls the place Dagon and places it above Jericho. The name persists in Ain Duk with its copious springs of excellent water about 4 miles northwest of Jericho. Some ancient foundations in the neighborhood are possibly those of Ptolemy s fortress, but more probably of a Templars station which is known to have stood there as late as the end of the 13th cent. For its importance in earlier Jewish history, see Smith, HGIIL, 250, 251 ,


      DOLEFUL, dol fool (flfe, <Ph, "howling") : The "doleful creatures" referred to in Isaiah 13 21 are probably "jackals," although some have suggested



      "leopard," or "hyaena." The older EV gives "great owls." The word rendered "doleful lamen tation" in Mic 2 4 (nth" yah) is simply a form of the word ordinarily tr d "wailing" (n hl). Cf AVm.

      DOLPHIN, dol fin. See BADGER.

      DOMINION, (16-min ynn: In Ephesians 1 21; Colossians

      1 Itj the word so tr a (Kvpiortis, kuriolcs) appears to denote a rank or order of angels. The same word is probably to be so interpreted in Jnde ver south (AV and RV "dominion"), and in 2 Pet 2 10 (AV "government," RV "dominion"). See ANGEL.

      DOOM, diTom: Occurs only once in AV (2 Esdras 7 43), "The day of doom shall be the end of this time" (RV "the day of judgement"); but RV gives it as the rendering of ~n n ?^ , {" pfnrah, in Ezekiel 7 7. 10 (AV "the morning," RVm "the turn" or "the crowning time"; but the meaning is not yet quite certain); and in 1 Corinthians 4 9 (t-n-iOavaTios, cpi- Ihandtios, "as men doomed to death," AV "up- pointed [originally "approved"] unto death"). Our word "doom" is connected with the word "deem," and signifies either the act of judging or (far more often) the sentence itself or the condition resulting therefrom (cf "Deemster" of Isle of Man and Jeremiah sey). Generally, but not always, an unfavorable judgment is implied. Cf Drvden, Coronation of Charlcx II, i, 127:

      "Two kingdoms wait your doom, and, as you choose, This must receive a crown, or that must lose."

      J. R. VAN PELT

      DOOR, dor: Most commonly the rendering of Hebrews pclhah, "doorway," tlciclh, "door" proper (the two distinguished in Genesis 19 G), or of Cr 9vpa, thurd, which represents both meanings. The door proper was usually of wood, frequently sheeted with metal, sometimes of one slab of stone, as shown in excavations in the Huurun. It turned on pivots (the "hinges" of Prov 26 14) working in sockets above anil below, and was provided with a bolt (2 Samuel 13 17) or with lock and key (Judges 3 2:3). The doorway was inclosed by the stone threshold (1 Kings 14 17), the two doorposts on either side, and the lintel above (Exodus 12 7). Doors were frequently two-leaved, and folding ones are mentioned in con nection with the temple (1 Kings 6 34). Where "door" is used in connection with city gates ( Xeh 3 1 ff) it refers to the door proper which swings on its hinges as distinguished from the whole structure. The custom of fastening lo the doorposts small cases containing a parchment inscribed with the words of Deuteronomy 6 4-9; 11 13-21 had its origin in the command there given. See also GATE; HOTSeast

      Figurative: (1) Christ is "the door" into the gos pel mini.-^try (John 10 1.2.7); ministers must receive their authority from Him, and exercise it in His spirit. (2) Through faith in Him also both shep herds and sheep enter into the kingdom of God (ver 9), and find all their spiritual needs supplied.

      (3) The fig. in The The Revelation 3 20 is expressive of Christ s patient, persistent and affectionate appeal to men.

      (4) Elsewhere also of opportunity (Matthew 25 10; Acts 14 27; 1 Corinthians 16 9; 2 Corinthians 2 12; The The Revelation 3 south).

      (5) Of freedom and power (Colossians 4 3). See also ACHOR; SHEPHERD. BENJAMIN RENO DOWNER

      DOORKEEPER, dor kep-er p^TttJ , s/io cr): The gates of an oriental city and of the temple courts so closely resembled the door of a house that the same Hebrews word was used for doorkeeper and gate keeper. It is often tr d by the less definite word "porter" (q.v.).

      In the preexilic writings (2 Samuel 18 20; 2 Kings 7 10. 11) reference is made to porters at the gates of the cities Mahanaim and Samaria. In these early

      writings there is also mention of a small number of "keepers of the threshold" of the temple, whose duties included the gathering of money from the people for temple purposes, and the care of the sacred vessels (2 Kings 12 9; 22 4; 23 4). They held an honorable position (2 Kings 25 IS), und occu pied chambers in the temple (Jeremiah 35 4). The same term is used to describe officers in the household of the king of Persia (Est 2 21; 6 2).

      Differing from these "keepers of the threshold" in some respects are the doorkeepers or porters mentioned in Chronicles, Ezra and Nehemiah. These formed a numerous sacred order (1 Chronicles 9 22; 23 5) from the time of David. Their duties and the words describ ing them in two passages, "keepers of the thresh olds" (1 Chronicles 9 19) and "porters of the thresholds" (2 Chronicles 23 4), connect them in some measure with the "keeper of the threshold" referred to above. They guarded the gates of the house of Jeh (1 Chronicles 9 23), closing and opening them at the proper times (ver 27) and preventing the unclean from entering the sacred inclosure (2 Chronicles 23 19); they hud charge of the sacred vessels and of the free-will offerings (2 Chronicles 31 14), and dwelt in the chambers about the temple (1 Chronicles 9 27). They were Levites, and came in from the Levitical villages every seventh day for service in their turn (1 Chronicles 9 2">). Their office was honorable, ranking with the singers, after the priests and Levites (Ezra 2 42; 1 Chronicles 15 IS).

      In Psalm 84 10, "I had rather be a d. in the house of my God," the word is not used in its technical sense. RVm gives "stand [AVm "sit"] at (lie threshold," to an eastern mind a situation of deep humility (cf title of the Psalm and 1 Chronicles 9 19).

      In the NT the order of temple doorkeepers is not referred to. But a doorkeeper (dvpupos, Ikurorox) is mentioned in connection with a private house (Mark 13 34), with the high priest s house (John 18 16.17), und with sheep-folds (John 10 3), a maid serving as doorkeeper in some cases (Acts 12 13). GKOHGK RICK HOVKY

      DOORPOST, ddr post . See HOUSeast

      DOPHKAH, dof ka (npE"! , dophhah, "drover"): A desert camp of the Israelites, the first after leaving the wilderness of Sin (Numbers 33 12.13). See WA.north- DKRINGS OF ISRAEL.

      DOR, dor, DORA, do ru pSH , dor, "H* , dor, "habitation," "circle"; Awp, D8r; Jos, Awpa, Dora; mod. Tanturah) . A town of the coast of Pal, south of Carme l (CAp, II, 10; Vita, south), about south miles north of Caesarea. It was occupied in (he earliest times by the Canaanites and probably belonged to Phoenicia, tradition saying that it was a Sidonian colony. It, furnished an abundance of the shell-fish so valuable for the manufacture of the Tyrian purple, and this would have led the Phoenicians to occupy the site. In the 12th cent . BC, the region was occupied by \\ he northern people who raided the whole Syrian coast and Egypt. They were driven back by the Egyp tians, but renewed the attack, and the weakness of Egypt in the middle of the cent, enabled them to settle in the coast region south of Curmel; a tribe of them occupied Dor, and others the territory to the limits of the desert of Sinai, and became the Phili people so well known by their contests with the Hebrews. Naphoth-dor, "the heights of Dor," may be the slopes of Carmel inland from Tatitilrtifi. Dor fell within the territory assigned to Manasseh (Joshus 17 11; cf A nl, V, i^ 22). It was t he _ seat of a king who possessed other towns on the heights back of the coast. He was one of the allies of Jabin of Hazor in the conflict with Joshua (Joshus 11 2) and was conquered by him (12 23), but Dor was not occupied by the Israelites (17 11; Judges 1 27).

      The inhabitants of Dor were at enmitv with the



      Phoen towns and it would seem that the Sldonians seized it to obtain its rich supplies of shell-fish, and this probably caused the war of retaliation waged by the Philis, under the lead of Ashkelon, against Sidon in the middle of the llth cent. Sidon was besieged by land, and the inhabitants were compelled to flee to Tyre. Dor seems to have been occupied by Solomon since lie placed one of his purveyors in the town (1 Kings 4 11), and Tiglath-pileser III re duced it- and set a governor over it (llawl., Pftooi., 84). Here Tryphon was besieged by Antiochus, but. escaped to Apamea (1 Mace 15 11.13.2"); Ant, XIII, vii, 2). It. was made free by Pompey, and joined to the province of Syria (XIV, iv, 4). Tin- youths of the place set up a statue of Tiberius in the Jewish synagogue, an outrage that was reported to Publius Petronius by Agrippa, and reparation was made (XIX, vi, 3). It does not seem to have been of much importance in later times, though the forti fications still remaining on the ruined site, from the period of the Middle Ages, show that it was then occupied. It is now only a miserable village nestled in the ruins. II. PoRTEH

      DORCAS, dor kas (AopKcLs, l)<>rl;dx, the dr equivalent of Aram, luhll/iis, "a gazelle") : The name was borne by a Christian woman of Joppa. She is called a disciple (mathttria: Acts 9 >(>, the only place in the NT where the fern, form is used). She seems to have had some means and also to have been a leader in the Christian community. Dorcas was beloved for the manner in which she used her position and means, for she "was full of good works, and almsdeeds which she did." Among her eharit ies was the clothing of the poor with garments she her self made; (ver 39), and by following her example, numerous "Dorcas societies" in the Christian church perpetuate her memory. There is a local memorial in the "Taint ha School" in Jaffa devoted to the care and education of poor girls.

      Her restoration to life by Peter is recorded. At the time of her death Peter was in Lydda where he had healed Aeneas. Being sent for, he went to Joppa, and, by the exercise of the supernatural powers granted" to him, "he presented her alive" to the mourning community. In consequence of this miracle "many believed on the Lord" (ver 42).

      south F. HCNTKR

      DORYMENES, do-rim e-nez (Aopv^ vT)?, !)<>- r\\iiii( ni t<<: Father of Ptolemy Macron (1 Mace 3 38; 2 Mace 4 45); probably the same man who fought against Antiochus the dreat (Polyb. v.Gl).

      DOSITHEUS, do-sit h e-us (Aoo-ceeos,

      (1) A captain of Judas Maccabaeus (2 Mace 12 19-25); along with Sosipater he captured Timo- theus after the battle of Carnion, but granted him his life and freedom on the representation that "he had in his power the parents of many of them and the brethren of some," who, if they put him to death, should "be disregarded."

      (2) A soldier in the army of Judas Maccabaeus (2 Mace 12 35); he made a special attack upon Gorgias, governor of Idumaea, t he opposing general, and would have taken the "accursed man" prisoner but for the interference of a Thracian horseman.

      (3) A Jew, son of Drimylus (3 Mace 1 3) who rescued Ptolemy Philopator from a plot of The- odotus. He afterward proved an apostate from Judaism.

      (4) A Levite priest who "in the 4th year of the reign of Ptolemy and Cleopatra" carried the tr of the Book of Est to Alexandria (Ad Est 11 1).


      DOTAEA, do-te a (AV, incorrectly, Judea; Aw- raCa, Dutuia): Another form of the name DOTHAN (q.v.).

      DOTE, dot: "To dote" means either "to be weakminded" or "to be foolishly fond." In the latter sense it is employed in Ezekiel 23 off; in the former, in Jeremiah 50 3(> AV (RV "shall become fools"); AV Sir 25 2 (RV "lacking understanding"), and AVI Tim 6 4 (RVm "to be sick" ; A Vm "a fool").

      DOTHAIM, do tha-im: Mentioned in ,1th 4 and frequently in connection with the invasion of Ilolofernes. See next art.

      DOTHAN, dd than OT~, dothaijin, "P^ , ddthdn, "two wells," "double feast"; AcoSatip., Ddthdcun): A place to the north of Shechem whither Jacob s sons went for pasture for the flocks; where Joseph who followed them was sold to the hhmaelites, after having been imprisoned in a "pit" ((Jen 37 17 ff).

      Here in later days the eyes of Elisha s servant were opened to see the mountain "full of horses and chariots of fire," guarding his master from the en circling Syrians (2 Kings 6 13 ff). This is certainly to be identified with Ttll Dol/idti, which lies on the east of the ancient, road leading from (lilead across Esdrasraelon to the seacoast, and thence to Egypt. It is about 5 miles to the south\\V. of Joiln. There are some traces of old buildings, two cisterns Dot hay in or Ddthayim="t\\vo cisterns" or "pits" and one copious spring. Excellent pasture is found in the surrounding plain, and on the adjoining slopes.

      \\\\ . EWING

      DOUBLE, dub"l (~:tp , shdndh, " to repeat," as in counting; *E2 , kdptial, "to fold over," or "double," as a cloth): A word used quite frequently in the OT. Jacob ordered his sons to take double money in their hands, i.e. twice the necessary amount (den 43 12.1.")). If a thief be caught with a living ani mal he was to restore double (Exodus 22 4); if property be stolen out of the house of one to whom it is in trusted he was to restore double (Exodus 22 7.9). The firstborn was to receive a double portion of the in heritance (Deuteronomy 21 17). Likewise also by a beauti ful symbol Elisha asked for a double portion of Elijah s spirit to fall upon him (2 Kings 2 9). De grees of punishment or sufferings were also expressed by the idea of a doubling (Isaiah 61 7; Jeremiah 16 18; 17 18; Zee 9 12). The use of the second Hebrews form in Job 11 6 and 41 13 seems quite confusing initstr. AV translates it simply "double," but RV gives it its expanded and derived meaning, "mani fold in understanding," and "who shall come within his jaws," respectively, "manifold" in the first instance meaning multiplied, and "jaws" doubt less meaning the double row of teeth. The classic phrases in the NT are those used by James to repre sent instability and a wavering disposition, dtyvxos, dipsiiclioH, lit. "doubleminded" (Jas 1 8; 4 8).


      DOUBT, dout : This word, found only a score of times in the Bible, translates nevertheless about half as many different Hebrews and dr originals with a corresponding variety of meanings.

      In den 37 33 "without doubt" is to be taken in the common sense of "certainly"; in Job 12 2 in the sarcastic sense of "indeed!" In Dnl 5 12.16, it is used as a difficult problem or mystery to be



      explained, and these are the only cases of its em ployment in the OT.

      In the NT it is about equally used to translate dicurop^u, dia pored, and Sta/cpiVw, diakrino, and (heir cognates. The first means to be without resource," "utterly at a loss," "nonplussed"; and the second, "to judge diversely." For the first, see John 13 22; Acts 2 12 AY; 5 24 AV; 10 17 AY; 25

      20 AY; and Galatians 4 20 AV. For the second see Alt

      21 21; Mark 11 23; Acts 10 20; Romans 14 23. The last-named is deserving of particular attention. "He that doubteth is condemned [AV damned"] if lie cat," means that in a case of uncertainty as to one s Christian liberty, it were better to err on the side of restraint. In Luke 12 29 "to be of doubtful mind" (pereuplfa, metcdiizo, lit. "to suspend"; vide Thayer, s.v.), means "to be driven by gusts," or "to fluctuate in mid-air."

      Here, as in Alt 14 31, "doubt" does not indicate a lack of faith, but rather "a state of qualified faith" : its weakness, but not its absence.

      In John 10 24 "doubt" translates atpw ^vxyv, airo psuchtn, which lit. means "to lift up the soul," or "to keep one in suspense"; so RV. See also DISPUTATION. JAMKS AI. GRAY

      DOUGH, do. See BREAD.

      DOVE, cluv (T.F , tor, H"" 1 , i/ilmlh; -r^pio-repa, pcrixtcrd; Lat Zcnacdura carolinensis) : A bird of the family Cohunbidw. Doves and pigeons are so closely related as to be spoken and written of as synonymous, yet there is a distinction recognized from the beginning of time. It was esp. marked in Pal, because doves migrated, but pigeons remained in their chosen haunts all the year. Yet doves were the wild birds and were only confined singly or in pairs as caged pets, or in order to be available for sacrifice. Pigeons, without question, were the first domesticated birds, the record of their conquest by man extending if anything farther back than ducks, geese and swans. These two were the best known and the most, loved of all the myriads of birds of Philestina-Canaan Land Doves were given preference because they remained wild and were more elusive. The thing that escapes us is usually a lit t le more attract ive than the thing we have. Their loving natures had been noted, their sleek beautiful plumage, their plum]) bodies. They were t he most precious of any thing offered for sacrifice. Their use is always speci fied in preference to pigeons if only one bird was used; if both, the dove is frequently mentioned first. Because of their docility when caged, their use in sacrifice, and the religious superstition con cerning them, they were allowed to nest unmolested and, according to species, flocked all over Philestina-Canaan Land The turtle-dove nested in gardens and vineyards, and was almost as tame as the pigeons. The palm turtle-dove took its name from its love of homing in palm trees, and sought these afield, and in cities, even building near the temple in Jems. It also selected thorn and other trees. It has a small body, about ten inches in length, covered with bright chestnut -colored feathers, the neck dappled with dark, lustrous feathers. The rock dove swarmed over, through, and among the cliffs of mountains and the fissures of caves and ravines. The collared turtle-dove was the largest of the species. It re mained permanently "and homed in the forests of Tabor and Gilead, around the Dead Sea, and along the Jordan valley. This bird was darker than the others and took its name from a clearly outlined collar of dark feathers encircling the neck, and was esp. sought for caged pets on account of its size and beauty.

      In all, the dove is mentioned about fifty times in the Bible. Many of these references are concerning

      its use in sacrifice and need not all be mentioned. The others are quoted and explained from a scien tific standpoint and in accordance with the charac teristics and habits of the birds. The first reference to the dove occurs in Genesis 8 8-12, in the history of the flood; then follows its specified use in sac rifice; note of its migratory habits is made, and then in poetry, prophecy, comparison, simile and song, it appears over and over throughout the Bible. In Genesis 8 8-12, we read, "And he sent forth a dove from him, to see if the waters were abated." Noah first sent out a raven, because it was a strong, aggressive bird and would return to its mate. But the raven only flew over the water and returned to perch on the ark. This was not satisfactory, so Noah in looking for a bird better suited to his pur pose, bethought him of the most loving and tender bird he knew the dove. It, not only would return to the ark, but would enter and go to the cage of its mate, and if it found green food it would regurgitate a portion for her or its young, or if not nesting he could tell by its droppings if greenery had been eaten and so decide if the waters were going down. And this is precisely what happened. The dove came back, and the watching Noah saw it feed its mate little green olive leaves, for the dove never carries food in the beak, but swallows and then regurgitates it to mate and young. This first reference to birds was made on account of the loving, tender characteristics of the species; the next, because they were the most loved by the people, and therefore chosen as most suitable to offer as sacrifice (Genesis 15 9). In Leviticus 1 14 f, doves are men tioned as sacrifice: "And the priest shall bring it unto the altar, and wring off its head, and burn it on the altar; and the blood thereof shall be drained out on the side of the altar." In Leviticus 5 7 the proper preparation of the sacrifice is prescribed. For method of handling sacrifice sec vs 8.9.10. In Leviticus 12 6 the law for a sacrifice for a mother is given, and ver 8 of same ch provides that if she be too poor to oiler a lamb, doves or pigeons will suffice. In Leviticus 14 4-8 the reference for the sacrifice of a leper is merely to "birds," because it is understood that they are pigeons and doves, and it contains the specification that if the victim is too poor to afford so elaborate a sacrifice, a smaller one will suffice. The birds are named in ver 22: "Two turtle-doves, or two young pigeons, such as he is able to get; and the one shall be a sin-offering, and the other a burnt-offering" (cf Leviticus 15 14.29; Numbers 6 10). When David prayed for the destruction of the treacherous, he used the dove in comparison, and because he says he would "lodge in the wilder ness" he indicates that he was thinking of the palm turtle.

      "And I said, Oil that T had win^s like a dove! Then would I fly away, and be at rest" (Psalm 55 G)-

      In chanting a song of triumph, David used an ex quisite thought.

      "When ye lie anioiiK the sheepfolds, It is as the wings of a dove covered with silver, And her pinions with yellow gold" (Psalm 68 13).

      He referred to the rock dove because the metallic luster on its neck would gleam like; gold in sunshine, and the soft grayish-white feathers beneath the wings as he would see the bird above him in flight would appear silver-like. By this quotation David meant that in times of peace, when men slept con tentedly at home among their folds, their life was as rich with love and as free in peace as the silver wing of the dove that had the gold feathers and was unmolested among the inaccessible caves and cliffs. In Psalm 74 19 the term "turtle-dove" is used to indi cate people whom the Almighty is implored to pro tect: "Oh deliver not the soul of thy turtle-dove



      unto the wild beast : forget not, the life of thy poor for ever."

      Solomon uses the dove repeatedly in comparison or as a term of endearment. In Cant 1 1f>; 4 1; 6 12, he compares the eyes of his bride full, tender, beautiful, with those of a dove. In 2 12 he uses

      Turtle-Dove (Tartar auritus).

      1 he voice of the dove as an indication of spring. In

      2 14 he addresses the bride as a rock dove. In 5 2 is another term of endearment , this time used in i he dream of the bride (cf 6 !)). Isaiah 38 14 has reference to the wailing, mournful dove note from which the commonest species take the name "mourning dove." The reference in Isaiah 60 south proves that, the prophet was not so good an observer, or so correct in his natural history as David, who may have learned from the open. As a boy, David guarded the flocks of his father and watched the creatures around him. When exulting over the glory of the church in the numerous accessions of Centiles, Isaiah cried, "Who are these that fly as a cloud, and as the doves to their windows . " This proves that he confounded pigeons and doves. Doves were wild, mostly mi gratory, and had no "windows." But the clay cotes of pigeons molded in squares so that one large cote sheltered many pairs in separate homes had the appearance of latticed windows and were used as a basis in estimating a man s wealth. This refer ence should be changed to read, "and as pigeons to their windows." In ,Jeremiah 8 7 the fact is pointed out that doves were migratory; and in 48 2S people are advised to go live in solitary places and be peaceable, loving and faithful, like the rock doves. See also Ezekiel 7 Hi: "But those of them that escape shall escape, and shall be on the mountains like doves of the valleys, all of them moaning, everyone in his iniquity." This merely means that people should be driven to hide among the caves and valleys where the rock doves lived, and that the sound of their mourning would resemble the cry of the birds. It does not mean, however, that tin; doves were mourning, for when doves coo and moan and to our ears grow most pitiful in their cries, they are the happiest in the mating season. The veneration cherished for doves in these days is inborn, and no bird is so loved and protected as the dove hence it is^unusually secure and happy and its mournful cry is the product of our imagination only. The dove is the happiest of birds. IIos 711 and 11 11 each compares people with doves; the first, because the birds at times appear foolishly trusting; the. second, because, while no bird is more confiding, none is more easily frightened. "And Ephraim is

      like a silly dove, without understanding: they call unto Egypt, they go to Assyria" (7 11). "They shall come trembling as a bird out of Egypt, and a s a dove out of the land of Assyria; and I will make them to dwell in their houses, saith Jeh" (11 11). The reference in Nah 2 7 is to the voice of the birds.

      NT references will be found in a d-scription of the baptism of Jesus (Ml 3 1(1). People are ad monished to be "harmless as doves" (10 1(5). "And Jesus entered into the temple of Cod, and cast out all them that sold and bought, in the temple, and overthrew thetablesof the money-changers, and the seats of them that sold the doves" (Matthew 21 12). This proves that these birds were a common article of commerce, probably the most used for caged pets, and those customarily employed for sacrifice.

      Dove s Dung (I":!" 1 "nn , hfiri yuiiim, K ( thlbh for C CTZn, dilihi/onlin}: 2 Kings 6 25: "And there was a great famine in Samaria: and, behold, they be sieged it, until an ass s head was sold for fourscore pieces of silver, and the fourth part of a kab of dove s dung for five pieces of silver." This seems so re pulsive that some commentators have tried to prove the name applied to the edible root of a plant, but t he history of sieges records ot her cases where mat ter quite as offensive was used to sustain life. The text is probably correct as it stands.


      DOWRY, dou ri : In all I leb marriages, the dowry held an important place. The dowry sealed the betrothal. It took several forms. The bride groom presented gifts to the bride. There was the ""irP2 , niohnr, "dowry" as distinguished from ~\\^"C , nidltdn, "gifts to the members of the family" (cf Cen 24 22.53; Cen 34 12). The price paid to the father or brothers of the bride was probably a survival of the earlv custom of purchasing wives (Cen 34 12; Exodus 22 17; 1 Samuel 18 25; cf Ruth 4 10; I Jos 3 2). There was frequently much negotia tion and bargaining as to size of dowry (Cen 34 12). The dowry would generally be according to the wealth and standing of the bride (cf 1 Samuel 18 23). It might consist of money, jewelry or other valu able effects; sometimes, of service rendered, as in thecaseof Jacob (Cen 29 IS); deeds of valor might be accepted in place of dowry (Joshus 15 Hi; 1 Samuel 18 25; Judges 1 12). Occasionally a bride received a dowry from her father; sometimes in the shape of land (Judges 1 15), and of cities (1 Kings 9 Hi). In later Jewish history a written marriage contract definitely arranged for the nature and size of the dowry.


      DOXOLOGY, dok-sol o-ji (Soo\\o Y a, doxoloy ia, "a praising," "giving glory"]: A hymn or liturgical formula expressive of praise to God, as the (lloria in Excclais (an expansion of Luke 2 14), sometimes called the Creater Doxology, and the C-luritt I tilri ("( ilory be to the Father, and to the Son, and to the Holy Chost, world without end, Amen") also known as the Lesser Doxology.

      The clause, "as it was in the beginning, is now, and ever shall be," was probably added to the original simple formula to emphasize the church s dissent from the Arian conception of Christ.

      The term is applied in particular to the conclud ing paragraph of the Lord s Prayer (Matthew 6 13 m, "For thine is the kingdom," etc; cf 1 Chronicles 29 11, and see LORD south PRAYER).

      To the same general class belong Psalm 41 13; 72 18 f; 89 52; Romans 16 27; Ephesians 2 20; 1 Tim 1 17; Jude ver 25; The The Revelation 5 13 f; 19 1-3, and the modern stanza beginning "Praise Cod, from whom all blessings now." M. O. EVANS

      DRACHMA, drak ma, DRAM (SpaxnVj, drachmt): The word is used in the LXX as the rendering of



      , "half-shekel," which must refer to the light standard for (he shekel, as its weight was about (52 grains. In the NT the word occurs only in Luke 15 southO, where it is rendered "a piece of silver" (in "drachma" ). It was commonly taken as equivalent to the Kom denarius, though not strictly so.

      DRAGON, drag un (T?F1, tannin, pi. Z^P , lan- nlm, P".3P , tannolh; 8paKu>v, drakon):

      Taninn and the pi. tunninim occur 14 t, and in EV are variously rendered "dragon." "whale," "serpent" or "sea-monster"; but Lain 4 3, AV "sea-monster," AVm "sea calves," RV "jackals." Tanuim occurs 12 t, and is rendered "dragons," RV "jackals," except in E/k 29 3, where AV has "dragon" (ARV "monster"), and in Ezekiel 32 2, where A V has "whale" and ERV and AVm "dragon" (ARV " monster"). Tannoth occurs once, in Mai 1 3, where it is rendered "dragons." KV "jackals." Drakon occurs 12 t in Kev 12, 13, 16, and 20, where it is uniformly rendered "dragon." (Of Arab, tinnln, the constellation, Draco.) Tnnnoth (I. XX &u>iJ.aTa dAmata, "dwellings") is a fein. ])1. form as if from tmniafi, but it suits the context to give it the same meaning as tun turn.

      In Kx 7 U.I 0.12. tun inn is used of the serpents which were produced from Aaron s rod and the rods of the Egyp magicians, whereas in Exodus 4 3 and 7 l. r >. for the serpent produced from Aaron s rod. we find niilnlxli, the ordinary word for serpent. In two passages we find "whale," RV "sea-monster"; Genesis 1 21: "And Cod created the great sea-monsters, and every living creature that moveth " ; Job 7 12: " Am I a sea, or a sea-monster, that tliou set test a watch over me?" Other passages (ERV and A V i are I)t 32 33: "Their wine is the poison of dragons |ARV "serpents"], and the cruel venom of asps"; Nehemiah 2 13: "And I went out by night by the valley gate, even toward the dragon s [ARV "jackal s"] well" (AV "dragon well"); Psalm 91 13: " Thou shall tread upon the lion and adder: the young lion and the serpent [AV "dragon"] slialt tliou trample under foot"; 1 s 148 7: " Praise Jeh from the earth, ye sea-monsters [AV "dragons"), and all deeps"; Jcr 51 34: "Nebuchad rezzar the king of Babylon hath devoured me

      like a monster" i.XV " dragon "i. Here also two lannim passages; K/.k 29 3: "Thus saith the Lord Jeh: Be hold. I am against thee, Pharaoh king of Egypt, the great monster [AV "dragon") that lieth in the midst of his rivers, that hath said. My river is mine own. and I have made it for myself "; and Ezekiel 32 2: "Son of man, lake up a lamentation over Pharaoh king of Egypt, and say unto him. Thou wast likened unto a young lion of the nations: yet art thou as a monster (ERV " dragon, "A V "whale") in the seas; and Ihoil didst break forth with thy rivers, and troubledst the waters with thy feet, and fouledst their rivers."

      The foregoing passages offer no especial difficul ties in the interpretation of the word tannin. All may fairly be understood to refer to a serpent or sea-monster or some imaginary creature, without invoking any ancient myths for their elucidation. The same may be said of the passages in The The Revelation. A dragon i.s taken as the personification of Satan, as of Pharaoh in the passages in Ezekiel. It is of course true that ancient myths may more or less distantly underlie some of these dragon and serpent refer ences, and such myths may be demonstrated to throw additional light- in certain cases, but at least the passages in question are intelligible without recourse to the myths. This however is not equally true of all the tannin passages. In Psalm 74 12 we read: "Yet (!od is my King of old, working salva tion in the midst of the earth. Thou didst divide the sea by thy strength: thou brakest the heads of the sea-monsters [AV "dragons"] in the waters." Cf Isaiah 27 1; 51 9 f .

      The three passages just cited seem to denote each some particular act, and are referred by Canon Cheyne (Eli s.v. "Dragon") to the old Bab myth of the conflict of Marduk and Tianiat in the Assyr creation-legend (thus (lunkel, etc). Indeed he refers to that myth not only these passages, but also Jeremiah 51 34; Ezekiel 29 3-(i; 32 2-8 and Job 7 12, which have been cited above. In translating the last t wo passages, Canon Cheyne uses the definite article, "the dragon," instead of "a" as in RV, which makes a great difference in the meaning. In Psalm 87 4, it is clear that Rahab is a country, i.e. Egypt. Isaiah 30 7 is to the same point. In Isaiah 51 9.10, "that didst

      cut Rahab in pieces" and "that didst pierce the monster" (AV "dragon"), are two coordinate ex pressions ot one idea, which is apparently the de feat of the Egyptians, as appears in the reference to the passage, of the Red Sea. In Isaiah 27 I, "levin than the swift serpent." and "leviathan the crooked serpent " and "1 he monster [AV and ERV "dragon"] that is in the sea" have been identified with Baby lon, Persia and Egypt (Eli s.v. "Dragon," 4). It is more probable that the first two expressions are coordinate, and amount to "leviathan the swift and crooked serpent," and that the verse may therefore refer to Babylonia and Egypt . Psalm 74 12--lo is more in line with the idea of the art. in EH, but it is nevertheless susceptible of an explanation similar to that of the other two passages.

      Tanmm, "dragons" (RV "jackals" i occurs in Job 30 29; Psalm 44 19; Isaiah 13 22; 34 13; 35 7; 43

      20; Jeremiah 9 11; 10 22; 14 (i; 49 33; 51 37; tan- nnth, "dragons" ( R V "jackals" ) is found in Mai 1 3. In all these passages, "jackal" suits the context better than "dragon," "sea-monster" or "serpent." An exception to the rendering of "dragon" or "ser pent." or "sea-monster" for tannin is found in Lam 4 3 : "Even the jackals draw out the breast, 1 hex- give suck to their young ones." AV has "sea- monster," AVm "sea calves." A mammal is indi cated, and KV apparently assumes that tannin i.s an error for tnnnlm. Two other exceptions are in E/k 29 3 and 32 2, where EV renders lannlin by "dragon," since in these two passages "jackal" ob viously will not suit. See JACKAL.

      On the const ellational dragons or snakes, see ASTRONOMY, II, 1 .">.

      ALFRED ELY D.u



      DRAGON WELL (Xeh 2 13 AV). See JACK AL south WELL.


      DRAMA MIMIC, dra ma mim ik. See ( JAMES.

      DRAUGHT, draft (d^Spciv, aplmlmn; Ml 15 17; Mark 7 19): "Closet," "sink" or "privy" (Rheims), lit. "place for sitting apart" (cf 2 Kings 10 27, "draught-house," and Mish "water-house"). According to the Mish Jehu turned the temple of Baal in Samaria into public latrincn, "water- houses." Mark adds here (7 19) that by this saying- Jesus cleansed all articles of food, i.e., declared them to be clean.

      DRAWER, dro er, OF WATER (2T? 2S5TT , fi<rrbtt mayiin, from 3XTIJ , s/m afc/i, "to bale up" water) : In Syria and Pal, outside of Ml. Lebanon and the Anti-Lebanon, the springs of water are scarce and the inhabitants of these less favored places have always depended upon wells and cisterns for their water supply. This necessitates some device for drawing the water. In the case of a cistern or shallow well, an earthenware water jar or a bucket made of tanned goats skin is lowered into the water by a rope and then raised by pulling up the rope hand over hand (probably the ancient method), or by running the rope over a crude pulley fixed di rectly over the cistern or well. In the case of deep wells, the rope, attached to a larger bucket, is run over a pulley so that, the water may be raised by the drawers walking away from the well as they pull the rope. Frequently animals are hitched to the rope to do the pulling.



      In sonic districts where the water level is not, (.00 deep, ;i flight of steps leading down to the water s edge is constructed in addition l<> the opening ver tically above the water. Such a well is pointed out near llaran in Mesopotamia as the one from which Kebekah drew water for Abraham s servant. In (Jen 24 16 we read thai Rebekah "went down to the fountain, and filled her pitcher, and came up."

      The dee]) grooves in t heir curbs, worn by the ropes as the water was being raised, attest to the antiquity of many of the wells of Pal and Syria. Any one of the hundreds of Amoves around a single well was niaiiv years in being formed. The fact that the present method of drawing water from these wells is not making these grooves, shows that they are t he work of former t imes.

      Si . Miu-y s Well at \\a/,aiclh.

      The drawing of water was considered the work of women or of men unfit for other service ((Jen 24 i 1.13,1."); 1 Samuel 9 11; .In 4 7). In Syria, today, a girl servant, willingly goes to draw the daily supply of water, but seldom is it possible to persuade a boy or man to perform this service. When the well or fountain is at a distance, or much water is needed, tanned skins or call hen jars are filled and trans ported on the backs of men or donkeys.

      Water drawing was usually done at evening time ((Jen 24 11), and this custom has remained un changed. There is no sight more interesting than the daily concourse at a Syrian water source. It is bound to remind one of the Bible stories where the setting is a welLside (Genesis 24; ,)n 4).

      The service of water drawing was associated, in early times, with that of hewer of wood ( Deuteronomy 29 11). .Joshua made the dibeonites hewers of wood and drawers of water in exchange for their lives (Joshus 9 21 .L o.27). The inhabitants of Nineveh wen- exhorted to draw water and fill the cisterns of their fortresses in preparation for a siege (Nah 3 14).

      Figurative: Water drawing is mentioned in the metaphor of Isaiah 12 3, "Ye draw water out of the wells of salvation." JAMES A. PATCH

      DREAM, drem, DREAMER, drf-m er (2T:n , haldin, 25H , In Inn; ovap, onnr): In all time dreams and their interpretation have been the occasion of much curious and speculative inquiry. Because of the mystery by which they have been enshrouded, and growing out of a natural curiosity to know the future, much significance has been attached to them by people esp. of the lower stages of culture. Kven the cultured are not without a superstitious awe and dread of dreams, attaching to them different interpretations according to local color and custom.

      Naturally enough, as with all other normal and natural phenomena for which men could assign no scientific and rational explanation, they would be

      looked upon with a certain degree of superstitious fear.

      " Dreams,

      Winch arc the children of an idle brain, lic^ot of nothing lint vain fantasy, Which is as thin of substance as the air And more inconstant than the wind."


      While a fully satisfactory theory of dreams has not yet been established and while it is hardly pos sible that there will ever be a satis- 1. Physio- factory explanation for each individual logical and dream, yet through the rapid discov- Psychologi- erics of physiological psychology in the cal Ground recent decade- or more, much new light is thrown on t IK; subject. With the contribution modern psychology has made to our knowledge of the- association of ideas through the connected relation of certain cortical centers and areas, it has come to be pretty well established that the excitation of certain bodily organs or surfaces will stimulate certain brain areas. Conversely the stimulation of certain cortical areas will produce a response in certain bodily regions over which these centers or areas preside. Connecting thought pro cesses are 1 herefore dependent upon t he proper corrc- latiou of ideas through what are known physio logically as t he association centers. If then it comes to pass that, as occurs in dreams, only fragmentary ideas or loosely connected trains of thought occur, and if, as frequently happens, there is momentary connect ion, but lit t le connect ion with normal waking experience, it will easily be seen that the excitation of certain centers will awaken certain trains of thought which are but poorly related to the balance of one s thinking processes. Much is being said about the dissociation of ideas and the disturbance of personality of which dreams are one of several forms. Others are hallucinations, trances, visions, etc. Dreams are abnormal and sometimes patho logical. Sleep is a normal experience. Perfect and natural sleep should be without dreams of any con scious occurrence. Perhaps psychologically there can be no such thing as perfectly dreamless sleep. Such a condition would probably be death itself. Nat tire doubtless has her silent vigils, keeping watch in t he chambers of the soul during the deepest, sleep. The only difference is that they do not come to the threshold of consciousness. Thus, dreams are to the sleeping state what visions and hallucinations are to the waking state, and like them have their ground in a distorted image-making function. While the source of the materials and the excitant may not be the same in each case, yet f unct ionally they are the same.

      The stimuli of dreams may be of two kinds. First, they may be physical and objective, or they may be due to suggestions and the association of ideas. They may be due to some physical disorder, such as imperfect digestion or circulation, improper ventilation or heating, or an uncomfortable position. Since by the very nature of the case dreams do not occur in a conscious state, the real cause cannot easily be discoverable and then only after the sub ject is entirely awakened through the effects of it. They may also be due to the association of ideas. Suggestion plays a large part. The vividness and recency of a conscious impression during the waking state may be thrown up from the subconscious region dining the sleeping hours. The usual dis torted aspect of dreams is doubtless due to the un coupling of groups of ideas through the uncoupling of the cortical association areas, some of them being less susceptible than others to the existing stimulus.

      The materials of dreams need not be recent; they may have been furnished by the conscious pro cesses a long time before, but are brought to the threshold only by means of some train of ideas dur ing a semi-conscious state. It is interesting to note



      that while time and space seem quite real in dreams, the amount covered in a single dream may occupy but a moment of time for the dreamer.

      Dreams have always played an important part

      in the lit. and religion of all peoples. They have

      furnished mythologies; they have

      2. History been the sources of systems of necro- of Belief mancy; they have become both the in Dreams source and the explanation of other wise inexplicable acts of Providence.

      Growing out of them we have a theory of night mares and demonology. They have become the working material of the prophet both Bib. and pagan. Mediaeval civilization is not without its lasting effects of dreams, and modern civilization still clings with something of reverence to the unsolved mys tery of certain dreams. While we have almost emerged from anything like a slavish adherence to a superstitious belief in dreams, we must still admit the possibility of the profound significance of dreams in the impressions they make upon the sub ject.

      The Bible, contrary to a notion perhaps too

      commonly held, attaches relatively little religious

      significance to dreams. Occasionally,

      3. Dreams however, reference is made to commu- in the OT nications from God through dreams

      (Genesis 20 0; 1 Kings 3 5; Alt 1 20; 2 It recognizes their human relations more frequently. In the OT lit. dreams play but- little part except in the books of (Jen and Dnl, in which there are abundant references to them. For their moral bearings the most important ones per haps are those referred to in Genesis 37 5-10. An uncritical attitude will give to them a lifeless and mechanical interpretation. A sympathetic and rational explanation gives them beauty, naturalness and significance. Joseph was the youngest and most beloved son of Jacob. lie was just i-n the prime of adolescence, the very period of day dream ing. He was perhaps inordinately ambitious. This was doubtless heightened by the attentions of a doting father. The most natural dream would be that suggested by his usual waking state, which was one of ambition and perhaps unhealthy rivalry (see ASTRONOMY, II, (5). The source of Pharaoh s dreams and his solicitude are likewise capable of interpretation on somewhat natural grounds (Genesis 41 7-32). The significance of them was given by Joseph.

      Another illustration of the psychological exposi tion preceding is the dream of Solomon (1 Kings 3 5. 11-15). In this narrative, after Solomon had done what pleased Jeh and had offered a most humble prayer on an occasion which to him was a great crisis and at the same time a moment of great ecstasy in his life, he doubtless experiences a feeling of sweet peace in consequence of it. His sleep would natur ally be somewhat disturbed by the excitement of the day. The dream was suggested by the associ ations and naturally enough was the approving voice of Jeh.

      Dreaming and the prophetic function seem to ha ve been closely associated (Deuteronomy 13 1.3.5). Wheth er from a coldly mechanical and superstitious, a miraculous, or a perfectly natural point of view, this relation is consistent. The prophet must be a seer, a man of visions and ideals. As such he would be subject, as in his waking states, so in his sleeping states, to extraordinary experiences. The remarkable dreams of Nebuchadnezzar, who stands out as an exceptional example, afford an illustra tion of what may be styled a disturbed personality (Dnl 2 3-45; 4 5-19). The effort made by the magicians, the enchanters, the Chaldaeans, and the soothsayers, according to the best skill of the Ori entals, was unavailing. Daniel, whether by ex

      traordinary intellectual insight or by Divine com munication, was able by his interpretation and its moral to set before the king a powerful lesson.

      The NT gives still less place and importance to dreams than the OT. There are only six references and one citation to dreams or dreamers. It is sig nificant that all these reference s are by Matthew, and still more significant that Jesus nowhere refers to dreams, evidently attaching little if any importance to them. The references in Matthew are confined entirely to warnings and announcements (Matthew 1 20; 2 12. 13.19.22; 27 19). Once a citation (Acts 2 17) is used for illustrative purposes (cf Joel 2 28). See also AUGURY, IV, 5; DIVINATION, VI, 1, 1(6); MAGIC; REVELATION.

      Whether God communicates directly or indirectly by dreams is still unsettled. With our present knowledge of spirit communication it would not seem unreasonable to assume that lie may reveal Himself directly; and yet on the other hand the safest and perhaps surest explanation for our own day and experience is that in dream states the mind is more impressionable and responsive to natural causes through which God speaks and operates. That dreams have 1 been and are valuable means of shaping men s thoughts and careers cannot be de nied, and as such, have played an important part in the social and moral life of individuals and of society. A valuable modern illustration of this is the dream of Adoniram Judson Gordon (see How Christ (\\ntic It) Churc/i), through the influence of which his entire religious life and that of his church were completely transformed.

      LITERATUReast .lucid, I mjchalai/i/; Cuttcn, The 7 J xi/- cholouiftd Phenomena <>f Christianity; Ladd, Philosophy of Knoirlcdiji-; Baldwin, Dictionary of l>l,H,,x<>,,hii and Pxycholouy; Ellis, The World of Dreams (Houghton, Milllin Co.).


      DREDGE, drej: A mixture of oats and barley (Job 24 6 AVm; AV "corn"; RV "provender"). The Hebrews word is "^ 3 , b lll, usually "mixed grain," ZDMG, XLVIII, 230: grain not ground and boiled in water. Cf Job 6 5; Isaiah 30 24.

      DREGS, dregs: The "sediments," "lees," " grounds of liquor"; only in pi. In AV it stands for: (1) Hebrews kubba^ath, "bowl," "chalice," found only in Isaiah 51 17.22: "the dregs of the cup of trembling"; "the dregs of the cup of my fury." HV correctly changes "dregs" into "bowl." (2) Hebrews sh tnorirn, "sediments" or "dregs," esp. lees (jf wine. "The dregs thereof, all the wicked of the earth shall wring [ARV "drain"] them out and drink them" (Psalm 75 south), i.e. God gives to the wicked the cup of wrathful judgment, which they must drink to the last drop.

      DRESS: In the Ileb and Gr there is a wonderful wealth of terminology having to do with the general subject of dress among the ancient Orientals. This is reflected in the numerous synonyms for "dress" to be found in EV, "apparel," "attire," "clothes," "raiment," "garments," etc. But the words used in the originals are often greatly obscured through the inconsistent variations of the translators. Be sides there are few indications even in the original Hebrews or Gr of the exact shape or specific materials of the various articles of dress named, and so their identification is made doubly difficult. In dealing with the subject, therefore, the most reliable sources of information, apart from the meaning of the terms used in characterization, are certain well-known facts about the costumes and dress-customs of the orthodox Jews, and others about, the forms of dress worn today by the people of simple life and primi tive 1 habits in modern Philestina-Canaan Land Thanks to the ultra- conservatism and unchanging usages of the nearer




      East, this is no mean help. In the endeavor 1o dis cover, distinguish and deal with the various oriental garments, then, we will consider: 1. The Moaning



      of Terms; 2. The Materials; .]. The Outer (lar- nients; 4. The Inner ( lannents; 5. The Headdress; <>. The Foot-gear; 7. The Dress of Jesus and His Disciples.

      There was originally a sharp distinction between classical and oriental costume, but this was palpably

      lessened under the cosmopolitanism 1. Meaning of the Romans Empire. This of course of Terms had its effect, both in the modification

      of the fashions of the day and upon the words used for articles of clothing in the NT.

      (1) The terms most used for clothes in general were, in the ( )T, xutllnn, xiiiilali, w///m//, and in the NT hiinutioi, (Matthew 21 7; 24 IS; 26 65; Luke 8 27 j and ( nilninii i.Matthew 22 11 f; cf 7 15), pi., though the oldest and most widely distributed article of human apparel was probably the "loin-cloth" (Hebrews t zor), entirely different from "girdle" ((lr zoiti). Bib. references for clothes are nearly all to the costume of the males, owing doubtless to the fact, that tho garments ordinarily used indoors were 1 worn alike by men and women.

      (2) The three normal body garments, the ones most, mentioned in the Scriptures, are sadh in, a rather long "under garment " provided with sleeves; Ic llidiu lit ((!r chiton), a long-sleeved tunic worn over the xddlilii, likewise a shirt with sleeves (see Master- man, !)( <!, art. "Dress"); and xinduh ((lr liiina- lni), the cloak of AV and R\\ , used in the pi. for "garments" in general; and the "girdle" ((lr zone; Arab, zinniar). The "headdress" (two types are now in use. the "turban" and the "kujiyrh") is never definitely named in the Bible, though we know ft was the universal custom among ancient Orientals to cover t he head.

      (:->) The isiinlnh (Clr initiation) signifies an "outer garment" (see below), a "mantle," or cloak" (see lexicons). A kindred word in the ( lr Idnialisinos, (tr 1 "raiment" in Luke 9 29, "garments" in Matthew 27 . 55, and "vesture" in John 19 24) stands in antithesis \\nhitttalion. The (lr chiton, Hebrews k ttnnu th, the "un der garment," is tr (i "coat" in Matthew 6 40, "clothes" in Mark 14 63. The Hebrews word m" l ll, Or stolt, Lat stola,

      stands for a variety of garment used only by men of rank or of the priestly order, rendered RV "robe." It stands for the long garments of the scribes ren dered "long robes" (Mark 12 3S; Luke 20 4(i) and "best robe" in the story of the Prodigal Son (Luke 16 22). (For difference between m c *il and siinluh, see Kennedy, one-vol IJDIi, 197.) Oriental influ ences led to the adoption of the long tunic in Rome, and in Cicero s time it was a mark of effeminacy. It came to be known in its white form as tunica (illi, or "white tunic," afterward in English "alb.

      Other XT terms are iroptfrfpav, />(/>/> iirtn/, the "purple" ( Luke 16 19); the purple robe of Jesus is called liiniiitioii in John 19 2; leu/ion, "the towel" with which Jesus girded himself (13 4.5); then othonion, "linen cloth" ( Luke 24 12; John 19 40); xindon, "linen cloth" (Matthew 27 59); and bassos, "fine linen" (Luke 16 19).

      The primitive "aprons" of (len 3 7, made of "sewed fig-leaves," were quite different from the "aprons" brought to the apostles in Acts 19 12. The latter were of a species known among the Ro mans as xfi/iicindinin, a short "waist-cloth" worn esp. by slaves (Rich, Did. of Jtoni ami (lr A nliq.).

      Anthropology, Scripture and archaeology all wit ness to the use by primitive man of skins of animals as dress material (Genesis 3 21, "coats 2. The of skin"; cf He 11 . -57, "went about

      Materials in sheepskins, in goatskins").

      Even today the traveler will occa sionally see in Pal a shepherd clad in "a coat of skin." Then, as now, (joat x hair and camel s hair supplied the materials for the coarser fabrics of the poor. John the Baptist had his raiment, cntlinna, of camel s hair (lit. "of camel s hairs," Matthew 3 4). This was a coarse cloth made by weaving camel s hairs. There is no evidence that coats of camel s skin, like those mad* 1 of goat s skin or sheep s skin have ever been worn in the East, as imagined by

      f Bethany (with Sheepskin Coat).

      painters (see Meyer, Bleek, Weiss and Broadus; but cf Hl)B, art. "Camel"). The favorite materi als, however, in Pal, as throughout the Orient,^ in ancient times, were wool (see Prov 27 26, "The lambs arc for thy clothing") and flax (see Prov 31



      13, where it is said of the ideal woman of King Lem uel, "She seeketh wool and flax, and worketh will ingly with her hands"). The finest quality of an cient "linen" seems to have been the product of

      Sculpture on Bchistun Rock.

      Egypt (see LINEN). The "silk" of Prov 31 22 AY is really "fine linen," as in RY. The first certain mention of "silk" in the Bible, it is now conceded, is in The The Revelation 18 12, as the word rendered "silk" in Ezekiel 16 10.13 is of doubtful meaning.

      (1) We may well begin hero with the familiar saying of Jesus for a basal distinction: "If any man

      would go to law with thee, and take 3. The away thy coat [( ir chiton], let him have

      Outer thy "cloak \\hhnnl ion] also" (Matthew 6 40).

      Garments Here the "coat" (Hob k llwiu-lh) was

      the ordinary "inner garment" worn by the Jew of the day, in which he did the work of the day (see Matthew 24" IS; Mark 13 1(>). It resem bled the Roman "tunic," corresponding most nearly to our "long shirt," reaching below the knees always, and, in ease it was designed for dress occasions, reaching almost: to the ground. Sometimes "Iwo coats" were worn (Luke 3 11; ef Matthew 10 10; Mark 6 9), but in general only one. It was this garment of Jesus that is said by John (19 23) to have been "without seam, woven from the top throughout ."

      (2) The word hitnalinti, here rendered "cloak, "de notes the well-known "outer garment" of the Jews (see Matthew 9 20.21; 14 3(>; 21 7.south; but cf also 9 Ki 17 2; 24 IS; 26 65; 27 31. 3o). It appears in somi cases to have boon a loose robe, but in most others certainly, it was a large square piece of cloth, lik< a modern shawl, which could be wrapped around the person, with more or less taste and comfort. Now these two, with the "girdle" (a necessary and almost universal article of oriental dress), were commonly all the garments worn by the ordinary man of the Orient. The "outer garment" was frequently used by the poor and by the traveler as his only covering at night, just as shawls are used among us now.

      (3) The common Hob name for this "outer gar ment" in the OT is as above, xinildh or salnidti. In most cases it was of "wool," though sometimes of "linen," and was as a rule certainly the counterpart of the Ilium/ion of the (Ir (this is its name through out the NT). It answered, too, to the pallium of the Romans. It belonged, like them, not to the

      should be returned before sunset "for that is his only covering, it is his raiment for his skin: wherein shall he sleep? .... for 1 am gracious" (Exodus 22 27). The Jewish tribunals would naturally, there fore, allow the "inner garment" to be taken by legal process, rather than the outer one (Matthew 5 40; Luke 6 29); but Jesus virtually teaches that rather than have difficulty or indulge animosity one would better yield one s rights in this, as in other matters; cf 1 Corinthians 6 7.

      Some identify the simlah of the ancient Hebrews with modern aba, the coarse blouse or overcoat worn today by the Syrian peasant (Nowack, Ben- zinger, Mackie in II DB); but the distinction be tween these two garments of the Jews, so clearly made in the NT, seems to confirm the conclusion otherwise reached, that this Jewish "outer garment" closely resembled, if it was not identical with, the himation of the (! rooks (see Jan EHC, art. "Cloke"

      Painting at Be,ni Hassan.

      endumala, or garments "put on," but to the i>t-ri- blemala, or garments "wrapped around" the body. It was concerning this "cloak" that the Law of Moses provided that, if it were taken in pawn, it

      Woman s Headdress and Veil (Modern).

      and l-vol HDH, "Dress," 197; but cf Masleniiaii, DCC, art. "Dress," 499, and Dearmer, !)( (!, art. "Cloke"). In no respect has the variety of render ings in our KY done more to conceal from Eng. readers the meaning of the original than in the case of this word tsitnldfi. For instance it is the "gar ment" with which Noah s nakedness was covered ((.Jen 9 23); the "clothes" in which the Hebrews bound up their kneading-t roughs (Exodus 12 34); the "garment" of Gideon in Judges 8 2">; the "raiment" of Ruth (3 3); just as the liiniution of the NT is the "cloak" of Matthew. 5 40, the "clothes" of Matthew 24 IS AY (RY "cloak"), the "garment" (Mark 13 1(5 AY, RV "cloak").

      (1) In considering the under garments, contrary to the impression made by EV, we must begin with

      the "loin-cloth" (Hob eztlr), which 4. The unlike the "girdle" (see GIRDLE), was

      Under always worn next to the skin. The

      Garments figurative use made of it in Isaiah 11 5,

      and Jeremiah 13 11, e.g. will be lost unless this is remembered. Often it was the only "under garment," as with certain of the prophets (Elijah, 2 Kings 1 Samuel; cf John the Baptist, Matthew 3 4; Isaiah, 20 2, and Jeremiah, 13 1 ff). In later times it was displaced among the Hebrews by the "shirt" or



      "tunic" (see TUNIC). The universal "sign of mourning" was the girding of the waist with an czor or "hair-cloth" (EV "sack-cloth"). A "loin cloth" of "linen" was worn by the priests of early times and bore the special name of cp/iddh (1 Samuel 2 18; cf 2 Samuel 6 14 ff).

      (2) The ordinary "under garment," later worn by all classes certain special occasions and indi viduals being exceptions -was the "shirt" (Hebrews k tfi<~tctfi) which, as we have seen, reappears as chiton, in CJr, and tunica in Lat. It is uniformly rendered "coat "in EV, except that RYm has "tunic" in John 19 23. The well-known piece of Assyr sculpture, representing the siege and capture of Lachish by Sennacherib, shows the Jewish captives, male and female, dressed in a moderately tight gar ment, fitting close to the neck (cf Job 30 IS) and reaching almost to the ankles; which must repre sent the I" Hi oin Ih, or kultuncth of the period, as worn in towns at least. Probably the kntldnclh of the peasantry was both looser and shorter, resembling more the modern AV/////.south of the Syrian fellah (cf Lat ciiHti tut, and Eng. "chemise").

      (3) As regards .sYrrrc.s, they are not expressly mentioned in the ()T, but the Lachish tunics men tioned above have short sleeves, reaching half-way to the elbows. This probably represents the pre vailing type of sleeve among the Hebrews of the earlier period. An early Egyp picture of a group of Sem traders (c 2000 BC) shows a colored tunic without sleeves, which, fastened on the left shoulder, left the right bare. Another variety of sleeves, re stricted to the upper and wealthy classes, had long and wide sleeves reaching to the ground. This was the tunic worn by Tamar, the royal princess (2 Samuel 13 IS, "A garment of divers colors upon her; for with such robes were the king s daughters that were virgins apparelled"), "the tunic of [i.e. reaching to] palms and soles" worn by Joseph, familiarly known as the "coat of many colors" (Genesis 37 3), a render ing which represents now an abandoned tradition (cf Kennedy, IIDli). The long white linen tunic, which was the chief garment of the ordinary Jewish priest of the later period, had sleeves, which, for special reasons, were tied to the arms (cf Jos, Ant, III, vii, 2).

      (4) Ultimately it became usual, even with the people of the lower ranks, to wear an under "tunic," or "real shirt" (Jos, Ant, XVII, vi, 7; Mish, paxxiw, where it is called Ijdlilk). In this case the upper tunic, the kuttoneth proper, would be removed at night (cf Cant 5 3, "I have put off my garment").

      The material for the tunic might be either (1) woven on the loom in two pieces, and afterward put together without cutting (cf Did. of Rnm and (!r Anliq., art. "Tunica"), or (2) the garment might be woven whole on a special loom, "without seam," i.e. so as to require no sewing, as we know from the description given in John 19 23, and from other sources, was the chiton worn by Our Lord just be fore His crucifixion. The garments intended by the Hebrews (Dnl 3 21-27), rendered "coats" AV, have not been certainly made out. The AVm has "mantles," the ERV "hosen," ARV "breeches" (see HOSEN). For "coat of mail" (1 Samuel 17 5) see ARMOR.

      When the Hebrews first emerged into view r , they seem to have had no covering for the head except on special demand, as in case of war, 6. The when a leather-helmet was worn (see

      Headdress ARMOR). Ordinarily, as with the fellah of Pal today, a rope or cord served as a fillet (cf 1 Kings 20 32, and Virgil, Aeneid [Dryden], iv.213: "A golden fillet binds his awful brows"). Such "fillets" may be seen surviving in the representation of Syrians on the monuments of Egypt. Naturally, in the course of time, exposure to the Syrian sun in the tropical summer time would

      compel recourse to some such covering as the modern knjii/cti, which lets in the breeze, but protects in a graceful, easy way, the head, the neck and the shoulders. The head-gear of Ben-hadad s tribute- carriers (see above) resembles the Phrygian cap.

      Modern Druse lloaddruss.

      The head covering, however, which is best at tested, at least for the upper ranks of both sexes, is the turban (Hebrews c,d>nph, from a root meaning to "wind round"). It is the ladies "hood" of Isaiah 3 23, RV "turban"; the "royal diadem" of Isaiah 62 3, and the "mitre" of /ec 3 5, RVm "turban" or "diadem." Ezekiel s description of a lady s head dress : "I bound thee with attire of fine linen" (Ezekiel 16 10 m), points to a turban. For the egg-shaped turban of the priests see BONNET (RV "head-tires"). The hats of Dnl 3 21 (RV "mantles") are thought by some to have been the conical Bab headdress seen on the monuments. According to 2 Mace 4 12 RV the young Jewish nobles were compelled by Antiochus Epiphanes to wear the petasos, the low, broad-brimmed hat associated with Hermes. Other forms of headdress were in use in NT times, as we learn from the Mish, as well as from the NT, e.g. the suddar (<rov5dpLoi>, souddrioti) from Lat suda- rium (a cloth for wiping off perspiration, sudor) which is probably the "napkin" of John 11 44; 20 7, although there it appears as a kerchief, or covering, for the head. The female captives from Lachish (see above) wear over their tunics an upper garment, which covers the forehead and falls down over the shoulders to the ankles. "Whether this is the gar ment intended by the Hebrews in Ruth 3 15, rendered "vail" byAVand "mantle" by RV, and "kerchiefs for the head" (Ezekiel 13 18 RV), we cannot say. The "veil" with which Rebekah and Tamar "cov ered themselves" (Genesis 24 65; 38 14) was most



      likely a large "mantle" in which the whole body could be wrapped, like the sddfun (see above). But is seems impossible to draw a clear distinction be tween "mantle" and "veil" in the OT (Kennedy). The case of Moses (Exodus 34 33) gives us the only express mention of a "face-veil."

      The ancient Hebrews, like Orientals in general, went barefoot within doors. Out of doors they

      usually wore sandals, less frequently 6. Footgear shoes. The simplest form of sandal

      then, as now, consisted of a sole of unt aimed leather, bound to the foot by a leather thong, the shoe-latchet of (Jen 14 23 and the


      latchet of Mark 1 7, etc. In the obelisk of Shal- manezer, however, Jehu s attendants are distin guished by shoes completely covering the feet, from the Assyrians, who an; represented as wearing sandals fitted with a heel-cap. Ladies of E/ekiel s day wore shoes of "sealskin" (Ezekiel 16 10 RV). The soldiers "laced boot" may be intended in Isaiah 9 5 (RVm). Then, as now, on entering the house of a friend, or a sacred precinct (Exodus 3 f>; Joshus 5 1")), or in case of mourning (2 8 16 30), the sandals, or shoes, were removed. The priests performed their offices in the Temple in bare feet (cf the modern re quirement on entering a mosque).

      In general we may say that the clothes worn by Christ, and His disciples were of the simplest

      and least sumptuous kinds. A special 7. The interest must attach even to the clothes

      Dress of that Jesus wore. These consisted, Jesus and it seems quite certain, not of just His five separate articles (see Edersheim,

      Disciples LTJM, I, 62.")), but of six. In His

      day it had become customary to wear a linen shirt (haluk) beneath the tunic; (see above 1 ). That Our Lord wore such a "shirt" seems clear from the mention of the laying aside of the upper gar ments (himdtia, pi.), i.e. the "mantle" and .he "tunic," before washing His disciples feet (John 13 4). The tunic proper worn by Him, as we have; seen, was "woven without seam" throughout, and was of the kind, therefore, that fitted closely about the neck, and had short sleeves. Above; the tunic would naturally be the linen girdle, wound several times about the waist. On His feet wen; leather sandals (Matthew 3 11). His upper garment was of the customary sort and shape, probably of white woolen cloth, as is suggested by the details of the account of the Transfiguration (Mark 9 3), with the four pre scribed "tassels" at the corners. As to His head dress, we have no description of it, but we may set it down as certain that no Jewish teacher of that day would appear in public with the head uncovered. He probably wore the customary white linen "nap kin" (sudarium), wound round the head as a turban,

      with the ends of it falling down over the neck. The dress of His disciples was, probably, not materially different.

      In conclusion it may be said that, although the dress of even orthodox Jews today is as various as their lands of residence and their languages, yet there are two garments worn by them the world over, the tdlllth and the arba* kan e photh (see DCG, art. "Dress," col. 1). Jews who affect special sanctity, esp. those living in the Holy Land, still wear the tallilh all day, as was the common custom in Christ s time. As the earliest mention of the (trba* kan plid(h is in 1350 AD, it is clear that it can not have existed in NT times.

      LITERATUReast Xowack s and Benzinger s lleb Archd- oloijie; Tristram, Eastern Cuatunin iii Hilile Lanils; Kich, Diet, of Romans and Gr Antiq.; Kdersheim, Life ami Times of Jrxiis the Mexxiah, 025, and elsewhere; arts, on " Dress," "Clothing." "Costumes," etc , 1IDB, DC<1, J,-w Enc (by Xcildeke) in Eli (by Abrahams and Cook); Mastorman, "Dress and Personal Adornment in Mod. Pal," in Bib. World, 1902, etc. C.EO. B. EAGER



      DRINK, STRONG ("CE , xhcMnr; o-tpa, si- kcrti; from "CTT, ali<lk/nir, "to be or become drunk"; probably from the; same root as sugar, saccharine): With the exception of Numbers 28 7, "strong drink" is always coupled with "wine." The two terms are commonly used as mutually exclusive, and as to gether exhaustive- of all kinds of intoxicants.

      Originally xheklnir seems to have been a general term for intoxicating drinks of all kinds, without reference to the material out of which they vere made ; atiel in that sense, it would include wine. Reminiscences of this older usage may be found in Nil 28 7 (where; xln khrir is cle-arly equivalent to wine, as may be seen by comparing it with ve-r 14. and with Kx 29 40. where the material of the drink offering is expressly designated "wine").

      When the Hebrews were living a nomadic life, before their settlement in Canaan, the grape-wine was practically unknown to them, and there would be no need of a special term to describe it. But when they settled down to an agricultural life, and came to cultivate; the vine-, it. would become neces sary to distinguish it from the> e>leleT kinds of intoxi cants; hence the borrowed word ijnyin. ("wine ") was applieel to the former, while 1 the hitter would be classed together uneler the old term shekhar, which would then come- to mean all intoxicating beverages nthcrttinn wine (Leviticus 10, Numbers 6 3; Deuteronomy 14:20;

      Proverbs 20:1; Isaiah 24 9). The exact nature of these drinks is not clearly inelie-ated in the> Bible itself. The only fermented bcveTage other than grape-wine specifically named is pomegranate-wine (Cant 8 2: "the juice of my pomegranate," RVm "sweet wine of my pomegranate"); but we may infer that other kinds of shrkhur besides that obtained from pome granate s we-re in use, such as drinks made from dates, honey, raisins, barley, apples, etc.

      Probably Jeremie (c, 400 AD) was near the mark when he wrote, "Sikera in the Hebrews tongue; means every kind of drink whie-h can intoxicate, whether made from grain or from the juice of apple s, e>r when honey combs are boiled down into a sweet anel strange drink, or the fruit of palm oppressed into liquor, and when water is colemred and thickened from boiled herbs" (Ep. ad Ne]>otianui). Thus shekhar is a comprehensive term for all kinds of fermented drinks, exc lueling wine-.

      Probably the most common sort of shfkhar used in Bil). times was palm- or date-wine 1 . This is not actually mentioned in the Bible-, and we- elo not mwt with its Hebrews name yfn b miirim ("wine; of dates") until the Talmudic period. But it is frequently referred te> in tho Assyr- Bab contract tablets (ouneiform), anel from this and other evidence we infer that it was very well known among the ancient Sem peoples. Moreover, it is known



      that the palm tree flourished abundantly in Bib. lands, and the presumption is therefore very strong that wine made of the juice of dates was a common beverage. It must not be supposed, however, that the term shekhar refers exclusively to date-wine. It rather designates all intoxicating liquors other than grape-wine, while in a few cases it probably includes even wine.

      Then* can be no doubt that, uhrklnlr was intoxi cating. This is proved (1) from the etymology of the word, it being derived from shakhar, "to ho or become drunk" (den 9 21; Isaiah 29 9; Jeremiah 25 27, etc); ef the word for drunkard (xliikkar), and for drunkenness (shikkaron) from the same root; (2) from descriptions of its effects: e.g. Isaiah graphic ally describes the stupefying effect of stickful r on those who drink it. excessively (28 7.south).

      Hannah defended herself against the charge of being drunk by saying, "1 have drunk neither wine nor strong drink," i.e. neither wine nor any other intoxicating liquor (I south 1 1~>). The attempt made to prove that it was simply the unfermented juice 1 of certain fruits is quite without foundation. Its immoderate use is strongly condemned (Isaiah 5 11.12; Prov 20 I; see DRUNKENNESS).

      It. was forbidden to min istering priests (Leviticus 10 9), and to Na/irites (Numbers 6 3; .Judges 13 4.7.14; cf Luke 1 1.1), but was used in the sacrificial meal as drink offering (Numbers 28 71, and could be bought with the tithe-money and con sumed by t he worshipper in the temple ( Deuteronomy 14 2(1). It is commended to the weak and perishing as a means of deadening their pain; but not to princes, lest it might lead them to pervert justice (I rov 31 4-7). I). Mi AI. i, EDWARDS

      DROMEDARY, drum o-da-ri, drom e-da-ri. See CAMEL,

      DROP, DROPPING: "To drop" expresses a "distilling" or "dripping" of a fluid (Judges 5 4; I rov 3 20; Cant 5 ">.13; Joel 3 IS; Am 9 13; cf 1 Samuel 14 2C>, "the honey dropped" [in "a stream of honey"|); Job 29 22 and Isaiah 45 south read "distil" (AV "drop"). The continuous "droppings" of rain through a leaking roof (roofs were usually made of clay in I al, and always liable to cracks and leak age) on a "very rainy day" is compared to a con tentious wife (Prov 19 13; 27 !.">); "What is de scribed is the irritating, unceasing, sound of the fall, drop after drop, of water through the chinks in the roof" (I lumptro loc. cit.); cf also AY Eccl 10 IS (KV "leakoth").

      DROPSY, drop s! (uSpwiriKos, fiudroiiikox, "a man afflicted with hudrops or dropsy"): Both forms of this disease occur in I al, that in which the limbs and body are distended with water called (inaxnrcd, depending generally on cardiac or renal disease, and the form confined to the abdomen, usually the result of liver affection. The latter is the com moner, as liver disease is a frequent result of recur rent attacks of malarial fever. The man was evi dently able to move about, as he had entered into the Pharisee s house (Luke 14 2).

      DROSS, dros (TPC , sigh) : The refuse of smelting of precious metal (I rov 25 4 ; 26 23); used fig uratively of what is base or worthless (Isaiah 1 22. 2o; Ezekiel 22 IS. 19; Psalm 119 119).

      DROUGHT, drout . See FAMIM:.

      DROVE, drov. See CATTLK.

      DROWNING, droun ing. See IV.MSHMENTS.

      DRUM, drum (rvjiiravov, li unpanoit): This was the Hebrews top/i, "tabrot" or "timbrel," a hand-drum, consisting of a ring of wood or metal covered with a tightly drawn skin, with small pieces of metal hung

      around the rim, like a tambourine. It, was raised in the one hand and struck with the other, usually by women, but sometimes also by men, at festivities and on occasions of rejoicing. See 1 Mace 9 39, 11 Y "timbrels."

      . DRUNKENNESS, drunk"n-nos (HTl, ranch, yniStp, sliikknrdu, Tit?, /; /// 1; ("H methe):

      I. Its Prevalence. The Bible affords ample proof that excessive drinking of intoxicants was a common vice among the Hebrews, as among other ancient peoples. This is evident not only from individual cases of intoxication, as Noah (den 9 21), Lot (den 19 33.35), Nabal (1 Samuel 25 3(1), Uriah made drunk by David (2 Samuel 11 13), Annum (2 Samuel 13 2S), Elah, king of Israel (1 Kings 16 9), Benhadad, king of Syria, and his confederates (1 Kings 20 1(>), IIolo- fernes (Jth 13 2), etc-, but also from frequent, ref erences to drunkenness as a great social evil. Thus, Amos proclaims judgment on the voluptuous and dissolute rulers of Samaria "that drink wine in [large] bowls" (Am 6 (5), and the wealthy ladies who press their husbands to join them in a carousal (4 1); he also complains that this form of self-indulgence was practised even at, the expense of the poor and under the guise of religion, at the sacrificial meals (2 Samuel; see also Isaiah 5 11.12.22; 28 1-X; 56 11 f). Its prev alence is also reflected in many passages in the XT (e.g. Alt 24 49; Luke 21 31; Acts 2 13.i:>; Ephesians 5 IS; 1 Thess 5 7). Paul complains that at Corinth even the love-feast of the Christian church which immediately preceded the celebration of the Eucharist, was sometimes the scene of excessive drinking (1 Corinthians 11 21). It must, however, bo noted that it, is almost invariably the well-to-do who are charged with this vice in the Bible. There is no evidence to prove that it prevailed to any considerable extent, among the common people. Intoxicants were then an expensive; luxury, be yond the reach of the poorer classes. See DRINK, STRONU.

      //. Its Symptoms and Effects. Those are most vividly portrayed: (1> some of its physical symptoms (.Job 12 25; Psalm 107 27; I rov 23 2 ,): Isaiah 19 11: 288; 29 It;

      ler 25 !* ; (2) its mental effects: exhilaration ((len 43 :*4), jollity and mirth (1 Kingssd 3 20). forgctfulness (l Ksd 3 -Hi. loss of understanding and balance of judgment (Isaiah 28 7; Flos 411): ( : <) its effects on man s happiness and prosperit y : its immediat e effect is to make one oblivious of his misery: but ultimately it "biteth like a serpent, and stingeth like an adder," and leads to woe and sorrow ( Prov 23 - > ~ -V2) and to poverty (Prov 23 21; cf 21 17; Kcclns 19 1 i ; hence wine is called a "mocker" deceiving the unwise (I rov 20 1 ) ; (4) its moral and spiritual effects: it leads to a maladministra tion of justice (Prov 31 ~>; Isaiah 5 2:5), provokes anger and a contentious, brawling spirit, (Prov 20 1 ; 23 2!i; 1 I ^sd 3 22; Kcclns 31 20.29 f), and conduces to a profli gate life (Ephesians 5 *; "riot." lit. profligacy). It is allied with gambling and licentiousness (Joel 3 !i). and inde cency ((ion 9 21 f). Above all, it deadens the. spiritual sensibilities, produces a callous indifference to religious influences and destroys all serious thought (Isaiah 5 12).

      ///. Attitude of the Bible to the Drink Question.

      Intemperance is condemned in uncompromising terms by the ( )T and the XT, as well as by the semi-canonical writings. While total abstinence is not prescribed as a formal and universal rule, broad principles are laid down, esp. in the XT, which point in that direction.

      In the ( )T, intemperance is most repugnant to the stern ethical rigorism of the prophets, as well as to the more utilitarian sense of pro- 1. In the priety of the wisdom" writers. As OT might, be expected, the national con

      science was but gradually quickened to the evil of immoderate drinking. In the narra tives of primitive times, excessive indulgence, or at least indulgence to the point of exhilaration, is men tioned without censure as a natural thing, esp. on festive occasions (as in (Jen 43 34 RVm). But a



      conscience more sensitive to the sinfulness of over indulgence was gradually developed, and is reflected in the denunciations of the prophets and the warn ing of the wise men (cf references under I and II, csp. Isaiah 5 11 f. 22; 28 1-8 ; Prov 2329-33). Nowhere is the principle of total abstinence incul cated as a rule applicable to all. In particular cases it was recognized as a duty. Priests while on duty in the .sanctuary were to abstain from wine and strong drink (Leviticus 10 9; cf Ezekiel 44 21). Nazirites were to abstain from all intoxicants during the period of their vows (Numbers 6 3 f ; cf Amos 2 12), yet not on account of the intoxicating qualities of wine, but because they represented the simplicity of the older pastoral life, as against the Canaanite civilization which the vine symbolized (west H. Smith, Prophets of Israel, 84 f). So also the Reehabites abstained from wine (Jeremiah 35 (i.X.14) and social con veniences, because they regarded the nomadic life as more conducive to Jeh-worship than agricultural and town life, with its temptations to Baal-worship. In Daniel and his comrades we have another instance of voluntary abstinence (Dnl 1 8-1(5). These, how ever, are isolated instances. Throughout the OT the use of wine appears as practically universal, and its value is recognized as a cheering beverage (Judges 9 13; Psalm 104 lf>; Prov 31 7), which enables t lie sick to forget their pains (Prov 31 (>). Moder ation, however, is strongly inculcated and there arc frequent warnings against, the temptation and perils of the cup.

      In Apoc, we have the attitude of prudence and common sense, but the prophetic note of stern de nunciation is wanting. The path of

      2. Deutero- wisdom is the golden mean. "Wine and Extra- is as good as life to men, if thou drink Canonical it in its measure; .... wine drunk Writings in season and to satisfy is joy of heart,

      and gladness of soul: wine drunk largely is bitterness of soul, with provocation and conflict" (Ecclus 31 27-30 RV). A vivid picture of the effects of wine-drinking is given in 1 Esdras 3 1S-24. Stronger teaching on the subject is given in the Testament of the Twelve Patriarchs. Tin- use of wine is permitted to him who can use it tem perately, but abstinence is enjoined as the wiser course (XII P, Jud 16 3).

      In the XT, intemperance is treated as a grave sin. Only once, indeed, does Our Lord explicitly con demn drunkenness ( Luke 21 34), though

      3. In the it is implicitly condemned in other NT passages (Matthew 24 49= Luke 12 4 j). The

      meagerness of the references in Our Lord s teaching is probably due to the fact already mentioned, that it was chiefly prevalent among the wealthy, and not among the poorer classes to whom Our Lord mainly ministered. The- references in Paul s writings are very numerous (Galatians 621; Ephesians 6 18, et al.). Temperance and sobriety in all things are everywhere insisted on (e.g. Acts 24 25; Galatians 5 23; 2 Pet 16). A bishop and those holding honorable position in the church should not be addicted to wine (1 Tim 3 2f; Tit 1 7 f ; 2 2f). Yet Jesus and His apostles wen- not ascetics, and the NT gives no rough-and-ready prohibition of strong drink on principle. In contrast with John the Baptist, who was a Nazirite from birth (Luke 1 15), Jesus was called by His enemies a "wine-bibber" (Matthew 11 19). He took part in festivities in which wine was drunk (.In 2 10). There are indications that He regarded wine as a source of innocent en joyment (Luke 6 38 f; 17 8). To insist on a dis tinction between intoxicating and unfermented wine is a case of unjustifiable special pleading. It must be borne in mind that the drink question is far more complex and acute in modern than in Bib. times, and that the conditions of the modern world

      have given rise to problems which were not within the horizon of NT writers. The habit of excessive drinking has spread enormously among the common people, owing largely to the cheapening of alcoholic drinks. The fact that the evil exists today in greater proportions may call for a drastic remedy and a special crusade. But rather than defend total abstinence by a false or forced exegesis, it were better to admit that the principle is not formally laid down in the NT, while maintaining that there are broad principles enunciated, which in view of modern conditions should lead to voluntary ab stinence from all intoxicants. Such principles may be found, e.g. in Our Lord s teaching in Matthew 16 24 f ; Mark 9 42 f, and in the great Pauline passages Romans 14 13-21; 1 Corinthians 8 8-13.

      IV. Drunkenness in Metaphor. Drunkenness very frequently supplies Bib. writers with striking metaphors and similes. Thus, it symbolizes intel lectual or spiritual perplexity (Job 12 2f>; Isaiah 19 14; Jeremiah 23 9), bewilderment and helplessness under calamity (Jeremiah 13 13; Ezekiel 23 33). It- furnishes a figure for the movements of sailors on board ship in a storm (Psalm 107 27), and for the convulsions of the earth on the day of Jeh (Isaiah 24 20). Jeh s "cup of staggering" is a symbol of affliction, the fury of the Lord causing stupor and confusion (Isaiah 51 17-23; cf Isaiah 63 <> ; Jeremiah 25 ir> IT; K/k 23 33; Psalm 75 south). The sword and the arrow are said to be sodden with drink like a drunkard with wine (Deuteronomy 32 42; Jeremiah 46 10). In the Apocalypse, Babylon (i.e. Rome) is portrayed under t he figure of a "great harlot" who makes kings "drunken with the wine of her fornication"; and who is herself "drunken with the blood of the saints, and .... of the mar tyrs of Jesus" (The The Revelation 17 2.0).


      DRUSILLA, droo-sil a ( Apovo-iXXa, Drorixilld, or ApoucKXXa, Droiixillu) : Wife of Felix, a Jewess, who along with her husband "heard [Paul] concerning the faith in Christ. Jesus" during Paul s deten tion in Caesarea (Acts 24 24). p text gives the rendering "Drusilla the wife of Felix, a Jewess, asked to see Paul and to hear the word." The fact that Drusilla was a Jewess explains her curiosity, but Paul, who was probably acquainted with the past history of her and Felix, refused to satisfy their request in the way they desired, and preached to them instead concerning righteousness and self- restraint and the final judgment. At this "Felix was terrified" (Acts 24 25). P text states ihat Paul s being left in bonds on the retirement of Felix was due to the desire of the latter to please Drusilla (cf Acts 24 27). Probably this explanation, besides that of the accepted text, was true also, as Drusilla, who was a member of the ruling house, saw in Paul an enemy of its power, and hated him for his con demnation of her own private sins.

      The chief other source of information regarding Drusilla is Jos. Drusilla was the youngest of the three daughters of Agrippa I, her sisters being Ber- nice and Mariamne. She was born about. 3t; Al) and was married when 14 years old to Azizus, king of Emeza. Shortly afterward she was induced to desert her husband by Felix, who employed a Cyprian sorcerer, Simon by name, to carry out his purpose. She was also influenced to take this step by the cruelty of Azi/us and the hatred of Bernice who was jealous of her beauty. Her marriage with Felix took place about f>4 AD and by him she had one son, Agrippa, who perished under Titus in an eruption of Matthew. Vesuvius. The mention by Jos of "the woman" who perished along with Agrippa (Ant, XX, vii, 2) refers probably not to his mother Drusilla but to his wife. C. M. KKKH

      DUALISM, du al-iz m. See PHILOSOPHY.



      DUE, du. Sec DUTY.

      DUKE, duk: The rendering in AV in Genesis 36 15 ff; Exodus 15 15, and 1 C h 1 51 ff of JT^X , /- Inph (ARV and ERVin "chief"), and in Joshus 13 21 of ti .flkhnti ("dukes," RV "princes"). It occurs also, as the rendering of .s//Y//ff/<i.s, in 1 Mace 10 t>5 (RV "caj)(ain"). Elsewhere it f $ikltun is Ir 1 "princes" or "principal men." Tliei aet that wit h two exceptions the term is applied in EV only to the chiefs of Edom has led to the impression that in the family of Esau the Chiefs bore a special and hereditary title. But. alluph was a general term for tribal chief or prince Ccf 7ec 9 1 ; 12 5.G; RV "chieftains," AV "govern ors").

      Moreover, at the time the AV was made the word "duke" was not used as a title in Kntdand: the term had the same general force as /lu.r. the word employed in the Vulf?. So SirT. Klyot (d. 1. r >4ti) speaks of " Hannibal, duke of Carthage" ( 7V, , Gor< rnour, I I. 2:Wi ; Shakespeare. //, nry I", III, 2, 20, " lie merciful, ureat duke, to men of mould" (cf MiilxummiT \\i I/lit x Dream, I. 1. 21 >: Sylvester (. l.V.H) Du liiirtnx. "The great Duke, that (in dreadful a\\v) i I pon Matthew. IForeb learn d th eternall law." In a still earlier age VVielif uses the word of the Messiah (Matthew 2 <>i; and in x,i,,-t ll i-r/.-.s III, i:i7, "Jesus Christ, duke of cure batel."

      Yet in all probability the Hebrews word was more specific, than "chief" or "duke" in the broad sense. For if (ilhlj)fi is derived from </</;//, "thousand," "tribe," the term would mean the leader of a clan, a "chiliarch" (cf LXX, Zee 9 7; 12 5.6). ARV has eliminated the word "duke." See CIIIKF.

      J. R. VAX PELT

      DULCIMER, dul si-mer. See Mrsic under Neb- lui and Sumphonia.

      DUMAH, du ma (Hp^!*, oTunali, "silence"): This word occurs in the ( )T with the following significa tions: (1) the land of silence or death, the grave (Psalm 94 17; 115 17); (2) a town in the highlands of Judah between Hebron and Heersheba, now vd- Dauine (Joshus 15 52); (3) an emblematical designa tion of Edom in the obscure oracle lisa 21 11.12); (4) an Ishmaelite tribe in Arabia (Genesis 25 11; 1 Chronicles 1 30). According to the Arab, geographies this son of Ishmael founded the town of Dumat-el- Jandal, the stone-built Dumah, so called to distin guish it, from another D. near the Euphrates. The former now bears the name of the ./a/if ("belly"), being a depression situated half-way between the head of the Persian (lulf and the head of the gulf of Akaba. Its people in the time of Mohammed were Christians of the tribe of Kelb. It contained a great well from which the palms and crops were irrigated. It has often been visited by European travelers in recent- times. See Jour. Royal Ccotj. ,Swest, XXIV (1S54), 13S 5S; west C. Palgrave, Cen tral ami Eaxtcni Arahia, eh ii. It. is possible that. the oracle in Isaiah (no. 3 above) concerns this place. THOMAS HIXTKH WEIR

      DUMB, dum (2b . dlam, C3X, illcm, lit. "tied in the tongue"; Ko><j>6s, kopfiox): I sed either as expressing the physical condition of speechlessness, generally associated with deafness, or figuratively as meaning the silence produced by the weight of God s judgments (Psalm 39 2-!); Did 10 15) or the oppression of external calamity (Pa 38 13). As an adj. it is used to characterize inefficient teachers destitute of spirituality ("dumb dogs," Isaiah 56 10). The speechlessness of Saul s companions (Acts 9 7) was due to fright; that of the man without the wedding garment was because he had no excuse to give (Matthew 22 12). Idols are called dumb, because helpless and voiceless (Hal) 2 Is. H); 1 Corinthians 12 2). The dumbness of the sheep before; the shearer is a token of submission (Isaiah 53 7; Acts 8 32).

      Temporary dumbness was inflicted as a sign upon Ezekiel (3 26; 24 27; 33 22) and as a punishment

      for unbelief upon Zacharias (Luke 1 22). There are several cases recorded of Our Lord s healing the dumb(Matthew 15 30; Mark 7 37; Luke 11 14, etc). Dumb ness is often associated with imbecility and was therefore regarded as due to demoniac possession (Matthew 9 32; 12 22). The evangelists therefore de scribe the healing of these as effected by the cast ing out of demons. This is esp. noted in the case of the epileptic boy (Mark 9 17). The deaf man with the impediment in his speech (Mark 7 32) is said to have been cured by loosening the string of his tongue. This does not necessarily mean that he was tongue-tied, which is a condition causing lisping, not stammering; he was probably one of those deaf persons who produce babbling, incoherent and meaningless sounds. 1 saw in the asylum in Jems a child born blind and deaf, who though dumb, produced inarticulate noises.

      In an old 14th-cent. psalter "dumb" is used as a vb. in Psalm 39: "I doiimbed and rucked and was ful stille." ALKX. MACALISTKU

      DUNG, dung, DUNG GATE (r^SCS, ashpulh, 1^2" , aoiiH n, HP.south , /;< /r.s7i; o-Kv(3a\\ov, xkubdlott, etc) : Nine different words occurring in the Hebrews have been tr 1 "dung" in the ( )T. The word used to designate one of the gates of Jems Caxh poth, Nehemiah 2 13; 3 14) is more general than the other s and may mean any kind of refuse. The gate was probably so named because outside it was the general dump heap of the city. Visitors in recent years riding outside the city walls of Jerus, on their way to the Matthew. of Olives or Jericho, may have witnessed such a dump against the wall, which has existed for generations.

      The first mention made of dung is in connection with sacrificial rites. The sacred law required that the dung, along with what parts of the animal were not burned on the altar, should be burned outside the camp (.Exodus 29 14; Leviticus 4 11; 8 17; 16 27; Xu 19 5).

      The fertilizing value of dung was appreciated by the cultivator, as is indicated by Luke 13 8 and possi bly Psalm 83 10 and Isaiah 25 10.

      Dung was also used as a fuel. Ezekiel 4 12.15 will be understood when it is known that the dung of animals is a common fuel throughout Pal and Syria, where other fuel is scarce. During the summer, villagers gather the manure of their cattle, horses or camels, mix it with straw, make it into cakes arid dry it for use as fuel for cooking, esp. in the winter when wood or charcoal or straw are not procurable. It burns slowly like peat and meets the needs of the kitchen. In Mesopotamia the writer saw it being used with forced draft to fire a steam boiler. There was no idea of uncleanness in Ezekiel s mind, as sociated with the use of animal dung as fuel (Ezekiel 4 15).

      Figuratively: Dung was frequently used figur atively to express the idea (a) of worthlessness, esp. a perishable article for which no one cares (1 Kings 14 10; 2 Kings 6 25; 9 37; Job 20 7; Psalm 83 10; Jeremiah 8 2; 9 22; 16 4; 25 33; Zeph 1 17; Phil 3 8 [ARV "refuse"]). Dunghill was used in the same way (1 Samuel 2 Samuel; K/r 611; Psalm 113 7; Isaiah 25 10; Dnl 2 5; 3 2<); Luke 14 35; Lam 4 5); (h) as an expression of disgust (2 Kings 18 27; Isaiah 36 12); (c) of rebuke (Mai 2 3). JAMES A. PATCH

      DUNGEON, dun jun. See PRISON.

      DUNGHILL, dung hil(nEEX, dshpolh, 1 Samuel 2 Samuel, n.^2" 1 ? , itinil/itncndh, etc, with other words; Koirpia, knpria, Luke 14 35): Dung heap, or place of refuse. To sit upon a dunghill (1 Samuel 2 8; Psalm 113 7; Lam 4 5) is significant of the lowest and most wretched condition. To turn a house into a dunghill (Dnl



      2 5; 3 29),or be flung upon a dunghill (Luke 14 35), marks the extreme of ignominy. See also DUNG.

      DURA, dii ra (X"Vn , dura): The name of the plain on which Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon, set up the great golden image which all his subjects were ordered to worship (Dnl 3 1). Oppert placed it to the southeast of Babylon, near a small river and mounds bearing the name of Doiiair or Duair, where, also, was what seemed to be the base of a great statue (Exped. scientijiqiie en Mesopotainie, I, 238 f) . Others have believed that name to indicate a portion of the actual site of Babylon within the great wall (dura) of the city perhaps the rampart desig nated dur Su-anna, "the rampart [of the city] Lofty-defense," a name of Babylon. The fact that the plain was within the city of Babylon precludes an identification with the city Dura, which seems to have lain in the neighborhood of Erech (Hommel, Grundriss, 264, n. 5). It is noteworthy that the LXX substitutes Aeapd, Dirim, for Dura, suggest ing that the Or translators identified it with the Bab Dem, a city which apparently lay toward the Elamite border. It seems to have been called also Dur -Hi, "god s rampart." That it was at some dis tance is supported by the list WAI, IV, 36 [38], where Dunt, Tutul and (iudna (Cut hah), intervene between Dent, or Dur-iii and Tiudir (Babylon). "The plain of the (//" or "rampart" within Baby lon would therefore seem to be the best rendering.

      T. (1. PINCH KS

      DURE, dur (irpocnccupos, proskairos) . Ised for "endure" (q.v.), AV Alt 13 21 (RV "endureth").

      DUST, dust OS!?, f dpfidr; Koviopros, koniorlos, Xus, chot ts) : Small particles of earth. The word has several figurative and symbolic meanings: (1) Dust being the material out of which God is said to have formed man (Genesis 27), it became a symbol of man s frailty (Psalm 103 14, Tor he knoweth our frame; he remembereth that we are dust"; cf Genesis 18 27; Job 4 19, etc), and of his mortality (Genesis 3 19. "Dust thou art, and unto dust shalt thou return"; cf Job _ 34 15; Psalm 104 29; Eccl 3 20; 12 7, etc) Hence it is used figuratively for the grave (Psalm 22 15.29; 30 9; Dnl 12 2). (2) Such actions as to lie in the dust, to lick the dust, to sprinkle dust on the head, are symbols expressive of deep humiliaiion, abasement or lamentation (e.g. Job 2 12; 42 6, Psalm 72 9; Isaiah 2 10; 47 1 ; 49 23; Lam 2 10; 3 29; Ezekiel 27 30; Mir 7 17; The The Revelation 18 19). Hence such expressions as "He raiseth up the poor out of the dust," i.e. out of their state of lowliness (1 Samuel 2 8; Psalm 113 7). (3) Throwing dust was an act expressive of execration. Thus Shimei "cursed" David and "threw stones at him, and cast dust," lit. "dusted [him] with dust" (2 Samuel 16 13). So the crowd which Paul addressed at Jerus manifested their wrath against him by tossing about their gar ments and casting dust into the air (Acts 22 23). (4) Shaking the dust off one s feet against anyone (Alt 10 14; Alk 6 11; Luke 9 5; 10 11; Act s 13 51) is symbolic of renunciation, as we would say "washing one s hands of him," an intimation that- all further intercourse was at. ;m end. It was prac tised by the Pharisees on passing from gentile to Jewish soil, it being a rabbinical doctrine that the dust of a heathen land denies. (5) It is also used fig. for an innumerable multitude (e.g. Genesis 13 16; 28 14; Job 27 Hi; Psalm 78 27). (G) The expression "Jeh will make the rain of thy land powder and dust" (Deuteronomy 28 24) means the dust in consequence of the drought shall fall down instead of rain on the dry ground. In Judaea and vicinity during a sirocco, the air becomes filled with sand and dust, which are blown down by the wind with great vio lence. D. AIiALL EDWARDS

      DUTY, dii ti (~\\^l , ddb/idr; 64>ei\\w, opheilo): The word d. occurs only three times in the OT and twice in the NT. In the OT it is the tr of ddbhdr, which, meaning originally "speech," or "word," came to denote any particular "matter" that had to be attended to. In the two places where it is rendered "duty" (2 Chronicles 8 14; Ezra 3 4) the refer ence is to the performance of the Temple services praise and sacrifice and it is probably from these passages that the phrase "taking duty" in church services is derived. In other passages we have different words employed to denote the priests dues: AV Leviticus 10 13.14, hok ("statutory portion"); Deuteronomy 18 3, mishpat ("judgment"). In Prov 3 27, we have a reference to d. in the moral sense, "With hold not good from them to whom it is due," bcfal (i.e. as in AVm, "from the owners thereof"). In Exodus 21 10 we have the "duty of marriage" ( ondh), that which was due to the wife.

      In the NT "duty" is expressed by opheilo, "to owe," "to be due." In Luke 17 10, we have "Say, .... we have done that which it w r as our duty to do," and in Romans 15 27 AV, it is said of the Genesis tiles with reference to the Jewish Christians, "Their duty is also to minister unto them in carnal things," ARV "they owe it." In Alt 18 34 we have "till he should pay all that w r as due" (opheilo, "owing"), and in 1 Corinthians 7 3 AV, "Render unto the wife due [opheile] benevolence," ARV "her due." See also ETHICS. west L. WALKER

      _DWARF, dworf: The rendering in EV of Hebrews p 1 ! , dak, "thin," "small," in Leviticus 21 20, where a list is given of physical failings which forbade a man of the seed of Aaron to officiate at the altar, though IK; might partake of the sacrificial gifts. The precise meaning of the Hebrews word here is uncertain; elsewhere it is used of the lean kine (Genesis 41 3) and blasted ears (ver 23) of Pharaoh s dream; of the grains of manna (Exodus 16 14), of the still, small voice (1 X 19 12), of dust (Isaiah 29 5), etc. LXX and Vulg suggest defective eyes; but "withered" would perhaps best express the meaning. See PRIESTS AND LEVITES. F. X. FARU

      DWELL, dwel :

      (1) In the OT "dwell"_tr s 9 words, of which by far the most frequent is HT1T , yashabh, "to sit down," tr 1 "dwell" over 400 times (Genesis 4 20; Joshus 20 4;

      1 Chronicles 17 1.4.5, etc); also very frequently "sit," and sometimes "abide," "inhabit," "remain." Another word often rendered "dwell" is } 3Tp or (Dip, shdkhan or shdkhen ("to settle down"), from which is derived the rabbinic word HpDlp, sh"khlndh (lit. "that which dwells"), the light on the mercy- seat which symbolized the Divine presence (Exodus 25 8, etc). In order to avoid appearing to localize the Divine Being, wherever God is said to "dwell" in a place, the Tg renders that He "causes His She- kinah to dwell" there.

      (2) In the NT "dwell" most frequently stands for ouc^w, oiked, or one of its compounds; also ffKrji oti}, skenoo, and (chiefly in the Johannine writ ings) /j.tvu, mend, which, however, is always tr d "abide" in RV, and generally in AV. Mention may be made of the mystical significance of the word in some NT passages, of the indwelling of the Father or of the Godhead in Christ (John 14 10; Colossians 1 19;

      2 9), of the believer in Christ (John 6 5G AV; Ephesians 3 17), and in God (1 John 4 15 AV; cf Psalm 90 1; 91 1), and of the Holy Spirit or God in the believer (John 14 17; AV 1 John 3 24; 4 15 f).

      D. AIiALL EDW r ARDS

      DYE, dl, DYEING, di ing (CHXp , m oddam, pnan, hamuq, V>niJ, t bhai, ynS, sebha*): Four different Hebrews words have been tr d "dyed": AV (a)



      nf oddatu, 1 oiiinl in Exodus 25 ."">; 26 II; 35 7; 36 10;

      39 :U; (h) Ininiilr (RVm "crimsoned"; ( Isaiah 63 1); (r) Hi/iiil (E/k 23 I.")). T liliiil is probably more correctly rendered "flowing turban" as in I he H\\ of the above vs (/>/>/>); (<l) rdilm , "dyed" is so tr 1 in ARVof Judges 5 :;(>(/> />>/> >; cf Aral). *al>a</h. The above references and other color words inent ioned elsewhere (see COLOR) indicate that the Israelites were acquainted with dyed stuffs, even if they I hem- selves did not do the dyeing. An analysis of the various Bib. references shows but four colors which were produced on cloth by dyeing, namely, purple, blue (violet ), crimson and scarlet. Of these, purple is t he one best known because of I he many historical references to it. It was the symbol of royalty and luxury. Because of its high price, due, to the ex pensive method of obtaining it, only royalty and the rich could afford purple attire. One writer tells us that- the dyestuff was worth its weight in silver. Probably it was because of its scarcity, and because it, was one of the very limited number of dyes known, rather than for any remarkable beauty of color, that the purple was so much sought after. If Pliny s estimate is to be accredited, then "in the dye the smell of it was offensive and the color itself was harsh, of a greenish hue and st rongly resembling that of the sea when in a tempestuous state."

      The purple and blue dyes were extracted from

      shellfish. The exact process used by the ancients is

      still a question in spite of the attempts

      1. Purple of early writers to describe it. Tyre and Blue and Sidon were noted as the suppliers

      of t hese colors, hence the name "Tyrian purple." The inhabitants of these cities were at first simply dealers in the purple (Exodus,k 27 7.24), but they afterward became the manufacturers, as the heaps of the emptied shells of the Murcx tnui- cidus, which still exist, in the vicinity of these cities, testify. The pigment was secreted by a gland in the lining of the stomach. The shell was punctured and the fish removed in order to secure the dye. The juice, at first whitish, changed on exposure to yellowish or greenish and finally to red, amethyst or purple, according to the treatment. A modified color was obtained by first dipping the textile in a cochineal bath and then in the purple. Tyrian purple was considered most valuable when it was "exact ly t he color of clot ted blood and of a blackish hue" (Pliny). See also LYDIA; THYAFIRA. Besides t he shellfish above nient ioned, several ot her species are noted by different, writers, namely, Murex branderis, Murcx c/ inncciix, M urex buccinwn (pur- jiurn haemastoma). This latter species is still used by the dwellers on the shores where it is found. \\ arions species of the iniin x are found today at Haifa (Syria), about the (Jr isles and on the X . coast of Africa. The purple color has been pro duced from them by modern chemists, but it is of historical interest only, in the light of the discovery of modern artificial dyes with which it could not compete commercially.

      Two words have been used in the Ileb Bible to describe the colors from shellfish: (<i) argdmdn (C.r //orplriira). This has been tr 1 "purple"; (l>) / Ic/icldh which was probably a shade of violet, but has been tr 1 "blue" in both AV and RV.

      As indicated elsewhere (see COLORS;, three Hebrews

      words have been rendered crimson or scarlet : (ti)

      k<triiill (cf Arab, kinniz and Eng. "car-

      2. Crimson mine";, (h) lulu , and (r) shan t. We and Scarlet know nothing further about the

      method of producing these colors than that they were both obtained from the kermes in sect which feeds on a species of live oak growing in Southern Europe and Turkey in Asia. The modern dyer can obtain several shades from the cochineal insect by varying the mordants or assistants used

      with the dye. Pliny mentions the same fact as being known by the ancient Egyptians. Some of the Syrian dyers still use the kermes, commonly called (I i"ul. ("worms"), although most of them have resorted to the artificial European dyes which they indiscriminately call dCtd fratiyij ("foreign worms";.

      The "rams skins dyed red" mentioned in Exodus 25 are still made in Syria. After the ram s skin has been tanned in sumac, it is laid out on a table and a solution of the dye, made by boiling dfid in water, is rubbed on. After the dye is dry, the skin is rubbed with oil and finally polished. No native product is more characteristic of the country than the slippers, Beduin shoes, and other leather articles made from "rams skins dyed red" (see TA.VNKK;.

      Other dyes probably known were:

      (i; Madder. In Judges 10 1, we read that "after Abimelech there arose to save Israel Tola the son of Puah." These were probably names 3. Other of clans. In the Hebrews they are also Dyes Prob- color words. Tula is the scarlet dye ably Known and /nTd/i, if, as is probable, it is the same as the Arab, fiiwalt, means "madder." This would add another dyestuff. Until the discovery of alizarin, which is artificial madder, the growing of ftitruh was one of the indus tries of Cyprus and Syria. It was exported to Europe and was also used locally for producing "Turkey red" on cotton and for dyeing dull reds on wools for rug making (see TIIYATIRA). It was the custom near Damascus for a father to plant a new madder field for each son that was born. The field began to yield in time to support the boy and later become his inheritance. Madder is mentioned in the Talm and by early Lat writers. A Saracenic helmet and a shield of similar origin, in the posses sion of the writer, are lined with madder-dyed cot ton.

      (2; Indi(/o. Another dye has been discovered among the Egyp mummy cloths, namely, indigo. Indigo blue was used in weaving to form the borders of the cloths. This pigment was probably imported from India.

      (o) Yellows and browns of doubtful origin have also been found in the Egyp tombs.

      The Jews acquired from the Phoenicians t he secret of dyeing, and later held the monopoly in this trade in some districts. A Jewish guild of purple dyers is mentioned on a tombstone in Ilieropolis. In the 12th cent. AD Jews were still dyers and glass work ers at Tyre. Akhissar, a Jewish stronghold in Asia Minor, was famous as a dyeing city. See also ATTIHK, DYED.

      LITERATUReast Soo "Crafts" osp. in Wilkinson, Porrot and Chipiez, Jew Enc, and JIDli.


      DYSENTERY, dis en-ter-i (Svo-tvrepia, duwn- tcr ia): In Acts 28 south RV uses this word in place of the phrase "bloody flux" of AV to describe the dis ease by which the father of Publius was affected in Malta at the time of St. Paul s shipwreck. The acute form of this disease is often attended with a high temperature, hence Luke speaks of it as "fever and dysentery" (i>nrclois kai dusenteria). The dis ease is still occasionally epidemic in Malta where there have been several bad outbreaks among the garrison in the last cent., and it has proved to be an intractable and fatal disease there. It is due to a parasitic microbe, the Bacillus dyscntcriae. In 2 Chronicles 21 19 there is reference to an epidemic of a similar nature in the days of Jehoram. The malady, as predicted by Elisha, attacked the king and assumed a chronic form in the course of which portions of the intestine sloughed. This condition sometimes occurs in the amoebic form of dysentery, cases of which sometimes last over two years.



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