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      Deuter-canonical Books are included as references, and less often, the Pseudo-pigraphia (extra-biblical New Testament Era writings - such as the Epistle of Barnabas - used for over 300 years by the early Church.

      Though these are 'NOT' Inerrant Scripture, they are very important as geographical and historical references, and helping to understand how particular Hebrew and Greek words were used.

      Since the Deuter-canonical Books were part of the Jewish Bible that Jesus and Paul used, they have great value for understanding the era between the Covenants, and all things Jewish.

      Many will be surprised to know they were in the Geneva Bible of Calvin and Knox - and the Puritan Pilgrims - and included in the King James for over 275 years . . .

      . . . and left out in later versions - ONLY to make the Bible MORE PROFITABLE, by selling at the usual price, while being much smaller to print!

      No wonder Paul said the "love of money is the root of all evil!"

      Further know, that that these books are rejected by most Bible Preachers today, BECAUSE the Jews of Jesus' Day rejected them for the Jewish Canon at the Council of Jamnia after the fall of Jerusalem.

      This seems reasonable enough, and though these Scribes and Lawyers SHOULD have had superior knowledge in ALL THINGS JEWISH . . . in their Jewish wisdom, THEY ALSO REJECTED JESUS AS THE MESSIAH!!!

      TheDeuter-canonical Books are very "Kingdom of God" and "Messianic" Oriented, thus the Jews sis NOT want any writings confirming that Jesus WAS the Jewish Messiah.

      The wise "Students-north-Scholars" will know them, as they provide light on New Testament Scripture that are NOT understood otherwise;

    Quick Example:

    In Luke 3:36 YOUR Bible reads as follows:
        "Which was the son of Cainan, which was the son of Arphaxad, which was the son of Sem (Shem), which was the son of Noe (Noah), which was the son of Lamech;"

      This ancestor of Jesus named "Cainan, son of Arphaxad: where is he in YOUR Bible; (Check Genesis 11:13, and other genealogies).

      This dilemma - which the WORLD calls a great contradiction in the linage of Jesus as the Christ - can ONLY be solved by the Bible Jesus used, which included the Deuter-canonical Books.

      Do you suppose Jesus knew more about the "Correct Books of the Bible than modern "lukewarm" Denominations?


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      Consider the Hebrew Language:

      Hebrew is "The Perfect Language" - in the original form - as the Hebrew Language has evolved from perfection:

        >> God taught, or programmed, Adam and Eve perfect Hebrew;

        >> over a thousand years it eroded into informal Hebrew, as formal British-English eroded into the American dialect;

        >> over hundreds of more years it became a "dead Hebrew", meaning it is no longer spoken by any nation of people;

        >> eventually evolving into into the derivative Aramaic, which was commonly spoken in the days of Jesus;

        >> finally evolving into that "modern Hebrew" spoken in Israel in Post-AD-2000).

      The linguistics of the Hebrew Language as designed and taught by God to Adam and Eve (or perhaps "programmed" - either way does not affect the evidence of the Godhead) gives us massive and mighty "Eternal Evidence", daily clues and reminders of the Existence and Transcendence of the Almighty Godhead:

        >> God the Spirit - who is Spirit; manifest as Spirit of Ghost (that is Presence without corporeal body or manifestation such as Christ after His Resurrection);

        >> God the Father - willing to give His Son to save the World John 3:16-17;

        >> God the Son - willing to give His life to save the World! John 12:47;

      God decided to continually reveal the "THREE-FOLD-NATURE-OF-HIS-GODHEAD" by making EVERY Hebrew "root word" have THREE-CONSONANTS!"

        > NEVER 2 letters;

        > NEVER 4, 5, 6, or more;

        > BUT ALWAYS 3 letters!

        > And ONLY 3 and THREE alone!


      Likewise, the "Language of Life" - called by some "The Protein Language" - also designed and programmed by God to be the language of all living substance from lions to dandelions to from babies to buttercups top butterflies!

      The Protein Language is the language of Genetics, of Cells, of plants and animals and all that exists: the Code of Life;

      The PROTEIN LANGUAGE consists of "CODONS".

      This Language of all Life is also made of THREE LETTER WORDS, and each letter of these TRINITARIAN CODONS, is the life-giving code for an amino acid, creating the genetic structure of all that is LIFE!

      Thus every word that your body parts (cells, organs, glands and tissues, etc.,) write to each other, and every word your body reads in communication from another body part, these are ALL THREE LETTER WORDS!

      All of the intelligence your body has, all it knows and all it communicates - in every bodily function possible - is given in THREE LETTER WORDS!

        > NEVER 2 letters;

        > NEVER 4, 5, 6, or more;

        > ALWAYS 3 letters!

        > ONLY 3 and THREE alone!

      Can we possibly miss this, asks NewtonStein? (Not if we can count as far as 1, 2, 3!!!)

    Even the Word "G-O-D" in English . . . is Three Letters!

      Why is "GOD" in English significant?

      For the simple reason that today, in the POST-AD-2,000 word, very few scores of thousands speak Biblical Hebrew with the THREE-LETTER-ROOT-WORD structure.

      Comparatively, scores of HUNDREDS OF MILLIONS SPEAK English!

        >> ENGLISH, is an Official Language in well over 100 nations of the World!

        >> ENGLISH, is The Major Language of Science, Globally!

        >> ENGLISH, is an Official - and the Major - Language of , the United Nations!

        >> ENGLISH, is The Official Language of The Internet!

        >> ENGLISH, is The Major Language of Serious Publishing - even in Japan and Germany!

        >> ENGLISH, is The Official Language of Global Airlines and Airports!

        >> ENGLISH, is The Official Language of OF the World!

        ** THUS more people will hear the Gospel in ENGLISH than any other Language!

        ** THUS more people will read the Gospel in ENGLISH than any other Language!

        ** THUS more people will own a Bible in ENGLISH than any other Language!

        ** THUS more people will get saved from learning TRUTH in ENGLISH than any other Language!

        FACT! SINCE God knew of the ENGLISH as the Global Language before the Foundation of the World!

        FACT! SINCE God in His Goodness has ALWAYS given Signs to Those Who Believe, from Moses and Israel, to Samson, to The Virgin Birth as a sign (Isa 7:14) to the Swaddling Clothes as a sign, to the Signs of the times in Matthew 24:4-24, Mark 13:5-20 and Luke 17:31-41 and 21:10-25;

        FACT! SINCE God originally made His name a "Three-Letter-Root-Word in Hebrew - "JAH" (Psalm 68:4)

        FACT! ONCE AGAIN God made His Name a THREE LETTER WORD in ENGLISH, the Global Language of the most populated era of Earth!

      So remember this every time "GOD!" is heard, read, said, etc., teach this to others, and help your family and friends see the "SIGNS along the WAY!"

    Seeing God in Linguistics, in General;

      In linguistics, there are many, many more, that PROVE God is the Designer of (a)All language, (b)alphabet, (c)Hebrew, (d) that Hebrew is the parent language of all others, (e)word structure, (f)actual words unique to Hebrew that pertain to God . . .


      . . . BECAUSE they had no God with eternal Attributes!

      Emmanuel is the same word in every language, and no language has a word it can be translated into, because it means GOD DWELLING IN HIS PEOPLE . . . and no people had "this experience apart from the People of the One True GOD JAH, thus "Emmannuel remains the same word in all languages!

      Likewise "Halleluah" - which is a Hebrew compound word "Hallelu-JAH" - and is a Command to "PRAISE JAH!"

      "Amen!" and Hosanna are also neat, unique words and there are literally hundreds more!

      The scoffing world asks: "Where is evidence for God!?" to which we answer:






    All Commentary from INSPIRED-INERRANT View of God's Word!

    Letter "F"


    Letter "F"

    FABLE, fa bel
      (1) Primitive man conceives of the objects around him as possessing his own characteristics. Consequently in his stories, beasts, trees, rocks, etc., think, talk and act exactly as if they were human beings.

      Of course, but little advance in knowledge was needed to put an end to this mode of thought, but the form of story-telling developed by it per sisted and is found in the folk-tales of all nations. More particularly, the archaic form of story was used for the purpose of moral instruction, and when so used is termed the fable.

      Modern definitions distinguish it from the parable by its use of characters of lower intelligence than man (although reasoning and speaking like men), and (6) by its lesson for this life only.

      But, while these distinctions serve some practical purpose in distinguishing (say) the fables of Aesop from the parables of Christ, they are of little value to the student of folk-lore. For fable, parable, allegory, etc, are all evolutions from a common stock, and they tend to blend with each other. See AI.UCCOUY; PARABLE.

      (2) The Semitic (of Shem, Shemites, Jewish) mind is peculiarly prone to allegorical expression, and a modern Arabian story teller will invent a fable or a parable as readily as he will talk. And we may be entirely certain that, the very scanty appearance of fables in the OT is due only to the character of its material and not at all to an absence of fables from the mouths of the Jews of old.

      Only two examples have reached us. In Judges 9:7-15 Jotham mocks the choice of Abimelech as king with the fable of the trees that could find no tree that would accept the trouble of the kingship except the worthless bramble. And in 2 Kings 14:9 Jehoash ridicules the pretensions of Amaziah with the story of the thistle that wished to make a royal alliance with the cedar.

      Yet that the distinction between fable and allegory, etc, is artificial is seen in Isaiah 5:1-2, where the vineyard is assumed to possess a deliberate will to be per verse.

      (3) In the NT, "fable" is found in 1 Timothy 1:4; 4:7; 2 Timothy 4:4; Tit. 1:14; 2 Pet 1::6, as the translation of muthos (myth"). The sense here differs entirely from that discussed above, and "fable" means a (religious) story that has no connection with reality contrasted with the knowledge of an eyewitness in 2 Pet 1:10.

      The exact nature of these "fables" is of course something out of our knowledge, but the mention in connection with them of "endless genealogies" in 1 Timothy 1:4 points with high probability to some form of gnostic speculation that interposed a chain of aeons between God and the world.

      In some of the gnostic systems that we know, these chains are described with a prolixity so interminable (the ristis Sophia is the best example) as to justify well the phrase "old wives fables" in 1 Timothy 4:7.

      But that these passages have gnostic reference need not toll against the Pauline authorship of the Pastorals, as a fairly well developed "Gnosticism" is recognizable in a passage as early as Col 2, and as the description of the fables as Jewish in Tit 1:14 (of 3 9) is against 2d-century references.

      But for details the commentaries on the Pastoral Epistles must be consulted. It is worth noting that in 2 Timothy 4:4 tin; adoption of these fables is said to be the result of dabbling in the dubious. This manner of losing one s hold on reality is, unfortunately, something not confined to the apostolic age. BURTON SCOTT EASTON

    FACE, fas:
      In Hebrews the translation of three expressions:

      (1) face

      (2) "eye," a

      (3) lit. "nose," "nostril," already noted s.v. Corinthians which see.

      The first and second of these words are used synonymously, even in metaphorical expressions, as, e.g. in the phrase "the face of” (Deuteronomy 6 15 and (Numbers 22 5). The third expression preserves more clearly its original meaning.

      It is generally used in the phrases "to bow one s self to the earth," "to fall on one s face," where; the nose actually touched the ground. Often "my face," "thy face" is mere oriental circumlo cution for the personal pronoun "I," "me," "thou," "thoo." "In thy face" means "in thy presence ," and is often so translated 1 .

      A very large number of idio matic Hebrews expressions have been introduced into our language through the medium of the Bible translation, notice the most important of these phrases. "To seek the face" is to seek an audience with a prince or with God, to seek favor (Psalm 24:6; Psalm 27:8 Psalm 105:4; Prov 7:15; Hos 5:15; cf Prov 29:26, where RV translates "Many seek the ruler s favor," lit. many seek the face [Hebrews pene] of a ruler).

      If God "hides his face" He withdraws His presence, His favor (Deuteronomy 32:20; Job 34:29; Psalm 13:1; Psalm 30:7; Psalm143:7; Isaiah 54:8; Jer 33:5; Ezekiel 39 23.24; Micah 3 4). Such withdrawal of the presence of God is to be understood as a consequence of man’s personal disobedience, not as a wrathful denial of God s favor (Isaiah 59 2).

      God is asked to "hide his face," i.e. to disregard or overlook (Psalm 51:9; cf Psalm 10:11). This is also the idea of the prayer: "Cast me not away from thy presence" (lit. "face," Psalm 51:11), and of the promise: "The upright shall dwell in thy presence" (lit. "face," Psalm 140:13).

      If used of men, "to hide the face" expresses humility and reverence before an exalted presence (Exodus 3:6; Isaiah 6:2); similarly Elijah "wrapped his face in his mantle" when God passed by (1 Kings 19:13). The "covering of the face" is a sign of mourning (2 Samuel 19:4, Ezekiel 12:6-12); a "face covered with fatness" is synonymous with prosperity and arrogance (Job 15: 27);



      Annotated by NewtonStein, Cambridge Theological Seminary

      to have one s face covered by another person is a sign of hopeless doom, as if one were already dead. This was done to Hainan, when judgment had been pronounced over him (Est 7:8).

      "To turn away one s face" is a sign of insulting indifference or contempt (2 Chronicles 29:1-2  ; Ezekiel 14:1-2  Sir 4 4; cf Jeremiah 2:27; Jer 18:17; Jer 32:33); on the part of God an averted face is synonymous with rejection (Psalm 13:1; Psalm 27:9; Psalm 88:1).

      To harden the face" means to harden one’s self against any sort- of appeal (Prov 21:29; Psalm 50:7; Jeremiah 5 3; cf Kings 3:9). See also SPIT.

      In this connection we also mention the phrase "to respect persons," lit. to "recognize the face (Leviticus 19:1), or, slight!} different in expression, Deut 1:17; Deut 16:19; Prov 24:23; Proverbs 28:21), in the sense of unjustly favoring a person, or requiting him with undue evil. Compare also the (Exodus 23 3 AV), "to countenance" (see s.v.).

      The "showbread" meant lit. "bread of the face." "of the presence,"

      H. L. E. LI-KRIXO

    FACT: Lit. "a deed."
      The word occurs only in the heading of the chapter, 2 Kings 10:1-2  AV, "Jehu excused the fact by the prophecy of Elijah," and in 2 Macabees 4:3 ( with reference; to the murder of Onias, "certain of the Greeks that abhorred the fact [the deed | also (sitmmisoponerotintdn, lit. "hating wickedness together with [others]," RV "the (Greeks also joining with them in hatred of the wickedness."

    FADE, faad
      "To fade" is in the OT the translation of nnhht l, "to droop or wither," fig. "to fade," or "pass wav" (Psalm18:45; Isaiah 1:30; Isiah 24:4; Isaiah 28:1-4; Isaiah 40:7-8); once it is the translation "to well up," "to overflow"; perhaps from Wisdom 64:6, "We all do fade as a leaf") ;

      in the NT of "to come to wit her or to fade away" (James 1:11, "So also shall the rich man fade away in his ways," RY "in his goings"); cf Wisd 2 Samuel, "Let us crown ourselves with rosebuds, before they be withered" (maraino) , aniardntinos (amaranth), "unfading," occurs in 1 Pet 5:4, "the crown of glory that fadeth not away," and (1 Pet 1:1), "an inheritance .... that fadet h not away"; cf Wisd 6 12, "Wisdom is glorious [RV "radiant"], and fadet li not awav."

      For "fade" (Ezekiel 47 12). RY lias "wither"; for "fall." "falleth," "falling" (Isaiah 34:I >, "lade," "fadeth," "fading." W. L. WALKKK

      "Fail 1 is both intrans, "to fall short," "be wanting," and trans, "to be wanting to."

      ( ) like many words t ranslated "fail" in the OT, the most frequent, meaning "to be consumed," "ended" (Job 11:20; Job17: 5; Psalm 69: 3; 71: 9, etc-; Prov 22:10; Isaiah 15:6, etc; Jeremiah 14:1-2 ; Lam 2:11; 3:22; 4: 17); it is the translation of karath, "to be cut off" (2 Samuel 3:2!), of failure in succession; so 1 Kings 2:4, etc); "to marshal," "to be missed" or "lacking;" (Isaiah 34:16 AV); Isaiah 40:2 (5 AV); Isaiah 59:15 AV; Zeph 3:5); "to become faint" or "to make feeble (Deuteronomy 31:6, Samuel; "I will not fail thee, nor forsake thee," Joshua 1:5; 1 Chronicles 28:20); "to perish," "be lost" (Psalm 142:4, "Refuge hath failed me"; Ezekiel 12:22, "Every vision faileth").

      Many other Hebrews words are translation 1 "fail," "faileth," for the most part in single instances.

      In the NT, "to leave out" or "off," is thrice rendered "fail" (Luke16:9, "when it shall fail"; Luke 22: 32, "that thy faith fail not"; Heb 1:12, "Thy years shall not fail") ( "to fall off or away" (I Corinthians 13:8, "Charily [RV "love"] never faileth"); "to make useless" (13 8 AV)

      "Whether prophecies, they shall fail"); flustered, "to be behind," "to lack" (Heb 12:15 AV); "to swoon away," "failing" (Luke 21: 26 AV). RV lias "fail," in a new translation of Jeremiah 18:14, for "fall" (Lam 1:14, m "stumble"); "his hand fail" for "fallen in decay" (Leviticus 25:35);

      "I will in no wise fail thee" for "I will never leave thee" (Heb 13:5; cf Deuteronomy 31:6; Joshua 1:5); "failed to enter" for "entered not" (lie 4 0) ; "faileth" (ARV) for "cease!” (Psalm 49:1-2  Samuel), ERY "must be let alone for ever"; "failing" for "was darkened" (Luke 23:45); for "fail" (Ezr 4:22), "be slack," "be missing" (Isaiah 34:1-2 );

      "faileth short of" (Heb 12:15, m "falleth back from"); for "failed," "was all spent" (Gen 47:15); "wholly" (Joshua 3:1-2 ); "fail [in look ing] (Lam 4:17); for "faileth," "is lacking" (Isaiah 40:20; 59:15); for "men s hearts failing them" (Luke 21:26), "men fainting," m "expiring." W. L. WALKER

    FAIN, faan (advb.):
      Occurs twice in EV, in the sense of "gladly": (1) in Job 27 22 as the render ing of n"‘3 , bamh, "to flee with haste" (from any thing), "He would fain flee out of his hand," lit. as in m of AV, "in fleeing he would flee"; (2) in Luke 15 1(5, as the translation of firit)v/j.(u, c/tilliiimcd, "to fix the mind or desire on," "He would fain have 1 filled his belly with the husks which t lie swine did eat ."

      R V adds two instances: (1) Luke 13 31, "Herod would fain kill thee"; _(2) Acts 26 2S, "Thou wouldest fain make mo a Christian." Sec ALMOST.

    FAINT, faa nt

      Samuel"? and Kings - The Hebrews vocabulary for the depressing physical conditions and mental emotions which are rendered in AV by the Eng. words "faint," "faintness," and other compounds of that stem, is, as will be seen above, wide and varied in derivation. The Hebrew and 3 Or words and their derivatives are used in 62 passages in AV to express these condit ions.

      Ayeph is used to express the exhaustion from fatigue and hunger in the case of Esau (Genesis 25:29.30). This and its variants come from a root which primarily means "to cover or conceal." there fore "to be dark or obscure," and so, fig. "to be faint or depressed." Israel s helpless slate when harassed by Amalek (Deuteronomy 25 IS) and the plight of Gideon s weary force when they sought in vain for help at Succoth (Judges 8 4) are described by the same word. Isaiah also uses it to picture the dis appointed and unsatisfied appetite of the thirsty man awakening from his dream of refreshment (Isaiah 29 Samuel). In 2 Samuel 16 14, *&yephlmis probably a proper name of a place (RVm).

      in 1 Samuel 14:28-31 describes the exhaustion of Saul s host, in pursuit of the Philis after the battle of Michmash. The same word expresses the failure of David s strength when in conflict with the same foes, which led to his imminent peril and to the con sequent refusal of the commander of his army to allow him to take part personally in the combat, (2 Samuel 21:15).

      Yd aih is used by Ziba when he brought refresh ments to David s men on the flight, from Absalom (2 Samuel 16:2); see also its use in Isaiah 40:28. Cognate verbal forms occur in Isaiah 40:30-31; Jeremiah 2:21; 51:5.(Hab 2:13, as also in Judges 8:15, meaning in all cases the faiiitness or exhaustion of fatigue or weariness,

      expresses the faintness from thirst in Amos 8:15, or from the heat of the sun (John 4:8), and fig. the despondency which was the result of the captivity (Isaiah 51:20). Ezekiel uses it allegorically




      Annotated by NewtonStein, Cambridge Theological Seminary

      Fact Faith

      as describing the withering of the trees for grief at the death of the Assyr kings (Ezekiel 31:15).

      *Ataph is the weariness of the wanderers in the desert (Psalm 107:5), the faint ness from hunger (Lam 2:19), or the despondency of Jonah dispelled by his remembrance of God s mercies (John 2:7).

      Ddinrd’, from a root which signifies the sickness produced by exhaustion from loss of blood, is used in Isaiah 1:5 for the faintness of heart, the result of remorse for sin, and in Jeremiah 8:18 for the prophet s sorrow for the sins of Israel. A cognate form expresses his sorrow on account of the judgments of God which were incurred as punishments for the national backsliding (Lam 1:13-22; 6, 17).

      Mums, lit. "dissolving or melting," is applied to the contagious fear which the example of a cowardly soldier produces among his comrades (Deuteronomy 20:10, RV melt"). In the remarkable passage in Isaiah 10 18, in which God pronounces the doom of Assyria when his purposes of chastisement on Israel have been fulfilled, the collapse of Assyria is said to be "as when a standard-bearer fainteth." For this RYm substitutes "as when a sick man pineth away," which is probably the correct rendering. The word mayas may mean either a sick man, or else some thing glittering and seen from afar, such as a stand ard, but the former sense is more intelligible and suggestive in the context. The rarely used verbal form cognate to inams is used on account of its assonance.

      Yd ( (yayha*), which is usually translated "grieved" or "tormented" or "fatigued," is rendered as "fainted" in Jeremiah 45:3. This passage, "I fainted in my sighing" AV, is in Ileb the same as that which reads, "I am weary with my groaning" in Psalm 60:1-2 , and is similarly rendered in RY.

      like mdsas, primarily signifies "to melt" or "to become soft," and is used in prophetic ex hortations in which the people are encouraged not to be panic-stricken in the presence of enemies (Deuteronomy 20 3, and also Jeremiah 61 4(5; Isaiah 7 4). Another related word, mdrekh, in the sense of despair and utter loss of courage, is used in expressing the consequences of God s wrath against Israel (Leviticus 26 30). In its literal sense it signifies "blandness," as of the words of a hypocritical enemy ( Psalm 65 21).

      I at/luir is the prostration of utter fatigue whereby one is unable to raise himself or to proceed on a journey, as were some of David s little band (1 Samuel 30 10-21). A cognate word describes the prostra tion of ama/ement and incredulity with which Jacob heard of Joseph s condition in Egypt (Genesis 45 20).

      Kahah, the pining of earnest, longing desire, is translation 1 "fainteth" in Psalm 84 2; 119 81; elsewhere it is rendered by words expressing wast ing or languishing. The panic in Canaan due to famine is expressed (Genesis 47 13) by the word Idhah, which implies a state of frenzy.

      The only records of actual fainting are (1) Daniel, in Dnl 8 27, where the word used is the Niplial of the vb. hdi/dli, lit. "became," meaning that he be came weak; (2) swooning is mentioned in Ad Est 15 7-15.

      In the NT "faint" is used in the sense of physical exhaustion (Matthew 9 30 AV; 16 32; Mark 8 3), where it is part of the vb. ckluo, "to relax." Otherwise it is used fig. of discouragement of spirit. The same vb. is used in Gal 6 9; He 12 3.5; but in Luke 18 1; 2 Corinthians 4 1-10; Eph 3 13 it is part of the vb. ekkaked (according to some authorities egkaked, pronounced cnknkco, meaning "to be faint-hearted" or "to be culpably negligent"). In Rev 2 3 it is KOTTidco, kopido, lit. "to be tired."


    FAIR, faa er:
      The word translation 1 in AV from 9 Hebrews and 4 Gr expressions has nowhere; in the Bible the modern sense of "blond," "fair-skinned." The translation of Isaiah 54:11, "fair colors," refers to the cosmetic use of pnkh, stibium, antimony powder, with which black margins were painted around the eyelids, so as to make the eyes appear large and dark.

      The stones of rebuilt Jerus, beautifully laid in their black mortar, are compared with such eyes. We can distinguish the following varieties of meaning: (1 ) Beautiful, attractive, 3113 ; Aram. LXX in the NT dcrretos, astehts.

      This latter word is in both places where it is found used of Moses (Acts 7 20; He 11 23, RV "goodly"), and means lit .town bred (as opposed to boorish), polite, polished in manners, urbane, then nice, pretty. (2) Pure, free of defile ment, RV "clean," "nrVJ , tahor (Zee 35). (3) "Fair speech," plausible, persuasive (H~? , lekah, Prov 7 21; etfXaXos, eiilnlos, Sir 6 5; cf evXoyia, eulog ia, 16 18). (4) Making a fine display (evirpoa-uTreiv, cuprosopein, Gal 6 12, "to make a fair show"). (5) Good (of weather) (2HT , zCthubh, "golden," "clear," Job 37 22, R V "golden splendor") ; evdia, eudia (Matthew 16 2). H. L. E. LUEKIXG

      A roadstead on the Samuel. coast of Crete, about 5 miles E. of Cape Matala, the most southerly point of the island. The harbor is formed by a bay, open to the E., and sheltered on the Samuel.W. by two small islands. Here Paul waited for a considerable time (Acts 27 9); but while it afforded good anchorage and a shelter from N. and N.’V. winds, "the haven was not commodious to winter in" (vs 8.12). See CHUTE.

    FAIRS, farz:
      Found only 5 t in AV (Kzk 27 12., apparently incorrect translation of 1^3-737, *izzdbhon, according to modern Hebraists (though ( lesenius gives "fair" as OIK; of its meanings). The LXX translation 3 the Hebrews of the above five passages by two different words, dyopd, agora, "market-place" (vs, and [u&Obs, misthos, "hire," "pay" (vs 27.33). AV follows the Wyclif version in ver 12 and the Geneva version throughout, although it properly translation 3 "wares" in ver 33. RV gives "wares" (q.v.) throughout.

    FAITH, fath:

      1. Etymology

      2. Meaning: a Divergency

      3. Faith in the Sense of Cived

      4. A Leading Passage Explained

      5. Remarks

      6. Conclusion

      In the OT (AV) the word occurs only twice: Deuteronomy, 32 20 CpEX, cmiin); Hab 2 4 (njlBS, Smuuuh). In the latter RV places in m the alternative render ing, "faithfulness." In t he NT it is of very frequent occurrence, always representing Trtcms, p istis, with one exception in AV (not RV), He 10 23, where it represents Airte, el pis, "hope."

      The history of the Eng. word is rather interesting than important ; use and contexts, alike for it and its Hebrews and Gr parallels, are the surest 1. Ety- guides to meaning. But we may note

      mology that it occurs in the form "feytli," in

      Ilni fiok t/ie Dane (13th century) ; that it, is akin to fides and this again to the Sanskrit root bhidli, "to unite," "to bind." It is worth while to recall this primeval suggestion of the spiritual work of faith, as that which, on man s side, unites him to God for salvation.

      Studying the word "faith" in the light of use and contexts, we find a bifurcation of significance in the Bible. We may distinguish the two senses as the passive and the active; on the onte side, "fidelity," "trust wort hi ness"; and "faith," "t rust ,"on the other.

      Faith Faithful



      Annotated by NewtonStein, Cambridge Theological Seminary


      In Gal 5 22, e.g. context makes it clear that, "fidel ity" is in view, as a quality congruous with the associated graces. (RV accordingly

      2. Meaning: renders p/xlix there by "faithfulness.") a Diver- Again, Rom 3 3 AV, "the faith of God" gency by the nature of the case, means His

      fidelity to promise. But in the over whelming majority of cases, "faith," as rendering />/*’*, means "reliance," "trust." To illustrate would be to quote many scores of passages. It may be enough here to call attention to the recorded use of the word by Our Lord. Of about, twenty pas sages in the Gospels where pistis occurs as corning from His lips, only one (Matthew 23 23) presents it in the apparent sense of "fidelity." All the others conspicuously demand the sense of "reliance," "trust." The same is true of the apostolic writings. In them, with rarest exceptions, the words "reli ance," "trust," precisely fit the context as alter natives 1.o "faith."

      Another line of meaning is traceable in a very few passages, where nixtis, "faith," appears in the sense

      of "creed," the truth, or body of truth,

      3. Faith in which is trusted, or which justifies the Sense trust. The most important of such of Creed places is the paragraph Jas 2 14-2(3,

      where an apparent contradiction to some great Pauline dirtu perplexes many readers. The riddle is solved by observing that the writer uses "faith" in the sense of creed, orthodox "belief." This is clear from ver 1!), where the "faith" in ques tion is illustrated: "Thou believest that God is one." This is the credal confession of the orthodox Jew (the xli r nia’- see l)t 6 4), taken as a passport to salvation. Briefly, James presses the futility of creed without life, Paul the necessity of reliance in order to receive "life and peace."

      it, is important to notice that He 11 1 is no ex ception to the rule that "faith" normally means "reliance," "trust " There "Faith

      4. A Lead- r.s- the substance [or possibly, in the ing Passage light, of recent inquiries into the type Explained of (!r used by NT writers, "the guar anty"] of things hoped for, the evi dence [or "convincing proof "] of things not seen." This is sometimes interpreted as if faith, in the writer s view, were, so to speak, a fatality of second sight, a mysterious intuition into the spiritual world. Hut the chapter amply shows that the faith illus trated, e.g. by Abraham, Moses, Rahab, was simply r< [in nee upon a God known to be trustworthy. Such reliance enabled the believer to treat the future as present and the invisible as seen. In short, the phrase here, "fail h ? .s t he evidence," etc, is parallel in form to our f ami iar saying, "Knowledge /* power."

      A few detached remarks may be added: (<) The

      history of the use of the Gr pistis is instructive. In

      the LXX it normally, if not always,

      5. Remarks bears the "passive" sense, "fidelity,"

      "good faith," while in classical Gr it not rarely bears the active sense, "trust." In the koine, the type of Gr universally common at, the Christian era, it seems to have adopted the active meaning as the ruling one only just in time, so to speak, to provide it for the utterance of Him whose supreme message was "reliance," and who passed that message on to His apostles. Through their lips and pens "faith," in that sense, became the supreme watchword of Christianity. See JUSTIFI CATION; UNION WITH C2HIST.

      In conclusion, without trespassing on the ground

      of other arts., we call the reader s attention, for

      his Scriptural studies, to the central

      6. Conclu- place of f tilth in. Christianity, and its sion significance. As being, in its true idea,

      a reliance as simple as possible upon the word, power, love, of Another, it is precisely

      that which, on man s side, adjusts him to the living and merciful presence and action of a trusted God. In its nature, not by any mere arbitrary arrange ment, it is his one possible receptive attitude, that in which he brings nothing, so that he may receive all. Thus "faith" is our side of union with Christ. And thus it is our means of possessing all His bene fits, pardon, justification, purification, life, peace, glory.

      As a comment on our exposition of the ruling moaning of "faith" in Scripture, we may note that this precisely corresponds to its meaning in common life, where, for oner that the word means anything else, it means "re liance" a hundred times. Such correspondence between religious terms (in Scripture) and the meaning of the same words in common life, will be found to be invariable.


      FAITHFUL, ffith fool, FAITHFULNESS, fath - fool-nes:

      1. Faithfulness of (iod in the OT 2. Faithfulness of Cod in the XT LITERATURE

      Faithfulness is a quality or attribute applied in the Scripture to both God and man. This art. is limited to the consideration of the Scripture leach ing concerning the meaning of faithfulness in its application to God.

      Faithfulness is one of the characteristics of God s ethical nature. It denotes the firmness or con stancy of God in His relations with men, especially with His people. It is, accordingly, one aspect of God s truth and of His unchangeableness. God is true not only because He is really God in contrast to all that is not God, and because He realizes the idea of Godhead, but also because He is constant or faithful in keeping His promises, ami therefore is worthy of trust (sec; Tui Tii). God, likewise, is unchangeable in His ethical nature. This unchange- ableness the Scripture often connects with God s goodness and mercy, and also with His constancy in reference to His covenant promises, and this is what the OT means by the Faithfulness of God (see UNCHANGEABLENESS).

      In the OT this attribute is ascribed to God in passages where the Hebrews words denoting faiHiful- ness do not occur. It is implied in the 1. Faithful- covenant name Jehovah as unfolded fulness of in Kx 3 13 1 ">, which not. only ex- God in the presses God s self-existence and un- OT changeablencss, but, as the context

      indicates, puts God s immutability in special relation to His gracious promises, thus denoting God s unchangeable faithfulness which is emphasized in the OT to awaken trust in God (Deuteronomy 7 <); Psalm 36 o [Hebrews 0]; Isaiah 11 5; Hos 12 (>.<jj. (For fuller remarks on the name Jehovah in Exodus 3 13-15, see art. UNCHANGEABLENESS.) It is, more over, God s faithfulness as well as His immutability which is implied in those passages where God is called a rock, as being the secure object of religious trust (Deuteronomy 32 4.1f> Psalm 18 2 [Hebrews 3); 42 9 [Hebrews 10]; Isaiah 17 10, etc). This same attribute is also implied where God reveals Himself to Moses and to Israel as the God of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, and their fathers God (Exodus 3 6.15.16). The truth concerning God here taught is not simply that He stood in a gracious relation to the Patriarchs, but that He is faithful to His gracious promise to their fathers, and that what He was to them He will con tinue to be to Moses and to Israel. This is the fundamental idea in the OT concerning the faith fulness of God.

      This can be seen also from the Hebrews words which are used to express this quality of God s nature; and activity. These words are nv emun, the Niphal participle of the vb. a/nan used as an adj. "faith ful" and the nouns emelh and emundh "faith fulness." The verbal stem uman means "to be




      Annotated by NewtonStein, Cambridge Theological Seminary

      Faith Faithful

      secure or firm." In the Kal it denotes the firmness of that which supports something, being used in the participle of a nurse who carries a child (Numbers 11 12; 2 Samuel 4 4; Isaiah 49 23). In the Niphal it denotes the firmness of that which is supported, for example, a child which is carried (Isaiah 60 4); a well-founded house (1 Samuel 2 35; 25 2S); a wall which firmly holds a nail (Isaiah 22 23.25); a kingdom firmly established (2 Samuel 7 16); persons secure in political station (Isaiah 7 9); a heart which is faithful (Neh 9 Samuel). Hence in the Niphal the vh. comes to have the meaning of being true in the sense of the agree ment of words and assertions with reality; for example, of words and revelations (Genesis 42 20; Ilos 5 9); and of persons (Isaiah 8 2; Jeremiah 42 5). It has also the meaning of being faithful, being applied to men in Numbers 12 7; Psalm 101 6; Neh 13 13, etc. In this sense the; term is applied to the covenant-keeping Jell to express the truth that He is firm or constant, that is, faithful in regard to His covenant promises, and will surely fulfil them ( Deuteronomy, 7 9; Isaiah 49 7; and possibly Hos 11 12 [Hebrews 12 1]).

      A similar use is made of the nouns emeth and etnuttdli. Apart from the instances where fii/rll^ denotes the idea of truth or the correspondence of words and ideas with reality, and the instances where it denotes the agreement of acts and words with the inner disposition, that is, sincerity, it is also used to denote the idea of faithfulness as above defined. As regards the noun rnnlndh, apart irom a few passages where it is doubtful whether it means truth or faithfulness, it usually denotes the Litter idea. Both these nouns, then, are used to signify the idea of faithfulness, that is, constancy or firmness, esp. in the fulfilment of all obligations. In this sense these words are not only applied to men, but also to God to express the idea that He is always faithful to His covenant promises. It is this attribute of God which the Psalmist declares (Psalm 40 10 [Hebrews 11]), and the greatness of which he affirms by saying that God s faithfulness reacheth to the clouds (36 5 [Hebrews <>]). It is this which lie makes the object of praise- (89 1.2 [Hebrews 2.3]; 92 2 [Hebrews 3]); and which he says should be praised and reverenced by all men (89 5.8 [Hebrews 6.9]). And even this faithfulness is itself characterized by con stancy, if we may so speak, for the Psalmist says that it endures to all generations (100 f>). Being thus a characteristic of God, it also characterizes His salvation, and becomes the basis of confidence! that God will hear prayer (143 1). It thus becomes the security of the religious man (91 4); and the source of God s help to His people (31 5 [Hebrews ()]). Accordingly in the teaching of prophecy, the sal vation of the covenant people rests upon no claim or merit of their own, but solely upon Jeh s mercy, grace and faithfulness. "When Israel incurred God s judgments, it might have appeared as if His promise was to fail, but , so far from this being true, as Jehovah He is faithful to His word of promise which stands forever (Isaiah 40 Samuel). Even from eternity His counsels are characterized by faithfulness and trut h (25 1) ; and this is not because of Israel s fait h- f ulness, but it is for His own sake that Jeh blotteth out their transgressions (43 22-25; Micah 7 IS 20 1. It is, moreover, 1 his same charact erist ic of Jeh which is asserted in many cases where the Hebrews words emclh and emundh are translation 1 by the word "truth" in AV. In Exodus 34 6 it is God s faithfulness ( cm.cth) which is referred to, since it evidently signifies His constancy from generation to generation; and in Deuteronomy 32 4 it is also God s faithfulness ( emunuk) which is mentioned, since it is contrasted with the faithlessness of Israel. The same is true of Smeth in Micah 7 20; Psalm 31 5 [Hebrews 6]); 91 4; 146 <>. This is also true of the numerous instances where

      God s mercy and truth ( emclh) are combined, His mercy being the source of His gracious promises, and His truth the faithfulness with which He cer tainly fulfils them (Psalm 25 10; 57 3 [Hebrews 4]; 61 7 [Hebrews 8]; 85 10 [Hebrews 11]; 86 15). And since the covenant-keeping Jehovah is faithful, faithfulness comes also to be a characteristic of the New Cove nant which is everlasting (Psalm 89 28 [Hebrews 29]); cf also for a similar thought, Isaiah 54 8 ff ; Jeremiah 31 35 IT; Hos 2 19 f; Ezekiel 16 00 if.

      It is in this connection, moreover, that God s faithfulness is closely related to His righteousness in the OT. In the second half of the prophecy of Isaiah and in many of the psalms, righteousness is ascribed to God because He comes to help and save His people. Thus righteousness as a quality parallel with grace, mercy and faithfulness is ascribed to God (Isaiah 41 10; 42 6; 45 13.19.21; 63 1). It appears in these places to widen out from its exclu sively judicial or forensic association anil to become a quality of God as Saviour of His people. Accord ingly this attribute of God is appealed to in the Pss as the basis of hope for salvation and deliv erance. (Psalm 31 1 [Hebrews 2]; 35 24; 71 2; 143 11). Hence this attribute is associated with God s mercy and grace (Psalm 36 5 [Hebrews 6]. 9 [Hebrews 10]; 89 14 [Hebrews 15]); also with His faithfulness (Zee 8 8; Psalm 36 6 [Hebrews 7]); 40 10 [Hebrews 11]; 88 11.12 | Hebrews 12.13]; 89 14 [Hebrews 15]; 96 13; 119 137. 142; 143 1). Accordingly the OT conception of the righteousness of God has been practically identi fied with His covenant faithfulness, by such writers as Kautzsch, Iliehm and Smend, Ritschl s defini tion of it being very much the same. Moreover, Ritschl, following Dies! el, denied that the idea of distributive and retributive justice is ascribed to God in the OT. In regard to this latter point, it should be remarked in passing that this denial that the judicial or forensic idea of righteousness is ascribed to God in the OT breaks down, not only in view of the fact that the OT does ascribe this attribute to God in many ways, but also in view of the fact that in a number of passages the idea of retribution is specifically referred to the righteous ness of God (see RIGHTEOUSNESS; cf against. Diestel and Ritschl, Dalman, Die ricliterlichc Gerechtigkeit im Allen Tc*l<i/ncnl).

      That which concerns us, however, in regard to this close relation between righteousness and faith fulness is to observe that this should not be pressed to the extent of the identification of righteousness with covenant faithfulness in these passages in the Pss and the second half of Isaiah. The idea seems to be that Israel has sinned and has no claim upon Jeh, finding her only hope of deliverance in His mercy and faithfulness. But this very fact that Jeh is merciful and faithful becomes, as it were, Israel s claim, or rather the ground of Israel s hope of deliverance from her enemies. Hence in the recognition of this claim of His people, God is said to be righteous in manifesting His mercy and faith fulness, so that His righteousness, no less than His mercy and faithfulness, becomes the ground of His people s hope. Righteousness is thus closely related in these cases to faithfulness, but it is not identi fied with it, nor has it in all cases lost entirely its forensic tone. This seems to be, in general, the meaning of righteousness in the Pss and the. second half of Isaiah, with which may also be compared Micah 6 9; Zee 8 8.

      The emphasis which this attribute- of God has in the OT is determined by the fact that through out the whole of the OT the covenant relation of Jeh to His people is founded solely in God s grace, and not on any merit of theirs. If this covenant relation had been based on any claim of Israel, faithfulness on God s part might have been taken

      Faithful Falcon



      Annotated by NewtonStein, Cambridge Theological Seminary


      for granted. But since Jeh s covenant relation with Israel and His promises of salvation spring solely from, and depend wholly upon, the grace of (lod, that which gave firm assurance that the past experience of God s grace would continue in the future was this immutable faithfulness of Jeh. By it the experience of the fathers was given a religious value for Israel from generation to generation. And even as the faithfulness of Clod bridged over (lie past and the present, so also it constituted the connecting link between the present and the future, becoming thus the firm basis of Israel s hope; cf Psalm 89 which sets forth the faithfulness of God in its great ness, its firmness as the basis of the covenant and the ground it- affords of hope for future help from Jeh, and for hope that His covenant shall endure forever. When God s people departed from Him all the more emphasis was put upon His faith fulness, so that the only hope of His wayward people lay not only in His grace and mercy but also in His faithfulness, which stands in marked contrast with the faithlessness and inconstancy of His people. This is probably the meaning of the difficult ver Hos 11 12^(1 lei) 12 1).

      In the NT teaching concerning the faithfulness

      of ( lod the same idea of fait hfulness to His gracious

      promises is emphasized and held up

      2. Faithful- as the object of a confident, trust in

      ness of God God. This idea is usually expressed

      in the NT by the adj. yj/ .x/o.s, and once by the

      noun pi nil s, which more frequently

      has the active sense of faith or t rust-.

      An attempt has been mad* 1 by Wendt (N/v, 1SS3, 511 f; Teaching of Jesus, ET, 1, 25!) f) to interpret the words (iltlficia and aUtlits in many instances, especially in the Johannine writings, a.s denoting faithfulness and rectitude, after the analogy of the LXX rendering cicos kai altthfia for the Hebrews phrase mercy and truth," in which truth is equivalent to faithfulness. But the most that could be in ferred from the fact that the LXX uses the word alfthria to translate the Hebrews word 7’<’, and in about one-half the cases where Smunah occurs, would be that those Gr words might have been pre pared for such a use in the NT. But while it is true that there is one usage of these words in John s writings in tin ethical sense apparently based on the OT use of f tnctli. and cnnnidh, t he Gr words do not have this meaning when employed to denote a char acteristic of God. Neither is the adj. alcthitws so used. See Tumi.

      In the Epp. of Paul the word alctficia occurs quite frequently to denote the truth revealed by God to man through reason and conscience, and to denote the doctrinal content of the gospel. In two passages, however, the words alclftcs and <il<~lli< ia seem to sig nify the faithfulness of God (Rom 3 4.7; 15 8). In the former passage Paul is contrasting the faith fulness of God with the faithlessness of men, the word (ilnfn x, ver 4, and (tlclhe/ti, ver 7, apparently denoting the same Divine characteristic as the word pixlis, ver 3. In the latter passage (Rom 15 8), the vindication of God s covenant faithfulness, through the realization of His promises to the fathers, is declared to have been the purpose of the ministry of Jesus Christ to the Jews.

      This faithfulness of God to His covenant promises is frequently emphasized by Paul, the words he employs being the noun pistis (once) and the adj. pistos. The noun pislis is used once by Paul in this sense (Rom 3 3fT). In this place Paul is arguing that the unbelief of the Jews cannot make void God s faithfulness. Both Jew and Gentile, the apostle had said, an; on the same footing as regards justification. Nevertheless the Jews had one great advantage in. that they were the people to whom the revelation of God s gracious promises had been com

      mitted. These promises will certainly be fulfilled, notwithstanding the fact that some of the Jews were unfaithful, because the fulfilment of these promises depends not on human conduct but on the faith fulness of God, which cannot, be void by human faithlessness and unbelief. And to the sup position that man s faithlessness could make of none effect God s faithfulness, Paul replies let God be faithful [al<~lficx’ and every man a liar (ver 4), by which Paul means to say that in the fulfilment (if God s promises, in spite of the fact that, men are faithless, the faithfulness of God will be; abundantly vindicated, even though thereby every man should be proven untrue and faithless. And not only so, but human faithlessness will give an opportunity for a manifestation of the faithfulness (ulclkcia) (if Cod, abounding to His glory (ver 7). God s faith fulness here is His unchangeable constancy and fidelity to His covenant promises; and it is this fidelity to His promises, or the fact that God s gra cious gifts and election are without any change of mind on His part, which gave to Paul the assurance that all Israel should finally be saved (Rom 11 25- 2!). Moreover this covenant faithfulness of God is grounded in His very nature, so that Paul s hope of eternal life rests on the fact that God who cannot lie promised it before the world began (Tit 1 2); and the certainty that God will abide faithful not withstanding human faithlessness rests on the fact that God cannot deny Himself (2 Timothy 2 13). It is because God is faithful that His promises in Christ, are yea and amen (2 Corinthians 1 IS. 20). This attribute of God, moreover, is the basis of Paul s confident assurance that, God will preserve the Christian in temptation (1 Corinthians 10 13); and estab lish him and preserve him from evil (2 Thessalonians 3 3). And since God is faithful and His gracious promises trustworthy, this characteristic attaches to the faithful sayings" in the Pastoral Epistles which sum up the gospel, making them worthy of trust and acceptance (1 Timothy 1 15; 4 0; Tit 3 8).

      This faithfulness of God in the sense of fidelity to His promises is set forth as the object, of sure; trust, and hope by the writer of the Epistle to the Hebrews. It was the basis of Sarah s faith that she would bear a child when she was past, age (He 11 11); and it is because God is faith ful to His promise in Christ that we can draw nigh to Him with full assurance of faith, holding fast without wavering the profession of hope (He 10 23 J.

      John also ascribes this attribute to God. Since one of the most, precious of Coil s promises through Christ is the pardon of sin through the "blood of Jesus Christ, John says that God s faithfulness, as well as His righteousness, is manifested in the forgiveness of sin (1 John 1 9).

      The faithfulness of God is viewed from a slightly different point by Peter when he tells his readers that those who suffer as Christians and in accord ance with God s will should "commit their soul s in well-doing unto a faithful Creator" (1 Pet 4 19). The quality of faithfulness, which in the Scrip ture is more frequently ascribed to God in His relation to man as gracious Saviour, and as the ground of hope in His gracious promises, is here applied by Peter to God in His relation to man as his Creator, and is made the ground of comfort under persecution and suffering. The omission of the art. before the words "faithful Creator" makes emphatic that this is a characteristic of God as Creator, and the position of the words in the sentence throws great emphasis on this attribute of God as the basis of comfort, under suffering. It is as if Peter would say to suffering Christians, "You suffer not by chance but in accordance with God s will; He, the almighty Creator, made you, and since your




      Annotated by NewtonStein, Cambridge Theological Seminary

      Faithful Falcon

      suffering is in accordance with His will, you ought to trust yourselves to Him ‘vlio ;is your Creator is faithful." It is, of course, Christians who are to derive this comfort, but the faithfulness of God is extended here to cover all His relations _ to His people, and to pledge all His attributes in their behalf.

      This attribute is also ascribed to Christ in the NT. Where Jesus is called a faithful high priest, the idea expressed is His fidelity to His obligations to Clod and to His saving work (He 2 17; 3 2.6). But when in the Book of Revelation Jesus Christ is called the "faithful witness" or absolutely the "Faithful and True," it is clear that the quality of faithfulness, in the most absolute sense in which it is characteristic of Clod in contrast with human charigeableness, is ascribed to Christ (Rev 1 5; 3 14; 19 11). This is esp. clear in the last-named passage. The heavens themselves open to disclose the glorified Christ, and He appears not only as a victorious warrior whose name is faithful and true, but also as the one in whom these; attributes have their highest realization, and of whom they are so characteristic as to become the name of the exalted Lord. This clearly implies the Deity of Jesus.

      In summing up the Scripture teaching concerning Clod s faithfulness, three things are noteworthy. Int he first place, this charact erist ie, of God is usually connected with His gracious promises of salvation, and is one of those attributes which make God the firm and secure object of religious trust. As is the case with all the Scripture teaching concerning God, it is the religious value of His faithfulness which is nude prominent. In the second place, the so-called moral attributes, of which this is one, are essential in order to constitute God the object of religion, along with the so-called incommunicable attributes such as Omnipotence, Omnipresence and Un- changeableness. Take away either class of attri butes from Clod, and He ceases to be God, tin; object of religious veneration and trust. And in the third place, while these moral attributes, to which faith fulness belongs, have been called "communicable," to distinguish them from the "incommunicable" at tributes which distinguish God from all that is finite, it should never be forgotten that, according to the Scripture, God is faithful in such an absolute sense as to contrast Him with men who are faithful only in a relative sense, and who appear as change able and faithless in comparison with the faithful ness of God. See RIGHTEOUSNESS; TRUTH; UN-


      LiTERATrRE. Besides the Commentaries on the ap propriate passages, sec Odder, Tticol. of the OT, KT, 95, 112f 50.V nmma.T3.n,Handbuch der alttest. Theol., 268-76, 2(19-70; Sehlatter, I), r Glaube im ‘T, 21-22, 25 .t-r,0. In the works on NT theology this subject is treated, under the sections on the truthfulness of God.

      On the relation of God s truth and faithfulness, see Wendt, /> / Gfbrauch der Wiirter, aArjfleta, <Ui)f% und aAi)u (Kings im XT. SK, iss:{, 511 f; Stanton, art. "Truth." in 11DR, IV, 81(if; and the above-mentioned work of Schlaiter. On the, relation of the faithfulness to the righteousness of Cod, sec Dieslel, " Die Idee der Gerech- tigkeit vorziiglich im AT." Jahrbiicher fiir ttriitxchf Tlu<>- louie, 1SGO, 17:if ; Kaut/sch, Utl>t r ilie Dericate <lrx Stammes p~Samuel iin AT Sprachgebrauch; Itiehm, AT Tlteul., 2< 1 f ; Smond, Alttrst. Reliaionsgeschichte,3G3i; Ritschl, Jimtifi- cution and Krrun cilinti.nn ; Dalmail, Die, rirht -rlirhf (!<- rechtiiikeit im AT; and the above-mentioned OT Theolo gies of Dillmann and Oeliler.


      FAITHFUL SAVINGS, sa inz (TTLO-TOS 6 Xo^os, pixtos l> 2 HJOS) : "This is a fait hful saying and wort hy of all acceptation" (AV). These words form a striking formula which is found with slight variations only in the Pastoral Epistles, in 1 Timothy 1 15; 3 1 ; 49; 2 Timothy 211; Tit 3 . A similar expression occurs in Rev (21 5 and 22 G AV), "These sayings are faithful and true."

      The Five "Sayings. " Paul s faithful sayings are thus five in number, and "were no doubt rehearsed constantly in the assemblies, till they became well- known watchwords in the various churches scattered over the Mediterranean-washed provinces of the Rom empire" (Ellicott, NTComm.on 1 Timothy 1 15).

      The first of the faithful sayings speaks of the pre-

      existenco of Christ, of His coming into the world, and

      the purpose why He came, is distinctly

      1 The stated to save the lost, irrespective of p . f race or nationality, sinners who. apart

      from Christ, are without God and without "Saying" hope.

      The second of the faithful sayings refers to the work of being a minister of the gospel, a work then so full of danger and always full of difficulty.

      The office in question is honorable and

      2 The Christlike, and, in those early days, it c . meant stern and ceaseless work, grave and

      constant danger. This faithful saying Saying" would act as a call to young men to offer themselves for the work of proclaiming the gospel to the world, and of witnessing for Christ.

      The third saying is that godliness has ail influence

      that is world-wide; it consists, not merely in holiness

      and in that fellowship and communion

      3 The with (Sod which is the very life of the soul ; T V . _, it is also an active force which springs

      from "the love of Christ constraining us." Saying and manifests itself in love toward all our fellow-men, for they are God s creatures. Godliness transfigures every rank and condition of life. It has the promise of the life that now is: to those who seek the kingdom of God first, all other things will be added. And it has the promise of the life that is to come, the rich prospect of eternal blessedness with Christ. Compare with this saying the remarkable words in Tit 1 2, "in hope of eternal life, which (lod, who cannot lie, promised before times eternal." Godliness gives all gladness here, and future glory too. This is a faithful saying.

      The fourth of the faithful sayings speaks of the Christian believer s union with Christ, and of the bless edness of that union. The Christian is

      4 The "dead with Christ," he "sutlers with ,-, ,, Christ," But the union with Christ is

      eternal, "We shall also live with him;

      Saying .... we shall also reign with him" in

      life that is fadeless, endless and full of

      glory. Surely then, no one will draw back, for "if we

      deny him," "if we believe not," "he also will deny us,"

      for " he abideth faithful, ho cannot deny himself."

      The fifth and last of the faithful sayings speaks of

      our former unconverted state, "for we also once were

      foolish, disobedient, deceived, serving divers

      5 The lusts an(1 pleasures. But .... the kind- p, ./:., ness and love of God .... toward man

      appeared, not by works which we did "Saying" ourselves, but according to his mercy he

      saved us." Blessedness is now the Chris tian s lot, and this is the result not of our works: we owe it all to the tender love of God, to His Divine pity, to His redeeming grace. Yes, this is a faithful saying.


      FAITHLESS, filfh les: The translation of amo-ros, dpistofs, "without faith," having the sense of "unbelieving," "disbelieving." Jesus upbraids the people, "O faithless and perverse generation!" (Matthew 17 17; Mark 9 19; Luke 9 41); He says to Thomas, "Be not, faithless, but believing" (John 20 27); RV adds, "If we are faithless," instead of "believe not" (2 Timothy 2 13); cf 1 Corinthians 7 12-15; 10 27; 14 22.21, etc; Tit 1 15. In Luke 12 40 apistos has the sense of "unfaithful," so RV; perhaps also Rev 21 Samuel, "un believing."

      FALCON, fo k n, fol k n, fal kun: The Hebrews did not know the word. Their bird corresponding to our falcon, in all probability, was OIK; of the smaller kestrels covered by the word ?/rc, which seemed to cover all lesser birds of prey that we in clude in the hawk family. That some of our many divisions of species were known to them is indicated by the phrase "after its kind." The word occurs iii RV in Job 28 7, to translation ay yah, Gr 7<, giips (cf Leviticus 11 14; Deuteronomy 14 13):

      " That path no bird of prey knowoth, Neither hath the falcon s eye seen it. "

      This substitutes "falcon" for "vulture" in AV. The change weakens the force of the lines. All

      Fall Fall, The



      Annotated by NewtonStein, Cambridge Theological Seminary


      ornithologists know (hut eagles, vultures and the largo hawks have such range of vision that they at. once descend from heights at which we cannot see them to take prey on earth or food placed to tempt, them. The falcons and sparrow hawks are small members of the family, some of which feed on lit tie birds, some on insects. They are not celebrated for greater range of vision than other birds of the same location and feeding habits. The strength of these lines lay in the fact that if the path to the mine were so well concealed that, the piercing eye of the vulture failed to find it, then it was perfectly hidden indeed. GENE STRATTON-PoBTEK

      FALL, fol (vb.): The idea of falling is most fre quently expressed in Hob by ? , >" M" > but nl*o by many other words; in (!r by TTITTTW, pi/>l<i, and its compounds. The uses of the, word in Scripture are very varied. There is the literal falling by descent; the falling of the countenance in sorrow, shame, anger, etc ( Ion 4 5.<ii; the falling in battle (14 10; Numbers 14 3, etc); the falling into trouble, etc (Prov 24 1C). 17); prostration iu supplication and reverence ( .en 17 3; Numbers 14 o, etc); falling of the; Spirit, of Jeh (E/k 11 5; of 3 24; 8 1); of apos tasy (2 Thessalonians 2 3; He 6 (i; Judo ver 24), etc. R V frequently changes "fall" of A V into other words or phrases, as "stumble" (Leviticus 26 37; Psalm 64 Samuel;

      2 Pet. 1 10, etc), "fade" (Isaiah 33 4), etc; in Acts 27, RV reads "be cast ashore on rocky ground" for "have fallen upon rocks" (ver 2 .), "perish" for "fall" (ver 34), "lighting upon" for falling into" (ver 41). W. L. WALKEK

      FALL, fol, THE:

      1. Moaning of ( Sen 3

      2. (ion 3 in the Old and New Testaments

      . 5. The Full and the Theory of Involution 4. The Character of the Fall

      The question concerning the origin, the age and the written record of the history of the Fall in (Ion

      3 need not be discussed here. For in the first, place, science can never reach to the oldest, origins and the ultimate destinies of humanity, and historical and critical inquiry will never be able to prove either the veracity or the unvoracity of this history. And in the second place, exact 1} as it now lies before us, this history has already formed for centuries a, portion of holy Scripture, an indispensable element, in the organism of the revelation of salvation, and as such has been accepted in faith by the Hob con gregation (Jewish people), by Christ, by the apostles, and by the whole Christian church.

      That (!en 3 gives us an account of the fall of man, of the loss of his primitive innocence and of the misery, particularly death, to which 1. Meaning he has since been subjected, cannot. of Genesis, Chronicles 3 reasonably be denied. The opinion of the Ophites, Kant, Schiller, Hegel, etc. that Genesis 3 relates the awakening of man to self- consciousness and personality (see ADAM IN OT AND APOC), and therefore does not tell us of a fall, but a marked progression, is controverted by the name which the forbidden tree bears, as indicat ing to man not merely a tree of knowledge in the ordinary way, but quite specially a tree of knowl edge of good and evil.

      Genesis 3 is not in the least meant to relate to us how man obtained the idea of his nakedness and sexual passions, and from a state of childlike innocence changed in this respect to manlike maturity (Ecrd- man s Deuteronomy Jtctcckan Kings run In I Paradijsverhacd, TT, 1905, 485-511). For according to Genesis, man was created full-grown, received a wife immediately as helpmeet, and at the same time saw himself allotted the task of multiplying and replenishing the earth. Moreover, the idea that sexual desire is something

      sinful and deserves punishment was entirely foreign to ancient Israel.

      Finally, the interpretation of ‘Yellhauson (Ce- scfi/clttc. Israels, 1S7S, 344) cannot be accepted, that man in Genesis 3 should obtain "die intellektuelle Welterkenntniss, die motaphysische Erkenntniss dor Dingo in ihrom Zusammenhange, ihrem Worth odor Unwerth, ihrem Nut /on odor Schaden" ("the intellectual knowledge of the world, the meta physical knowledge of things in their connection, their wort h or unworth, their utility or hurt fulness"). For in the first place, according to Genesis, this was man s peculiar province from the beginning; ho received indeed the vocation to subdue the earth, to keep and till the ground, to give the animals their names. And in the second place, the acquiring of this knowledge among the Israelites, who esteemed practical wisdom so highly, is difficult to represent as a fall, or as a punishment deserved for disobe dience.

      There is no other explanation possible of Genesis 3 than that it is the narration of a fall, which consists in the transgression of an explicit command of God, thus bearing a moral significance 1 , and therefore followed by repentance, shame, fear and punish ment. The context of the chapter places this inter pretation beyond all doubt, for before his fall man is represented as a creature made after God s image and receiving paradise as a dwelling-place, and after the fall he is sent into a rough world, is condemned to a life of labor and sorrow, and increases more and more in sin until the judgment of the Flood.

      It is indeed remarkable how very seldom the OT refers to this history of the Fall. This is not a sufficient reason for pronouncing it 2. Genesis, Ch3 of later origin, for the same peculiarity in the OT presents itself at the time when, ac- and NT cording to all criticism, it was recorded in literature. Prophets, Psalms, Prov erbs never quote it; at the most, allusions maybe found to it. in Hos 6 7 and Eeol 7 29; and even Jesus and His apostles in the NT very seldom appeal to Genesis 3 (John 8 44; Rom 5 12; 1 Corinthians 15 22; 2 Corinthians 11 3; 1 Timothy 2 14). But it may be con sidered that the Prophets, Psalms and Proverbs only mention special facts of the past by way of exception, that the apostles even hardly ever quote the words and deeds of Jesus, and that all lived at a time when revelation itself was still proceeding and did not lie before them as a complete whole. With us it is quite a different matter; we are in a certain sense outside revelation, make it a subject, of our study and meditation, try to discover the unity which holds all its parts together, and devote our special interest to Adam as a figure and counterpart of Christ. The creation and fall of man occupy therefore a much broader place in the province of our thoughts than they did among the writers of the books of the Old and New Testaments.

      Nevertheless, the Fall is the silent hypothesis of the whole Bib. doctrine of sin and redemption; it does not rest only on a few vague passages, but forms an indispensable element in the revelation of salvation. The whole contemplation of man and humanity, of Nature; and history, of ethical and physical evil, of redemption and the way in which to obtain it, is connected in Scripture with a Fall, such as Genesis 3 relates to us. Sin, for example, is common to all men (1 Kings 8 40; Psalm 14 3; 130 3; 143 2), and to every man from his conception (Genesis 6 5; 8 21; Job 14 4; Psalm 61 7). It arouses God s anger and deserves all kinds of punishment, not only of an ethical but of a physical nature (Genesis 3 14-19; 4 14; 6 7.13; 11 8; Leviticus 26 14 f; Deuteronomy 28 15; Psalm 90 7, etc); the whole of Scripture proceeds from the thought that sin and death are connected in the closest degree, as are also obedience and life.




      Annotated by NewtonStein, Cambridge Theological Seminary

      Fall Fall, The

      In the new heaven and new earth all suffering ceases with sin (Rev 21 4). Therefore redemption is possible only in the way of forgiveness (Psalm 32 1 ; Isaiah 43 25, etc), and circumcision of the heart (Deuteronomy 10 1(> 30 16; Jeremiah 4 4), and this includes, further, life, joy, peace, salvation. When Paul in Rom 5 12; 1 Corinthians 15 22 indicates Adam as the origin of sin and death, and Christ as the source of righteous ness and life, he develops no ideas which are con trary to the organism of revelation or which might be neglected without loss; he merely combines and formulates the data which are explicitly or silently contained in it.

      Tradition does little toward the confirmation and elucidation of the Bib. narrative of the Fall. The

      study of mythology is still too little 3. The Fall advanced to determine the ideal or and the historical value which may be con-

      Theory of tained in the legend of a Golden Age, Evolution in many people s obsequious honoring

      of the serpent, in the equally wide spread belief in a tree of life. The Bab representa tion also (a seal on which a man and woman, seated, are figured as plucking fruit from a tree, while a serpent curls up behind the woman as if whispering in her ear), which (1. Smith, Lenormant and Fried- rich Delitzsch compare with the Paradise narrative 1 , shows no similarity on nearer view (A. Jeremias, Das AT im Lirhle des alien Orient*-, Leipzig, 190(5, 203). Indirectly, however, a very powerful witness for the fall of man is furnished by the whole empirical condition of the world and humanity. For a world, such as we know it, full of unrighteous ness and sorrow, cannot be explained without the acceptance of such a fact. lie who holds fast to the witness of Scripture and conscience; to sin as sin (as avo^ ia, ano/nia) cannot deduce; it from creation, but must accept the conclusion that it began with a transgression of God s command and thus with a deed of the will. Pythagoras, Plato, Kant, Schelling, Baaeler have all understood and acknowledged this with more or less clearness. He who denies the Fall must explain sin as a necessity which has its origin in the Creation, in the nature of things, and therefore in God Himself; he justifies man but accuses God, misrepresents the character of sin and makes it everlasting and indefeasible. For if there has not been a fall into sin, there is no redemption of sin possible; sin then loses its merely ethical significance, becomes a trait of the nature of man, and is inexterminable.

      This comes out, in later years, in the many en deavors to unite the Fall with the doctrine of evo lution (cf Tennant, The Origin and I ronayation of Sin 1 , 1905; A. Samuel. Peake, Christianity: 7/.s Xature and Its Truth, 190S; W. E. Orchard, Modem Theo ries of Kin, 1909; Francis J. Hall, Evolution ami tin: Fall, 1910). All these endeavors lead to setting on one side the objective; standard of sin, which is t he law of God, and determining the nature and impor tance of sin subjectively by the feeling of guilt, which in its turn again de pe iiels on the knowledge of and the 1 love for the moral ideal, and itself forms an im portant factor in moral progress. It is true that the strength of all these endeavors is drawn from the theory of the descent of man from t he animal. But as to this theory, it is worthy of notice-: (1) that it is up to the present day a hypothesis, anel is proved by no single observation, whether direct or indhvct; (2) that the fossils of prehistoric men, found in Ger many, Belgium, France and elsenvhere have demon strated the low degree of culture in which these men have lived, but in no sense their dissimilarity with mankind of today (W. Branca, Der Stand unserer Kenntnisse vom fossilcn Menschen, Leipzig, 1910); (3) that the uncivilized and prehistoric man may be as little identified with the first man as the

      unjustly so-calleel nature-people anel children under age; (4) that, the oldest history of the human race, which has become known through the discoveries at Babylon in the last century, was not that of a state of barbarism, but of high and rich culture (D. Gath Whitley, "What was the Primitive Con dition of Alan?" Princeton Theol. Review, October, 190(5; J. Orr, God s Image in Man, 190(5); (5) that the acceptance of the theory of descent as a uni versal and unlimited rule leads to the denial of the unity of the human rae e, in a physical and also in an intellectual, moral and religiems sense. For it may be possible, even in the school of Darwin, to maintain the unity of the human race so long a time as tradition exercises its influence on the habit of niinel; but theory itse lf undermines its foundation and marks it as an arbitrary opinion. From the standpoint of evolution, there is not only no reason to holel to the "of one blood" of Acts 1? 26 AV, but there has never even been a first man; the transition from animal to man was so slow and suc cessive, that the 1 essential distinction fails to be seen. And with the effacing of this boundary, the unity of the moral ideal, of religion, of the laws of thought anel of truth, fails also; the theory of eve)lutiem expels the absolute 1 everywhere and leads necessarily to psychologism, relativism, pragmatism and even to pluralism, which is literally polytheism in a reli gious sense. The unity of the human race, on the other hanel, as it is taught in holy Scripture, is not an inelifferent physical qwstiem, but an important intellectual, moral and religiems one; it is a "postu late" of the; whole history of civilization, anel express ly or silently ae-cepted by nearly all historians. And cemscie iie-e bears witness to it, in so far as all me>n show the work of the moral law written in their hearts, anel their thoughts accuse or excuse one another (Rom 2 15); it shows back to the Fall as an "Urthatsache der Geschichte."

      What the 1 condition and history of the human race could hardly lead us to imagine, holy Scripture

      relates to us as a tragic fact in its first 4. The pages. The first man was created by

      Character God after His own image, not there of the Fall fore in brutish unconsciousness or

      chilellike naivete, but in a state of boelily anel spiritual maturity, with understanding and reason, with knowledge and speech, with knowledge esp. of God and His law. Then was given to him moreover a command not to eat of the tree of knowl edge of gooel anel evil. This command was not con tained in the moral law as such; it was not a natural but a positive commandment; it rested entirely and only on Goel s will and must be obeyed exclu sively for this reason. It placed before man the che>ice, whetheT he would be faithful and obedient to God s word anel would leave to Him alone the decision as to what is good or evil, or whether he would reseTve to himself the right arbitrarily to decide what is good or evil. Thus the question was: Shall theemomy or autonomy be the way to happi ness? On this account also the tree was calle el the tree e)f knowledge of gooel and evil. It eliel ne>t bear this name in the sense that man might obtain from it the empirical knowledge of gooel anel evil, for by his transgression he in truth lost the empirical knowledge of good. But the tree was so nameel, because man, by eating of it and so transgressing Ge>el s commandment, arrogated to himself "die Fdhigkeit zur selbstandigen Wahl der Miltel, durch die man sein Gliick schaffen will": "the capacity of independent choice of the me-ans by which he would attain his happiness" (Koberle, Sunde und Gnade imrclig. Leben des Volkes Israel bis auf Christentum, 1905, 64). Theonomy, as obedience to God from fre>e love, includes as such the ielea anel the possi bility of autonomy, therefore that of antinomy also.

      Falling Stars Family



      Annotated by NewtonStein, Cambridge Theological Seminary


      But it is tlic free act and Ilierefore the guilt of man that has changed the possibility into reality. For the mind, there remains here an insoluble prob lem, as much in 1 lie question, why (iod allowed this Fall to take place, as in t he other, how man, created in the likeness of (iod, could and did fall. There is a great deal of truth in the often-expressed thought, that we can give no account of the origin of sin, because it is not logical, and does not result as a conclusion drawn from two premises. But facts are brutal. What seems logically impossible often exists in reality. The laws of moral life are different from those of thought and from those also of mechanical nature. The narrative in (Jen 3, in any case, is psychologically faithful in the highest degree. For the same way as it appears there in the first man, it repeatedly takes place among our selves (.las 1 14.15). Furthermore we ought to allow (iod to justify Himself. The course of reve lation discovers to faith how, through all the ages, He holds sin in its entire development in His own almighty hands, and works through grace for a con summation in which, in the dispensation of the ful ness of times, He will gather together in one all things in Christ (Eph 1 10). (J. Orr, 8in as a 1 roblcni of To/lnij, London, 1910.)



      FALLOW, fal f) C2tt , ililtuam): Dnntntn is t;" 1 only once in the sense of "fallow" (Exodus 23 11). Hie

      law required that the Israelite s allow their ground to lie fallow one year in seven. AV is (Deuteronomy 14 f>) "*! , /(‘, and is translation 1 "fallow" in its more obsolete sense of "tilled ground" in AV (Jeremiah 4 3; Hos 10 12).


      FALSEHOOD, fols hotul. See LYINU.



      FAME, fain (ZTT , shem, rTT , .s’rwc; ; O.KOTI, akot, <J>T||XT|, phcme): "Fame" has the twofold meaning, (1) of report or rumor, (2) of renown or reputation (in the OT it is not always easy to distinguish the two senses). "Fame," ,s’rwr; , "fame," "rumor," "report" (Numbers 14 lf> Job 28 22, RV "rumor") probably means "report"; but in 1 Kings 10 1 ; 2 Chronicles 9 1; Isaiah 66 19, it is most probably "renown," or "reputation"; sh mtfah (1 Kings 10 7; 2 Chronicles 9 6) may have either meaning; s/i ‘ (Joshua 6 27; 9 9; Est 9 4) seems to mean "fame" in the sense of reputation; but in Jeremiah 6 24 (as ARV) "report"; shem., "name," has the sense of reputation (1 Kings 4 31; 1 Chronicles 14 17; 22 5; Zcph 3 19, RV "name"); kol, "voice," is report (Genesis 45 16, ARV "report"). In the NT akm; "hearing," is "report," so RV (Matthew 4 24; 14 1; Mark 1 2<Samuel); phemc, "word," "rumor," is report, fame in this sense (Matthew 9 26; Luke 4 14); cchos, "a sound," "noise" (Luke 4 37, RV "rumor"), and loyox, "word" (Luke 5 L~>, RV "report") have the same meaning; diaphe/nizu, "to say throughout," "to report publicly" (Matthew 9 31, "they .... spread abroad his fame"), seems to imply fame in the sense of reputation.

      In 1 Mace 3 26, we have "fame" in the sense of reputation, "His fame [onoma, RV "name"] came near even to the king"; so 3 41, "heard the fame of them."

      ERV has "fame" for "report" (shema*), Jeremiah 50 43.

      W. L. WALKER

      FAMILIAR, fa-inil yar: Is found as an adj. quali fying "friend" and "spirit."

      (1) Used, in a number of OT passages, of spirits which wen; supposed to come at the call of one who had power over them. DISC , uhh, lit. something "hollow"; cf IPX, tlbh, "bottle" (Job 32 19 AV); because the voice of the spirit might have been sup posed to come from the one possessed, as from a bottle, or because of the hollow sound which char acterized the utterance, as out of the ground (Isaiah 29 4); or, as SOUK; have conjectured, akin to 3"X, ubh r "return" (vtKp6fn.avTis, nekromantis). Probably called "familiar" because it was regarded as a servant (famulus), belonging to the family (famili- arift), who might be summoned to do the commands of the one possessing it. The practice of consulting familiar spirits was forbidden by the Mosaic law (Leviticus 19 31; 20 6.27; Deuteronomy 18 11). King Saul put this away early in his reign, but consulted the witch of Endor, who "had a familiar spirit" (1 Samuel 28 3.7. 8.9; 1 Chronicles 10 13). King Manasseh fell into the same sin (2 Kings 21 6; 2 Chronicles 33 6); but Josiah put those who dealt with familiar spirits out of the land (2 Kings 23 24).

      It seems probable, however, that the practice prevailed more or less among the people t ill t he exile (Isaiah 8 19; 19 3). See "Divination by the Ob" in Expos T, IX, 1")7; ASTKOLO<Y, 1; COMMUNION WITH DEMONS.

      (2) "Familiars," "familiar friend," fr 7"^!, yadha*, "to know," hence; "acquaintance, 1 one intimately attached (Job 19 14); but more frequently of gnosti shdlum, "man of [my or thy] peace," that is, one to whom the salutation of peace is given (Psalm 41 9; Jeremiah 20 10; 38 22; also in Ob ver 7, rendered "the men that were; at peace with thee").


      FAMILY, fam i-li (SinEWO , wishpuhnfi, IT 1 .? , Ixujith; Trarpid, jMilria):

      1. The Foundation

      2. Monogamy the Ideal Relation :i. Kquality of the Sexes

      4. Polygamy

      f>. The Commandments and the Family (">th Com mandment)

      G. The Commandments and the Family (7th Com mandment)

      7. The Commandments and the Family (10th Com mandment )

      8. Primitive Monogamic Ideal

      9. Reforms of Ezra and Nehemiah

      10. The NT

      11. The Teaching of Jesus

      12. The Teaching of Paul 115. Modern Dangers


      The Bible is the world s great teacher of monog amy the union for life of one man and one woman in marriage as the basis of the family. 1. The Whatever may be said about the time

      Foundation of the writing of the books of the Bible, or of parts of them, the testimony of the whole is incontrovertibly to the point that mar riage springs from the choice of one man and one woman of each other for a permanent family rela tion. Over and through the whole; of the Bible this ideal is dominant. There may be instances shown here and there of violation of this rule. But such eases are to be regarded as contrary to the under lying principle of marriage known even at the time of their occurrence to be antagonistic to the principle.

      There may be times when moral principle is violated in high places and perhaps over wide reaches in society. The Bible shows that there were such times in the history of man. But it is unde niable that its tone toward such lapses of men and of society is not one of condonation but one of regret and disapproval. The disasters consequent are faithfully set forth. The feeling that finds expression in its whole history is that in such cases




      Annotated by NewtonStein, Cambridge Theological Seminary

      Falling Stars Family

      there had been violation of the ideal of right in the sex relation. The ideal of monogamic relation is put in the forefront of the history of man.

      The race is introduced synthetically as a species

      in the incoming of life. "And God created man

      in his own image, in the image of God

      2. Monog- created he him; male and female amy the created he them" (Genesis 127). But Ideal with the first particularization of the Relation relation of the sexes to each other the

      great charter of monogamy was laid down so clearly that Jesus was content to quote it, when with His limitless ethical scrutiny He explained the marriage relation. "And the man said [when the woman was brought to him], This is now bone of my bones, and flesh of my flesh : she shall be called Woman, because she was taken out of Alan. There fore shall a man leave his father and his mother, and shall cleave unto his wife: and they shall be one flesh" (Genesis 2 23.24). It is well to pause and look at the grammatical number of the nouns: "a man," "his wife." The words of the charter hold the sexc s to monogamy. The subsequent words make marriage life-lasting. "They twain shall be one flesh." A dualism becomes an individualism. So said Christ : "Wherefore t hey are no more twain but one flesh" (Matthew 19 GAV). * Nothing but death separates a man from his own flesh. Nothing but life-monogamy can find place in the language of this charter.

      There is much in the setting of this charter in the account given in Genesis that is suggestive of the fine sentiment which we know has always gone along with love and marriage. That this account should have held the place in history that it has had adds testimony to the fine perception of sen timent and the strong grasp on principle out of which it came.

      Eve, "the mother of all living," comes out as

      distinctly as Adam on the canvas in the portraiture

      of the first pair. She is the feminine

      3. Equality representative - ishxttuh of the race, of the as Adam is the masculine 7.s/i (Genesis Sexes 2 23). The personality of Eve is as

      complete as that of Adam. She is a rational and accountable creature, as Adam is. In primitive intellectual and moral transactions she lias share on equality with Adam, and is equally involved in their results. Different physical conse quences fall on her for "transgression," because she is "woman," "the mother of all living" (Genesis 3 Hi). But Adam does not escape retribution for sin, and it may be questioned whether its burden did not fall hardest on him (Genesis 3 18.19), for motherhood has its joy as well as its pain, in the companionship of new-born child-life; but the wrestler for sub sistence; from a reluctant earth must bear his hard ship alone. It cannot but be that much of the primitive conjugal love survived the fall.

      According to the record, monogamy seems long to have survived the departure from Eden. It is

      not till many generations after that

      4. Polygamy event that we find a case of polygamy

      that of Lamech (Genesis 4 19-24). Lamech is said to have had "two wives." The special mention of "two" seems to show that man had not yet wandered far away from monogamy. The indications seem to be that as the race multi plied and went out over the face of the earth they forgot the original kinship and exhibited all manner of barbarities in social relations. Lamech was a polygamist, but he was also a quarrelsome homicide: "I have slain a man for wounding me, and a young man for bruising me" (Genesis 4 23). If such acts and dispositions as are disclosed in the case of Lamech become common, it will certainly not be a long while before the only apt description of the condi-

      dition of society must be that upon which we come in (Jen 6 5: "And Jeh saw that the wickedness of man was great in the earth, and that every imagina tion of the thoughts of his heart was only evil con tinually." Out of such condition will come war and slavery, and polygamy -and come they did. It is a straight road from Genesis 6 5 to "The Koran, tribute or the sword," and the polygamy of Moham medans.

      The commandments (Exodus 20 12; Deuteronomy 5 10) are a

      succinct summary of the supreme moral relations

      and duties of man. The first four per-

      5. The tain to our relationship to God. The Command- six following concern human relations. ments and Of these six, three have considerations the Family of the family involved in them. Com- (5th Com- mandmenta do not come to people mandment) ignorant of the subjects to which they

      relate. A commandment to cover an unknown moral relation is an absurdity. The text of the Fifth Commandment is, "Honor thy father and thy mother." This refers to the relation of children to parents. This commandment could scarcely have arisen when polygamy was a common practice, certainly never from promiscuity. The equality of father and mother is stamped on its face. That idea never could have had strength and solemnity enough, except in a prevailing condition of monogamy, to entitle the command in which it appeared to rank with the important subjects covered by the other commands. Before the gaze of the children to whom this commandment came, the family stood in monogamic honorthe mother a head of the family as well as the father. There is no question about the position of the mother in this commandment. She stands out as clear as Sinai itself. There is no cloud on her majesty. Such honor as goes to the father goes to the mother. She is no chattel, no property, no inferior being, but the mother; no subordinate to the father, but his equal in rank and entitled to equal reverence with him. The commandment would not and could not have so pictured the 1 mother had she been one of the inmates of a harem.

      The Seventh Commandment (Exodus 20 14; Deuteronomy 5 18) gives the family. It secures the home. It

      says that whatever children are born

      6. The to the race; shall be born in a home and Command- of the home -shall be family-born, ments and The terms adultery and fornication the Family have now become synonymous. Un- (7th Com- der the influence of polygamous prac- mandment) tices a distinction was made in respect

      to unlawful sex union as to whether one or both of the parlies thereto were married or not, or whether one or both were single. Such dis tinction will not hold in morals. All or any sex union out of marriage is barred by the family idea. ( )ulside of that all sex union is sin.

      While it is true that in the laws of Israel sex sin out side the family relation was treated as a subject, by itself, yet when we remember how early in life marriage came in those ancient days, and that betrothal in childhood was deemed as sacred as marriage itself, we see that oven then the sweep of the commandment was well-nigh uni versal and over what a broad range it protected the family. The family is the primal eldest institution of man the greatest and the holiest. Over this institu tion this commandment stands sentry. It prevents men from breaking up in complete; individual isolation, from reverting to solitary savagery. Think to what a child is born outside of the family relation! Then think of all children being so born, and you have the picture of a low piano of animalism from which all trace of the moral responsibility of fatherhood has disappeared, and where even motherhood will be reduced to simple care during the short period of helpless infancy, to such care as belongs to animal instinct. Put up now the idea that marriage shall be universal and that the children born in marriage shall belong genuinely to it, and you have a new heaven and a new earth in the sex relations of the race of man.

      Family Far, Farther



      Annotated by NewtonStein, Cambridge Theological Seminary


      The Tenth Commandment seems almost out of place on the list of the commandments. All the others enjoin specific acts. This tenth 7. The seems to be a forcgleam of the Saviour s

      Command- method going to the thoughts und ments and intents of the heart. It is an attempt the Family at regulation ira man. It goes beyond (10th Com- outward acts and deals with the spirit. mandment) Its purpose seems not regulation of man in society but in himself. So far as it has outward relation it seems to apply primarily to the rights of property. Wo have at common law the expression, "rights of persons; and rights of things," i.e. to property. But the list of tilings enumerated in the commandment comprises the things most common to family life: house, servants, animals. One is forbidden not only to take but even to desire such things. They are necessary to family life. In this list of things belonging to a neighbor that a man is forbidden to desire occurs the term "wife." To first thought it may seem strange that she should be listed with property in house and chattels. But it may not be very singular. One of woman s greatest blessings to man is help fulness. Kve, the mother of all living, came as a helpmeet for Adam. Sarah is mistress of domestic operations. A wife quick of thought, accurate in judgment and deft of hand is usually the key to a man s material prosperity. As such help a man s desire might stray to his neighbor s wife as well as to his cattle. Even on this lower plane she is still ti constituent element of the family. Here the thought of sex is scarcely discernible . Covet ousness unlimited in the accumulation of property is what, comes under ban. To treat of that matter would lead too far astray. Sec COVKTOTSXKSS.

      It is well to remember in taking leave of the com mandments that half of those pertaining to human relations hold the family plainly in view. This is as it should be. The race is divided equally between male and female, and their relations to each other, we might expect, would call for half of the directions devoted to the whole.

      The laws against adultery and incest (Leviticus 20

      and the like) may seem barbarously severe. Be it

      so; that fact would show they were

      8. Primitive carried along by a people tremendously Monogamic in earnest about- the integrity of the Ideal family. Beneath pioneer severity is

      usually a solemn principle. That the children of Israel had a tough grasp on the primitive monogamic ideal is not only apparent in all their history, but it comes out clear in what they held as history before their own began. Mr. Gladstone said the tenth chapter of Genesis is the best docu ment of ancient ethnography known to man. But it is made up on family lines. It is a record of the set t lenient of heads of families as they went forth on the face of the earth. The common statement for the sons of Noah as they filed out over the lands of which they took possession is, these are the eons of .... after their families, after their tongues, in their lands, in their nations. Mr. Gladstone called attention to the fact that modern philology verifies this classification of the nations which rests on outgrowth from families.

      Turning now to a very distant point in history

      the return of the Jews from captivity in Babylon

      we find in Ezr and Neh the most

      9. Reforms critical regard for genealogy. The of Ezra and effort to establish "pure blood" was Nehemiah fairly a fanaticism and might even be

      charged with injustice. Yet this effort was ratified by the people sufferers in degraded name though many of them must have been. This could never have been done had not the monogamic family idea rested in their hearts as just and right.

      Nehemiah (13 20) unsparingly condemned the mighty Solomon for his polygamy, and Israel ap proved the censure.

      When we come to the times of the NT, contem poraneous polygamy in Jewish society was dead. Wherever NT influences have; gone,

      10. The NT contemporaneous polygamy has ceased

      to be.

      There has boon in thp United States by Mormonism a belated attempt to revive that crime against the family. But it has had its bad day, and, if it lives at all, it is under the ban of social sentiment and is a (Time by law. Consecutive polygamy still exists in nations that are called Christian by the permission of divorce laws. But the tide of Christian sentiment is setting strongly against it, and il takes no special clearness of vision to" see that it must go to extinction along with polygamy contem poraneous.

      Jesus reaffirmed the original charter of the mon ogamic family (Matthew 19 1-12; Mark 10 2-12). It is to be noticed that He affirmed the indissoluhility of the family not only against the parties thereto but against the power of society. See DIVORCE.

      At first sight it seems a little strange that Jesus

      said so little about the family. But as we reflect

      on the nature of His mission we shall

      11. The catch the explanation of His silence 1 . Teaching He said, "Think not that I came to of Jesus destroy the law or the prophets: 1

      came not to destroy, but to fulfil" (Matthew 5 17), that is, to fill out, to expound and ex pand. He also said, "For the Son of man is come to save that which was lost" (18 11 AV), and, "I came not to call the righteous, but sinners" (9 13), that is, to rectify what was wrong. To what was right He gave the right of way let il go on in its own course. When the law was right. He said, not one jot or tittle of it should fail (5 IS). With regard to the family, He held the old charter written in the heart of man, before it was burned in brick or committed to manuscript, was right. It was comprehensive, would and ought to stand. So He stood by that, and that sufficed His purpose. Christ did not try to regulate the family so much as to regulate the persons who entered into family life. This may explain why we have no utterance from Him in regard to the conduct and duties of children toward parents. Still stood the ancient statute, "Honor thy father and thy mother." He came not to de stroy but to fulfil that. That still indicated the right relation of children to parents. If a child had asked about his relation to his parents, Christ would doubtless have referred him to that commandment, as He did other inquirers about duties to the com mandments that cover so large a part of the ethical realm.

      Paul, who particularizes so much in explanation

      of duties in all relations, scarcely gets beyond the

      old commandment, "Honor thy father

      12. The and thy mother," when he says, "Chil- Teaching dren, obey your parents in all things, of Paul for this is well-pleasing in the Lord."

      It has always been well-pleasing in the Lord. To be sure there was new inspiration to obedience from the new revelation of duty which came to them in Christ, but the duty was enforced by the Fifth Commandment, and that was copied from the deeper revelation in the heart of man.

      In modern society the two great foes of the family are Divorce and Migration. Families no longer live a con- 10 j tinuous life together. We have less 16. Modern family life than the old pastoral nomads. Dangers They had to keep together for several generations in order to protect their lives and their flocks and herds. So arose the clan, the tribe and the nation. Family influence can be detected through them. Modern industries are very much localized. We should easily think that families would be under their con trolling influence. But they are not; the industries are localized, the workers are becoming rovers. When trouble comes in an industry, a workman s first resort is to try




      Annotated by NewtonStein, Cambridge Theological Seminary

      Family Far, Farther

      somewhere else. Cheapness of transportation gives him the opportunity he desires. So with a satchel he goes hunting, much "as a barbarian roams the forest for game’ alone. He may take his family or leave it behind. Ho may bo separated from his family fejr months or years possibly abandon it forever. A ve>ry common cause of divorce; is abandonment of family by its male head.

      In fact, those engaged in a gre>at deal of legitimate industry are looking out for a bettor place quite as much as to d evelop the capacities e>f business in their own locations. The signs over places of business are few that carry the same name in town or city for a generation. Moving is perhaps more the order of the day than move ment. The families are few that can bo found in the same place for a quarter of a century. The wealthy cannot stay in the same hemso six months at a timo. They have a house in the city for the winter and one 1 in tho country for tho summer, and then forsake both and fly over the sea, perhaps to remain fe>r years traveling. How can family ties survive under such migratory life ? Society supersedes the family.

      Even education is subject to this malign influence. At their most impressive age 1 , when the’v iie-eel family influ ence me>st around them, children are; se iit away to prepare for or to enter upon higher course s of education. This fits them for something else than life in the family from which they sprang and they rare ly return to it. We may not be able to che>ck this drift, but we ought to see its tendency to degrade the estimate of the value of tho family.

      LiTEn.’Tunn. "VVolsey, Dinirrr, Scribners; Publica- tienis of the- Xatiemal Divorce Reform Leviticus-ague; Reports State anel Xatiemal, ml run; Peabenly, Jexns (. l<ri*t nml the Surlni Qui xtion, ch Hi; Cave-rile), Dinirrf, Midland Pub. Ce>., Madison, Wis. ; The Ten Words, Pilgrim Press, Boston.

      C. CAVERNO


      FAMINE, fam in P<"} , nTubfi; Xi[x6s, Umdx):

      1. Xattiral Causes 3. Divine Relations

      2. Famine s Mentioned 4. Figurative L"se>s

      The e onimem OT ‘ve>rd fetr "famine " is rd*abh; r^atVum also occurs (Genesis 42 19.33; Psalm 37 19), and kdp/idn (Job 6 22; 30 3), all meaning "hunger" and "famine"; in thG NT the word Islimus, meaning primarily "failure," "want of foexl."

      In early time s, esp. in lands doponelent on their

      own prejelue-tiems, famines we re: not infrequent.

      They wore generally caused by local

      1. Natural irre-gularitios of the rainfall, by de- Causes strue-tive hail storms (Exodus 9 23.31.32),

      by ravages of insects (Exodus 10 15; Je>el 1 4) and by enemies (Deuteronomy 28 51 i; in a city a famine might bo causeel by a siege (2 Kings 6 25); post ile-nce: ofte-n followeel in its wake;, and the suffering was great .

      Famines are recorded in the time of Abraham (Ge-n 12 10, etc), of Isaae: (26 1), of Jacob, when

      Joseph was in Egypt seven years of

      2. Famines famine even in Egypt after seven Mentioned of plenty (41 54), which also affected

      Canaan (42 1), and, indeed, "was over all the- face e>f the earth" (41 56); in the time of the: Judges (Ruth 1 1), of David, for three years (2 Samuel 21 1 ), of Ahab and Elijah (1 Kings 17 1; 18 2; Eoolus 48 2.3), of Elisha (2 Kings 4 38), during the siege of Samaria (6 25), the seven ye ars foretold by Elisha (8 1), in the reign of Zeelokiah in Jerus when bo- sie goel by Nebuchadnezzar (2 Kings 25 3; Je>r 52 (5; cf 14 1), its great severity is referred to (Lam 5 10; Bar 2 25); a "dearth" is also mentioned after the 1 re-turn from Captivity (Xe-h 5 3); when the city was besieged by Antiochus Eupator (1 Mace 6 54), after the death of Judas (9 24), when Jerus was be:- sie-ge d by Simon (13 49), in the time of Claudius (Acts 11 28, in his reign the;re were frequent fam ine s, one of which in 45 AD severely affected Pal; Jos, Ant, XX, v); Christ predicted "famines . . . . in dive>rs places" as characterizing the enel of the age (Matthew 24 7; Mark 13 8; Luke 21 11); in the siege of Jerus by Titus a terrible famine raged, the conse quences of which to the people have never been surpassed.

      Famines are frequently said to be sent as punish

      ments sometimes threatened as such (Leviticus 26 1!) f ;

      Deuteronomy 28 40-51; 2 Kings 8 1; Psalm 105 1(1;

      3. Divine Isaiah 14 30; 51 19; Jeremiah 14 12.15; 13 Relations 21, etc; Ezekiel 5 10, etc; Amos 8 11;

      2 Esd 15 5.49; 16 19; Tob 4 13; Ecclus 39 29; 40 9).

      The righteous or godly should bo preserved by God in time of famine (Job 5 20, "In famine he will redeem thee from death"; Psalm 33 19, "to keep them alive in famine"; 37 19, "In the days of famine they shall be satisfied") ; this was a special mark of the Divine favor and power.

      A famine is used by Amos to indicate 1 the absence

      of Divine communications as a punishment that

      should come on the people, a "famine

      4. Figura- .... of hearing the words of Jeh" tive Uses (811; cf 1 Samuel 3 1; 28 0; 2 Chronicles 15 3;

      Ezekiel 7 20; Micah 3 0); by Zephaniah of the destruction of heathen deities (2 11).

      RV has "dearth" for "famine" (Job 5 22); "famine" for "dearth" (Genesis 41 546; 2 Chronicles 6 28; Acts 7 11; 11 28); for "hunger" (Jeremiah 38 9; Ezekiel 34 29; Rev 6 8); "famines" for "famines and pestilences" (Matthew 24 7), "famines and troubles" (Mark 13 8), revised texts. ‘V. L. WALKEB

      FAMISH, fam ish pjn , ra cbh, Pin , razdJi): "To famish" as a trans vb. is 1 he translation of rd clt/i, "to hunger" (Genesis 41 55): "All the land of Egypt was famished" ; of ra dbh, "hunger" (Isaiah 5 13), "Their honorable men are famished," m "Hob their glory are men of famine"; of rdzdh, "to make levin," "famish" (Zeph 2 11), "For he will famish all the gods of the earth"; it is intrans as the translation of wTi hh , (Pmv 10 3), "Je>h will not sutler the soul of the: righteous to famish."

      FAN, FANNER, fan f-r: The word "fan" occurs 3 t only in ARV (Jeremiah 15 7; Matthew 3 12; Luke 3 17). In Isaiah 30 24 niizrch is translation 1 "fork," which is a much better translation if the instrument referred te> was shaped like- the winnowing fork use>d by tho Syrian farmer today and still so called. In Isaiah 41 10; Jor 4 11; 15 7, the vb. zardli is rendered "winnow" in ARV. In Jeremiah 51 2, RV substitute s "strangers" fe>r "fanners."

      FANCY, fan s! (<j>avTaco, phanldzo, "to cause to appear," "show"): In Eoelus 34 5, "Anel the: hevirt fancieth, as a woman s in travail" (cf Wisd 6 10; He 12 21).

      FAR, far, FARTHER, f-ir thdr: "Far" (adj.), distant, remote 1 ; (advb.) widely _re-moveel, is most frequently in the OT the translation of p^Hl, rdtwk, and in the NT of fjLa.Kpdv t inakmii, but also of ot her He b and Gr words. The word hdllldlt, an exclamation of abhorrence or aversion (I, XX mv yetioito; se e: Foii- iiii>), is rendered "far from me," "far from thee 1 ," etc (Genesis 18 25; 1 Samuel 2 30; 20 9; 22 15; 2 Samuel 20 20; 23 17; Job 34 10). Besieles its lite ral sense 1 , distance in a spiritual sense is expressed by "far," as "Salvation is far from the wie keel" (Psalm 119 155; cf Prov 15 29), "far from righteousness" (Isaiah 46 12), "not far from the kingdom of God" (Mark 12 34), etc. Fen- "far" RV has "ale>of" in Job 30 10; in several place s the: worel in AV is omitteel (Judges 9 17; Psalm 27 9; Isaiah 19 0; 26 15; Mark 13 31); "a far country" is changeel to "another" (Alt 21 33; 25 14; Mark 13 34), etc. For "God forbid" RV has "far bo it," "far bo it from me:" (Gal 6 14; in ARV, Genesis 44 7.17; 1 Samuel 12 23; Je)b 27 5, etc). _

      The comparative "farther" occurs only once in the OT (Eccl 8 17), and thrice in the NT (Matthew 26 39; Mark 1 19; 10 1), and in each case is replaced in RV by another word or phrase. RV, on the other hand, has "its farthest height" for "the height

      Far House Fat



      Annotated by NewtonStein, Cambridge Theological Seminary


      of his border" i Is;i 37 24),, -mil "his farthest lodging- place" for "the lodgings of his borders" (2 Kings 19 2 . ,).

      ‘. L. ‘V’LKI;Kings FAR HOUSE: The marginal explanation in HV

      of I xlh-nnrhiik (prTVEn P^2 , belli hn-incrhak, "house of distance"), which is given in the text of 2 Samuel 15 17 instead of "a place that was far off." See BKTH-MKKHAK.

      FARE, far: Occurs twice in the OT as the 1r of two Ilel) words, C1*T13 , xlnllr>in, "peace," "prosper ity," "completeness" (1 Samuel 17 Is), found in tin- sect ion on David s family. history omitted bv the I, XX translators, and "1ITL" , xrikliur, "hire, 1 "re ward," LXX vav’oi>, million, "passage-money," "fare" (John 1 3). In Ileb both words are sub stantives; in Eng. the former is a vb. meaning "to go," or "get on as to circumstances" (Criilur’ Dirt.), the latter, a sul>st. meaning the price which Jonah paid for a sea-voyage Jo Tarshish.

      In A])oc the Eng. vl>. "fare" helps in the translation of three (lr words, KO.KOUI, kukuil, fare evil" (RV "fare ill"), Sir 3 20; Aarrow, clullno, "fare worse" (RV "suffer loss" ), 32 "21; puvvv/j.i t r/io/inut>’, "be strong," "prosper," in 2 pers. (sing.) imperat. (ep/owtro, &r[/i]6so) or pi. (Zppwo-ffe, err[h]osthe) as a farewell salutation, or at the close of a letter, or to describe the welfare (usually physical or social) of a friend (2 Mace 9 20; 11 21.28, etc). Cf Acts 15 2 .); 23 30m.

      In the NT the Eng. vb. "fare," in addition to its occurrence in the word "fan -well" (which see), occurs only once (Luke 16 10), where it is said that the rich man "fared sumptuously every day" (KVm "living in mirth and splendor every day").

      The (!r is fiV.paiYofiai, rut>lirn!niim<ii. " be merry," and occurs 14 t in the NT, 10 in ;i good sense (Luke 15 2H.24. 2 ..:i2, all referring to the merry-milking over the return of Hie lost son; Acts 2 ~ <i, translation of Ileb iTETT . <~imali., "be, glad"; Kom 15 10, translation of Hebrews HI"! , ra,,nh, " to sing" ; 2 Oor 2 2; <!al 4 27, translation of Ileb n*""!, randh, " to sing"; Rev 12 12; 18 20) : I in a bad, or* less favorable, senso (Luke 12 Id; 16 ! .; Acts 7 H; Kev 11 HI). The. <r word is variously tM in the NT, "be merry," "make merry," "be glad," "rejoice," "make glad, and only once "fare" ( Luke 16 ! .. In the last passage it mean s the general physical and material welfare of the rich man (so the Ceneva [1 "><>()], the Bishops and Khemish Bibles. RV jlssij, and not simply partaking of rich food so ‘ ulg, Wyclll, Coverdale, Cranmer, (ieneva |l.~>57| ami AV). Luther translates Luke 16 1!, "lebtealle Tage hen-hcli mid in Freuden " ; Weizsiieker, "genoss .sein Loben alle Tagein Glanze"; Ostervald, "setraitoit bien et magniflquement" ; Oltremare, "faisaitbrillantechfire"; Segqnd, " menait joyeuse el brilhinte vie"; ‘Ve’moutli, "enjoyed a splendid banquet every day," all (if which virtually agree with the. view taken by us as to meaning of "fare." The AMTP<<, lam pn ix, "sumptuously," shows that the rich man s nianivr of living was "brilliant." "magnificentury" RV has " fare" for "do" (Acts 15 :5ti), "fared" for "did" (2 Samuel 11 7), "hath fared" for "was" (Jen 30 29).


      FAREWELL, far-wel (‘cupw, ctniinl), Fare ye, or thou,well: Originally a wish at. parting for those faring forth (traveling):

      (1) As a parting wish at the close of a letter it represents the C.r tppuo-o, ( rr’lt]<~>xt>, "He strong," imperat. of puvvujju, rlidnniuni, "to make strong" (Acts 15 20; 23 30 AV; seeRVm; 2 Mace 11 21); once xalpere, cliatrrtc (imp. of x a P w ), "Rejoice!" (2 Corinthians 13 11, HVm "Rejoice: be perfected").

      (2) As equivalent to our saying "good-bye," it represents the Clr airoTdaffo^aL, <tpi>t<ts$oi>Hii, "to separate one s self," "to take leave," "to bid fare well" (Luke 9 (51, "to bid farewell to them that are at my house"; Acts 18 21, "bade them farewell," RV "taking his leave of them"). See FAKE; (.IREETINU.

      W. L. WALKER

      FARM, farm: Matthew 22 5 is t he only passage where a.yp6s, ayros, has been rendered "farm." In the many other passages where the same word occurs

      it is rendered "field" or "piece of ground." Farms such as t he ( )ccidental is accustomed to see, namely, isolated dwellings with their groups of outbuildings, surrounded by walls or hedges and overlooking the planted fields, were probably unknown in Pal. For protection against wild beasts and Arab marauders everyone lived in a village and went out to his fields, located perhaps miles away, only as occasion required. JAMES A. PATCH

      FARTHING, far thing: The rendering of two words in (lit- ( ir of the NT, aa-crdpiov, nxsnrion, and KoSpavrys, kixlrnnli s, Lat (/luidrutix. The uxxurion was the tenth part of the dcituriun, and hence in value about one penny or two cents. The i/nadnins was the fourth part of the Roman rc.s, and worth only about three mills, or less than the lOng. far thing, and is the only term rendered farthing by ARV. It occurs in Matthew 5 20 and Mark 12 42, while uxxnriott, which occurs in Matthew 10 20 and Luke 12 (5, is rendered "penny" by ARV.

      FASHION, fash un (EET5T2 , wiafiimt; xr/ntnn, t he make, pat tern, shape, manner or appear ance of a thing [from Lat faction-em, "a making," through Old Fr. ,/>/C"". fachott}): In the OT the noun "fashion" represents 3 Hebrews words:

      (1) A’.s7’7/ = lit. "judgment," hence judicial sen tence, right, custom, manner; usually translation 1 "judg ment "_ (very frequent), but also a few times "sen tence," "cause," "charge-," and more frequently "manner" (nearly 40 t in AV). In , i passages it is translation 1 "fashion," in the sense of style, shape, make, in each case of a building or part of a building (Fix 26 :); 1 Kings 6 3S; Kings/k 42 11).

      (2) T e khundh=lit. "arrangement," "adjustment" (cf taktxtn, "to set right," "adjust," from kiln, firkin n, "to set up," "establish"; Ezekiel 43 11, "the form of the house, and the fashion thereof." A cognate word in t lie preceding verse is translation 1 "pat tern" (RVm "sum" ).

      (3) D inu(‘ = "resemblance" (from da/ndh, "to be similar".), generally translation 1 "likeness" in KV, but "fashion" in 2 Kings 16 10, where it means pattern or model. The vb. "to fashion" stands for (u) ijCiqnr, "to form," "fashion" (Psalm 33 l. r > 139 16 AV; ls-i 22 11 AV; 44 12; 45 0); (h) V7.sA, "to work." "make," "form" (Job 10 Samuel); (c) kiln, "to set uj)," "establish," "prepare" (Job 31 lo; Psalm 119 73; lv/.k 16 7); (it) (;tlr, "to bind up together," "com press" (Kx 32 4, of Aaron fashioning the golden calf out of the golden rings).

      In the NT, the noun represents 5 fir words: (1) Of these, the most, interesting is xc/i<~>nn, "figure," "shape," "fashion" (from crx^", sclirin, aor. of ex fl ", ( rlirin., "to have, "cf Lat tiiil>itus,{ruin hdbco, "1 have"). Schema denotes a transient, ex ternal semblance or fashion, and so it may be dis tinguished from its synonym M/ 5 0^, morph, which denotes the essential intrinsic form of a thing, ex pressing its real nature. (See Lightfoot, Detached Note on Phil 2; Trench, XT Xyn., 2f)2 IT ; Clifford, Incarnation, 22 ff. The; distinction is rejected by Meyer, on Rom 12 2, and by others.) In the NT, the noun schema occurs but twice: 1 Corinthians 7 31, "The fashion of this world passeth away," where there seems to be an allusion to theatrical scenes, which are in their very nature transitory (cf 2 Mace 4 13); and Phil 2 8, "being found in fashion as a man," i.e. having the outward figure and bearing of a man, such marks of human nature as strike; the senses (contrast morpfie Thcoii, "form of God," ver 6, and morphe doulou, "form of servant," ver 7, which describe Christ s real inner nature). The word schema is found in compound vbs. in the follow ing passages: Rom 12 2, "Be not fashioned [sun~ schematizesthe] according to this world: but be ye




      Annotated by NewtonStein, Cambridge Theological Seminary

      Far House Fat

      transformed [metamorphoiisthe] by the renewing of your mind" (so RV), paraphrased by Sanday and Headlam, "Do not adopt the external and fleeting fashion of this world, but be ye transformed in your inmost nature" (Comm. in loc.); 2 Corinthians 11 13 f, metaschemalizomai, AV "transformed," better RV "fashioned," the reference being to "the fictitious, illusory transformation whereby evil assumes the mask of good" (Lightfoot, Comm. on Phil, 131); 1 Pet 1 14, "not fashioning yourselves according to your former lusts," paraphrased by Lightfoot, "not falling in with the capricious guidance of the pas sions" (ib). In Phil 3 21, the adj. siimmorphos is translation d "fashioned" in AV, but better "conformed" as in RV.

      (2) EfSos, c ulns, lit. "thing seen," " external appearance," "shape," is translation 1 "fashion" in Luke 9 2!), of the glorified appearance of < he transfigured Christ.

      (3) 2pocrcoTToi , jiroxopon, lit. "face," hence look, appearance, Jas 1 11, "The grace of the fashion of it perisheth."

      (4) TVTTOS, lu/xtx, type, model, translation 1 "fashion" in Acts 7 41- AV (.RV "figure"), the Gr word being taken from the LXX of the quoted passage, Kx 25 40. The same phrase, kntd tun tupon, in the || passage, He 8 5, is translation 1 "according to the pattern."

      (5) In one instance the phrase "on this fashion," "in this manner," represents the Gr advb. OI"<TUJS. hautdti, "thus" (Mark 2 12). D. MIALL EDWARDS

      . FAST, fast, FASTING, fast ing pIS , cum; 713?

      ITS I , *iiui(ili >n i>htxli, "afllict soul or self," i.e. prac tise self-denial; v^o-reia, m~.s/rm, vr’<rrt’>tt.v, nc- xtcucin) . It is necessary to get rid of some modern notions associated with fasting before we can form a correct idea of its origin and significance in the ancient world. I or instance, in the case of many ailments the dieting of the patient is an essential part of the remedy. But we may readily assume; that originally fasting was not based on the salutary influence which it exercised on 1 he health of 1 he .sub ject. Considerations of therapeutics played no part in the institution. The theory that fasting, like many other ancient customs, had a religious origin, is in favor with scholars, but. we must not assume a religious origin for all practices which in process of time came to be associated with religion.

      Many customs, purely secular in their origin, have gradually obtained a religious significance, just as purely religious customs have been dissociated from religion. It is also possible and, in the light of some usages, prob able, that different motives operated in the association of fasting, as of some other customs, with religion. Scholars have been too ready to assume; that the original significance, of fasting was the same in all countries and among all nations. Robertson Smith in his /iY’, ‘,>’ ,,f tli<: .sVwiVr.-j advanced and defended the theory that, fast ing was merely a mode of preparation for the tribal meal in which sacrifice- originated, and came to be con sidered at a later stage as part of the sacrificial act. This hypothesis apparently accounts for the otherwise strange fact that both fnxti>i</ and fi-n.^/ini/ are religious acts, but it does not give a satisfactory explanation of the constant association of fastitig with the "wearing of sackcloth," the "putting of ashes on the head," and other similar customs. It is obvious that very different motives operated in the institution of fasting and of feasting as religious observances.

      It is a matter of common observation and experi ence that great distress causes loss of appetite and therefore occasions abstinence from food. Hannah, who was greatly distressed on account of her child lessness, "wept, and did not eat" (1 Samuel 1 7). Vio lent anger produces the same effect (20 34). Ac cording to 1 Kings 21 4, Aliab, "heavy and displeased" on account of Naboth s refusal to part with his estate, sulked and "would eat no bread." Fasting, originally the natural expression of grief, became the customary mode of proving to others the inner emotion of sorrow. David demonstrated his grief at Abncr s death (2 Samuel 3 35) by fasting, just as the

      Psalmist indicated his sympathy with his adver saries sorry plight in the same way (Psalm 35 13). In such passages as Ezr 10 6; Est 4 3, it is not clear whether fasting is used in its religious significance or simply as a natural expression of sorrow (cf also Luke 5 33 and see below). This view explains the association of fasting with the mourning customs of antiquity (cf 1 Samuel 31 13; 2 Samuel 1 12). As fasting was a perfectly natural and human expression and evidence of the subject s grief, it readily claimed a place among those religious customs whose main ob ject was the pacification of the anger of God, or the excital of His compassion. Any and every act that would manifest the distressful state of the suppliant would appeal to the Deity and move Him to pity. The interesting incident recorded in 2 Samuel 12 16-23 suggests the twofold significance of fasting as a religious act or a mode of appealing to the Deity and as a funeral custom. David defends his fast ing before and not after the child s death on the ground that while the child was alive David s prayer might be answered. His fasting was intended to make his petition effectual (cf also 1 Kings 21 27; Ezr 8 21; Est 4 1(5). Occasionally fasting was pro claimed on a national scale, e.g. in case of war (Judges 20 2(5; 2 Chronicles 20 3) or of pestilence (Joel 1 13 f). Fasting having thus become a recognized mode of seeking Divine favor and protect ion, it was natural that it should be associated with confession of sin, as indisput able; evidence of penitence or sorrow for sin.

      Fasting might be partial, i.e. abstinence from certain kinds of food, or total, i.e. abstinence from all food as well as from washing, anointing, sleeping. It might be of shorter or longer duration, e.g. for one day, from sunrise to sunset (Judges 20 2(5; 1 Samuel 14 21; 2 Samuel 1 12; 3 3/>). In 1 Samuel 31 13 allusion is made to a seven days fast, while Daniel abstained from "pleasant, bread," flesh, wine and anointing for three weeks (Did 10 3). Moses (Exodus 34 2s) and Elijah (1 Kings 19 8) fasted for 40 days. It, is probable that these last three; references presuppose a totally different conception of the significance of fasting. It is obvious that dreams made a dee]) impression on primitive man. They were commu nications from the departed members of the family. At a later stage t hey were looked upon as revelations from God. During sleep there is total abstinence from food. It was easy to draw the inference that fasting might fit the person to receive these com munications from the world of spirits (I)nl 10 2). The close connection between fasting and insight intellectual and spiritual between simph; living and high thinking is universally recognized. See further under ABSTINENCE; FEASTS AND FASTS.

      LITBUATURK. Xowack, Hebriiixrhi Arrlii iiiliii/if; Ben- /inger, /fi l>ri ii r>n- An-h/ iuluijic; Robertson Smith, Itf- liuioii, of the Xcmitca.


      FAT p -H, hi-ltU, nbn, ln-l,-bh): The layer of subcutaneous fat and the compact suet surround ing the viscera and imbedded in the entrails, which, like the blood, was forbidden as food in the Mosaic; code (Leviticus 3 17). It was to be sacrificed to God by being burnt upon the altar (3 1(5; 7 30). This hail to be done on the very day on which a beast had been slaughtered, to remove temptation from the Israelite to use it otherwise (Exodus 23 IS). The law was probably a sanitary restriction, for, at an early date, leprosy, scrofula and disfiguring cutaneous diseases were thought to be caused by the use of fat as food. It was, moreover, an important peda gogical provision teaching the idea of self-denial, and the maxim that the richest and best meat of the edible animal belonged to Jeh. See also FAT- LING; FOWL, FATTED.



      Annotated by NewtonStein, Cambridge Theological Seminary


      The expression "fat" is often used in figurative senses, e.g. abundant, exuberant, lusty, fertile, robust, outwardly successful (Deuteronomy 32 15; Psalm 92 14 AV; 119 70; Prov 11 25; 13 4, etc).

      H. L. E. LUERIXG

      FAT (VAT). WINK, WINK P2KSS, 2.

      FATHER, fa ther (AS Fn-dcr; Ger. Vater; Hebrews 2X , ab/i, etymology uncertain, found in many cog nate languages; Gr Trar^p, pater, from root pa, "nourisher," "protector," "upholder") :

      Immediate male 1 ancestor. The father in the Ileb

      family, as in the Rom, had supreme rights over his

      children, could dispose of his daugh-

      1. Imme- ter in marriage (Genesis 29), arrange his diate Male son s marriage (Genesis 24), sell his ehil- Ancestor dren (Exodus 21 7), but not his daughter

      to a stranger (Xeh 5 5), had power of life and death, as in the case of Isaac (Genesis 22), Jephthah s daughter (Judges 11 34 t f), the sacrificing of his children to Molech (Leviticus 18 21; 20 3-5), etc. Respect, reverence and affection for fathers (and equally for mothers) is most tenderly, explicitly and sternly prescribed from the earliest times (Exodus 20 12; Leviticus 19 3; Deuteronomy 5 10; Mir- 7 0; E/,k 22 7, etc). Asymmetrical and beautiful picture of the duties and character of the ideal human father may be built up from the OT, with added and enlarged touches from the NT. He loves (Genesis 37 1); com mands (Genesis 50 Iti; Prov 6 20); instructs (1 8, etc); guides, encourages, warns (Jeremiah 34; 1 Thessalonians 211); trains (Hos 11 3); rebukes (Genesis 34 30); restrains (Eli, by contrast, 1 Samuel 3 13); punishes (Deuteronomy 21 IS); chastens (Prov 3 12; Deuteronomy, 8 5); nour ishes (Isaiah 1 2); delights in his son (Prov 3 12), and in his son s wisdom (10 1); is deeply pained by his folly (17 25); ho is considerate of his chil dren s needs and requests (Matthew 7 10); considerate of their burdens, or sins (Mai 3 17, "As a man sparoth his own son"); tenderly familiar (Luke 11 7, "with me in bed"); considerately self-restrained (Eph 6 4, "Provoke not your children to wrath"); having in view the highest ends (ib, "Nurture them in the chastening and admonition of the Lord"); pitiful (Psalm 103 13, "as a father pitieth his children") ; the last human friend (but one) to desert the child (Psalm 27 10: "When [a thing to the psalmist incredible] my father and rny mother forsake me, then Jeh will take me up").

      (a) Ancestor, immediate or remote: Genesis 28 13, "Abraham thy father" (grandfather): 1 Kings 22 50,

      "Jehoshaphat .... David his father" ;

      2. Ances- Jeremiah 35 6, "Jonadab, the son of Rechab, tors, Imme- our father"; Dnl 5 11, "Nobuchad- diate or ne/zar thy father" (personal or offi- Remote cial ancestor); Genesis 15 15, "Go to thy

      fathers in peace" (and so [in the pi.] in over 500 passages). The expressions "slept with his fathers," "go down to his fathers," "buried with his fathers," "gathered to his fathers," are self- explanatory euphemisms, (b) The founders of the (Ileb) race, specifically the patriarchs: Rom 9 5, "whose are the fathers," considered here also as in a sense the religious ancestors of all believers, (c) Progenitors of clans, i.e. (RV) "fathers houses": Exodus 6 14; 1 Chronicles 27 1, etc. (d) Gods as progenitors of men: Jeremiah 2 27, "Who say to a stock, thou art my father."

      Figurative and derived uses: (a) A spiritual

      ancestor, one who has infused his own spirit into

      others, whether good, as Abraham, the

      3. Figura- fat her of the faithful, Rom 4 11; or bad, tive and as John 8 44. "Ye are of your father Derived the devil. (b) Indicating closest Uses resemblance, kinship, affinity: Job

      17 14, "If I have said to corruption, Thou art my father." (c) A source: Eph 1 17,

      "Father of glory"; Job 38 2S, "Hath the rain a father?" (d) Creator: Jas 1 17, "the Father of lights." (e) The inventor or originator of an art or mode of life: Genesis 4 20, "father of such as dwell in tents" (a hint here of hereditary occupations? Probably not). (/) One who exhibits the fatherly characteristics: Psalm 68 5, "a father of the father less." (/) One who occupies a position of counsel, care, or control (frequently applied by sultans to their prime ministers): Genesis 45 8, "a father to Pharaoh"; Judges 17 10, "Be unto me a father and a priest." (‘) A revered or honored superior: 2 Kings 5 13, "My father, if the prophet had bid thee"; but esp. applied to prophets: 2 Kings 2 12, "My father, my father!" also to elderly and venerable men: 1 John 2 13, "1 write unto you, fathers"; hence also, with perhaps an outlook on (2) (a), deceased early Christians: 2 Pet 3 4, "from the day that the fathers fell asleep." (i) An ecclesiastical title, condemned (in principle) by Our Lord: Matthew 23 9, "Call no man your father on the earth"; but applied, under the power of the Spirit, to members of the Sanhedrin (probably) by Stephen: Acts 7 2; and by Paul: 22 1, but the latter, perhaps also the former, may simply refer to the elderly among his hearers. Christ s condemnation is clearly of the praise-seeking or obsequious spirit, rather than of a particular custom.

      "Father," used by Mary of Joseph, in relation to Jesus, equals "putative father," a necessary reserve at a time when the virgin birth could not yet be proclaimed (Luke 2 49). But note Jesus answer: "my Father s house."


      FATHER, GOD THE: In the Christian religion God is conceived of as "Father," "Our Father .... in heaven" (Matthew 6 9.14.2(1, etc), "the God and Father of the Lord Jesus" (2 Corinthians 11 31, etc). The tenderness of relation and wealth of love and grace embraced in this profound designation are peculiar to Christ s gospel. Pagan religions also could speak of God as "Father" (Zeus Pater), and in the general sense of Creator God has a universal fatherly rela tion to the world (Acts 17 24-2S). In the OT God was revealed as Father to the chosen nation (Exodus 4 22), and to the special representative of the nation, the king (2 Samuel 7 14), while fatherly love is de clared to be the image of His pity for those who fear Him (Psalm 103 13). In the gospel of Jesus alone is this Fatherhood revealed to be of the very essence of the Godhead, and to have; respect to the indi vidual. Here, however, there is need for great dis crimination. To reach the heart of the truth of the Divine Fatherhood it is necessary to begin, not with man, but with the Godhead itself, in whose eternal depths is found the spring of that Fatherly love that reveals itself in time. It is first of all in relation to the eternal Son -before all time that the meaning of Fatherhood in God is made clear (John 1 IS). In "God the Father" we have a name pointing to that relation which the first Person in the adorable Trinity sustains to "Son" and "Holy Spirit" also Divine (Matthew 28 19). From this eternal fountain-head flow the relations of God as Father (1) to the world by creation; (2) to believers by grace. Man as created was designed by affinity of nature for sonship to God. The realization of this -his true creature-destiny was frustrated by sin, and can now only be restored by redemption. Hence the place of sonship in the gospel, as an un speakable privilege, (1 John 3 1), obtained by grace, through regeneration (John 1 12.13), and adoption (Rom 8 14.19). In this relation of nearness and privilege to the Father in the kingdom of His Son (Col 1 13), believers are "sons of God" in a sense true of no others. It is a relation, not of nature, but of grace. Fatherhood is now the determinative




      Annotated by NewtonStein, Cambridge Theological Seminary

      Fat (Vat) Fault

      fact in God s relation to thorn (Eph 3 14 ff). It is an error, nevertheless, to speak of fatherhood as if the whole character of God was therein sufficiently expressed. C.od is Father, but equally fundamental is His relation to His world as its Moral Ruler and Judge. From eternity to eternity the holy God must pronounce Himself against sin (Rom 1 IS); and His fatherly grace cannot avert judgment where the heart remains hard and impenitent (2 1-9). For the fuller discussion of these points see GOD; CHILDREN OF GOD; TRINITY. JAMES OKU

      FATHER-IN-LAW, fa ther-in-16. See RELATION SHIPS, FAMILY.

      FATHERLESS, fa ther-les (2lrP , yathom; op- 4>av6s, (>r/>/itutos): The fatherless are frequently mentioned in the ()T, generally in association with the widow and the stranger, as typical instances of the unprotected and necessitous, who are specially subject, to oppression, and also to God s special protection. Great philanthropic regard is bestowed on this class throughout. In early legislation then- is a special clause to guard them against affliction (Exodus 22 22-24). They have a still more prominent place in the Deuteronomic legislation, which gives instruc tions that a charitable fund be formed out of the tithe, once every three vears, for the relief of the destitute (I.)t 14 2X.29; 26 12-14), and that gleanings be left in the cornfield, the olive garden, and the vineyard for the benefit of this class (24 19-22; cf Leviticus 19 9f; 23 22, where, however, the fatherless" are not specially mentioned). The Deuteronomisl declares that God is on their side (10 IS), and strongly condemns those who would oppress them (24 1? ; 27 19). The prophets and psalmists are equally emphatic in pleading for mercy and justice to the fatherless, and in declaring that God is their special guardian (Isaiah 1 17; Jeremiah 7 6f; 22 3; llos 14 3; Zee 7 10; I s 10 14; 68 5; 82 3; 146 9; cf Prov 23 10). Oppressing t he- fatherless is frequently mentioned as a typical act of cruelty and injustice (cf Job 6 27; 22 9; 24 3. 9; 29 12 f; 31 1(5.17.21; Psalm 94 G; Isaiah 1 23; 10 2; Jeremiah 5 2S; E/k 22 7; Mai 3 5). Here we have instances of the prophetic passion for right eousness and compassion for the helpless, inspired by a profound sense of the value of human life. Passages in the Apoc reflect the same spirit (2 Esd 2 20; Ecclus 4 10).

      In the NT the word "fatherless" occurs but once, when- James declares, in the spirit of the OT proph ets, that true religious ritual consists in visitation of the fatherless and widows and in moral purity (Jas 1 27). Here the word for "fatherless" is orphanos ("bereft," "orphaned"), which is the LXX translation of the OT yullioin. In the NT the Gr word is found besides only in John 14 18, where it means destitute of a teacher or guide (cf Lam 5 3).




      2X, beth abh, rP2X IT 1 ?, beth ab/wlh): Father s house in the OT is (1) a dwelling, the family home (Genesis 12 1; 31 14.30; 38 11; 1 Samuel 18 2); (2) a family or household (Genesis 41 51; 46 31; Exodus 12 3, RV "fathers houses"); (3) the group of house holds, of several of which the "family" or "clan" was constituted, aggregations of which formed the "tribe," generally "fathers houses" (Numbers 1 IS. 20 if; 17 2; Ezr 2 59; Neh 10 34, etc); (4) the "family" (clan), mishpahdh, "fathers houses" (Exodus 6 14 f ; Numbers 3 20 ff) ; (5 j the tribe, "fathers house," "houses" (Numbers 7 2; 17 1-3, etc).

      In the NT "father s house" (of/cos rot) Trarpos,

      oikos tou patros) occurs in the sense of dwelling, house (Luke 16 27; cf 16 4). Our Lord also uses the phrase (1) of the earthly temple-dwelling of God at Jerus (John 2 16, "Make not my Father s house a house of merchandise"; cf Psalm 11 4; Isaiah 63 15); (2) of heaven as the abode of God and His children (John 14 2, "In my Father s house are many mansions," RVm "abiding places," oikia, "house," "dwelling," also household, family; cf Psalm 33 13; Isaiah 63 15; Matthew 6 9). The phrase occurs also (Acts 7 20) of Moses, "nourished .... in his father s house" (oikos).

      RV has "father s house" for "principal household" (1 Chronicles 24 6), "heads of the fathers houses" for "chief fathers" (Numbers 31 20; 32 2S; 36 1 ; 1 Chronicles 9 34, etc); "one prince of a father s house," for "each of" (.Joshua 22 14); "the heads of the fathers [houses]" for "the chief of the fathers," and " the fathers houses of the chief," for "the principal fathers" (1 Chronicles 24 31).

      ‘V. L. WALKER

      FATHOM, fath um (op-yvid, orguid): The lit, meaning is the length of the outstretched arms, and it was regarded as equal to 4 cubits, or about Oft. (Acts 27 2S). See WKICHTS AND MEASURES.


      FATNESS, fat nes ("Tin, dcshcn; TT(.OTI’Samuel, piotes):

      The translation of dcshcn (Judges 9 9, "But the olive-tree said un

      to them, Should I leave my fatness?";

      1. Literal Job 36 16 [of food]), "full of fatness";

      of hcli b/i, "fat," "the best part," "the

      marrow" (Job 15 27; Psalm 73 7; Isaiah 34 6.7); of

      mishman, "fatness," "fertility" (Genesis 27 2S, "the

      fatness of the earth"; Isaiah 17 4, "the fatness of his

      flesh"); of shi-mcn, "fatness," "oil" (Psalm 109 24);

      of piotes, "fat," "fatness" (Rom 11 17, "partaker

      .... of the root of the fatness of the olive tree").

      "Fatness" is used fig. for the richness of God s

      goodness; as such it, is the translation of dcshen ("They shall

      be abundantly satisfied [m "Hebrews

      2. Figura- watered"] with the fatness of thy tive house" (Psalm 36 Samuel); "Thy paths drop

      fatness" (65 11; cf Isaiah 55 2; Jeremiah 31 14).

      "With fatness" is supplied, Deuteronomy 32 15 AV, "covered with fatness"; RV lias "become sleek"; for "The yoke shall be destroyed because of the anointing" (Isaiah 10 -7: ARV has "by reason of fatness," m "Hebrews oil"; KRV as AV, with m as ARV; the text is believed to be cor rupt; LXX has "from your shoulders."

      ‘Y. L. WALKER

      FAUCHION, fo shun. Sec SCIMITAR.

      FAULT, folt (8En, hata ; alrCa, aitia, |i(A<J>ojAai, memphomai): Implies defect, of less moral weight than crime or sin. It is the translation of hata , "error," "failure," "sin" (Exodus 5 16); of het , same meaning (Genesis 41 9, "I do remember my faults this day"); of Vlii-on, "perversity," "iniquity" (2 Samuel 3 Samuel; Psalm 59 4); of rish*ah, "wrongness," "wickedness" (Deuteronomy 25 2, RV "wickedness"); of sh e hath (Aram.) "cor ruption" (Dnl 6 -I bin); mf umah, "anything" (1 Samuel 29 3, "no fault in him," lit. "not anything"); of aitia, "cause," "case-," "guilt" (John 18 3S; 19 4.6; Pilate of Jesus, " I find no fault in him," RV "no crime"; the same word is rendered "accusation," i.e. legal cause for prosecution, Matthew 27 37; Mark 15 26; cf Acts 25 18.27); of aition, same meaning (Luke 23 4.14; ver 22, aition thandtou "cause of death"); of htttema, "a worse condition," "defect" (1 Corinthians 6 7, RV "a defect," in "a loss to you"); of pardptdma, "a falling aside" (Gal 6 1, "If a man be overtaken in a fault," RV "in any trespass," m "by"; Jas 5 16, "Confess your faults one to another," RV "Confess therefore your sins one to another"); hamartdno, "to miss," ~"err," "sin," is translation d "your faults" (1 Pet 2 20 RV, "when ye sin"); mem phomai, "to blame," is translation d "to find fault" (Mark 7 2




      omitted RV; Rom 9 19; lie 8 8); elecjchd, "to convict," "to tell one s fault" (Matthew 18 15, RV "show him his fault"); dmdtnos, "without blemish," "spotless," is translation 1 "without fault" (Rev 14 5, RV "without blemish," "faultless"; Jude ver 24, "able to j)resent you faultless," RV "without, blemish"); ihncin/iltix, "blameless," "without reproach" (He 8 7, "for if that first covenant had been faultless"). "Faulty" is the translation of fishf-M, "guilty" (2 Samuel 14 13, "us one which is faulty," RV "guilty"); of asfnnn, "to be or become guilty" (Hos 10 2, RV "guilty").

      W. L. WALK Kit

      FAVOR, fa ver ("H , hen, "131"} , raqon, with other Hebrews words; x-P l s> cliriris): Means generally good will, acceptance, and the benefits flowing from these; in older usage it meant also the countenance, hence appearance. Alternating in EV with "grace," it is used chiefly of man, but sometimes also of ( lod (Cen 18 3; 30 27; 39 21; Exodus 3 21; 2 Samuel 15 2f>, "in the eyes of Jeh," etc). It is used perhaps in the sense of "countenance" in Prov 31 30, "Favor is deceitful, and beauty is vain" (AV), where for "favor" RV has "grace"; the reference is to ex ternal appearance. "Favored" is used in the sense of "appearance" in the phrase- "well-favored" (Genesis 29 17; 39 6; 41 2.1); conversely, "ill-favored" (!en 41 3.4). For "favor" RV has "have pity on" (Psalm 109 12), "good will" (Prov 14 9), "peace* (Cant 8 10); ERV "grace" (Ruth 2 13), ARV "kindness" (Est 2 17; Dnl 1 9), etc. In ARV "the acceptable year of the Lord" (Isaiah 61 2) is changed into "the year of Jeh s favor"; "Do I now persuade men" (!al 1 10) into, "Amos I now seeking the favor of men," and there are other RV changes.

      W. L. WALKEH

      FAWN, fon. See DKKR.

      FEAR, fer (~X-T, ijirdh, X^ , ‘an ; 4>6(3os, />hu- bos, <f>opeoj, phob&o) . "Fear" is the translation of many words in theOT; the chief are: yiYd/i, "fear," Terms, "terror," "reverence," "awe," most

      etc often "the fear of (!od," "of Jeh"

      (den 20 11; 2 Chronicles 19 9, etc); also of "fear" generally (Job 22 4; Isaiah 7 25; Exk 30 13, etc); yarc , "to be afraid," "to fear," "to rev erence-" (den 15 1; Leviticus 19 3.14; Deuteronomy 6 2, etc); /xi/Kidti, "fear," "terror," "dread" (den 31 42. 53; Deuteronomy 11 25; 1 Samuel 11 7 AV; Job 4 14; Isaiah 2 10 AV, etc).

      "Fearful" (timid) is the translation of i/<irr (Deuteronomy 20 X; Judges 7 3); "to be feared," i/nrf- (Kx 15 11; Deuteronomy 28 ">*; cf Psalm 130 4); in Isaiah 35 4. it is the translation of nuilmr. "hasty," "tliein that are of a fearful heart," in "Hebrews hasty"; per haps, ready to flee (for fear).

      "Fearfully" (Psalm 139 14): uCirf- , "I am fearfully [and] wonderfully made," so KV; "and" is not in the text, so that " fearfully " may be equivalent to "extremely," to an awesome degree; cf Psalm 65 . r >. "by terrible things .... in righteousness"; 66 >>, "How terrible are thy works (yarc "fearful"); the LXX, Pesh, Vulg have "Thou art fearfully wonderful."

      "Fearfulness" occurs in Psalm 55 5 (yir iih); Isaiah 21 4 (palldfuth ), KV "horror"; Isaiah 33 14 (r f adhah, "trem bling"), "Fearfulness hath surprised the hypocrites," RV "Trembling hath seized the godless ones."

      In the NT the chief words are /iliobos, "fear," "terror," "affright" (.Matthew 14 2(i; 28 4.Samuel; Luke 21 26;

      1 John 4 18, etc), and phobco, "to put in fear" (both used of ordinary fear) (Matthew 1 20; 10 26; 28 5;

      2 Corinthians 12 20, etc); of the fear of dod, the noun (Rom 3 18; 2 Corinthians 7 1), thevb. (Luke 18 4; 23 40, etc); deilin, "timidity," "fear," occurs in 2 Timothy 1 7, "dod hath not given us the spirit of fear," RV "a spirit of fearfulness"; ekphobos, "frightened out [of one s senses]," "greatly terrified" (He 12 21; cf Deuteronomy 9 19; Wisd 17 9 AV); a/to tea eulabnax is translation 1 (lie 5 7) "[of Christ] who was heard in that he feared," 2 V "having been heard for his godly fear" ; so all the dr commentators; culdbcia, properly, "caution," "circumspection," is used in the NT for

      godly fear (He 12 28, RV "reverence and awe," m as AV); cf culabcs (Luke 2 25 ; Acts 2 5; 82); eulabeomai, "to act with caution" (Acts 23 10). Deilos, "fearful," "timid," occurs in Matthew 8 2(r Mark 4 40; Rev 21 8, "Their part shall be .... the second death"; phoberds, "fearful," "terrible" (He 10 27. 31); />linbrtmn, "something fearful," "a ter rible sign or portent" (Luke 21 11, RV "terrors").

      Fear is a natural and, in its purpose, beneficent feeling, arising in the presence or anticipation of danger, and moving to its avoidance; it is also awakened in the presence of superiors and of striking manifestations of power, etc., taking the form of awe or reverence. Fear has been said to be the source of religion, but religion can never have origi nated from fear alone, since men are impelled to draw nigh with expectation to the object of worship.

      "Fear" is certainly a prominent element in OT religion; Hie "fear of dud" or of Jeh, "the fear of the Lord," is indeed synonymous with religion itself (Psalm 34 11; Prov 1 7; Isaiah" 11 2.3; Jeremiah 2 19; Eccl 12 13, "the whole duty of man," RVm "the dulv of all men ). _ But although the element of dread, or of "fear" in its lower sense, is not always absent, and is sometimes prominent in the earlier stages especially, though not exclusively (Exodus 23 27, entnh; 1 Samuel 11 7; 2 Chronicles 20 29; Psalm 119 120; Isaiah 2 10.19.21), it is more the feeling of reverent regard for their dod, tempered with awe and fear of the punishment of disobedience. As such it is a senti ment commanded and to be cherished toward Jeh (Exodus 20 20; Deuteronomy 6 13; Joshua 4 24; 1 Samuel 12 24; Job 6 2; Psalm 33 Samuel; 34 9; Prov 23 17; Ecd 5 7, etc). It is an essential element, in the worship and service of Jeh (2 Kings 17 often; Psalm 2 11, etc); it is a Divine qualification of the Messiah (Isaiah 11 2.3). This "fear of Jeh" is manifested in keeping dod s commandments, walking in His ways, doing His will, avoiding sin, etc (Kx 20 20; Deuteronomy 6 1324 2 Samuel 23 3; Psalm 34 4.9 | Prov 8 13; 16 6). It is the true wisdom (Job 28 28; Psalm 25 14; Prov 1 7; 15 33); it gives life (Prov 10 27, etc), blessedness (Psalm 128 1.4), sufficiency (34 9), Divine friendship (25 14), protection (34 7), deliverance (85 9), for giveness (130 4). In Psalm 90 11 AV has "According to thy fear so is thy wrath," RV "and thy wrath according to the fear that is due unto thee"; the meaning probably is "thy wrath is in proportion to thy fear."

      The "fear of the Lord" is a frequent phrase in Apoc, and is highly exalted, e.g. Ecclus 1 11-30; the idea, of it became gradually more and more ele vated; in 2 15.1(5 it is joined with the low. of dod.

      "Fear" is the natural consequence of sin (den 3 10; 4 13.14; Prov 28 1); it- comes as a punish ment (Deuteronomy 28 25.28). The fear of man and of evils are dangers to be avoided, from which the fear of dod delivers (Numbers 14 9; 21 34; Psalm 23 4; 31 14, etc).

      "Fear" sometimes stands for the object of fear (Prov 10 24; Isaiah 66 4); for the object of worship (den 31 42.53, "the dod of Abraham, and the Fear of Isaac," pahad/i).

      In the NT dread, or fear of dod in the lower sense, is removed; He is revealed as the loving and for giving Father, who gives to men the spirit of son- ship (Rom 8 15; 2 Timothy 17; 1 John 4 18); we are invited even to come "with boldness unto the throne of grace," with confidence, assurance (pnr- rhesia), which, however, may have its literal mean ing of free "utterance" (He 4 16 ; 10 19); but there remains a filial fear and sense of awe and of the greatness of the issues involved (Rom 11 20; Eph 5 21, RV "of Christ"; 1 Timothy 6 20; He 4 1); all other fears should be dismissed (Matthew 8 2(5; 10 26-28.31; Luke 12 32); in Matthew 10 28; Luke 12 5, "fear" is used in the sense of "stand in awe of," so




      Annotated by NewtonStein, Cambridge Theological Seminary

      Jj[ s and Fasts

      Pilgrimage Festivals

      porhaps Luke 23 40; to "fear God" is sometimes used in the NT as equivalent to religion (Luke 18 4; Acts 10 2.35; 13 16.26, used of proselytes); in He 10 27, it is said that if Christ be wilfully rejected, nothing remains but "a fearful looking for [RV "expectation"] of judgment," and ver 31, "It is a fearful thing to fall into the hands of the living God," in which places " fearful " means "terrible," something well to be feared. RV gives frequently a more literal rendering of the words translation d "fear."

      W. L. WALKER

      FEASTS, fests, AND FASTS ("WTO , mtfedh, "an appointed day" or "an assembling," 3H , hagh, 53H , from hdghagh, "to dance," or possibly "to make a pilgrimage"; CIS, fowi, "fast," rP^I?, ta anlth, "a day of affliction") :

      I. PREEXIMO .-1) Annual

      1. Passover, 15th-22d NIsan

      2. Pentecost, <>th Slwan

      3. Tabernacles, 15th-22d Tishri

      4. Sh- mi n.l Ac,er<>th, 23d Tishri

      5. New Year, Feast of Trumpets, 1st Tishri

      6. Atonement, 10th Tishri B) Periodic

      1. ‘VeekIy Sabbath

      2. New Moon

      3. Sabbath Year

      4. Jubilee Year 2. POST-EXILIC

      1. Feast of Dedication. 25th Kislew

      2. Fast of Esther, 13th Adhar

      3. Feast of Purim, 14th Adhar

      4. Fast of the Fourth Month, 17th Tammuz

      5. Fast of the Fifth Month, <)th Abli

      6. Fast of the Seventh Month, 3d Tishri

      7. Fast of the Tenth Month, 10th Tebheth

      8. Feast of Acra, 23d lyar

      9. Feast of Nicanor, 13th Adhar

      10. Feast of ‘Voodcarrying, Midsummer Day, loth Abh

      11. New Year for Trees, 15th SlKbhat

      12. Bi-weekly Fasts, Mondays and Thursdays after Festivals

      13. Second Days of Festivals Instituted

      14. New Modes of Observing Old Festivals In stituted

      The Hebrews had an abundance of holidays, some based, according to their tradition, on agriculture and the natural changes of times and The Nature seasons, some on historical events eon- of the nected with the national or religious

      Hebrew life of Israel, and still others simply Festivals on immemorial custom. In most in stances two or more of these bases co exist, and the emphasis on the natural, the agricul tural, the national, or the religious phase will vary with different writers, different context, or different times. Any classification of these feasts and fasts on the basis of original significance must therefore be imperfect.

      We should rather classify them as preexilic and post -exilic, because the period of the Bab captivity marks a complete change, not only in the kinds of festivals instituted from time to time, but also in the manner of celebrating the old.

      /. Preexilic List. The preexilic list includes the three pilgrimage festivals, the Passover week, Pentecost, and the Feast of Tabernacles, together with the Eighth Day of Assembly at the conclusion of the last of these feasts, and New Year and Atone ment Days, the weekly Sabbath and the New Moon.

      The preexilic festivals were "holy convocations"

      (Leviticus 23; Numbers 28). Special sacrifices were offered

      on them in addition to the daily offer-

      1. Observ- ings. These sacrifices, however, varied

      ances Com- according to the character of the

      mon to All festival (Numbers 28, 29). On all of them

      trumpets (hdfd^rdth) wore blown while

      the burnt offerings and the peace-offerings were

      being sacrificed (Numbers 10 10). They were all likened

      to the weekly Sabbath as days of rest, on which

      there must be complete suspension of all ordinary work (Leviticus 16 29; 23

      The three pilgrimage festivals were known by that name because on them the Israelites gathered at Jerus to give thanks for their doubly 2. Signifi- joyful character. They were; of agri- cance of the cultural significance as well as coin- Festivals memorative of national events. Thus the Passover is connected with the barley harvest; at the same time it is the z e man hcruth, recalling the Exodus from Egypt (Exodus 12 6; Leviticus 23 5.8; Numbers 28 16-25; Deuteronomy 16 1-8).

      Pentecost has an agricultural phase as hagh h<i- bikkurim, the celebration of the wheat harvest; it has a religious phase as z e mnn rnattan Thordh in the Jewish liturgy, based on the rabbinical calculation which makes it the day of the giving of t he Law, and this religious side 1 has so completely overshadowed the agricultural that among modern Jews the Pente cost lias become "confirmation day" (Exodus 34 26; Leviticus 23 10-14; Numbers 28 26-31).

      The Feast of Tabernacles is at once the general harvest festival, futyh hc-asiph, and the; anniversary of the beginnings of the wanderings in the wilder ness (Exodus 23 1(5; Leviticus 23 33 IT; Deuteronomy. 16 13-15). The Eighth Day of Assembly immediately following the last day o f Tabernacles (Leviticus 23 36; Numbers 29 35 if ; John 7 37) and closing the long cycle of Tishri festivals seems to have been merely a final day of rejoicing before the pilgrims returned to their homes.

      New Year (Leviticus 23 23-25; Numbers 29 1-6) and the Day of Atonement (Leviticus 16 1 ft ; 23 26-32; Numbers 29 7-11) marked the turning of the year; primarily, porhaps, in the natural phenomena of Pal, but also in the inner life of the nation and the individual. Hence the religious significance of these days as days of judgment, penitence and forgiveness soon overshadowed any other significance they may have had. The temple ritual for these days, which is minutely described in the OT and in the Talm, was the most elaborate and impressive of the year. At the same time Atonement Day was socially an im portant day of rejoicing.

      In addition to those annual festivals the preexilic Hebrews celebrated the Sabbath (Numbers 28 9.10; Leviticus 23 1-3) and the New Moon (Numbers 10 10; 28 11-15). By analogy to the weekly Sabbath, every seventh year was a Sabbath Year (Exodus 23 11; Leviticus 25 1-7; Deuteronomy 16 1), and every cycle of seven Sabbath years was closed with a Jubilee Year (Leviticus 25 8-18) some what after the analogy of the seven weeks counted before Pentecost.

      For further details of all of those preexilie festivals see the separate articles.

      ‘. The Post-exilic List. In post-exilic times important historical events were made the basis for the institution of new fasts and feasts. When the first temple was destroyed and the people were car ried into captivity, "the sacrifice of the body and one s own fat and blood" were substituted for that of animals (see Talm, B e rdkhoth 17). With such a view of their importance, fasts of all sorts were as a matter of course rapidly multiplied. (Note that the Day of Atonement was the only preexilic fast.) Of these post-exilic fasts and feasts, the Feast of Dedication (1 Mace 4 52-59; John 10 22; Mish, Ta anlth 2 10; Mfredh Kdton 3 9; Jos, Ant, X2, vii; CAp, 2, xxxix) and the Feast of Purim (Est 3 7; 9 24 ff; 2 Mace 15 36); and the fasts of the fourth (Zee 8 19; Jeremiah 39,52; Mish, TtSdnlth 4 6), the fifth (Zee 7 3.4; 8 19; TaYiullh 4 6), the seventh (Zee 75; 8 19; Jeremiah 41 1 IT; 2 Kings 25 25; Serif inr *Oldm Ituhha 26; M ghillath Tifanllh c. 12), the tenth months (Zee 8 19; 2 Kings 25), and the Fast of Esther (Est 4 16 f; 9 31) have been pre served by Jewish tradition to this day. (The Feast



      of Dedication, the Feast of Purim and the Fast of Esther are described in separate articles.)

      The fasts of the fourth, fifth, seventh and tenth months are based on historical incidents connected with one or more national calamities. Significance In several instances the rabbis have by close figuring been able to connect with the dates of the fasts as well as the feasts other important, national events than those for which the days were primarily instituted. Not less than four incidents are connected with the fasts of the fourth month (17th of Tammuz) : (a) on this day the Israel ites made the golden calf; (b) Moses broke the tables of law; (r) the daily sacrifices ceased for want of cattle when the city was closely besieged prior to the destruction of Jems; and (d) on this day Jems was stormed by Nebuchadnezzar. The fast of the fifth month (<)th day of Abh) receives its signifi cance from the fact that the First Temple was de stroyed upon this day by Nebuchadnezzar, and the Second Temple on the same day of the year by Titus. In addition it is said that on this day Jeh decreed that those who left Egypt should not enter the land of promise; the day is also the anniversary of the capture of the city of Bet her by the Emperor Hadrian. The fast of the seventh month (the 3d day of Tishri) commemorates the murder of Geda- liah at Mizpah. That of the tenth month (10th day of Tebheth) commemorates the beginning of the siege of Jems by Nebuchadnezzar.

      Other fasts and feasts no doubt were instituted on similar occasions ;md received a local or tempo rary observance, for example, the Feast of Acra (I Mace 13 50-52; cf 1 33), to celebrate the recapture of Acra ("the citadel") on the 23d of Iyiir 141 BC, and the Feast of Nicanor, in celebration of the vic tory over Nicanor on the 13th day of Adhar 100 BC (1 Mace 7 4 J).

      Several other festivals are mentioned in the Talm and other post -Biblical writings which may have been of even greater antiquity. The Feast of Woodearrying (Midsummer Day: Neh 10 34; Jos, BJ, 2, vii, 6; M ghillath Ta dnlih c.v, p. 32, Mish, Ta dnlth 4 8<7), for example, is referred to as the greatest day of rejoicing of the Hebrews, rank ing with Atonement Day. It was principally a picnic day to which a religious touch was given by making it the woodgat herers festival for it he Temple. A New Year for trees is mentioned in the Talm (ltd ah ha-Xhanahl I). The pious, according both to the Jewish tradition and the NT, observed many pri vate or semi-public fasts, such as the Mondays, Thursdays and following Monday after Nlsfm and Tishri (the festival months: Luke 18 12; Matthew 9 14; 6 16; Mark 2 IS; Luke 5 33; Acts 10 30; M ghillah 31a; Ta dnlth 12a; Bubha Kama 8 2). The day before Passover was a fast day for the firstborn (Soph rlm 21 3).

      in post-Biblical times the Jews outside of Pal doubled each of the following days: the opening and closing day of Passover and Tabernacles and Pentecost, because of the saphek,, or doubt as to the proper day to be observed, growing out of the delays in the transmission of the official decree of the an- hedhrln in each season. Differences in hours of sunrise and sunset between Pal and other countries may have had something to do at least with the perpetuation of the custom. New Year s Day seems to have been doubled from time immemorial, the forty-eight hours counting as one long day."

      Many new modes of observance appear in post- exilic times in connection with the old established festivals, esp. in the high festival season of Tishri. Thus the simhath bcth ha-sho cbhuh, "water drawing festival," was celebrated during the week of Taber nacles with popular games and dances in which even

      the elders took part, and the streets were so bril liantly illuminated with torches that scarcely an eye was closed in Jerus during that week (Talm, Hidllri).

      The last day of Tabernacles was known in Tal- mudic times as yam hibbut *drdbhoth, from the custom of beating willow branches, a custom clearly ante dating the various symbolical explanations offered for it. Its festivities were connected with the dis mantling of the booth. In later times the day was known as hasha* >iu rabba , from the- liturgical pas sages beginning with the word husha* na , recited throughout the feast and "gathered" on that day. The day after Tabernacles has been made s nnhnlh Torafi, the Feast of the Law, from the custom of ending on that day the cycle of fifty-two weekly portions read in the synagogues.

      In general it may be said that although the actual observance has changed from time to time to meet new conditions, the synagogal calendar of today is made up of the same festivals as those observed in NT times. ELLA DAVIS ISAACS

      FEASTS, SEASONS FOR, regulated by the sun and moon. See ASTRONOMY, 1, 5.

      FEATHERS, feth erz (HS2 , nof a/i ; Lat j>fntt(i): "Ciavest thou the goodly wings unto the peacocks? or wings [RV "pinions"] and feathers [AKV "plum age"] unto the ostrich?" (Job 39 13 AV) ; "He shall cover thee with his feathers, and under his wings shalt thou trust ; his truth shall be thy shield and buckler" (Psalm 91 4 AV). In RV this is again changed to pinions. In Dnl 4 33 the word "feathers" is left. The wonderful plumage of birds was noted and prized in those days, just as now. Old ostriches were too tough and rank of flesh for food. They were pursued for their feathers, which were used for the headdressing and shield orna ments of desert princes. No one doubts that the ships of Solomon introduced peacocks because of their wonderful feathers. Those of the eagle were held in superstitious reverence as late as the days of Pliny, who was ten years old at the time of the crucifixion of Christ. Pliny wrote that the eagle was so powerful that if its feathers be laid in a box with those of other birds, the eagle feathers would "devour and consume all t he rest ."


      FEEBLE KNEES, fe b l nez : The expression is found in three places (one being a free quotation of another;: Job 4 4, "Thou hast made firm the feeble [3H3 , /cam , "bending," "bowing"] knees," and He 12 12, "Wherefore lift up the hands that hang down, and the palsied [AV "feeble"] knees." The Gr word used here (ira,paXe’vfji.tva, paraie- [mncna, "paralyzed," "motionless") implies the loss of junction, interrupted articulation, the cutting off of vital strength; cf Gr x wX s , cftdlus, "lame," and see Delitzsch in his Coinin. on He, loc. cit.

      Such an affection of the knees may be due to different causes. It is, e.g., a very frequent symp tom of the disease known in the Orient as beriberi, when the muscles of the lower leg shrink to such a degree as to render voluntary locomotion impossible. It always disables its victim, and is therefore often expressive of general debility, e.g. in Psalm 109 24, where such weakness is described as the outcome of protracted fasting. In Ezekiel 7 17 and 21 7, "All knees shall be weak as water," the expression indi cates a complete relaxation of the muscles. Fear effected the same condition in Belshaz/ar s case, when he saw the writing on the wall (Dnl 5 6), "The joints of his loins were loosed, and his knees smote one against another" (cf Nah 2 10).

      The, "sore boil .... in the knees, and in the legs," a disease announced in Deuteronomy 28 35 as a punishment upon




      Annotated by NewtonStein, Cambridge Theological Seminary

      Israel for disobedience, cannot now be fully determined. Driver (in his commentary on the passage] thinks of elephantiasis, which is possible but not probable on account of the additional statement, "whereof thou canst not be healed, from the sole of thy foot unto the crown of thy head" which would be unexplained, as elephantiasis rarely presents a form in which the whole body is sympathetically affected. I rather think of some form of bubonic plague, which causes very high fever all over the body. In vcr 27 in the enumeration of plagues mention is made of the "boil of Kgypt," and some commentators have explained this as "bubonic plague." There is, however, no doubt that the "boil or botch of Kgypt " is identical with the disease known to modern medicine as Innttu/t ilu ‘il, Biskra button, Bagdad or Aleppo sore.

      2 . L. E. LUERING

      FEEBLE-MINDED, fe b l-mln ded (oXiyo^v^os, oligopsuchos) : Only in 1 Thessalonians 5 14 AV, in the sense of "fainthearted," as in RV. In LXX it is used as the equivalent of AvW/r/, the tottering or feeble-kneed in Isaiah 35 3; 54 0; o’></ /" " occurs in LXX twice (Exodus 6 9; Psalm 54 7), for "anguish of spirit" and "trouble." The term refers to weak ness of will and vacillation of purpose rather than to idiocy or morbid imbecility.

      FEELING, feTing: The following varieties of meaning are to be noted:

      (1) "To touch," "handle," "grope after" (TTTTT2 , nirttsltaxh (Genesis 27 12.22; Exodus 10 21; &12 , mush, (Jen 27 21; Judges 16 20; i/^Xa^dw, pselaphdo, Acts 17 27 j.

      (2) "To know," " understand," "experience" (V?, bin, Psalm 58 9; ""P , yutilm , Prov 23 35; yivtixTKu, gindsko, Mark 5 29).

      (3) "To have a fellow feeling," "to plaee one s self into the position of another," esp. while suffer ing, "to have compassion" (ffv^tradelv, sumpalkein, He 4 15; cf 10 34; which is to be carefully dis tinguished from the similar vb. ffv/j.wdffxftv, HUI- pixchcin, which means "to share in the same suffer ing wit h another," Rom 8 17; 1 Corinthians 12 20). See Delitzsch, Contni. on He 4 15.

      (4) "To feel harm," "pain," "grief," "to be sen sitive" (jrdffxei", pdsclieitt, with the roots paid- and pmlfi-, Acts 28 5); or with the negation: "to have (teased to feel," "to be apathetic," "past feeling," "callous, "a7T7;’7r / Kus,rt/,ic7f/rAm ,perf. part .of d-jraXy^, ap(d(/eo (Eph 4 19) which describes the condition of the sinner, who by hardening his heart against moral influences is left without a sense of his high vocation, without an idea of the awfulness of sin, without reverence to God, without an appreciation of the salvation offered by Him, and without fear of His judgment. H. L. E.


      FEIGN, fan (X~3, badhu, "CI, nakhar; irXao-ros, pltiHtux): Occurs (1) in the sense of "to devise," "invent" as the translation of badkd , "to form," "to fashion" (Neh 6 8, "Thou feignest them out of thine own heart"; cf 1 Kings 12 33, EY "devised of his own heart"); of pldKlox, "formed," "molded" (2 Pet 2 3, "with feigned words make merchandise of you"); (2) in the sense of "pretense.," nukkur, "to be foreign," "strange" (1 Kings 14 5, "feign herself to be another woman," ver 0; cf Genesis 42 7; Prov 26 24); ab/tdl, "to mourn," "to act as a mourner" (2 Samuel 14 2); haldl, "to make a show," Hithpael, "to be mad," "to feign madness" (of David, 1 Samuel 21 13; cf Jeremiah 25 10; 50 3sj; hupokrinomai, "to give judgment, or act, under a mask" (Lie 20 20, "who feigned themselves to be righteous"); (3) in the sense of "deceit," "fraud," "insincerity," tnir- matt, "prayer, that goeth not out of feigned lips" (Psalm 17 1); sftckir, "falsehood," "a lie," "Judah hath not returned unto me with her whole heart, but feignedly" (Jeremiah 3 10; cf 2 Esd 8 28); kaliash,

      "to lie," "to feign, or flatter" (2 Samuel 22 45; Psalm 18 44; 66 3; 81 15), where the text of AV and RV, "shall submit themselves," is rendered m, AV and RV, "yield feigned obedience, Hebrews lie." RV has "feign" for " make" (2 Samuel 13 5), and "feigned" for "made" (ver 0). W. L. WALKER

      FELIX, fe liks, ANTONIUS, an-td ni-us (<H- ‘i, I hclix, from Lat felix, "happy"): A Rom procurator of Judaea, appointed in succession to Cumanus by the emperor Claudius. The event which led to the introduction of Felix into the narra tive of Acts was the riot at Jerus (Acts 21 27). There Paul, being attacked at the instigation of the Asiatic Jews for alleged false teaching and profana tion of the temple, was rescued with difficulty by Lysias the chief captain. But Lysias, finding that Paul was a Horn citizen, and that therefore the secret plots against the life of his captive might entail serious consequences upon himself, and find ing also that Paul was charged on religious rather than on political grounds, sent him on to Felix at Caesarea for trial (Acts 21 3123 34). On his arrival, Paul was presented to Felix and was then detained for five days in the judgment hall of Herod, till his accusers should also reach Caesarea (Acts 23 33-35). The trial was begun, but after hearing the evidence of Tertullus (see TERTULLUS) and the speech of Paul in his own defence, Felix deferred judgment (Acts 24 1-22). The excuse he gave for delay was the non-appearance of Lysias, but his real reason was in order to obtain bribes for the release of Paul. He therefore treated his prisoner at first with leniency, and pretended along with Drusilla to take interest in his teaching. But these attempts to induce Paul to purchase his free dom failed ignominiously; Paul sought favor of neither Felix nor Drusilla, and made the frequent interviews which he had with them an opportunity for preaching to them concerning righteousness and temperance and the final judgment. The case dragged on for two years till Felix, upon his retire ment, "desiring to gain favor with the Jews .... left- Paul in bonds" (Acts 24 27). According to the Bezan text, the continued imprisonment of Paul was due to the desire of Felix to please Drusilla.

      Felix was (lie brother of Pallas, who was the in famous favorite 1 of Claudius, and who, according to Tacitus (Anndlx xiii.14), fell into disgrace in 55 A I). Tacitus implies that Felix was joint proc urator of Judaea, along with Cumamis, before being appointed to the sole command, but Jos is silent as to this. Both Tacitus and Jos refer to his succeeding Cumanus, Jos stating that it was at the instigation of Jonathan the high priest. There is some doubt as to the chronology of Felix tenure of oflice. Harnuck and Blass, following Eusebius and Jerome, place his accession in 51 AD, and the im prisonment of Paul in 54-50 AD; but most modern commentators incline to the dates 52 AD and 50- 58 AD. These latter interpret the statement of Paul, "Thou hast been of many years a judge unto this nation" (Acts 24 10), as referring to some judicial office, not necessarily that of co-procurator (see Tac.), previously held by Felix in the time of Cumanus, and argue that this earlier connection of Felix with Judaea supplied a reason for the ad vocacy by Jonathan of Felix claims to the procura- torshipon the deposition of Cumanus. The testi mony of Acts as to the evil character of Felix is fully corroborated by the writings of Jos (BJ, 2, xiii). Although he suppressed the robbers and murderers who infested Judaea, and among them the "Egyptian" to whom Lysias refers (Acts 21 38), yet "he himself was more hurtful than them all." When occasion offered, he did not hesitate to employ the sicarii (see ASSASSINS) for his own ends. Trad-

      Felloes Fever



      Annotated by NewtonStein, Cambridge Theological Seminary


      ing upon the influence of his brother at court, hi.- cruelty and rapacity knew no bounds, and during his rule revolts became continuous, and marked a dis tinct stage in that seditious movement which cul minated in the outbreak of 70 AD (so Schurcr). His leaving Paul in bonds was but a final instance of one who sacrificed duty and justice for the sake of his own unscrupulous selfishness. For more detailed information as to dates, etc, cf Knowling (Expos Cr Test., 2, 477 ff). C. M. KKH2

      FELLOES, fel oz (1 Kings 7 33). See WHEEL.

      FELLOW, fel o ("On , hahfier, y~’ , re" ; fraipos, fit diima): Meant originally a "])artner," from /<, "property," and ln</, "to lay," then "a companion," "an equal," a person or individual, . "a worthless person."

      (1) As "companion" it is the translation of hubhcr, "asso ciate," "companion," "friend" (also habbar, Job 41 G [Ileb 40 30], where we have the original sense of partnership, translation 1 "bands" R,V, AV "companions ); Psalm 45 7, "(u>d hath anointed thee .... above thy fellows"; of hnbhruh (Eccl 4 10; Dnl 7 20); of re" , "companion," "friend," "another" (Exodus 2 13; Judges 7 13.14.22); re d/i (or ru’i/ah), "a female friend" (Judges 11 37, "I and my fellows," RV "companions"; hero AV applies "fellow" to a fe male; cf Bar 6 43, "She reproacheth her fellow," he plcslon); in Judges 11 38, "companions" is the translation of *amlth, "fellowship"; ‘unltli (Zee 13 7, "the man that is my fellow," lit, "the man of my fellow ship"); hetairos, "companion" (Matthew 11 i(j); nte- tocfiox, "|)artner"; (cf Luke 6 7; He 1 9, quoted from Psalm 45 7, LXX for habhcr).

      (2) As an individual or person "fellow" is the translation of "islt, "a man," "an individual": "make this fellow return" (1 Samuel 29 4 AV, RV "the man"); in the same; ver "fellow" is supplied instead of "he"; "fellow" in Kill meant simply "a man," and it is difficult to say in what passages the ideas of "worth less," etc, are meant to be implied; probably, how ever, in Judges 18 2."), whore the Hob is simply enosh, "man," and the text is almost the only deviation from the rendering "man," "men," "lest angry [in, RV "bitter of soul"] fellows fall upon you"; also Acts 17 5, ancr, "a man," "certain lewd" fellows of the baser sort," RV "vile fellows"; cf 2 Samuel 6 20, "vain [rck] fellows" (supplied); 1 Mace 10 Gl, "contain pestilent fellows" (ancr); Eeclti.s 8 15, "a bold fellow" (tolmerds), RV "a rash man"; in several places of the ( )T "fellow" represents zch, "this, " and in these instances there seems to be something of worthlessnesa or contempt implied (1 Samuel 21 15 bis; 25 21; 1 Kings 22 27; 2 Kings 9 11, and as before, 1 Samuel 29 4 RV); in the NT also "fellow" often represents hotitos, "this," and in most of these cases AV seems to intend something depreciatory to be understood; RV gives simply "man" (Matthew 12 24; 26 61.71; Luke 22 59; 23 2; John 9 29; Acts 18 13); so Ecclus 13 23, "If the poor man speaks, they say, What fellow is this?" RV "who is this?" 1 Mace 4 5, "These fellows flee from us," RV "these men." RV has "fellows" for "persons" (Judges 9 4), for "men" (11 3); "base fellows" for "men the children of Belial" (Deuteronomy 13 13), m, "sons of worthlessness"; ARV "worthless fellow" for "son of Belial" (1 Samuel 25 17.25), "base fellows" for "sons of Belial" (Judges 19 22; 20 13, etc); RV has also "companions" for "fellows" (Judges 11 37, as above Ezekiel 37 19; Dnl 2 13), "each man his fellow" for "one another" (2 Kings 3 23); "fellow by" for "neigh bor in" (1 Kings 20 35).

      Fellow-citizen, Fellow-disciple, Fellow-heirs, Yokefellow, etc. In composition, "fellow" always means partner or companion.

      W. L. WALKER

      FELLOWSHIP, fel 6-ship. Sec COMMUNION.

      FEMALE, fe inal: Two Hebrews words arc thus translation d :

      (1) ~ l ?p. , ifkcbhah, which is merely a physio logical description of the sexual characteristic (from ^p.- , na/cdbh, "to perforate"), and which corresponds to "137 , zdkhdr, "male" (see s.v.).

      (2) nffiX, isttshdh, with the irregular pi. D^ttJ: , txlxhlin (only (Ion 7 2, in all. other places "wife, " "woman"), the fern, form of TIPS , Z.s/i, "man."

      The Gr word is ^Xus, Ififlns, lit, "the nursing one," "the one giving suck" (from ^Xdfw, thcldzo, "to suckle").

      Israeli! ic law seems frequently guilty of unjust, partiality in favor of the male sex, but we have to consider that most of these legal and religious dis abilities of women can be explained from the social conditions prevailing at the time of legislation. They are therefore found also in contemporaneous gentile religions. Though traces of this prejudice against the weaker sex an; found in the NT, the religions discrimination between the sexes has prac tically ceased, as is evident from Gal 3 2S: "There can be no male and female; for ye all are one man in Christ Jesus"; cf also 1 Pet 3 7.

      H. L. E. LriCKiNc;

      FENCE, fens ("123 , baq ar, "IS213, mib/tyar): Com monly used in AV in the description of fortified places, as the translation of buqar, "to cut off," "to separate," "to fortify" (and forms) (Deuteronomy 3 5; 9 1; 28 52, etc); mibliQar, "fenced city," is a fortified place (Xu 32 17. 3G; Joshua 10 20; 19 35, etc); maylr, "fenced cities," means "bulwark," "citadel" (2 Chronicles 8 5); m gurah, "fortification" (2 Chronicles 11 23; 12 4; 14 G; 21 3); for "fenced" ARV substitutes "fortified" in all these instances; in Dnl 11 15, mibhyir is "a well- fortified city,"m "the fortified cities," ERV "well- fenced"; "fence" is also the translation of tjadhcr, "a wall" or "fence" (Job 19 8 ARV, "walled up" [(/nd/uir}; Psalm 62 3); *azak, "to loosen" (the ground) as with a mattock (Isaiah 5 2, where AV has "fenced" it [the vineyard], ARV "digged it," ERV "made a trench about it," m "digged it"); sukh, "to interweave" or "interlace" (Job 10 11, RV "clothed"); male, "to be or become full" (2 Samuel 23 7, RV "armed " m "Hob filled").

      ERV lias "fence" for "wall" (Xu 22 24; Isaiah 5 ~y Hoa 2 0; ARVretains "wall"), for "hedge" (Red 10 x R/k 13 5; 22 :<(> AKV "wall"); "fenced" for " walled"

      (Xu 13 28; Deuteronomy 1 2S; AKV "fortified"); cf f,, r "strong" Joshua 19 2!); Xeh 9 25; Psalm 108 10 (in .Joshua 19 2 .). "(he city of Mibzar-zor, that is, (lie fortress of Tyre," ERV "fenced"), for "hedged" (Lain 3 7. AK’ walled ); cf for "defenced," El{‘~ "fenced" AKV "fortified" (Isaiah 36 1; 37 2(1, etc); "fences" for "hedges" (Psalm 80 12, ARV "walls"); in Jeremiah 49 ;i ERV and ARV have "fences." See also HKOGE.


      FERRET, fer et (H^i? , dnakah, RV GECKO) : Occurs only in Leviticus 11 30 AV, in the list of animals which are unclean "among the creeping things that creep upon the earth." RV has "gecko" with the marginal note, "Words of uncertain meaning, but probably denoting four kinds of lizards." The list of animals in Leviticus 11 29.30 includes (1) fwlalh, EV "weasel"; (2) *akhbdr, EV "mouse"; (3) fdbh, AV "tortoise," RV "great lizard"; (4) dnakah, AV "ferret," RV "gecko"; (5) ko a h AV "chameleon," RV "land crocodile"; (6) Ha ah, EV "lizard"; (7) hornet, AV "snail," RV "sand lizard"; (8) tinshemcth, AV "mole," RV "chameleon." It will be noted that while RV makes the first two mammals and the remaining six reptiles, AV makes not only (1) and (2) but. also (4) and (Samuel) mammals, and (7) a mollusk. So far as this general classification is con cerned AV follows the LXX, except in the case of




      Annotated by NewtonStein, Cambridge Theological Seminary

      Felloes Fever

      (7). It must, be borne in mind that, all these words except. (2) and (8) occur only in this passage, while (2) and (8) occur each in only a few passages where the context throws but uncertain light upon the meaning. Under these circumstances we ought to be content with the rendering of the LXX, unless from philology or tradition we can show good reason for differing. For dndkdh, LXX has /j.vyd’ij, mu- gdle, which occurs in Herodotus and Aristotle and may be a shrew mouse or a field mouse. Just as the next word, kd"h, is found in other passages (see CHAMELEON) with the meaning of "strength," so andkdh occurs in several places signifying "moan ing" or "sighing" (Psalm 12 5; 79 11; 102 20; Mai 2 13). It seems to be from the root, anak, "to choke," "to be in anguish" (cf *dndk, "a collar"; hdnak, "to choke"; Arab. *nnk, "neck"; Arab. ktianak, "to strangle"; Or dvdyKtj; Lat angustus; (ler. cnge, Nacken; Eng. "anxious," "neck"). Some creature seems to be meant which utters a low cry or squeak, and neither "ferret" (AV) nor "gecko" (RV) seems to have a better claim than the older LXX rendering of pvyd’r) = "shrew mouse" or "field mouse." ALFRED ELY DAV

      FERRY-BOAT, fer i-bdt (2 Samuel 19 IS). See SHIPS AND BOATS.

      FERVENT, fur vent (pbl , ddlak; KTevr|s, ek- tcttf N, &&gt;, zed): "Fervent" (from Lat fervere, "to boil") does not occur in AV of the OT, but RV gives it as the translation of ildluk, "to burn" (Prov 26 23), in stead of "burning," "fervent lips and a wicked heart ." In the NT it is the translation of ekteues, "stretched out," hence intent, earnest (1 Pet 4 8, "being fer vent in your love among yourselves"); of zed, "to boil," "to be hot" (Rom 12 11, "fervent in spirit," Acts 18 2r>Kings i>{ zflos, "zeal," "fervor" (2 Corinthians 7 7, RV "zeal"), in Jas 5 10 AV has: "The effectual fervent prayer of a righteous man availeth much," where the Gr is: polii ischuei decsis dikaiou ener- gontnenc, which RV renders, "The supplication of a righteous man availeth much in its working."

      "Fervently" is the translation of agonizomai, "to strive or struggle" (agonize), Col 4 12 AV, RV "Epaphras .... striving for you in his prayers"; of ektenos, lit. in an outstretched manner (1 Pet 1 22, RV "Love one another from the heart fervently"; cf 1 Pet 4 *, "fer vent in your love among yourselves"). Christian love too often lacks this fervency, but Christ s love for us was " stretched out" to the uttermost.

      RV has "fervently" for "earnestly" (Jas 5 17, m " with nraver").

      W. L. WALKER FESTIVAL, fes ti-val. See FEASTS AND FASTS.

      FESTUS, fos tus, PORCITJS, por shi-us (2opKios 4>fjo-Tos, Porkios Phcstos) : The Rom governor or procurator who succeeded Felix in the province of Judaea (Acts 24 27), and was thus brought into prominence in the dispute between Paul and the Sanhedrin which continued after the retirement of Felix (chs 25, 26). Upon the arrival of Festus in Jems, the official capital of his province, the Jews besought of him to send Paul from Caesarea to Jerus to appear before them, intending to kill him on the way (25 3). Festus at first refused their request, and upon his return to Caesarea proceeded himself to examine Paul (ver 6). But on finding that the evidence was conflicting, and reflecting that, as the accused was apparently charged on religious rather than on political grounds, the Sanhe drin was a more suitable court for his case than a Rom tribunal, he asked Paul if he were agreeable to make the journey to Jerus (vs 7-9). But Paul, who knew well the nefarious use that the Jews would make of the pleasure which Festus was will ing to grant them, made his appeal unto Caesar (vs 10.11). To this request of a Rom citizen ac

      cused on a capital charge (cf ver 16), Festus had per force to give his consent (ver 12). But the manner of his consent indicated his pique at the apparent distrust shown by Paul. By the words "unto Caesar shalt thou go," Festus implied that the case must now be proceeded with to the end: otherwise, had it been left in his own hands, it might have been quashed at an earlier stage (cf also 26 32). Meantime King Agrippa and Bernice had arrived in Caesarea, and to these Festus gave a brief ex planation of the circumstances (25 13-21). The previous audiences of Festus with Paul and his accusers had, however, served only to confuse him as to the exact nature of the charge. Paul was therefore summoned before the regal court, in order both that Agrippa might hear him, and that the governor might obtain more definite information for insertion in the report he was required to send along with the prisoner to Rome (vs 22-27). The au dience which followed was brought to an abrupt conclusion by the interruption of Paul s speech (26 1-23) by Festus: "Paul, thou art mad; thy much learning is turning thee mad" (ver 24). Yet the meeting was sufficient to convince both Agrippa and Festus that "this man doeth nothing worthy of death or of bonds" (ver 31). While Festus dis played a certain contempt for what he regarded as the empty delusions of a harmless maniac, his con duct throughout the whole proceeding was marked by a strict impartiality; and his straightforward dealing with Paul formed a marked contrast to the dilatoriness of Felix. The praise bestowed upon the latter by Tertullus (24 2) might with better reason have been bestowed on Festus, in that he freed the country from many robbers (Sicarii: Jos, Ant, XX, viii-x; BJ, 2, xiv, 1); but his procuratorship was too short to undo the harm wrought by his predecessor. The exact date of his accession to office is uncertain, and has been variously placed at 55-01 AD (;f Knowling in Expos (ir Test., 2, 488- 89; see also FELIX). C. M. KERH

      FETCH, fcch (Hp.b , Idkali) : Has generally the meaning of "to bring"; it is commonly the translation of Hebrews lakah, "to take" or "lay hold of," Hoph. "to be brought, seized or snatched away" (Genesis 18 4, etc; 27 9, etc; 42 10; 1 Samuel 4 3; 1 Kings 17 10, etc); twice of nasd , "to lift up" (2 Chronicles 12 11, ARV "bare"; Job 86 3); of fed , "to come in" (2 Chronicles 1 17; Neh 8 15); of ^dldh, "to cause to come up" (1 Samuel 6 21; 7 1); of ydfd , "to cause to come out" (Numbers 20 10, ARV "bring forth"; Jeremiah 26 23), and of a number of other words.

      In the NT it is the translation of exdgd, "to lead out" (Acts 16 37, "Let them come themselves and fetch us out," RV "bring"); "to fetch a compass" is the translation of sabhabh (Numbers 34 5; Joshua 15 3, RV "turn," "turned about"; 2 Samuel 5 23, RV "make a circuit"; 2 Kings 3 9, RV "made a circuit"); of peri6rchomai (aor. 2, periclthon), "to go about," "to wander up and down" (of a ship driven about; Acts 28 13, RV "made a circuit," m "some ancient authorities read cast loose").

      RV has "fetch" for "bring" (1 Kings 3 24), for "call for" (Acts 10 5; 11 13); "fetched" for "called for" (Est 5 10), for "took out" (Jeremiah 37 17); "fetched" for "took" (2 Chronicles 8 18).

      W. L. WALKER

      FETTER, fct er: Found only in the pi. in both OTand NT; fetters of iron (Psalm 105 18; 149 8; so probably Mark 5 4; Luke 8 29) or brass (Judges 16 21; 2 Kings 25 7) were frequently used for securing prisoners. See CHAIN.

      Figurative: of trouble (Job 36 8).

      FEVER, fe ver (nrttp , kaddahath, njjS^, dalle- keth; iruptros, puretos, derived from a root signi-

      Fever Figure



      Annotated by NewtonStein, Cambridge Theological Seminary


      lying "to burn"): A generic term, applied to all diseases e-harae te-ri/e-d by high temperature of body. Several forms of febrile disease; aro among the com- nionest of all maladies in Pal today, as they were also in the period covered by t he Bible history. ( )f t hese the most prevalent is ague or intermittent malarial fever, which is common in all parts but esp. in low- lying districts or places where there are pools or marshes in which mosquitoes breed, these insects being the commonest carriers of the malaria bacillus. These fevers arc; generally more; severe; in late sum mer and autumn, when the mosquitoes are most numerous, and when there is a liability to chill, owing to the sudden drop of temperature at sunset. During (lie day one uses as light clothing as possible, but immediately after sunset the air becomes chilly and damp, and the physiological resistance to the influence of the parasite is remarkably di minished. On this account travelers in Pal at this season should be particular to avoid exposure to these evening damps, and io use mosquito curtains invariably at night. In most, tropical countries now houses an; rendered mosquito-proof by close wire netting, and thereby the risk of infection is much diminished. In Pal the marshes of the north about Banias and the Water of Merom, t he Shephc- lah, and the Jordan valley are the most fever-stricken regions of the country. The word l;ail<lnliuth is translation 1 burning ague in Leviticus 26 10 AV (KV "fever"), and is coupled with dn/li hili, t r 1 inflammation in Deuteronomy 28 22. I, XX renders the former word purctoft, and the latter rhiyox in this passage, a collocation which is interesting as ( lalen uses these; words together rhigopdretos in his de>scription of a fever identical with that eemimon in Pal. In Levthe word in LXX is iklcros which lit. me-ans jaundice, a disease 1 other wise* not mentioned in the- Bible. In Pal as in ot her malarious ce)iintrie’s the condition of jaundice or yellowing of the skin frequently ae-companies re- poated and protracted attacks of fever which cause organic dise-aseof the liver. On this account Hippocrates describes all fevers as due to a perverted sen-el iem of bile. These fevers begin with seve-re; shivering fits, hence> the; name rl/if/nx which is used by Ilippoerate s. This is follenve d by a period e>f burning dry he-at, eluding in a period e>f pmfusc perspiration. Swh attacks may take place daily, a few hours of interval with ne>rmal te inperatun; separating the enel of one; fit from the emset of the ne xt. The commonest type howeveT is that called tertian, in which a whe>le; day separates erne (it, from the next. In senne of the; se vere fe-vers which are 1 rife in the Jordan valley the> te inpe-rature; ne;ver falls te) the; normal, and while 1 there is a short remis sion between the; attacks with a body heat a little; above the normal, there is no inte>rmission. Rarer fe-brile conelilions which have be-e-n met with in Pal, such as the Malta fever, present, the same e-harac- te ristie s anel may continue fen- months. Case s alse) of ge imine blackwater fever have be-e-n recorded by several ant horit ie’s. It is probable; that in former days these fe-vers wei e eve>n worse than they are now, as ancient medie-inc knew e>f ne> certain remedy for them. At present they gene-rally yield at one-e to tre atment by quinine 1 , and in my own ex perience I belie>ve that the administration of this reme-dy in large and repeated dose s is the most effect ual tre atment.

      Other fe-brile diseases are rife in certain districts in Pal, and probably existed in Bible times. Ty phoid is common in some crowded towns and vil lages, and considering how little pre>te>cte d the ‘vells are from contamination, the wonder is that it is not much more prevalent. It is probable also that typhus then, as now r , was pre-sent as an oce;asional epidemic in the more crowele-el citie s, but even the physiedans of Greece and Rome did not differentiate

      these diseases. All these; feve>rs seem alse> te) have; existed in Egypt, to much the same; e xte nt as in Pal. The Papyrus Kbers speaks of "a fever of the gods" (Hi) and another calle d "a burning of the heart" (102). Its e-ausatiem is attribute-el te> the- influence; of the "god eif 1 e-veT," and the- e vil sequelae e>f the; disease as it affe;e:ts the heart, stomach, eyes and e>the>r organs are described in te-rms which re ininel us of the- minatory passages in Leviticus 26 and Deuteronomy 28. The conditions there meutione d, such as eron- suming the; eye s anel causing sorrow of heart e)r pining away of the semi, graphically describe; the state fre-que-ntly seen affecting those in the; Shephelah villages who have; sulfe-re-el from fre>ejuent ret urns of fe-ver, and whe> in e-onse eniene-e have; deve-bpeel se rious local ai fee tie)ns of the liver, s])lee n anel othe-r eirgans. Before t he introduction e>f quinine, cases of this kind must have been much more; commonly met with than they are; now. It, is pre>bable; that this slate 1 is that calle d shahepheth, or consumption, in these- passage s.

      Anot her form of feve-r, harhur, the "extreme burning" of AV or "fiery heat" of RV, is couple-el with the; othe-r forms of fe-ve-r in Deuteronomy 28 22. This is e-allenl in LXX crclhixitu is or irritation, and may have be-e-n a fe-verish condition with a re-elek ne-el skin, possibly erysipelas e>r else; one; of the; eruptive fevers. At pre-se-nt outbre-aks of scarlatina, measles and erysipelas are of fairly frequent occurrence and are ofte-n very se-ve-re-.

      In the NT feve-r is mentioned eight times. The dise-ase which affect e d Simon s wife s mother is (alle-el a "gre-at fever" (Luke 4 38), and that which ne-arly pre-ve-el fatal to the nobleman s son in the same elistrict was also a fe-ve-r (John 4 52). Cases of the kind are; common all rounel the: Se>a of Galile;e at the prese-nt day. Au:x. MACALISTKR

      FIELD, fe -ld. See Aeauoui/ruRE.

      FIERY HEAT, fl er-i, flr i hot: In Deuteronomy 28 22, whe-re- AV has "an extre-me burning." See: KIOVEK.


      FIG, FIG-TREE, fig tre (niSW, f cnah, pi. D^ Xri, t : utu>n, spe cially "figs"; D n 3E , pdggltn, "given iigs" emly in Cant 2 13; O-VKTI, 1. Fig- Trees sn-kf-, "fig-tre-e>," O-VKOV, si tkoit, "fig"): in the OT The earliest OT re-fe-re-ne-e; to the; fig is to the le-aves, whie h Adam and Eve converted into aprons (tlen 3 7). The pre)inise-d land was described (Deuteronomy 8 8) as "a land of wheat and barle-y, anel vine s and fig-trees and pome;- granate s," e-tc. The spies who visited it bre>ught, besides the cluste-r of grape s, pomegranates and figs (Xu 13 23). The Israelites complained that the wildenu ss was "no place of seed, or of figs, or of vines, or of pomegranates" (Numbers 20 5). WhenEgypt was plagued, the; fig-trees were smitten (Psalm 105 33); a similar punishme-nt was thre-ate-ne-el to unfaithful Israel (Je-r 5 17; Hos 2 12; Amos 4 9). It is only necessary to ride; a fe-w miles among the mountain villages of Pal, with their extensive fig gardens, to realize what a long-lasting injury would be the; elestruertion of these slow-growing trees. Ye-ars of patie-nt labor such as that briefly hinted at in Luke 13 7 -must pass before a newly plantexl group of fig-tree s e-an bear pre>fitably. Plenitude of fruitful vines and fig-trees, specially ineiividual ownership, thus came to be emblematical of long-continued peace and prosperity. In the days of Solomem "Judah anel Israel dwelt safe ly, eve;ry man unele-r his vine and under his fig-tree" (1 Kings 4 25). Cf also 2 Kings 18 31; Isaiah 36 16; Micah 4 4; Zc 3 10; 1 Mace 14 12. Only a triumphal faith in Jeh coulel rejoice: in Him "though the fig-tree shall not flourish" (Hab 3 17).




      Annotated by NewtonStein, Cambridge Theological Seminary

      Fever Figure

      The Ficus carica, which produces the common fig,

      is a tree belonging to the N.O. Urticaceae, the

      nettle family, which includes also the

      2. Natural banyan, the India rubber fig-tree, the History of sycamore fig and other useful plants. the Fig- Fig-trees are cultivated all over the Tree Holy Land, esp. in the mountain re gions. Wild fig-trees usually rather

      shrubs than trees occur also everywhere; they are usually barren and are described by thefeUahin as " mule" trees; it is generally supposed that their presence is beneficial to the cultivated variety. The immature flowers harbor small insects which convey pollen to the female flowers and by their irritating presence stimulate the growth of the fruit . Artificial fertilization has been understood since ancient times, and there may be a reference to it in Amos 7 14.

      Fig-trees are usually of medium height, 10 or 15 ft. for full-grown trees, yet individual specimens sometimes attain as much as 2o ft. The summer foliage is thick and surpasses other trees of its size in its cool and dense shade. In the summer owners of such trees may be seen everywhere sitting in their shadow (.In 1 48). Such references as Micah 4 4; Zee 3 10, etc, probably arc to this custom rather than to the not uncommon one of having a fig-tree overhanging a dwelling.

      The fruit of the fig-tree is peculiar. The floral

      axis, instead of expanding outward, as with most

      flowers, closes, as the flower develops,

      3. Figs upon the small internal flowers, leaving

      finally but a small opening at the apex; the axis itself becomes succulent and fruit- like. The male flowers lie around the opening, the female flowers deeper in; fertilization is brought about by the presence of small hymenopterous in sects.

      Fig (Ficus carica).

      There are many varieties of figs in Pal differing in sweetness, in color and consistence; some are good and some are bad (cf Jeremiah 24 l.Samuel; 29 17). In Pal and other warm climates the fig yields two crops annually an earlier one, ripe about June, growing from the "old wood," i.e. from the midsummer sprouts of the previous year, and a second, more important one, ripe about August, which grows upon the "new wood," i.e. upon the spring shoots.

      By December, fig-trees in the mountainous regions of Pal have shed all their leaves, and they remain bare until about the end of March, when they com

      mence putting forth their tender leaf buds (Matthew 24 32; Mark 13 28.32; Luke 21 29-33), and at the same time, in the leaf axils, appear the tiny figs. They belong to the early signs of spring:

      "The voice of the turtle-dove is heard in our land; The fig-tree ripeneth her green figs" (pni/t/im)

      Cant 2 12.13.

      These tiny figs develop along with the leaves up to

      a certain point to about the size of a small cherry

      -and then the great majority of them

      4. Early fall to the ground, carried down with Figs every gust of wind. These are the

      "unripe figs" (<Hunthos) translation 1 . more appropriately in A’ r , as "untimely figs" of Rev 6 13. Cf also Ixi 34 4 AV -in RV "leaf" has been supplied instead of "fig." These immature figs are known to ihcfellalun as taksh, by whom they are eaten as they fall; they may even sometimes be seen exposed for sale in the markets in Jerus. In the case of many trees the whole of this first crop may thus abort, so that by May no figs at all are to be found on the tree, but with the best varieties of fig-trees a certain proportion of the early crop of figs remains on the tree, am 1 this fruit reaches ripe perfection about June. Such fruit is known in Arab, as dafur, or "early figs," and in Ileb as bik- kurah, "the first -ripe" (Isaiah 28 4; Jeremiah 24 2; Hos 9 10). They are now, as of old, esteemed for their delicate flavor (Micah 7 1, etc).

      The miracle of Our Lord (Matthew 21 18-20; Mark 11 which occurred in the Passover season,

      about April, will be understood (as far

      5. The as the natural phenomena are con- Cursing of cerned) by the account given above the Barren of the fruit ing of the fig-tree, as repeat - Fig-Tree edly observed by the present writer

      in the neighborhood of Jerus. When the young leaves are newly appearing, in April, every fig-tree which is going to bear fruit at all will have some tah sh ("immature figs") upon it, even though "the time of figs" (Mark 11 13 AV), i.e. of ordinary edible figs either early or late crop "was not yet." This t<il:nh is not only eaten today, but it is sure evidence, even when it falls, that the tree bearing it is not barren. This acted parable must be compared with Luke 13 0.9; ntno the time of judgment was surely coining, the fate of the fruit less Jewish nation was forcibly foretold.

      While fresh figs have always been an important

      article of diet in their season (Neh 13 15), the dried

      form is even more used. They are

      6. Dried today dried in the sun and threaded Figs on strings (like long necklaces) for

      convenience of carriage. A "cake of figs" (d bhelah, lit. "pressed together") is mentioned (1 Samuel 30 12); Abigail gave 200 such cakes of figs to David (25 IS); the people of N. Israel sent, with ot her things, "cakes of figs" as a present to the newly crowned David (1 Chronicles 12 4()J. Such masses of iigs are much used today they can be cut into slices with a knife like cheese. Such a mass was used externally for Ilezekiah s "boil" (Isaiah 38 21; 2 Kings 20 7); it was a remedy familiar to early medical writers. E. W . G. MASTEKXIAN

      FIGHT. See WAR; GAMES.

      FIGURE, fig fir, fig yur (5TQD, b EC , Kcmd, scmel; T-UTTOS, ttipos) . The translation of scntcl, or seme I, "a like ness or image"; perhaps a transposition of <<./<’, the usual word for likeness; it is elsewhere translation 1 "idol" and "image" (Deuteronomy 4 16, "the similitude of any figure," RV "in the form of any figure"); of tabhn tth, "form or likeness" (Isaiah 44 13, "shape! h it[theidol] .... after the figure of a man"; cf Deuteronomy 4 1G); of mikla ath, "carving," "carved work" (1 Kings 6 29: "And he carved all the walls of the house


      Fir, Fir-Tree



      round about with carved figures of cherubim and pal in- trees and open flowers, within and without," only here and in ver 32, 7 31 where the word is translation 1 "carving" and "graving"); in the NT "figure" is the translation of tupoti, primarily "a mark," "print," "impres sion," "something made by blows," hence, "figure," "statue," tropically "form," "manner"; a person bearing the form or figure of another, having a cer tain resemblance, preceding another to come, model, exemplar (Acts 7 43), "the figures [images] which ye made to worship them"; Rom 5 14, "who is the figure [RV, a figure"] of him that was to come," that is, the first Adam was a typo of the second Adam, Christ ; of antitupon, that which corresponds to a type or model (He 9 24 AV, "Christ is not entered into the holy places made with hands, which are the figures of the true; but into heaven itself"); the meaning is simply the correspondence, or likeness (of the tabernacle to heaven), therefore RV renders "h ko in pattern to the true" (1 Pet 3 21, "the like figure whereunto [even] baptism doth also now save us," i.e. baptism is the antitype of the ark "wherein .... eight souls were saved [or brought safely] through water," RV "which also after a true likeness [m "in the antitype"] doth now save you, even baptism"); of parabolf , "a plac ing alongside, "a "comparison," "similitude," hence, image, figure, type (He 9 9, "which was a figure for the time then present," ARV "which is a figure for the time present," ERV "parable" and "[now] present," viz. the entrance of the high priest, into the Holy of Holies was a type of Christ s en trance into heaven; 11 19, "from whence [from the dead] also he received him in a figure," i.e. Ab raham received Isaac back from the dead as it were, in the likeness of a resurrection, he not being actually dead, ARV "from whence he did also in a figure receive 1 him back," ERV "in a parable"); mi taschematizo, t o change t he form or appearance, "to transfer figuratively" (1 Corinthians 4 6, "These things, brethren, I have in a figure transferred to myself and Apollos"; the Geneva version reads "I have figuratively described in my own person"). Paul is "substituting himself and Apollos for the teachers most in repute at Corinth that he might thus avoid personality."

      "Figure" is supplied in Ecclus 49 9, with en <nnl>m, "He made mention of the enemies under the figure of the rain," RV "lie remembered the enemies in storm," in "Cr rain."

      RV has "a figure" in "an interpretation," for "the interpretation" (Prov 1 6; the word is m -llqah, only here and Hab 2 G, meaning properly what is involved and needs interpretation; in Hab 2 6 it is translation 1 "taunting proverb," RVm "riddle"); "fig ured stone" for "image of stone" (Leviticus 26 1); "fig ured stones" for "pictures" (Numbers 33 52).

      W. L. WALKER

      FILE, ill: Found only in 1 Samuel 13 21, but the text here is obscure. The Hob (p 1 fir ah phvm) signifies "bluntness of edge," and is so rendered in RVm. See TOOLS.

      FILLET, fil et (tnn , hut, pTfn , hashuk):

      (1) H tit, from a root not used, meaning probably "to sew," therefore a string or a measuring rod or cord, and so aline, tape, thread, fillet. Jeremiah 52 21 translation a "line" (AV "fillet"), measuring 12 cubits long, encircling brass pillars standing 18 cubits high, part of the temple treasure plundered by the Chal- daeans; and many other things "that were in the house of Jeh, did the Chaldeans break in pieces." Tr d "thread," used by Rahab, in Joshua 2 18, and "cord," "three fold .... is not quickly broken," in Eccl 4 12.

      (2) Hashuk, from a root meaning "to join" and therefore something joined or attached, and so a

      rail or rod between pillars, i.e. a fillet. The hang ings of the court of the tabernacle were supported by brass pillars sot in brass sockets, "The hooks of the pillars and their fillets shall be of silver" (Exodus 27 10.11). The embroidered screen for the door of the Tent was supported by five pillars socketed in brass: "And he overlaid their capitals and their fillets with gold" (Exodus 36 38). The pillars for the court and the gate of the court had fillets of silver (Exodus 38 10 IT). The vb. is used in Exodus 27 17; 38 17, "AH the pillars of the court wen; filleted with silver." WILLIAM EDWAKD RAFFETY

      FILTH, filth, FILTHINESS, fil thi-nos, FILTHY, fil thi (riXIS, $d ah, i~lXp;2, tum a/i; pvir6u,rhu/><><J): The word once translation d "filth" in the OT is GO ah, "excre ment" or "dung," elsewhere translation d "dung" (Lsa 4 4, used figuratively of evil doings, sin, "the filth of the daughters of Zion"; cf Prov 30 12); in the NT we have perikdtharma, "cloansings," "sweepings," "offscourings" (1 Corinthians 4 13, "We are made as the filth of the world," RVm "or refuse"); rbii/iim, "filth," "dirt," LXX for fo a/i in Isaiah 4 4 (1 Pet 3 21, "the filth of the flesh").

      "Filthiness" is the translation of tum ah, "urn-leanness" (ritual, Leviticus 5 3; 7 20, etc), used figuratively of moral impurity, translation d "filthinoss" (Ezr 6 21; Lam 1 9; Ezekiel 22 15; 24 11.13 bis; 36 25); niddah, "impurity" (2 Chronicles 29 5); figuratively (Ezr 9 11); RV has "uncleannoss," but "filthinoss" for unclean- ness at close of verse (nidddJi); whoshrth, "brass," figuratively (for "impurity" or "impudence") (Ezekiel 16 30); aischrutes, primarily "ugliness," tropical for unbecomingnoss, indecency (only Eph 6 4, "nor filthiness, nor foolish talking"; Alford has "obscenity," Woymouth, "shameful"); akatlidrtcs, "uneleanness" (Rev 17 4 AV), corrected text, id akdtharta, "the unclean things," so RV.

      "Filthy" is the translation of ulnh, "to bo turbid," to be come foul or corrupt in a moral sense (Job 15 1(5 AV; Psalm 14 3; 53 3); <iddln>, pi. of *iddah, from *adhadh, "to number or compute [monthly courses]" ; Isaiah 64 6, "All our righteousnesses are as filthy rags," RV "as a polluted garment"; cf Ezekiel 36 17; aischros, "ugly," tropical for unbecoming, shame ful (Tit 1 11, "for filthy lucre s sake"; cf ver 7); shameful discourse aixchrologia (Col 3 8 AV); rhupod, "filthy," in a moral sense polluted (Rev 22 11, "He that is filthy, let him be filthy still," RV "lot him be made filthy still" [corrected text], m "yet more"; Alford, "Let the filthy [morally pol luted] pollute himself still" [in the constant middle sense of passive vbs. when the act depends on the man s self]).

      In Apoc we have (Ecclus 22 1): "A slothful man is compared to a filthy [ardaloO] stone," RV "a stone that is defiled," ver 2 "A slothful man is compared to the filth [biilbiton] of a dunghill"; 27 4 "So the filth [xkiibulon] of a man in his talk [RV "of man in his reasoning"] re- maineth." See UNCLKANNKSS.

      W. L. WALKF.H FIN. See FISH.

      FINE, fin (adj., from Lat/i/mv, "to finish") : Indi cates superior quality. ( )nly in a few inst anees does "fine" represent a separate word: (1) tobti, "good," qualifies gold (2 Chronicles 3 5.8, "fine gold" ; cf Genesis 2 12, "good"); fine gold (Lam 4 1, AV "most fine gold," RV "most pure gold," lit. "good fine gold"), copper (Ezr 8 27, RV "fine bright brass"); tabh, Aram. (Dnl 2 32, "fine gold"). (2) paz, "refined" (Cant 5 11, "the most fine gold"). (3) helebh, "fatness," "the best of any kind"; cf Genesis 45 18; Deuteronomy 32 14, etc (Psalm 81 16, "the finest of the wheat," RVm Hebrews "fat of wheat"). (4) sarlk, "fine combed" (Isaiah 19 9, "fine flax," RV "combed flax").

      In other places it expresses a quality of the sub stantive: kethem, "fine gold" (Job 31 24; Dnl 10




      Annotated by NewtonStein, Cambridge Theological Seminary


      Fir, Fir- Tree

      5, RV "pure gold"); paz, used as a noun for refined gold (Job 28 17; Psalm 19 10; Prov 8 19; Isaiah 13 12; Lam 4 2); harug, "fine gold" (Prov 3 14; ff Pa RR 13 "vpllnw p-olfl M: xolt t.h. "flour." rend-

      cf Psalm 68 13, "yellow

      (Genesis 41 42; Exodus 25 4, etc); in Prov 31 22 AV has "silk"; sheshl (Ezekiel 16 13, "fine flour"); etun, "what is twisted or spun," "yarn" (Prov 7 16 AV,

      "fine linen of Egypt," RV "yarn of Egypt"); "fine white cloth," "cotton or linen," "fine linen" (1 Chronicles 4 21; Ezekiel 27 16, etc; 2 Chronicles 6 12, AV "white," RV " fine"); biissos, "byssus," "linen" from 6-uf (LXX for which, 2 Chronicles 2 14; 3 14), deemed very fine and precious, worn only by the rich (Luke 16 19; Rev 18 12; bussinos, "byssine," made of fine linen, LXX for buf (1 Chronicles 16 27) (Rev 18 16, "clothed in fine linen," RV "arrayed," 19 8.14); sirulon, "fine linen" (Mark 15 4(5, "He bought fine linen," RV "a linen cloth"; cf Mark 14 51.52; Alt 27 5*); Luke 23 53); it was used for wrapping the body at night, also for wrapping round dead bodies; sindu/t is LXX for sddhln, (Judges 14 12.13; Prov 31 24); chalkolibanon (Rev 1 15; 2 18, AV "fine brass")-

      The meaning of this word has boon much discussed; chdlkos is "brass" in Or (with many compounds), and libation is tho LXX for Ihkdndh, "frankincense," which word was probably derived from the root lab/tan, "to burn"; this would give glmcing brass, "as if they burned in a furnace"; in Dnl 10 <> it is n e hdaheth kulnl, A V "polished brass," RV "burnished" (kdlal is "to glow"). Plumptro deemed it a hybrid word composed of the Gr chnlkiix, "brass," and the lleb Inbhan, "white," a tech nical word, such as might bo familiar to the Ephesians; RV has "burnished brass"; Weymouth, "silver-bronze when it is white-hot in a furnace"; the whiteness being expressed by tho second half of the Gr word. See Thayer s Lexicon (s.v.j.

      In Apoc we have "fine linen," buxsinos (1 Esd 3 6), "fine bread"; the adj. katharos, separate (.Jth 10 5, RVm "pure bread"); "fine flour" (Kcclus 35 2; 38 11); semidalis (Bel ver 3; 2 Mace 1 8, RV "meal ottering"). W. L. WALKER

      FINER, fin er, FINING, fln ing (Prov 25 4 AV). See REFINER.

      FINES, finz. See PUNISHMENTS.

      FINGER, fin ger (Hob and Aram. y32S , Vf&a ; SaKTxiXos, ddktid.ois) : The fingers are to the Oriental essential in conversation; their language is fre quently very eloquent and expressive. They often show what the mouth does not dare to utter, esp. grave insult and scorn. The scandalous person is thus described in Prov 6 13 as "teaching" or "mak ing signs with his fingers." Such insulting gestures (compare e.g. the gesture of Shimei in throwing dust or stones at David, 2 Samuel 16 6) are even now not infrequent in Pal. The same habit is alluded to in Isaiah 58 9 by the expression, "putting forth of fin gers."

      The fingers were decorated with rings of precious metal, which, with other jewelry worn ostentatiously on t lie body, often formed the only possession of the wearer, and were therefore carefully guarded. In the same way the law of Jeh was to be kept: "Bind them [my commandments] upon thy fingers; write them upon the tablet of thy heart" (Prov 7 3).

      Figurative: In 1 Kings 12 10 and 2 Chronicles 10 10 Rehoboam gives the remarkable answer to his dis satisfied people, which is, at the same time, an excellent example of the use of figurative language in the Orient: "My little finger is thicker than my father s loins," a figure explained in the next verse: Whereas my father did lade you with a heavy yoke,

      I will add to your yoke: my father chastised you with whips, but I will chastise you with scorpions." The Hebrews word used here for little finger is Tp, kotcn, lit. "pettiness," "unimportant thing."

      The "finger of God," like the "hand of (Jod," is synonymous with power, omnipotence, sometimes with the additional meaning of the infallible evi dence of Divine authorship visible in all His works (Psalm 8 3; Luke 11 20), esp. in His law (Exodus 8 19; 31 18; Deuteronomy 9 10; cf Exodus 32 15.16).

      The finger or digit as a linear measure is mentioned in Jeremiah 52 21 (Gr daktulos; Jos, Ant, V2I, iii, 4). It is equal to one finger-breadth, j of a hand-breadth (palni) = 18.6 millimeters or .73 in.

      H. L. E. LUERING

      FINGER, fin ger (SaSS, e f 6a ): The smallest of the Hebrews linear measures. It was equal to the breadth of the finger, or about f in., four of which made a palm (Jeremiah 52 21). See WEIGHTS AND MEASURES.

      FINISH, fin ish (TV? , kulah; rt’4<a, tcleo, with other Hebrews and Gr words): The proper sense of "finish" is to end or complete; so for "finish," "fin ished," in AV, there is sometimes met with in RV the change to "complete" (Luke 14 28; 2 Corinthians 8 6), accomplish" (John 4 34; 5 36; 17 4), "made an end of doing" (2Ch411; cf 24 14), etc. In Jas 1 15, for "sin, when it is finished," RV reads "sin, when it is full-grown," corresponding to "con ceived" of the previous clause. On the other hand, RV has frequently "finished" for other words, as "ended" (Genesis 2 2; Deuteronomy 31 30), "accomplished" (John 19 2S), "filled up," "fulfilled" (Rev 15 1.8), etc. The grandest Scriptural example of the word is the cry upon the cross, "It is finished" (Tet&lestai, John 19 30). W. L. WALKER

      FINISHER, fin ish-er (TeXawriis, tdriotts): This word is applied to Jesus (He 12 2), and comes from t/li ii io, "to complete," "to make perfect"; hence it means finisher in the sense of completing; AV "the author and finisher of our faith," RV "the author [in "captain"] and perfect er of our faith"; but "our" is supplied, and in the connection in which the passage stands after the examples which have been adduced of the power of faith most probably the best rendering is "the Leader [or Cap tain] and Perfeeterof the; Faith," that is of the faith which has been illustrated by those mentioned in ch 11, who are as "a great cloud of witnesses" to the power of faith; but above all "looking to Jesus, our Leader" in whom it was perfected, as is shown in what follows: "who for the joy that was set before him endured the cross," etc. "In His human nature He exhibited Faith in its highest form, from first to last, and placing Himself as it were at the head of the great army of heroes of Faith, He carried Faith, the source of their strength, to its most complete perfection and to its loftiest triumph" (Westcott). W. L. WALKER

      FIR, fur, FIR-TREE (RVm "cypress"; TZJ113 , frrdtsh, 2 Samuel 6 5; 1 Kings 5 8.10, etc; DT , b e ro- thltii [pi. only], an Aram, form, Cant 1 17): This

      tree was one of the chief trees of Leb- 1. OT anon (Isaiah 60 13); one of usefulness

      References (41 19; 55 13); associated with the

      cedar (2 Kings 19 23; Psalm 104 17; Isaiah 14 8; Zee 11 2); its boughs were wide and great (Ezekiel 31 Samuel); it was evergreen (Hos 14 8); it could supply boards and timber for doors (1 Kings 6 15.24); beams for roofing the temple (2 Chronicles 3 5); planks for shipbuilding (Ezekiel 27 5). In 2 Samuel 6 5 we read: "David and all the house of Israel played before Jeh with all manner of instruments made of

      Fire Firstborn



      Annotated by NewtonStein, Cambridge Theological Seminary


      fir-wood," etc. It is practically certain thai the reading in the passage in 1 Chronicles 13 Samuel is more cor rect.; "David and all Israel played before (iod with all their might, even with songs," etc. This view is supported by the LXX translation (ev irao-fl, </t jifixe (lniKUiit i). Tliere is therefore no necessity to suppose (hat b Tush was a wood used for musical instruments.

      Tlic identity of ii -n mh is uncertain. Ft was a name applied either to several of the (. oniffrac in common or

      to one or more outstanding species. If

      2. The tnt> latter is the case ‘ve can only seek

      T,i ori i;i.. -r for (lie most suited to OT requirements.

      fSf .7,, T 1 " Aleppo Pine, Pinut Haltpeiuu, is a

      r> e rosn fine tree which nourishes in the Lebanon,

      but its wood is not of special excellence and durability. A better tree (or couple of trees) is the Klnrlii/t of the Syrians: this name includes two distinct varieties in the suborder Cypresxintae, the fine tall jun iper, ./ inn /ni-i.-i <.tv<7.xr( and the cypress, Ci’) .scm/xT- virens. They hot h still occur in considerable numbers in the Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon; they are magnificent trees and produce excellent wood resinous, fragrant, durable. If these trees were not classed locally, as now, under one name, then the cypress is of the two more probably the ‘ ruxh. The eollins of Kgyp mummies were made of cypress; a compact variety of this cypress is cultivated all over the Turkish empire by the Moslems as an ornament in cemeteries. From early times the cypress lias been connected with mourning.

      In the Apoc then 1 are two definite references to the cypress (Kinrd,pi.<Tffos, Ictijxirixxox). In Sir 24 13, ‘ isdom says:

      l was exalted like a cedar in Libanus, And as a cypress tree on the mountains of Hermon."

      And in Sir 50 10 the high priest Simon is said to be

      "As an olive tree budding forth fruits, And as a cypress growing high among the clouds."

      These passages, esp. (he former, certainly favor the idea that b e rdsh was the cypress; the name may, however, have included allied trees.

      E. ‘V. G. MASTERMAN

      FIRE, fir (CX, <-*’; irvp, ptfr): These are the common words for fire 1 , occurring very frequently. Ur, "light" (Isaiah 24 15 AV; cf RY; 31 9, and see FIKES), n ilr (Aram.) (Dnl 3 22 ff ) are found a, few times, also cshislitlh. (.Jeremiah 6 2!), and !} * ruh (Exodus 22 6), once each. Acts 28 2.15 has j>ur/i, "pvre," and Mark 14 54; Luke 22 oil, /,/, "light," RY "in the light (of the fire]." "To set on fire," yayith (2 Samuel 14 31), lahnt (Deuteronomy, 32 22, etc), plthcjizo (Jus 3 G).

      Fire was regarded by primitive, peoples as super natural in origin and specially Divine. Molech, the fire-god, and other deities were worshipped by certain Canaanitish and other tribes with human sacrifices (Deuteronomy 12 31; 2 Kings 17 31; Psalm 106 37), and, although this was specially forbidden to the Israelites (Leviticus 18 21; Deuteronomy 12 31; 1810), they too often lapsed into the practice (2 Kings 16 3; 21 0; Jeremiah 7 31; Ezekiel 20 20.31). See MOLECH; IDOL ATRY.

      Fire in the OT is specially associated with the Divine presence, e.g. in the making of the Covenant with Abraham (Cien 15 17), in the 1. Literal burning bush (Exodus 3 2-4), in the pillar Usage of fire (13 21), on Sinai (19 IS;, in

      the flame on the altar (Judges 13 20). Jeh was "the (}od that answereth by fire" (1 Kings 18 24.38). In the Law, therefore, sacrifices and offer ings (including incense) were to be made by fire (Exodus 12 8.9.10; Leviticus 1). Fire from Jeh signified the acceptance of certain special and separate sacrifices (Judges 6 21; 1 Kings 18 38; 1 Chronicles 21 2(5). In Leviticus 9 24 the sacrificial fire "Came forth from before Jeh." The altar-fire was to be kept continually burning (6 12.13); offering by "strange fire" (other than the sacred altar-fire) was punished by "fire from before Jeh" (10 1 .2). Fire came from heaven also at the consecration of Solomon s Temple (2 Chronicles 7 1).

      According to 2 Mace 1 19-22, at the time of the Cap tivity priests hid the sacred fire, in a well, and Nehemiah found it again, in a miraculous way, for the second Temple. Later, Maccabaeus is said to have restored the fire by "striking stones and taking fire out of them" (10 :*j.

      Fire was a frequent instrument of the Divine primitive wrath (Genesis 19 24; Exodus 9 23 [lightning]; Numbers 11 1; 16 35, etc; Psalm 104 4, ARV "Who maketh .... flames of fire his ministers"). Fire shall yet dissolve the world (2 Pet 3 12). It was frequently used by the Israelites as a means of de struction of idolatrous objects and the cities of their enemies (Deuteronomy 7 ,5.2,"); 12 3; 13 16; Joshua 6 24; Judges, frequently); sometimes also of punishment (Ley 20 14; 21 9; Joshua 7 25; 2 Mace 7 ,5).

      The domestic use of fire was, as among other peoples, for heating, cooking, lighting, etc, but ac cording to the Law no fire could be kindled on the Sabbath day (Exodus 35 3). It was employed also for melting (32 24), and refining (Numbers 31 23; Mai 3 2.3, etc). For the sacrificial fire wood was used as fuel (den 22 3. IS; Leviticus 6 12); for ordinary pur poses, also charcoal (Prov 25 22; Isaiah 6 0, RVm "or hot stone"; Hab 3 5, RV fiery bolts," m "or burning coals"; John 21 9, "a fire of coals" RYm "(Jr, a fire of charcoal"; Rom 12 20) ; branches (Numbers 15 32; 1 Kings 17 12); thorns (Psalm 58 9; 118 12; Eccl 7 0; Isaiah 33 12); grass and other herb age (Matthew 6 30; Luke 12 28).

      Fire was an emblem (1) of Jeh in His glory (Dnl 7 <J); (2) in His holiness (Isaiah 6 4); (3) in His jealousy for His sole worship (Deuteronomy 4 24; 2. Figura- He 12 29; Psalm 79 5; perhaps also Isaiah tive Use 33 14); (4) of His protection of His people (2 Kings 6 17; Zee 2 5); (5) of His righteous judgment and purification (Zee 13 9; Mai 3 2.3; 1 Corinthians 3 13.15); (ti) of His wrath against sin and punishment of the wicked (Deuteronomy 9 3; Psalm 18 Samuel; 89 40; Isaiah 5 24; 30 33, "a Topheth is prepared of old"; Matthew 3 10-12; 5 22, RV "the hell of fire," m "(Jr, Gehenna of fire"; see Isaiah 30 33; Jeremiah 7 31; Matthew 13 40.42; 25 41, "eternal fire"; Mark 9 45-49; > _se(> Lsa 68 24; 2 Thessalonians 1 7; He 10 27; Jtule ver 7); (7) of the word of God in its power (Jeremiah 5 14; 23 29); (Samuel) of Divine truth (Psalm 39 3; Jeremiah 20 9; Luke 12 49); (9) of that which guides men (Isaiah 50 10.11); (10) of the Holy Spirit, (Acts 2 3); (11) of the glorified Christ (Rev 1 14); (12) of kindness in its melting power (Rom 12 20); (13) of trial and suffering (Psalm 66 12; Isaiah 43 2; 1 Pet 1 7; 4 12); (14) of evil (Prov 6 27; 16 27; Isaiah 9 IS; 65 5); lust or desire (Hos 7 0; Sir 23 10; 1 Corinthians 7 9); greed (Prov 30 Hi); (15) of the tongue in its evil aspects (Jas 3 5.0); (10) of heaven in its purity and glory (Rev 15 2; see also 21 22.23).




      FIREBRAND, flr brand (TIX , udh, used for a burning stick taken out of the fire): In Judges 15 4.5 describing the "brands" (m "torches") which Samson tied to the foxes tails, the word is lappldh ("lamp"; see Judges 7 10.20 RV, "torches"). Other words are zikkim, "sparks," "flames" (fiery darts; Prov 26 18), and zlkuth (Isaiah 50 11); udh is used figuratively of angry men (Isaiah 7 4), and of those mercifully rescued from destruction (Amos 4 11; Zee 3 2; RV "brand"). RV gives "firebrand" as translation of moJpedh (AV "hearth") in Psalm 102 3, "My bones are burned as a firebrand" (m "as a hearth"). See BRAND. W. L. WALKEK




      Annotated by NewtonStein, Cambridge Theological Seminary

      Fire Firstborn

      FIREPAN, flr pan (nniTQ , utahtah, "firepan," "censer," "snuflfdish,"from ~ii>7 7 hathah, "to snatch up"): A. vessel for carrying coals. Brazen firepans were part of the furnishings of the altar of burnt offerings (Exodus 27 3; 38 3, and in Numbers 4 14, where AV wrongly reads "censers," the context indicating a vessel belonging to the brazen altar).

      The same word is translation 1 "snuf fdishes" in Exodus 25 3$; 37 23; Numbers 4 9, where it refers to golden firepans which belonged to the golden candlestick or lamp stand, and were used to receive the burnt ends of the wicks. In 1 Kings 7 50 and 2 Chronicles 4 22, although AV reads "censers," the context points to the firepans belonging to the candlestick; as also in 2 Kings 25 15 and Jeremiah 52 19, translation d "firepans" in AV and RV. A similar firepan designated by the same Hebrews word but translation 1 "censer" was used to cany the burning coals upon which the incense was thrown and burned (Leviticus 10 1; 16 12; Numbers 16 6.17 ff). Sec CENSER.

      The firepan or censer of the Hebrews was doubt less similar to the censer of the Egyptians, pictures of which have been found. It consisted of a pan or pot for 1he coals, which was held by a .straight or slightly curved long handle. The style of censer used in recent centuries, swung by three chains, came into use about the 12th century AD.


      FIRES, flrz: In Isaiah 24 15 AV translates D"H$ , urlm ("lights," csp. I rim in the phrase "Trim and Thummim") "fires." RV, understanding the word to mean the region of light, translates "east," which satisfies the context far better, and is adopted by many modern scholars. In E/k 39 9.10 RV has fires"; in ver 9 "make fires" is a translation of a vb. of different root; in ver 10 "fires" translates the com mon sing, noun for fire.

      FIRKIN, f ur kin (itTpy^s, mHrctfs) : The liquid measure used in John 2 to indicate the capacity of the water-pots mentioned in the narrative of the miracle of turning the water into wine. It is re garded as equivalent to the Hebrews b(ith,ui’d thus con tained about nine gallons. See WEIGHTS AND MEASURES.

      FIRMAMENT, fur ma-ment. See ASTRONOMY, 2I, 3.

      FIRST, furst ("nX, cfifWi, "pEX"!, ri shun; irpw- TOV, proton, TO irpu)Tov, (6 />ro/o/i, irpwros, proton): Of these words, which are those most frequently used for "first," ri shdn is from rush, "the head," and is used for the highest, chief, etc-; also of time, the beginning, e.g. C!en 8 13, "in the first month"; in Isaiah 44 0; 48 12, it is used of Jeh as Eternal and solely Supreme the First and the Last (cf 41 4). Special usages are in connection with "firstborn," "first-fruit, etc; proton, is used of that which is first in order; but also of that which is first or chief in importance, etc (Matthew 6 33; Jas 3 17). In 1 Timothy 1 15, Paul says Jesus came "to save sinners; of whom 1 am chief," lit. "first"; the same word is used by Jesus of the "first" of the commandments (Mark 12 29); where we read in 1 Corinthians 15 3, "I delivered unto you first of all," it is en prutois ("in the foremost place"); "The first and the last" is applied to Christ as Eternal and Supreme (Rev 1 17; 2 8; 22 13); prolos is "the first day" (Matthew 26 17; Mark 16 9); in Matthew 28 1; Mark 16 2; Luke 24 1; John 20 1.19; Acts 20 7, it is mia ("one").

      W. L. WALKER

      FIRST-BEGOTTEN, furst -be>got"n (irptoTOTOKos, prototokos) : This Gr word is translation J in two passages in AV by "first-begotten" (He 1 G; Rev 1 5), but in all other places in AV, and always in RV, by "firstborn." It is used in its natural literal sense

      of Jesus Christ as Mary s firstborn (Luke 2 7; Matthew 1 25 AV); it also bears the literal sense of the first born of men and animals (He 11 2<Samuel). It is not used in the NT or LXX of an only child, which is expressed by monogcuts (see below).

      Metaphorically, it is used of Jesus Christ to ex press at once His relation to man and the universe and His difference from them, as both He and they are related to God. The laws and customs of all nations show that to be "firstborn" means, not only priority in time, but a certain superiority in privi lege and authority. Israel is Jeh s firstborn among the Cations (Exodus 4 22; cf Jeremiah 31 9). The Mes sianic King is Clod s first born (LXX/jroto/oA- tw), "the highest of the kings of the earth" (Psalm 89 27). Pliilo applies the word to the Logos as the archetypal and governing idea of creation. Similarly Christ, as "the firstborn of all creation" (Col 1 15), is not only prior to it in time, but above it in power and authority. "All things have been created through him, and unto him" (ver 10). He is "sovereign Lord over all creation by virtue of primo-geniture" (Lightfoot). It denotes His status and character and not His origin; the context does not admit the idea that He is a part of the created universe. So in His incarnation He is brought into the world as "firstborn," and God summons all His angels to wor ship Him (He 1 0). In His resurrection He is "firstborn from the dead" (Col 1 IS) or "of the dead" (Rev 1 5), t lie origin and prince of life. And finally He is "firstborn among many brethren" in the consummation of God s purpose of grace, when all the elect are gathered home. Not only is He their Lord, but also their pattern, God s ideal Son, and men are "foreordained to be conformed to (his] image" (Rom 8 29). Therefore the saints them selves, as growing in His likeness, and as possessing all the privileges of eldest sons, including the king dom and the priesthood, may be called the "church of the firstborn who are enrolled in heaven" (He 12 23). See also BEGOTTEN, and Lightfoot on Col 1 15. T. REES

      FIRSTBORN, fursfborn, FIRSTLING, furst ling ( W .122L , b khur; irpuiTOTOKos, prulutokos): The Hebrews word denotes the firstborn of human beings as well as of animals (Exodus 11 5), while a word from the same root denotes first-fruits (Exodus 23 10). All the data point to the conclusion that among the ancestors of the Hebrews the sacrifice of the firstborn was prac- tised, just as the first lings of the flocks and the first- fruits of the produce of the earth were devoted to the deity. The narrative of the Moabite war records the sacrifice of the heir to the throne by Mesha, to Chemosh, the national god (2 Kings 3 27). The barbarous custom must have become extinct at an early period in the religion of Israel (Genesis 22 12). It was probably due to the influence of surrounding nations that the cruel practice was revived toward the close of the monarchical period (2 Kings 16 3; 17 17; 21 0; Jeremiah 7 31; Ezekiel 16 20; 23 37; Micah 6 7). Jeremiah denies that the offering of human beings could have been an instruction from Yahweh (7 31; 19 5). The prophetic conception of God had rendered such a doctrine inconceivable. Clear evi dence of the spirit uali/ation and humanization of religion among the Israelites is furnished in the replacement, at an early stage, of the actual sacri fice of the firstborn by their dedication to the service of Yahweh. At a later stage the Levites were sub stituted for the firstborn. Just as the firstlings of unclean animals were redeemed with money (Exodus 13 13; 34 20), for the dedication of the firstborn was substituted the consecration of the Levites to the service of the sanctuary (Numbers 3 11-13.45). On the 30th day after birth the firstborn was brought to the priest by the father, who paid five shekels

      First-Fruits Fisher



      Annotated by NewtonStein, Cambridge Theological Seminary


      for the child s redemption from service in the temple (cf Luke 2 27; Mish ]J"kli<liT>lh viii.X). For that service the Lovites were accepted in place of the redeemed firstborn (‘u 3 4.">). See note. Accord ing to Exodus 22 29- 31 the firstborn were to be given to Yahweh. (The firstborn of clean animals, if free from spot or blemish, were to b:> sacrificed after eight days, Nil 18 1(1 f f.) This allusion to the sacrifice of the firstborn as part of the religion of Yahweh has been variously explained. Some scholars suspect (he text, but in all probability tin- verse means no more than similar references to the fact that the firstborn belonged to Yahweh (Exodus 13 2; 34 19). The modifying clause, wit h regard to the redemption of the firstborn, has been omitted. The firstborn possessed definite privileges which were denied to other members of the family. The La’v forbade the disinheriting of the firstborn (Deuteronomy 21 1.1-17). Such legislat ion, in polygamous times, was necessary to prevent a favorite wife from exercising undue influence over her husband in distributing his prop erty, as in the case of Jacob ( .en 25 2)5). The oldest son s share was twice as large as that of any other son. When Klisha prayed for a double por tion of Elijah s spirit, he simply wished to be con sidered the firstborn, i.e. the successor, of the dying prophet. Israel was Yahweh s firstborn (Exodus 4 2 - ; cf Jeremiah 31 9 [Ephraim]). Israel, as compared with other nations, was entitled to special privileges. She occupied a unique position in virtue of the special relationship between Yahweh and the nation. In three passages (Rom 8 29; Col 1 ]."> He 1 (i), Jesus Christ is the firstborn among many brethren (Horn 8 2 ( .); of every creature (Col 1 1(5). This application of the term to Jesus Christ may be traced back to 1 s 89 27 where the Davidic ruler, or perhaps the nation, is alluded to as the firstborn of Yahweh. See CHILD; CiucrMcisiox; FIRST-


      NOTK. Tho custom of redeeming the, firstborn son is preserved amon^ the Jews to this day. After thirty days tli<- father invites the " Kohen," i.e. a supposed descendant of Aaron, to the house. The child is brought and shown to the " Kohen," and the father declares the mother of the child to be an Israelite. If she is a " Ko hen." redemption is not necessary. The " Kohen" asks the father which he prefers, his child or the five shekels; tlio father answers that lie prefers his son, and pays to tho "Kohen" a sum equivalent to five shekels. After receiving tho redemption-money, the "Kohen" puts his hands on the child s head and pronounces the Aaronito blessing (Numbers 6 2: T _ L ^

      FIRST-FRUITS, f first -fronts (n^iO , rr .s7/7’, ")"^? , bikkunin; dirapxT], (i/xnrfif: LXX trans lates rr Ninth by (ij>(irch(~, but for bikkiirlm it uses the word prdtogenntmaia; cf Philo 22 33): In acknowl edgment of the fact that the land and all its prod ucts were the gift of Jeh to Israel, and in thank fulness for His bounty, all the first -fruits were offered to Him. These were offered in their natural state (e.g. cereals, tree fruits, grapes), or after preparation (e.g. musk, oil, flour, dough), after which the Israelite was at liberty to use the rest (Exodus 23 19; Numbers 15 20; 18 12; Deuteronomy 26 2; Neh 10 35.37). No absolute dis tinction can be made between re dill h and bikkfirlm, but r<~ xhlth seems generally to mean what is prepared by human labor, and bikkiirlm the direct product of Nature. The phrase "the first of the first-fruits (Exodus 23 19; 34 2(5; Exk 44 30), Hebrews rcslilth hik- kurf , Gr ajxirchai ton protogennemdton, is not quite clear. It may mean the first -ripe or the choicest of the first-fruits. The re xtiith offerings were indi vidual, except that a re shlth of dough was to ^be offered as a heave offering (Numbers 15 17-21). The priest waved a re shithof corn before the Lord on the morrow after the Sabbath in the week of unleavened bread (Leviticus 23 9-11). These offerings all fell to the priest (Numbers 18 12). Jlikkurltn refers specially to things sown (Exodus 23 1(5; Leviticus 2 14). At the

      Feast, of Weeks, seven weeks after the offering of the sheaf, bikkdrlin of corn in the ear, parched with fire and bruised, were brought to the House of the Lord as a meal offering (Exodus 34 22-2(5; Leviticus 2 14- 1(5). The bikkurlin also fell to the priest, except a portion which was burned as a memorial (Leviticus 2 Samuel 10.10). The beautiful ceremony of the offering of the re xlnth in the House of ( lod is described in Deuteronomy 26 1 11, and is enlarged upon in the Talm (liikkunni 3 2). According to the Talm (T e rumoth 4 3) a sixtieth part of the first-fruits in a prepared form was the minimum that could be offered; the more generous brought a fortieth part, and even a thirtieth. The fruits of newly planted trees were not to be gathered during the first three years; the fruits of the fourth year were consecrated to Jeh, and from the fifth year the fruits belonged to the owner of the trees (Leviticus 19 23-2."). According to Mish, *()rl(ih i.IO, even the shells of nuts and pomegranates could not- be used during tin; first three years as coloring matter or for the lighting of fires. It is held by some scholars that the institu tion of the tithe (see TITHE) is a later development from t he first-fruits.

      Figurative: In the <)T, in Jeremiah 2 3, Israel is called "the re , s7u’i of his increase." In the NT /i/i/irc/tc is applied fig. to the first convert or converts in a particular place (Horn 16 5; 1 Corinthians 16 loj; to the Christians of that age (Jas 1 IS; 2 Thessalonians 2 13, Wllm), and to the 144,000 in heaven (Rev 14 4); to Christ, as the first who rose from the dead (1 Corinthians 15 20.23) ; also to the blessings which we receive now through the Spirit, the earnest of greater blessings to come (Rom 8 23). PAUL LEVERTOFF


      FISH (!", ilni/li, t~y~ , (Idi/iiuh, JX , dagh; tx^s> icltllnix, l’8vbiov, ichth&dion, 6’J/eLpiov, o/i-

      Miri<t): Fishes abound in the inland 1. Natural waters of Pal as well as the Mediter- History ranean. They are often mentioned or

      indirectly referred to both in the OT and in the NT, but it is remarkable that no particu lar kind is distinguished by name. In Leviticus 11 9-12 and Deuteronomy 14 9 f, "whatsoever hath fins and scales in the waters" is declared clean, while all that "have not fins and scales" are forbidden. This excluded not only reptiles and amphibians, but also, among fishes, siluroids and eels, sharks, rays and lampreys. For our knowledge of the inland fishes of Pal we are mainly indebted to Tristram, ‘/2i and Fauna /Did Flora, of I nl; Lortet, 1 oissonx ct rtplilcs da Laccle Tiber iade; and Russegger, R.ciscn in Europa, Asien, AJ rik/i, lX3f>-lX41. The most remarkable feature of the fish fauna of tho Jordan valley is its relationship to that of the Nile and of E. Central Africa. Two Nile fishes, Chro/nis nilotica Hassel- quist, and Clarias macracanlhus Cunth., are found in the Jordan valley, and a number of other species found only in the Jordan valley belong to genera (Chroinift and Hemichromis) which are otherwise exclusively African. This seems to indicate that at some time, probably in the early Tertiary, there; was some connection between the Palestinian and African river syst ems. No fish can live in t he Dead Sea, and many perish through being carried down by the swift currents of the Jordan and other streams. There are, however, several kinds of small fish which live in salt, springs on the borders of the Dead Sea, springs which are as salt as the Dead Sea but which, according to Lortet, lack the magnesium chloride which is a constituent of the Dead Sea water and is fatal to the fish. Capoeta damascina Cuv. and Val., one of the commonest fishes of Syria and Pal, has been taken by the writer in large num bers in the Arnon and other streams flowing into




      Annotated by NewtonStein, Cambridge Theological Seminary

      First-Fruits Fisher

      the Dead Sea. This is surprising in view of the fact that the Dead Sea seems to form an effective barrier between the fishes of the different streams flowing into it. The indiscriminate mention of

      Fishes of the Sea of Galilee (PEF Drawing).

      fishes without reference to the different kinds is well illustrated by the numerous passages in which "the fishes of the sea, the birds of the heavens, and the beasts of the field," or some equivalent expres sion, is used to denote all living creatures, e.g. den 1 26; 9 2; Numbers 11 22; Deuteronomy 4 18; 1 Kings 4 33; Job 12 8; Psalm 8 Samuel; E/k 38 20; Hos 4 3; Zeph 1 3; 1 Corinthians 15 39.

      An unusually large shark might fulfil the condi tions of Jonah s fish (<lagh, ddghah; but Matthew 12 40,

      KTJTOS, kf lox, "whale or "sea inon- 2. Jonah s ster"). The whale that is found in the Fish Mediterranean (Balaam anxtrtilix) has

      a narrow throat and could not swallow a man. No natural explanation is possible of .Jo nah s remaining alive and conscious for three days in the creature s belly. Those who consider the book historical must regard the whole event as miraculous. For those who consider it to be a story with a purpose, no explanation is required.


      Carp Found in the Sea of Galilee (1 KF Drawing I.

      The present inhabitants of Moab and Edom make no use of the fish that swarm in the Arnon, the Jjisa and other streams, but fishing is an important industry in Galilee and Western Pal. Now, as formerly, spear hooks and nets are em ployed. The fish-spear (Job 41 7) is little used. Most of the OT references to nets have to do wit h the taking of birds and beasts and not of fishes, and, while in Hab 1 15 hfrem is rendered "net" and mikhm<-r<th "drag," it is hot clear that these and the other words rendered "net" refer to particular kinds of nets. In the NT, however, (rayrji^, saa -ne (Matthew 13 47), is clearly the dragnet, and aju.^i/SXrjo-Tpoi , amphlblestron (Matthew 4 IX), is clearly the casting net. The word oftenest used is &IKTVOV, dlktuiin. Though this word is from dikt-in, "to throw," or "to cast," the context in several places (e.g. Luke 5 4; John 21 11) suggests that a dragnet is meant. The dragnet may be several hundred feet long. The upper edge is buoyed and the lower edge is weighted. 1 1, is let down from a boat in a line parallel to the shore and is then pulled in by ropes attached to the two ends, several men and boys usually pulling at each end. The

      use of the casting net requires much skill. It forms a circle of from 10 to 20 feet in diameter with numerous small leaden weights at the circumference. It is lifted by the center and carefully gathered over the right arm. When well tlirown it goes to some distance, at the same time spreading out into a wide circle. A cord may be attached to the center, but this is not always the case. When lifted again by the center, the leads come together, dragging over the bottom, and sometimes a large number of fish may be inclosed. The novice has only to try, to realize the dexterity of the practised fishermen.

      Figurative: The fact that so many of Our Lord s disciples were fishermen lends a profound interest to their profession. Christ tells Simon and Andrew (Matthew 4 19; Mark 1 17) that He will make them fishers of men. The Kingdom of Heaven (Matthew 13 47) is likened unto a net that was cast into the sea, and gathered of every kind; which, when it was filled, they drew up on the beach; and they sat down and gathered the good into vessels, but 1 he- bad they cast away. Tristram (NHB) says that he has seen the fishermen go through their net and throw out into the sea those that were too small for the market or were considered unclean. In Jeremiah 16 Hi, we read: "Behold, 1 will send for many fishers, s:;ith Jeh, and they shall fish them up; and after ward I will send for many hunters, and they shall hunt them from every mountain, and from every hill, and out of the clefts of the rocks." In tin- vision of Ezekiel (E/k 47 9f), the multitude of fi -h and the nets spread from En-gcdiio En-cgluini are marks of the marvelous change wrought in the Dead Sea by the stream issuing from the temple. The same sign, i.e. of the spreading of nets (E/k 26 f>. 14), marks the desolation of Tyre. It is a piece of broiled fish that the risen Lord eats with the Eleven in Jerus (Luke 24 42), and. by the Sea of C.ali- lee (John 21 13) He gives the disciples bread and fish.


      FJSHER, fish er, FISHERMAN, fish er-man P;" 7 ! , dayyagh, 3;H , dawwdyh; dXwvs, halictts; ‘VH haleeus): Although but few references to fishermen are made in the Bible, these men and their call ing are brought into prominence by Jesus call to certain Cialilee fishermen to become His disciples (Matthew 4 IS. 19; Mark 1 10.17). Fishermen, then as now, formed a distinct class. The strenuousness of the work (Luke 6 2) ruled out the weak and indolent . They were crude in manner, rough in speech and in their treatment of others (Luke 9 49.54; John 18 10). James and John before they became tempered by Jesus influence were nicknamed the "sons of thunder" (Mark 3 17). The fishermen s exposure to all kinds of weather made them hardy and fear less. They were accustomed to bear with patience many trying circumstances. They often toiled for hours without success, and yet were always ready to try once more (Luke 5 5; John 21 3). Such men, when impelled by the same spirit as filled their Master, became indeed fishers of men" (Matthew 4 19; Mark 1 17).

      One of the striking instances of the fulfilment of prophecy is the use by the Syrian fishermen today of the site of ancient Tyre as a place for the spreading of their nets (E/k 26 5.14).

      Figurative: Fish were largely used as food (Hab 1 10), hence the lamentation of the fishermen, who provided for all, typified general desolation (Isaiah 19 Samuel). On the other hand, abundance of fish and many fishermen indicated general abundance (E/k 47 10). Our modern expression, "treated like a dog," had its counterpart in the language of the OT writers, when they portrayed the punished people of Judah as being treated like fish. Jeh would send many fishers to fish them up and put sticks or hooks through their cheeks as a fisherman strings his fish (Jeremiah 16 10; Job 41 2). Such treatment of Un people of Judah is depicted on some of the Assyr monuments. JAMES A. PATC2

      Fisher s Coat Flat Nose



      Annotated by NewtonStein, Cambridge Theological Seminary


      FISHER Samuel COAT, kot : This expression is found in John 21 7 where RV and ARV have "coat." John here, after representing Peter as "naked" (yv/j-vos, gumn6s), pictures him as girding on his coat" (TTfi dvTr)s, cpci/tlutrH), lit. "u])j)er garment," and not at all specifically a fisher s coat." Sec DKKSS; I rr-KK (!AKME.’T, etc.


      present day along the seashores of Pal. Two of these, dynamiting and poisoning with the juice of cyclamen bulbs or other poisonous plants, can be passed over as having no bearing on ancient methods.

      (1) ‘Yith hooks: Some fishing is done with hooks and lines, either on poles when fishing from shore, or on trawls in deep-sea fishing. The fishhooks now used are of European origin, but bronze fish-


      FISHHOOK, fish honk (HJ^I "I^Samuel , ylr tluylmh, (12H, halclcdfi): The word "fishhooks" occurs but twice. in ARV (Job 41 1; Amos 4 2). In other pas sages the word "hook" or "angle" is applied to this instrument for fishing (Isaiah 19 8; Job 41 2). The ancient Egyp noblemen used to amuse themselves by fishing from their private fishpools with hook and line. The Egyp monuments show that the hook was quite commonly used for catching fish. The hook is still used in Bible lands, nil hough not as commonly as nets. It is called a ftinnt irdt, prob ably from the same root as r.innuh, the pi. of which is 1r d hooks in Amos 4 2. In Alt 17 27, 8.~fia<TTpoi>, dgkistran (lit. "fishhook"), is rendered "hook."


      FISHING, fish ing (aXievu, /idliciio): Several methods of securing fish are resorted to at the

      hooks of a very early date have been discovered. That fishing with hooks was known in Jesus lime is indicated by the Master s command to Peter (Matthew 17 27). See FISHHOOK.

      (2) With spears: Job 41 7 probably refers to an instrument much like the barbed spear still used along the Syrian coast. It is used at night by torchlight.

      (3) With nets: In the most familiar Bible stories of fisherman life a net was used. Today most of the fishing is done in the same way. These nets are homemade. Frequently one sees the fishermen or members of their families making nets or repair ing old ones during the stormy days when fishing is impossible.

      Nets are used in three ways: (d) A circular net, with small meshes and leaded around the edge, is




      Annotated by NewtonStein, Cambridge Theological Seminary

      Fisher s Coat Flat Nose

      cast from the shore into the shallow water in such a manner that the leaded edge forms the base of a cone, the apex being formed by the fisherman hold ing the center of the net in his hand. The cone thus formed incloses such fish as cannot escape the quick throw of the fisher, (b) A long net or seine of one or two fathoms depth, leaded on one edge and provided with floats on the other, is payed out from boats in such a way as to surround a school of fish. Long ropes fastened to the two ends are carried ashore many yards apart, and from five to ten men on each rope gradually draw in the net. The fish are then landed from the shallow water with small nets or by hand. This method is com monly practised on the shore of the Sea of Galilee. (c) In deeper waters a net similar to that described above, but four or five fathoms deep, is cast from boats and the ends slowly brought together so as to form a circle. Men then dive down and bring one portion of the weighted edge over under the rest, so as to form a bottom. The compass of the net is then narrowed, and the fish are emptied from the net into the bunt. Sometimes the net with the fish inclosed is towed into shallow water before drawing. The above method is probably the one the disciples used (Alt 4 18; Mark 1 16; Luke 5 2-10; John 21 3-11). Portions of nets with leads and floats, of early Egyp origin, may be seen in the British Museum. See NET.

      The fishermen today usually work with their garments girdled up about their waists. Frequent ly they wear only a loose outer garment which is wet much of the time. This garment can be quickly removed by pulling it over the head, when occasion requires the fisherman to jump into the sea. If methods have not changed, Peter had probably just climbed back into the boat after adjusting the net for drawing when he learned that it was Jesus who stood on the shore. He was literally naked and pulled on his coat before he went ashore (John 21 7).


      FISHPOOLS, fish pools: This is a mistransla tion. Thelleb rVD"]il, b 1 rckfioth (Cant 7 4) simply means "pools" (RV); "fish" is quite unwarrant ably introduced in AV. In Isaiah 19 10, again, in stead of "all that make sluices and ponds for fish" (AV), we should certainly read, with RY, AH they that work for hire shall be grieved in soul."

      FIT, FITLY, fit li: The word "fit" (adj. and vh.) occurs a few times, representing nearly as many Hebrews and Gr words. RY frequently alters, as iii Leviticus 16 21 ( itil, "timely," "opportune," "ready"), where for "fit" it reads, "in readiness," m "ap pointed." In 1 Chronicles 7 1 1 RV has "that were able"; in Isaiah 44 1,3, "shapeth"; in Prov 24 27, "ready," etc. "Fitly" in Prov 25 1 1 is in RYm "in due season"; in Cant 5 12, fitly set" is in RVm "sitting by full streams." In the NT "fit" is the translation of euthetos, "well placed" (Luke 9 62; 14 So), of foilhf- kon, "suitable" (Acts 22 22), and of ktttarttzd, "to make quite ready" (Rom 9 22, "vessels of wrath fitted unto destruction"). ‘Y. L. WALKER

      FITCHES, fich iz (the Eng. word "fitch" is the same as "vetch"):

      (1) nSJ3, kcgah (Isaiah 28 25.27; RYm has "black cummin" [Niyella saliva]). This is the "nutmeg flower," an annual herb (N.O. Ranunculaceae) , the black seeds of which are sprinkled over some kinds of bread in Pal. They were used as a condiment by the ancient Greeks and Romans. These seeds have a warm aromatic flavor and are carminative! in their properties, assisting digestion. They, like all such plants which readily yield their seed, are still beaten out with rods. The contrast between

      the stouter staff for the "fitches" and the lighter rod for the cummin is all the more noticeable when the great similarity of the two seeds is noticed.

      (2) CP^E^, kns.fmim (pi.) (Ezekiel 4 9) RV "spelt" (which see). E. W. G. MASTEUMAN

      FIVE, flv NUMBER.

      hdmcsh; irtvrt, pentc).


      FLAG: Two TIeb words:

      (1)310, suph (Exodus 2 3.5, "flags"; Isaiah 19 6, "flags"; John 2 o,_"weeds"). This is apparently a general name which includes both the fresh-water weeds growing along a river bank and "seaweeds." The Red Sea was known as Yum sunh.

      (2) inX, aha (Genesis 41 2.18, AV "meadow," RV "reed-grass"; Job 8 11, "Can the rush grow ir> without mire? Can the flag [m "reed-grass"! grow without water?"). Some such general term as "sedges" or "fens" would better meet the require ments.

      FLAGON, flag un: The- translation of HthpX, VW/7,s/m/>, in AV in 2 Samuel 6 19; 1 Chronicles 16 3; Cant 2 f> Ilos 3 1. In all these passages RV reads "cake of raisins" or "raisins." It was probably a pressed raisin cake. AV and RV _read "flagons," in Isaiah 22 24 as a rendering of E^It: , n r blialt/n, which is elsewhere (1 Samuel 1 24; 10 3; 2’Samuel 16 1, etc) rendered "bottles," RYm "skins." These; were the bags or bottles made of the whole skin of a kid, goat, or other animal. RV has "flagons" in Exodus 25 29 and 37 16 as translation of rnp]2, k shawolh, a golden jug or jar used in the tabernacle from which the drink offerings were poured out. The same word is translation 1 "cups" in Numbers 4 7. GEOIU;Kings RICE HOVEY

      FLAKE, flak (^"Q , innppul, a word of uncertain meaning): It is used in the sense of "refuse [husks] of the wheat" in Amos 8 6. With regard to the body we find it used in Job 41 23 in the description of leviathan (the crocodile): "The flakes of his flesh are joined together: they are firm upon him; they cannot be moved." Baethgen in Kautzsch s translation of the <>T translates "W<ii ]><>!," i.e. the collops or lateral folds of flesh and armored skin. A better translation would perhaps be: "the horny epidermic scales" of the body, differentiated from the bony dermal scutes of the back (Hebrews "channels of shields," "courses of scales"), which are mentioned in ver 13 ln - H. L. E. LUKKIXG

      FLAME, flam pnb , In/iabh, and other forms from same root; <J>’6, phlox): In Judges 13 20 bis; Job 41 21; Isaiah 29 6; Joel 2 5, the word is Inhabit . Various other words are translation d "flame"; mnx i lh, "a lifting or rising up" (Judges 20 38.40 AV), RY "cloud" (of smoke); kulil, "completeness" (Judges 20 4()b

      flame"); shabhlbh (Job 18 5; RYm); nfi< bhlbli Aram. (Dnl 3 22; 7 9). In Psalm 104 4 ARV has "maketh .... flames of fire his ministers"; RV "flame" for "snare" (Prov 29 8).

      Figuratively: "Flame" is used to denote; excite ment (Prov 29 8 RV), shame, astonishment, "faces of flame" (Isaiah 13 8); in Rev 1 14, the glorified Christ is described as having eyes "as a flame of fire," signifying their searching purity (cf 2 18; 19 12). Flame is also a symbol of God s wrath (Psalm 83 14; Isaiah 5 24; 10 17). See also FIHE.

      ‘Y. L. WALKER

      FLAT NOSE (2nn, harum; LXX Ko’op6 P iv, koloborin): Used only in Leviticus 21 18 as the name of

      Flax Flint



      Annotated by NewtonStein, Cambridge Theological Seminary


      a deformity which disqualified a member of a priestly family for serving the altar. The root of the word signifies "to cut off" or "to cut flat," and in KVm "slit nose" is substituted. The condition indicated is most probably the depressed, flattened nose which so often accompanies harelip, esp. in its double form. A mere snub-nose can scarcely be regarded as a blemish of sufficient importance to unfit a priest for the service of "offering the bread of Clod"; but harelip, like, blindness or the other congenital mal formations or deformities enumerated in 1 his passage, might well render a son of Aaron unfit or unsuitable for public; religious duty. ALEX. MACALISTER

      FLAX, flaks (PCS , prshcth, also HPTpS , pixlitdh; ‘Lvov, I m on [Matthew 12 20]): The above Hebrews words are applied (1) to the plant: "The flax was in bloom" (AV "boiled"; Exodus 9 31); (2) the "stalks of flax," lit . "flax of t he tree," put on the roof to dry (Joshua 2 (i); (3) to the fine, fibers used for lighting: AV "tow," "flax," RV. "A dimly burning wick will

      Flax (Linum uxitatixsimtnn).

      he not quench" (Isaiah 42 3i; "They are quenched as

      a wick" (Isaiah 43 17). The thought is perhaps of a scarcely lighted wick just kindled with difficulty from a spark. (4) In Isaiah 19 9 mention is made of "combed flax," i.e. flax hackled ready for spinning (cf Hos 2 o.<); Prov 31 13). The reference in Judges 15 14 is to flax twisted into cords. (5) In Judges 16 9; Isaiah 1 31, mention is made of P"}"! , n rf drcth, "tow," lit. something "shaken off" as the root implies from flax. (6) The pi. form pi s/itiw is used in many passages for linen, or linen garments, e.g. Leviticus 13; Deuteronomy 22 11; Jeremiah 13 1 ("linen girdle"); Kings/k 44 17 f. Linen was in the earliest historic times a favorite material for clothes. The Jewish priestly garments were of pure linen. Egyp mummies were swathed in linen. Several ot her Hebrews words w r erc used for linen garments. See LINEN.

      Flax is the product of Linum usitatissimum, a herbaceous plant which has been cult ivated from the dawn of history. It is perennial and grows to a height of 2 to 3 ft.; it has blue flowers and very fibrous stalks. The tough fibers of the latter, after the decay and removal of the softer woody and gummy material, make up the crude "flax." Lin seed, linseed oil and oilcake are useful products of the same plant. E. ‘V. G. MASTERMAN

      FLAVING, fla ing. See PUNISHMENTS.

      FLEA, fle (TZyiB, parish; cf Arab, barghdi, "flea," and barghash, "mosquito" [1 Samuel 24 14; 26 20]; D^3,kinnlm [Exodus 8 16], "lice," 11 Vm "sand- flies" or "fleas"; LXX <rKvuf>s, skniphes, probably best rendered "gnat"; see GNAT; LICK): In 1 Samuel 24 Saul seeks David in the wilderness of En-gedi, and David, after cutting off the skirt of Saul s robe in the cave, calls out to him, "After whom is the king of Israel come out? after whom dost thou pursue? after a dead dog, after a flea" (ver 14). Again in 1 Samuel 26 20 Saul seeks David in the wilder ness of Ziph, and David after taking the spear and cruse from beside Saul while he slept, cries out to him, ". . . . the king of Israel is come out to seek a flea, as when one doth hunt a partridge in the mountains." The flea is here used as a symbol of David s insignificance, coupled perhaps, in the sec ond passage, with a thought of the difficulty that Saul had in laying hands on him. In EB Cheyne finds fault with a similar interpretation given in Dli on the ground that it is absurd that David should refer to hunting "a single flea," and pro poses to change p<ir’lsh ehddh, "a flea," to pcrc midhbar, "wild ass of the desert." The writer will only say that no observant resident of Pal would consider the textual alteration to be called for.

      Linnaeus recognized two species of flea, Puln irritans, the common parasite of man, and Pulcx (Snrcupxi/lla) pi nrtranx, the tropical and sub-tropical jigger llt-a. More than a hundred species are now listed, and the recent discovery that certain Ileus arc instrumental in the trans mission of the, plague has given a new impetus to the study of these tiny pests. A flea that is often commoner in houses than I tilet irritant is the "dog and cat flea." variously known as J ulex scrraticeps, J ulex, canis, J ulex felis or Ctenocephalus caniu.

      ALFRED ELY DAV FLEE, fie. See FLY.

      FLEECE, fles. See GIDEON; SHEEP; WOOL.

      FLESH ("1^2, ba*ar, ISt , sh er): Used in all

      senses of the word, the latter, however, most fre

      quently in the sense of kin, family,

      1. Ety- relationship (cf rnXlIJ , sha drah, "kins- mology woman," Leviticus 18 17): Leviticus 18 6; 25

      19; Prov 11 17; Jeremiah 51 35, and probably Psalm 73 26. In all other places sh e er means "flesh"=body (Prov 5 11) or = food (Psalm 78 20.27; Mir 3 2.3). " nrn-J, tibhhah, is "[slaughtered] flesh for food," "butcher s meat" (1 Samuel 25 11). The word "1ETEX, cshpdr, found only in two || passages (2 Samuel 6 19 = 1 Chronicles 16 3), is of very uncertain mean ing. The Eng. VSS translate it with "a good piece [portion] of flesh," the Vulg with "a piece of roast meat," others with "a portion of flesh" and "a measure of wine." It probably means simply "a measured portion." CJ"D, Q^nb, la-hum, lit. "eaten," then food (cf 2nb, Ichrm, "bread"), has been rarely specialized as flesh or meat (cf Arab, lahm, "meat," "flesh," so in Zeph 1 17, where it stands in paral lelism. with "blood"). The Gr terms are <rdp, mirjc, and Kpdas, kreas, the latter always meaning "butcher s meat" (Rom 14 21; 1 Corinthians 8 13).

      We can distinguish the following varieties of meaning in Bib. language:

      In a physical sense, the chief substance of the animal body, whether used for food and sacrifice,

      or not; also the flesh of man (Genesis 2

      2. Ordinary 21; Exodus 21 10m; Isaiah 31 3; E/k 23 Sense 20; 1 Corinthians 15 39; Rev 19 18.21).

      The w r holc body. This meaning is the extension of the preceding (pars pro toto). This is indicated by the LXX, where bdsdr is often translation d by the pi. at craves, hai sdrkes (Genesis 40 19;




      Annotated by NewtonStein, Cambridge Theological Seminary

      Flax Flint

      Numbers 12 12; Job 33 25), and occasionally by ff&fj.a,

      soma, i.e. "body" (Leviticus 15 2; 1 Kings 21 27). This

      meaning is also very clear in passages

      3. The Body like the following: Exodus 4 7; Leviticus 17 14;

      Numbers 8 7; 2 Kings 4 34; Prov 511, where basdr and sh e cr are combined; and Prov 14 30; Eccl 12 12.

      Flesh, as the common term for living things,

      animals and men, esp. the latter (Genesis 6 13.17.19;

      Numbers 16 22; Jeremiah 12 12; Mark 13 20);

      4. The often in the phrase "all flesh" (Psalm 65 Term "All 2; Isaiah 40 5.6; Jeremiah 25 31; Ezekiel 20 Flesh" 48; Joel 2 2S; Luke 3 6).

      Flesh as opposed to the spirit, both of which were comprised in the preceding mean ing (Genesis 63; Psalm 16 9; Luke 24 39, where "flesh and bones" are combined; John 6 63).

      5. As Op- Thus we find in John 1 14, "The Word posed to became flesh"; 1 Timothy 3 16, "He who the Spirit was manifested in the flesh"; 1 John

      4 2, and all passages where t he incarna tion of Christ is spoken of. The word in this sense approaches the meaning of "earthly life," as in Phil 1 22.24, "to live in the flesh," "to abide in the flesh"; cf Philem ver 16 and perhaps 2 Corinthians 5 16. Under this meaning we may enumerate expressions such as "arm of flesh" (2 Chronicles 32 8; Jeremiah 17 5), "eyes of flesh" (Job 10 4), etc. Frequently the distinction is made to emphasize the weakness or inferiority of the flesh, as opposed to the superiority of the spirit (Isaiah 31 3; Matthew 26 41; Mark 14 38; Rom 6 19). In this connection we mention also the expression flesh and blood," a phrase borrowed from rabbin ical writings and phraseology (see also Sir 14 IS, "the generation of flesh and blood," and 17 31, "man whose desire is flesh and blood" AV). The expression does not convey, as some have supposed, the idea of inherent sinfulness of the flesh (a doc trine borrowed by gnostic teachers from oriental sources), but merely the idea of ignorance and frailty in comparison with the possibilities of spiritual na ture. The capabilities of our earthly constitution do not suffice to reveal unto us heavenly truths; these must always come to us from above. So St. Peter s first recognition of the Divine; sonship of Jesus did not proceed from a logical convict ion based upon outward facts acting upon his mind, but was based upon a revelation from God vouchsafed to his inner consciousness. Christ says therefore to him: "Blessed art thou, Simon Bar-Jonah: for flesh and blood hath not revealed it unto thee, bui my Father who is in heaven" (Matthew 16 17). Simi larly the kingdom of God, being a realm of perfect spiritual submission to God, cannot be inherited by flesh and blood (1 Corinthians 15 50), nor was the richly endowed mind a competent tribunal to which St. Paul could refer his heaven-wrought conviction of his great salvation and the high calling to be a wit ness and apostle of Christ, so he did well that he "conferred not with flesh and blood" (Gal 1 16). That "flesh and blood" does not imply a sense of inherent sinfulness is moreover shown in all passages where Christ is declared a partaker of such nature (Kph 6 12; He 2 14, where, however, we find in the original text the inverted phrase "blood and flesh").

      Flesh in the sense of carnal nature (yap/a^os, xdrkikos, "carnal" ; AV uses sarkinus in Rom 7 14). Human nature, being inferior to the 6. Applied spiritual, is to be in subjection to it. to the Car- If man refuses to be under this higher nal Nature law, and as a free agent permits the lower nature to gain an ascendancy over the spirit, the "flesh" becomes a revolting force (Genesis 6 3.12; John 1 13; Rom 7 14; 1 Corinthians 3 1.3; Col 2 18; 1 John 2 16). Thus the fleshly or carnal mind, i.e. a mind in subjection to carnal nature, is

      opposed to the Divine spirit, who alone is a suffi cient corrective, Christ having secured for us the power of overcoming (Rom 8 3), if we manifest a deep desire and an earnest endeavor to overcome (Gal 5 17.18).

      Flesh in the sense of relationship, tribal con

      nection, kith and kin. For examples, see what has

      been said above on Hebrews sh e cr. The

      7. In the following passages are a few of those Sense of in which basiir is used: Genesis 2 24; Relationship 37 27; Job 2 5; cf the NT passages:

      Matthew 19 5.6; Rom 1 3; 9 3.5.8. The expressions "bone" and "flesh" are found in com bination (Genesis 2 23; 29 14; Judges 9 2; 2 Samuel 5 1; 19 12.13; Eph 5 31, the latter in some MSS only). Some other subdivisions of meanings might be added, for example where "flesh" takes almost the

      place of "person," as in Col 2 1: "as

      8. Other many as have not seen my face in the Meanings flesh," i.e. have not known me person

      ally, or ver 5, "absent in the flesh, yet am I with you in the spirit," etc.

      2. L. E. LUERING


      FLESH-HOOK, flesh hook pbrn , mazlcyh, and pi. m3" 52, uiizldtjholh) . One of the implements used around the sacrificial altar. According to Divine direction given to Moses (Kx 27 3; 38 3), it was to be made of brass, but later David felt impelled by "the Spirit" or "in his spirit" to determine that for use in the magnificent Temple of Solomon it should be made of gold (1 Chronicles 28 17). But Huram made it, with other altar articles, of "bright brass" (2 Chronicles 4 16). In Samuel s time, it was made with three hook-shaped tines, and was used in taking out the priests share of the meat offering (1 Samuel 2 13.14). With the other altar utensils, it was in the special charge of the (Numbers 4 14). The hooks mentioned in Ezekiel 40 43 were altogether different and for another purpose. See HOOK.


      FLESH-POT, flesh pot ("ton -pp , sir ha-basar, "pot of the flesh"): OIK; of the six kinds of cooking utensils spoken of as pots or pans or caldrons or basins. Probably usually made of bronze; or earth enware. The only mention of flesh-pots, specifi cally so named, is in Exodus 16 3. See FOOD.

      FLIES, fllz. See FLY.

      FLINT, flint (tTlpjn , h,,llatni*li [Deuteronomy 8 15; 32 13; Job 28 9; Psalm 114 Samuel], IS, for [Exodus 4 25; Ezekiel 3 9], IS, ger [Isaiah 5 2S], "VIS , $ur [Job 22 24; Psalm 89 43], D HS, gurlm [Joshua 5 2 f]; Ko X Xa [ = Kax^i, "pebble"], kochlax [1 Mace 10 73]): The word halldmlsh signifies a hard stone, though not certainly flint, and is used as a figure for hard ness in Isaiah 50 7, "Therefore have I set my face like a flint." A similar use; of <or is found in Ezekiel 3 9, "As an adamant harder than flint have I made thy forehead," and Isaiah 5 28, "Their horses hoofs shall be accounted as flint"; and of .s/ in Jeremiah 5 3, "They have made their faces harder than a rock." The same three words arc used of the rock from which Moses drew water in the; wilderness: hallamlsh (Deuteronomy 8 15; Psalm 114 8); gur (Exodus 17 6; Deuteronomy 8 15; Psalm 78 20; Isaiah 48 21); da* (Numbers 20 8; Neh 9 15; Psalm 78 16). Qur and sela* are used oftener than hal- lutnish for great rocks and cliffs, but, gar is used also for flint knives in Exodus 4 25, "Then Zipporah took a flint [AV "sharp stone"], and cut off the foreskin of her son," and in Joshua 6 2 f, "Jeh said unto Joshua, Make thee knives of flint [AV "sharp knives"], and circumcise again the children of Israel the second time." Surgical implements of flint

      Float (Flote) Food



      Annotated by NewtonStein, Cambridge Theological Seminary

      were used by the ancient Egyptians, and numerous flint chipping with occasional flint implements are found associated with the remains of early man in Syria and Pal. Mint and the allied mineral, chert, are found in great abundance in the limestone rocks of Syria, Pal and Egypt. See ROCK.



      FLOCK. See CATTLK.

      FLOOD, flud: In AV not less than 13 words are rendered flood," t hough in R V we find in some pas sages "river," "stream," "tempest," etc. The word is used for: the deluge of Noah, "3^2 , uinblnll (Genesis 6 17f f); /cara/cXncr^os, kataklusmos (Matthew 24 3S.39; Luke 17 27 j; the waters of the Red Sea, bt3 , rx iznl (Exodus 15 8); the Euphrates, "I"! , Hdhdr, "Your fathers dwel; of old time on the other side of the flood".! RV "beyond (ho River" Joshua 24 2): the Nile, 1 Samuel^ , y dr, "the flood [RV "River"] of Egypt" (Amos 8 8); the Jordan, "H! , tidlidr, "Tliey went through the flood [RV "river"] on foot" (Psalm 66 ( ) ; torrent, D")7 , zcrnn, "as a flood |RV "tempest"| of mighty waters" (Isaiah 28 2); 7Tora/x6s, iK>t<ini( iK, "Tlie rain descended and the floods eame" (Matthew 7 2">); Tr’r)/ji/j.upa, plemmiira, "When a flood arose, the stream brake against that house" (Luke 6 48).

      Figurative: *ni , initial, "Tin 1 floods of ungodly men [RV "ungodliness," RVm "Ilel) Belial"] made me afraid" (2 Samuel 22 f> Psalm 18 4); also IS, or (Amos 8 8 [AV]); nV^TP , shiblmldh (Psalm 69 2); r-jr. xl,,t<i>h (Did 11 22 [AV]); Cl^TS , shrt, pf, (1 s 32 C)[A’ ]); TroTa/j.o(p6p-r)TO 5, i>n/(nn(>/)li6i ctoN (Rev 12 !."> [AVJ.i. See DKL2.Kings OF NOAH.


      FLOOR, flor. See Horsi-; THRESHING-FLOOR.


      FLOURISH, flur ish (ITIE , pdnih, }"i , </!(,; dvaOdX-Xta, (iiiiilh/illd) . The translation oi purah, "to break forth" (Psalm 72 7; 92 12.13; Prov 14 1 1 ; Isaiah 66 14; Caul 6 11; 7 12; RV "budded"); of r/7r, "to bloom" (Psalm 72 1<> 90 0; 92 7; 103 IT,; 132 IX); rd f andti, "green," "fresh," is translation 1 "flourishing" in Psalm 92 11, R’ "green," and > n i /n<ni, Aram, in Dnl 4 4; nilhh, "to sprout" (Zee 9 17, AV "cheerful").

      In an interesting passage (Eccl 12 f> A’ ), the Hiphil fut. of iid df, meaning properly "to ])iercc or strike 1 ," lienc.e, to slight or reject, is translation d "flourish"; it is said of the old man "The almond tree shall flourish," RV "blossom" (so Ewald, Delitzsch, etc) ; mT<i< has nowhere else t his meaning; it is frequently rendered "contemn," "despise," etc. Other render ings are, "shall cause loathing" (Ciescnius, Knobel, etc), "shall be despised," i.e. the hoary head; "The almond tree shall shake off its flowers," the silvery hairs falling like the fading white flowers of the almond tree; by others it is taken to indicate "sleep lessness," the name of the almond tree (shdlfedh) meaning the watcher or early riser (cf Jeremiah 1 11, "a rod of an almond-tree," lit. "a wakeful [or early] tree"), the almond being the first of the trees to wake from the sleep of winter. See ALMOND.

      "Flourish" appears once only in the NT, in AV, as translation of anatlinllo, "to put forth anew," or "to make put forth anew" (Phil 4 10): "Your care for me hath flourished again," RV "Ye have revived your thought for me." W. L. WALKER

      FLOWERS, flou er* (BLOOM, BLOSSOM, etc) :

      (1) b"2i , (/ibh ol, lit. "a small cup," hence calyx or corolla of a flower (Exodus 9 31, "The flax was in bloom").

      (2) f.:, n<"f (den 40 10, PIS? , niff aft, "a flower" or "blossom"; Job 15 33; Isaiah 18 f). These words are used of the early berries of the vine or olive.

      (3) ~ -fr, m wdti, "a flower"; pi. only, C^ISZI , nif- qtlnlm (Cant 2 12, "The flowers appear on the earth").

      (4) TIB, pcrah, root to "burst forth" expresses an early stage of flowering; "blossom" (Isaiah 5 21; 18 f); "flower" (Nah 1 4, "The flower of Lebanon languisheth"). t sed of artificial flowers in candle sticks (Kx 25 31 ff).

      (">) I" 1 ?, f7f, "flower" (Isaiah 40 0) ; pi. ~^i , ^irrn/i, flowers as architectural ornaments (1 Kings 6 IS); H^" 1 ? , r7<v7’, "the fading flower of his glorious beauty" (Isaiah 28 1.4; also Xu 17 8; Job 14 2, etc).

      (6) AvOos, (inthf)H, in LXX equivalent of all the Ilel, words (.las 1 10.11; 1 Pet 1 24).

      The beauty of t he profusion of flowers which cover Pal every spring receives but scant reference in the < )T; Cant 2 12 is perhaps the only clear reference. It is noticeable that the native of Syria thinks little of flowers unless it be for their perfume. Our Lord s reference to the flowers ("lilies") is well known (Matthew 6 28; Luke 12 27). For details of the flowers of modern Pal, see BOTANY. The aptness of the expression "flower of the field" for a type of the evanescence of human life (Job 14 2; Psalm 103 15; Isaiah 40 (> Jas 1 10) is the more impressive in a land like Pal where the annual display of wild flowers, so glorious for a few short weeks, is followed by such desolation. The fresh and brilliant colors fade into masses of withered leaves (not uncom monly cleared by burning), and then even these are blown away, so that but ban 1 , cracked and baked earth remains for long months where once all was beauty, color and life. E. W. (i. MASTKHMAN

      FLUE, flo7>, NET (AVm llab 1 lo). See FISH; FISHING.

      FLUTE, Hoot. See Music.


      FLY, fll, FLIES, fl!/ (TV, *,irohli [Exodus 8 21 IT; Psalm 78 4"> 105 31; LXX Kwofima, kunoinui/i; "dog-fly"], rP.ZT, z blnlbh [Eccl 10 1 ;_ Isaiah 7 IS; LXX [iviai, tini iai, "flies"]; cf 2127 5j?3 , bd*al- z htnlbh, "Baal-zebub" [2 Kings 1 2 ft], and petXf- POX>’, hcclzchniU, "Beelzebul," or peeX^Po^p, bcel- z,l,<nib, "Beelzebub" [Matthew 10 2f> 12 24.27; Luke 11

      If). 18. 19]; cf Arab. ^iSo , dhiMb, "fly" or "bee"; N.B. ilh for Arab, dlidl, pronounced like d or z or like ill in "the"): The references in Pss as well as in Kx are to the plague of flies, and the word *drobh is rendered "swarm of flies" throughout, except in Psalm 78 4f> 105 31 AV, where we find "divers sorts of flies" (cf Yulg OI/I/Kings: genus muscarum). In Exodus 8 21 we read, "I will send swarms of flies upon thee, and upon thy servants, and upon thy people, and into thy houses: and the houses of the Egyptians shall be full of swarms of flies, and also the ground whereon they are"; in Exodus 8 24, .... "the land was corrupted by reason of the swarms of flies"; in Psalm 78 4f>, "lie sent among them swarms of flies, which devoured them." There has been much speculation as to what the insects were, but all the texts cited, including even Psalm 78 45, may apply perfectly well to the common house fly (Musca




      Annotated by NewtonStein, Cambridge Theological Seminary

      Float (Flote) Food

      domestica). Some species of blue-bottle fly (Calli- phora) might also suit.

      The other word, z e bhubh, occurs in Eccl 10 1, "Dead flies cause the oil of the perfumer to send forth an evil odor; so doth a little folly outweigh wisdom and honor"; and Isaiah 7 18, "And it shall come to pass in that day, that Jeh will hiss for the fly that is in the uttermost part of the rivers of Egypt, and for the bee that is in the land of Assyria." The house fly would fit perfectly the reference in each, but that in Isaiah would seem to suggest rather one of the horse flies (Tabanidac) or gad flies (Ocs- tridae). Whatever fly may be meant, it is used as a symbol for the military power of Egypt, as the bee for that of Assyria.

      Owing to deficiencies in public and private hygiene, and also for other reasons, house flies and others are unusually abundant in Pal and Egypt and are agents in the transmission of cholera, typhoid fever, ophthalmia and anthrax. Glossina morsituns, the tsetse fly, which is fatal to many domestic animals, and Glossina pal i/alix, which transmits the sleeping sickness, are abundant in tropical Africa, but do not reach Egypt proper. See PLA<UES.


      FLY (vb. ; wP3? , *; irsTdoficu, pctdoinai, or, contracted, ptdomai): Used in preference to "flee" when great speed is to be indicated. "To fly" is used: (1) Literally, of birds, <uph (Genesis 1 20; Psalm 65 6); da ah (Deuteronomy 28 49), of sparks (Job 57); of the arrow (Psalm 91 5); of the seraphim (Isaiah 6 2.0); of an angel (Dnl 9 21, ya*aph, "to be caused to flv"); of swift action or movement (Psalm 18 10; Jeremiah 48 40); of people (Isaiah 11 14); of a fleet (Isaiah 60 8; 1 Samuel 15 19, It; 14 32, .;’, "to do," etc). (2) Figuratively, of a dream (Job 20 8); of man s transitory life (Psalm 90 10); of riches (Prov 23 5); of national glory (Hos 9 11).

      For "fly" RV has "soar" (Job 39 2(5), "fly down" (Isaiah 11 14); for "flying" (Isaiah 31 5) ARV has "hovering." ‘ . L. WALKER

      FOAL, iol. See COLT.

      FOAM, fom (5?p, k<seph [Hos 10 7J; d^pos, <ip/m j8 [Luke 9 39], d <j>pitco, aphrizo [Mark 9 18.20], Tra4>ptw, cpuphrizo [Jude ver 13]): AVor/j/i from ici tcnptt, "to break to pieces," or "to break forth into anger," "to be angry," occurs often in the sense of "wrath" or "anger" (e.g. Numbers 1 53; Psalm 38 1, etc), and in this passage has been rendered "twigs" or "chips," "As for Samaria, her king is cut off, as foam [R.’ in "twigs"] upon the water" (Hos 10 7). The other references are from the NT. In Jude, evil-doers or false teachers are compared to the "wild waves of the sea, foaming out their own shame." In Mark and Luke the references are to the boy with a dumb spirit who foamed at the mouth. ALFRED ELY DAV

      FODDER, fod er. See PROVENDER.

      FOLD, fold, FOLDING, fold ing (vb.; pin, habhak, SflD , sdbhakh; eXio-o-u, hdissu) : The vb. occurs only 3 t in AV, and in each instance repre sents a different word; we have hdbhak "to clasp" (Eccl 4 5), "The fool foldeth his hands together" (cfProv 6 10); sdbhak, "to interweave" (N ah 1 10, "folden together as thorns," ERV "like tangled thorns," ARV "entangled like thorns"; see EN TANGLED); hclisao "to roll or fold up" (He 1 12, quoted from Psalm 102 20 [LXX], RV "As a mantle shalt thou roll them up").

      Folding occurs as translation of ydlll, "turning" or "roll ing" (1 Kings 6 34 bis, folding leaves of door). See also HOUSE. ‘V. L. WALKER

      FOLK,fok: The translation of 27, am, 27, /, "a people or nation" (Genesis 33 15, "some of the folk that are with me"; Prov 30 20, "The conies are but a feeble

      folk"); of 2iO, I 1 dm, with the same meaning (Jeremiah 51 58, "the folk in the fire," RV "the nations for the fire"); "sick folk" is the translation of dfipuffros, drrhostos, "not strong" (Mark 65); of T>V dcrOevouvruv, ion asthenoiinton, part, of dffdevtu, asthcnco, "to be without strength," "weak," "sick" (John 5 3, RV "them that were sick"); "sick folks," of do-flews, pi. of dffdev-fj s, astlicnts, "without strength," RV "sick folk" (Acts 5 10). ‘V. L. WALKIOR

      FOLLOW, fol d ("inSI, ahar, CTn, radhaph; (XKoXovGt w, akoioutkeo, SHOKW, diuku): Frequently the translation of ahar, "after," e.g. Numbers 14 24, "hath fol lowed me fully," lit. "fulfilled after me" (Numbers 32 11. 12; Deuteronomy 1 30; Amos 7 15); radhaph is "to pursue," and is often so translation 1 ; it is translation d "follow" (Psalm 23 0; Isaiah 5 11, etc); "follow after" (Genesis 44 4; Exodus 14 4); rcgful, "foot," is several times translation 1 "follow" (lit. "at the foot of"; Exodus 11 8; Judges 8 5, etc); hdlakh ahar, "to go after" (Deuteronomy 43; IK 14 8, etc); ya- la kh ahar, "to go on after" (Genesis 24 5; Judges 2 19, etc); ddbhtk, "to cause to cleave to" is "follow hard after" (1 Samuel 14 22; Psalm 63 8, etc).

      In the NT, in addition to akolouthco (Matthew 4 20. 22.25, etc) various words and phrases are rendered "follow," e.g. Di tUc opiso inou, "Come after me" (Matthew 4 19, "Follow me," RV "Come ye after me"); dioko, "to pursue" (Luke 17 23; 1 Thessalonians 5 15, RV "follow after," etc); mimeoinai, "to imitate" (He 13 7, "whose faith follow," RV "imitate their faith"; 2 Thessalonians 3 7.9; 3 John ver 11); compounds of akolouthed with ex, parti, sun, etc (2 Pet 1 10; Mark 16 20; Acts 16 17; Mark 5 37, etc).

      ERV "Follow after faithfulness" makes an im portant change in Psalm 37 3, where AV has "and verily thou shalt be fed"; but Al! V has "feed on his faithfulness," in "feed securely or rcrilij thou shalt be fed." For "attained" (I Timothy 4 0) RV gives "followed until now." W. L. WALKER

      FOLLOWER, fol 6-er (iip.^?, mimctcs): "Fol lowers" is in AV the translation of nuincics, "to imitate" (in the NT in the good sense of becoming imitators, or following an example), rendered by RV "imitators" (1 Corinthians 4 10; 11 1; Eph 5 1; 1 Thessalonians 1 0; 2 14; He 6 12); suminittu tai, "joint, imitators" (Phil 3 17); in 1 Pet 3 13, AV "followers of that which is good," the word, according to a better text, is zdolls, RV "if ye be zealous of that which is good."

      FOLLY, fol i. Sec FOOL. FOOD, food:


      1. Primitive Habits

      2. Cereals LITERATURE

      In a previous art. (see Bun AD) it, has be;-n shown that in the Bible "bread" usually stands for food in general and how this came to be so. In a comple mentary article on MEALS the methods of preparing and serving food will be dealt with. This article is devoted specifically to the foodstuffs of the Orient , more esp. to articles of food in use among the He brews in Bible times. These are divisible into two main classes.

      /. Vegetable Foods. Orientals in general are

      vegetarians, rather than flesh eaters. There is

      some reason to believe that primitive

      1. Primitive man was a vegetarian (see Genesis 2 10;

      Habits 3 2. (5). It would seem, indeed, from

      a comparison of Genesis 1 29 f with 9

      3 f that Divine permission to eat the flesh of animals

      was first given to Noah after the Deluge, and then

      , >. Leguminous I laiits 4. IMKH! of Trees 2. ANIMAL l- oou




      Annotated by NewtonStein, Cambridge Theological Seminary


      only on condition of drawing off the blood in a pro scribed way (cf the kosher [kosher] meat of the Jews of today).

      Tin; chief place among the foodstuffs of Orientals

      must be accorded 1o the cereals, included in ARV

      under the generic term "grain," in AV

      2. Cereals and ERV corn." The two most im

      portant of these in the nearer East are wheat (hittdh) and barley (n i: *urlm). The most primitive way of using the wheat as food was to pluck the fresh ears (Leviticus 23 11; 2 Kings 4 42), re move the husks by rubbing in the hands (Deuteronomy 23 25; Matthew 12 1), and eat the grains raw. A common practice in all lands and periods, observed by the fellaheen of Syria today, has been to parch or roast the ears and eat the grain unground. This is the parched corn (ARV "grain") so often mentioned in the ()T, which with bread and vinegar (sour wine) constituted the meal of the reapers to which Boaz invited Ruth (Ruth 2 14).

      Later it became customary to grind the wheat into flour (kemah), and, by bolting it with a fine sieve, to obtain the "fine flour" (sulcth) of our EV, which, of course 1 , was then made into "bread" (which see), either without leaven (moffo/i) or with (It han hdmcf, Leviticus 7 13).

      Meal, both of wheat and of barley, was prepared in very early times by means of the primitive rub bing-stones, which excavations at Lachish, Gezer and elsewhere show survived the introduction of the hand-mill (see MILL; cf 1 EIW, 1902, 32(>). Bar ley (.s r or7w) has always furnished the principal food of the poorer classes, and, like wheat, has been made into bread (Judges 7 13; John 6 9.13). Less frequently millet (Ezekiel 4 9) and spelt (kussonclh; nee FITC2KS) were so used. (For del ails of baking, bread-making, etc, see BKKAD, 2I, 1,2,3.)

      Vegetable foods of the pulse family (leguminosae)

      are represented in the OT chiefly by lentils and beans.

      The pulse of Dnl 1 12 (rrf/7w) de-

      3. Legumi- notes edible "herbs" in general (HVm, nous Plants cf Isaiah 61 11, "things that are sown").

      The lentils ( w’<.s/i7/) were and are considered very toothsome and nutritious. It was of "red lentils" that Jacob brewed his fateful pot tage (!en 25 29.34), a stew, probably, in which the lentils were flavored with onions and other in gredients, as we find it done in Syria today. Lentils, beans, cereals, etc, were sometimes ground and mixed and made into bread (Kzk 4 9). 1 found them at Gaza roasted also, and eaten with oil and salt, like parched corn.

      The children of Israel, when in the wilderness, are said to have looked back wistfully on the "cu cumbers .... melons .... leeks .... onions, and the garlic" of Egypt (Numbers 11 5). All these things we find later were grown in Pal. In addition, at least four varieties of the bean, the chickpea, various species of chickory and endive, the bitter herbs of the Passover ritual (Exodus 12 8), mustard (Alt 13 31) and many other things available for food, are men tioned in the Mish, our richest source of information on this subject. Cucumbers (kixlixliu lni) were then, as now, much used. The oriental variety is much less fibrous and more succulent and digest ible than ours, and supplies the thirsty traveler often with a fine substitute for water where water is scarce or bad. The poor in such cities as Cairo, Beirut and Damascus live largely on bread and cucumbers or melons. The cucumbers are eaten raw, with or without salt, between meals, but also often stuffed and cooked and eaten at meal time. Onions (6 c f/7w), garlic (shumnnm) and leeks (haqir) are still much used in Pal as in Egypt. They are usually eaten raw with bread, though also used for flavoring in cooking, and, like cucumbers, pickled and eaten as a relish with meat (ZDPV, IX, 14).

      Men in utter extremity sometimes "plucked salt wort," (mallu ll h) and ate the leaves, either raw or boiled, and made "the roots of the broom" their food (Job 30 4).

      In Leviticus 19 23 f it is implied that, when Israel came into the land to possess it, they should "plant

      all manner of trees for food." They 4. Food of doubtless found such trees in the goodly Trees land in abundance, but in the natural

      course of things needed to plant more. Many olive trees remain fruitful to extreme old age, as for example those shown the tourist in the garden of Gethsemane, but many more require replanting. Then the olive after planting requires ten or fifteen years to fruit, and trees of a quicker growth, like the fig, are planted beside them and depended on for fruit in the meantime. It is significant that Jot ham in his parable makes the olive the first choice of the trees to be their king (Judges 9 9), and the olive tree to respond, "Should I leave my fat ness, which God and man honor in me, and go to wave to and fro over the trees?" (ARVm). The berries of the olive (zayith) were doubtless eaten, then as now, though nowhere in Scripture is it ex pressly so stated. The chief use of the berries, now as ever, is in furnishing "oil" (q.v.), but they are eaten in the fresh state, as also after being soaked in brine, by rich and poor alike, and are shipped in great quantities. Olive trees are still more or less abundant in Pal, esp. around Bethlehem and Hebron, on the borders of the rich plains of Esdrae- lon, Phoenicia, Sharon and Philisiia, in the vale of Shechem, the plain of Moreh, and in the trans- Jordaniu regions of Gilead and Bashan. They are esteemed as among the best possessions of the towns, and the culture of them is being revived around Jerus, in the Jordan valley and elsewhere throughout the land. They are beautiful to behold in all stages of their growth, but esp. in spring. Then they bear an amazing wealth of blossoms, which in the breeze fall in showers like snowflakes, a fact that gives point to Job s words, "He shall cast off his flower as the olive-tree" (15 33). The mode of gathering the fruit is still about what it was in ancient times (cf Exodus 27 20).

      Next in rank to the olive, according to Jotham s order, though first as an article of food, is the fig (in the OT f cnah, in the NT sitkc), whose "sweet ness" is praised in the parable (Judges 911). It is the principal shade and fruit tree of Pal, growing in all parts, in many spontaneously, and is the emblem of peace and prosperity (Deuteronomy 8 Samuel; Judges 9 10; 1 Kings 4 25; Micah 4 4; Zee 3 10; 1 Mace 14 12). The best fig and olive orchards are carefully plowed, first in the spring when the buds arc swell ing, sometimes again when the second crop is sprouting, and again after the first rains in the autumn. The "first-ripe fig" (bikkurdh, Isaiah 28 4; Jeremiah 24 2), i.e. the early fig which grows on last year s wood, was and is esteemed as a great delicacy, and is often eaten while it is young and green. The late fig (f cnwi) is the kind dried in the sun and put up in quantities for use out of season. Among the Greeks and the Romans, as well as among the Hebrews, dried figs were most exten sively used. When pressed in a mold they formed the "cakes of figs" (d bhclah) mentioned in the OT (1 Samuel 25 IS; 1 Chronicles 12 40), doubtless about such as are found today in Syria and Smyrna, put up for home use and for shipment. It was such a fig-cake that was presented as a poultice (AV "plaster") for Hezekiah s boil (Isaiah 38 21; cf 2 Kings 20 7). As the fruit-buds of the fig appear before the leaves, a tree full of leaves and without fruit would be counted "barren" (Mark 11 12f; cf Isaiah 28 4; Jeremiah 24 2; Hos 9 10; Nah 3 12; Matthew 21 19; Luke 13 7).

      Grapes ( l &ndbhlm), often called "the fruit of the




      Annotated by NewtonStein, Cambridge Theological Seminary


      vino" (Matthew 26 29), have always been a much-prized article of food in the Orient. They are closely associated in the Bible with the fig (cf "every man under his vine and under his fig-tree," 1 Kings 4 25). Like the olive, the fig, and the date-palm, grapes are indigenous to Syria, the soil and climate being most favorable to their growth and perfection. Southern Pal esp. yields a rich abundance of choice grapes, somewhat as in patriarchal times (Genesis 49 11.12). J. T. Haddad, a native Syrian, for many years in the employment of t he Turkish government, tells of a variety in the famous valley of Eshcol near Hebron, a bunch from which has been known to weigh twenty-eight pounds (cf Numbers 13 23). Of the grapevine t here is not hing wasted ; the young leaves are used as a green vegetable, and the old are fed to sheep and goats. The branches cut off in pruning, as well as the dead trunk, are used to make charcoal, or for firewood. The failure; of such a fruit was naturally regarded as a judgment from Jeh (Psalm 105 33; Jeremiah 5 17; Hos 2 12; Joel 1 7). Grapes, like figs, were both enjoyed in their natural state, and by exposure to the sun dried into raisins ({iiniinlkJHi), the "dried grapes" of Numbers 6 3. In this form they were esp. well suited to the use of travel ers and soldiers (1 Samuel 25 IS; 1 Cli 12 40). The meaning of the word rendered "raisin-cake," AR.V "a cake of raisins" (2 Samuel 6 11) and elsewhere), is un certain. In Bible times the bulk of the grape prod uct of the land went to the making of wine (q.v.). Some doubt if the Hebrews knew grape-syrup, but the fact that the Aram, dihs, corresponding to Hebrews d lilmali, is used to denote both the natural and arti ficial honey (grape-syrup), seems to indicate that they knew the latter (cf Genesis 43 11; Ezekiel 27 17; and see HONEY).

      Less prominent was the fruit of the mulberry fig- tree (or sycomorej (sliikntdlt), of the date-palm (Idtndr), the dates of which, according to the Mish, were both eaten as they came from the tree, and dried in clusters and pressed into cakes for trans port ; the pomegranate (tappu a h),ihe "apple" of AV (see Ari i.Kings), or quitictt, according to others; the husks (Luke 15 10), i.e. the pods of the carob tree (ntpdriov), are treated elsewhere. Certain nuts were favorite articles of food pistachio nuts (hot- in m), almonds (sli ke<Ut7>n) and walnuts ( eghoz) , and certain spices and vegetables were much used for seasoning: cummin (kunnnOn), anise, dill (AV) (7rrr/;), mint (^Stfoojuoc) and mustard (ffivairi), which see. Salt (incltih), of course, played an im portant part, then as now, in the cooking and in the life of the Orientals. To "eat the salt" of a person was synonymous with eating his bread (Ezr 4 14), and a "covenant of salt" was held inviolable (Numbers 18 19; 2 Chronicles 13 5).

      ‘. Animal Food. Anciently, even more than now in the East, flesh food was much less used than among western peoples. In the first place, in Israel and among other Semitic (of Shem, Shemites, Jewish) peoples, it was confined by law to the use of such animals and birds as were regarded as "clean" (see CLEAN; UNCLEANNESS), or speaking according to the categories of Leviticus 11 2.3; l)t 14 4-20, domestic animals and game (see Driver on Deuteronomy 14 4-20). Then the poverty of the peasantry from time immemorial has tended to limit the use of meat to special occasions, such as family festivals (haggim), the entertainment of an honored guest (Genesis 18 7; 2 Samuel 12 4), and the sacri ficial meal at the local sanctuary.

      The goat ( ez, etc), esp. the "kid of the goats" (Leviticus 4 23.28 AV), was more prized for food by the ancient Hebrews than by modern Orientals, by whom goats are kept chiefly for their milk most of which they supply (cf Prov 27 27). For this reason they are still among the most valued pos sessions of rich and poor (cf Genesis 30 33; 32 14

      with 1 Samuel 25 2). A kid, as less valuable than a lamb, was naturally the readier victim when meat was required (cf Luke 15 29).

      The sheep of Pal, as of Egypt, are mainly of the fat-tailed species (Ovis an r.s), the tail of which was forbidden as ordinary food and had to be offered with certain other portions of the fat (Exodus 29 22; Leviticus 3 9). To kill a lamb in honor of a guest is OTIC of the highest acts of Bedouin hospitality. As a rule, only the lambs an; killed for meat, and they only in honor of some guest or festive occasion (cf 1 Samuel 25 18; 1 Kings 1 19). Likewise the "calves of the herd" supplied the daintiest food of the kind, though the flesh of the neat cattle, male and female, was eaten. The "fatted calf" of Luke 15 23 will be recalled, as also the "Catlings" and the "stalled" (stall-fed) ox of the OT (Prov 15 17). Asharpcon- trast suggestive of the growth of luxury in Israel is seen by a comparison of 2 Samuel 17 28 f with 1 Kings 4 22 f. The food furnished David and his hardy followers at Mahanaim was "wheat, and barley, and meal, and parched grain, and beans, and lent ils, and parched pulse, and honey, and butter, anil sheep, and cheese of the herd," while the daily pro vision for Solomon s table was "thirty measures of fine flour, and threescore measures of meal, ten fat oxen, and twenty oxen out of the pastures, and a hundred sheep, besides harts, and gazelles, and roe bucks, and fatted fowl." Nehemiah s daily portion is given as "one ox and six choice sheep" (Neh 5 18).

      Milk of large and small animals was a st aple art icle of food (Deuteronomy 32 14; Prov 27 27). It was usually kept in skins, as among the Syrian peasants it is today (Judges 4 19). We find a generic term often used (hctti dh) which covers also cream, clabber and cheese (Prov 30 33). The proper designation of cheese is (fbJnndh (Job 10 10 j, but huldhh also is used both for ordinary milk and for a cheese made directly from sweet milk (cf 1 Samuel 17 18, kan^e hc- halabh, and our "cottage cheese"). See MILK.

      Honey (d e bhush, nuphcth ha-QUphlni) . so often men tioned with milk, is ordinary bees honey (see HONKY). The expression "honey" in the combina tion d bhash W hnldhh, for which Pal was praised, most likely means d bhash t c idnt/t, i.e. "date- juice." It was much prized and relished (Psalm 19 10; Prov 16 24), and seems to have been a favorite food for children (Isaiah 7 1">).

      Of game seven species arc mentioned (Deuteronomy 14 5). The gazelle and the hart were the typical animals of the chase, much prized for their flesh (Deuteronomy 12 15), and doubtless supplied the venison of Esau s "savory meat" (Genesis 25 28; 27 4).

      Of fish as food little is said in the OT (see Numbers 11 5; Jeremiah 16 10; E/k 47 10; Eccl 9 12). No par ticular species is named, although thirty-six species are said to be found in the waters of the Jordan valley alone. But we may be sure that the fish which the Hebrews enjoyed in Egypt "for nought" (Numbers 11 5) had their successors in Canaan (Ken nedy). Trade in cured fish was carried on by Tyrian merchants with Jerus in Nehemiah s day (Neh 13 10), and there must have been a fish market at or near the fish gate (3 3). The Sea of Galilee in later times was the center of a great fish industry, as is made clear by the Gospels and by Jos. In the market of Tiberias today fresh fish are sold in great quantities, and a thriving trade in salt fish is carried on. The "small fishes" of Our Lord s two great miracles of feeding were doubtless ot this kind, as at all times they have been a favorite form of provision for a journey in hot countries.

      As to the exact price of food in ancient times little is known. From 2 Kings 7 1.16 we learn that one " dh of fine flour, and two of barley, sold for a shekel (cf Matthew 10 29). For birds allowed as food see Deuteronomy 14 11 and arts, on CLEAN- I"NCLKANNESS.

      Fool, Folly Foot



      Annotated by NewtonStein, Cambridge Theological Seminary


      Pigeons and turtle doves find ;i place in tho ritual of various sacrifices, and so arc to lie reckoned as "clean" for ordinary uses as well. The species of domestic fowl found there today seem to have been introduced during the IVrs period (cf 2 Ksd 1 30; Matthew 23 37; 26 34, etc). It- is thought that the fatted fowl of Solomon s table (1 Kings 4 23) were gees<> (see Mish). Fatted goose is a favorite food with Jews today, as it was with the ancient Egyp- t ians.

      Of game birds used for food (see Neh 5 IS) the partridge and the quail are prominent, and the humble sparrow comes in for his share of mention (Matthew 10 29; Luke 12 6). Then, as now, the eggs of domes) ic fowls and of all "clean" birds were favorite articles of food (Deuteronomy 22 (i; Isaiah 10 14; Luke 11 12).

      Edible insects (Leviticus 11 22 f) are usually classed with animal foods. In general they are of the locust family (see LOCUST). They formed part of the food of John the Baptist, (Matthew 3 4, etc), were regarded by the Assyrians as delicacies, and are a favorite food of the Arabs today. They are pre pared and served in various ways, the; one most common being to remove the head, legs and wings, to drop it in meal, and then fry it in oil or butter. It then tastes a lit tie like fried frogs legs. In the diet of the Baptist, locusts were associated with wild honey (see HONEY).

      As to condiments (see separate arts, on SALT; CORIANDER, etc) it needs only to be .said here that the caperberry (Keel 12 5 m) was eaten before meals as an appeti/er and, strictly speaking, was not a condiment. Mustard was valued for the leaves, not for the seed (Matthew 13 31). Pepper, though not mentioned in Scripture, is mentioned in the Mish as among t he condiments. Before it came into use, spicy seeds like cummin, the cori ander, etc, played a more important role than since.

      The abhorrence of the Hebrews for all food pre pared or handled by the heathen (see ABOMINATION) is to be attributed primarily to the intimate associa tion in early times between flesh food and sacrifices to I he gods. This finds conspicuous illustration in the case of Daniel (I)nl 1 8), Judas Maccabaeus (2 Mace, 5 27), Jos (Vita, 2I), and their compa triots (see also Acts 15 20.2 ,); 1 Corinthians 8 1-10; 10 19. 2S). As to sources of food supply and traffic in foodstuffs, for primitive usages see Genesis 18 7; 27 9; 1 Kings 21 2. As to articles and customs of commerce adopted when men became dwellers in cities, see Jeremiah 37 21, where bakers were numerous enough in Jerus to give their name to a street or ba/aar, where doubtless, as today, they baked and sold bread to the public (cf Mish, passim). Exten sive in "victuals" in Nehemiah s day is at tested by Neh 13 15 f, and by specific mention of the "fish gate" (3 3) and the "sheep gate" (31), so named evidently because of their nearby markets. In John s Gospel (4 8; 13 29) we have incidental evidence that the disciples were accustomed to buy food as they journeyed through the land. In Jerus, cheese ‘vas clearly to be bought in the cheese- makers valley (Tyropooon), oil of the oil merchants (Matthew 25 9), and so on; and Corinth, we may be sure, was not tho only city of Paul s day that had a pro vision market ("shambles," 1 Corinthians 10 25 RV).

      LITERATURE. Mish, B. M. i. 1,2 and passim; Jos, Vita ;md BJ ; Robinson s /{rut-arches, 2, 416, etc; and Bib. Dictionaries, arts, on " Food," etc.

      GEO. B. EAGER

      FOOL, fool, FOLLY (bn: , nabhal, Vn , Swll, ^C2 , Ic yll, *33 , sdkhdl, and forms; a^pwv, dphron, d<j>poo-vvi], (iphrosune, jxwpos, moros):

      I. In the Old Testament. Taking the words gen erally, apart from the Wisdom literature, we find nabhdl frequently translation J "fool" and n bhdlah, "folly";

      ndbhal, however, denotes a wicked person, an

      evil character, "shamelessly immoral," equivalent

      to "a son of Belial" (Cheyne), rather

      1. General than a merely "foolish" person, and

      n e bhdld/t, "wickedness," "shameless impropriety," rather than simple folly. We have almost a definition of ndblidi in Isaiah 32 6: "For the fool will speak folly, and his heart will work iniquity, to practise profaneness, and to utter error against Jeh, to make empty the soul of the hungry, and to cause (he drink of the thirsty to fail." Abigail described her husband, Nabhal, as "a son of Belial" (RV "worthless fellow"), "for as his name is, so is he" (1 Samuel 25 25), and what we read of him bears out this character. Other occurrences of the words support the above meaning; they are generally asso ciated with some form of wickedness, frequently with base and unnatural lewdness (Genesis 34 7 Lt 22 21; Joshua 7 15; Judges 19 23.24; 20 6.10; 2 Samuel 13 12). When in Psalm 14 1; 53 1 it is said, "The fool hath said in his heart, There is no God," it is followed by the statement, "They are corrupt, they have done abominable works," showing that more than "folly" is implied. In Isaiah 32 5.6 AV, na- bftdl is translation d "vile person" and n c bhfdah "villany," RV "fool" and "folly," Jeremiah 29 23; hulul, implying loud boasting is in AV translation 1 "foolish," but it means, rather, "arrogant," which RV adopts (Psalm 5 5; 73 3; 754, m "fools"); qukhal, "a fool," also occurs (Genesis 31 28; IS 13 13, etc) for which word see (4) below; also yaal "to be empty," "to be or become foolish" (Numbers 12 11; Isaiah 19 13; Jeremiah 5 4; 50 36). In the Hokhmah or Wisdom literature, which, within the Bible, is contained in Job, Prov (esp.), Eccl, Cant, some Pss and certain

      2. The portions of the prophetic writings, Wisdom "fool" and "folly" are frequent and Literature distinctive words. Their significance

      is best seen in contrast with "Wis dom." This was the outcome of careful observa tion and long pondering on actual life in the light of religion and the Divine revelation. Wisdom had its seat in God and was imparted to those who "feared" Him ("The fear of Jeh is the beginning [chief part] of knowledge" Prov 1 7). Such wisdom was the essence of life, and to be without it was to walk in the way of death mid destruction. The fool was he who was thoughtless, careless, conceited, self-sufficient, indifferent to God and His Will, or who might even oppose and scoff at religion and wise instruction. See WISDOM. Various words are used to designate "the fool" and his "folly."

      (1) rtdbhdl (Job 2 10; 30 8; Psalm 53 1; Prov 17 7-21); n bhalah (Job 42 8; Isaiah 9 17) (see above).

      (2) gwil, one of the commonest, the idea con veyed by which is that of one who is hasty, impa tient, self-sufficient (Prov 12 15; 15 5; 16 22); despising advice and instruction (1 7; 14 9; 24 7); ready to speak and act without thinking (10 14; 12 16; 20 3); quick to get angry, quarrel and cause strife (11 29; 14 17 iwwclclli; 29 9); unrestrained in his anger (Job 5 2; Prov 17 12); silly, stupid even with brute stupidity (Prov 7 22; 26 1 1 ; 27 22; cf Isaiah 19 11; Jeremiah 4 22); he is associated with "transgression" (Psalm 107 17; Prov 13 15; 17 18.19), with "sin" (24 9), with the "scoffer" (ib); iwweleth, "foolishness" occurs (Psalm 38 5; 69 5; Prov 13 16; "folly," 14 8.24.29, etc).

      (3) k e ll is the word most frequent in Prov. It is probably from a root meaning "thickness," "sluggishness," suggesting a slow, self-confident person, but it is used with a wide reference. Self- confidence appears (Prov 14 16; 28 26); igno rance (Eccl 2 14); hate of instruction (Prov 1 22; 18 2); thoughtlessness (10 23; 17 24); self-ex posure (14 33; 15 2; 18 7; 29 11; Eccl 5 1; 10 12); anger and contention (Prov 18 6; 19 1; Eccl




      Annotated by NewtonStein, Cambridge Theological Seminary

      Fool, Folly Foot

      7 9); rage (Prov 14 10; 17 12); indolence and improvidence (Eccl 4 5; Prov 21 20); silly merri ment (Eccl 7 4.5.0); brutishness (Prov 26 11; cf Psalm 49 10; 92 0); it is associated with slander (Prov 10 18), with evil (13 1!).

      (4) akhdl, ekhti, sikhliith, also occur. These are probably from a root meaning "to be stopped up" (Cheyne), and are generally taken as denoting thickheadedness; but they are used in a stronger sense than mere foolishness (cf 1 Samuel 26 21; 2 Samuel 24 10, etc). These words do not occur in Prov, but in Eccl 2 12; 7 25; $ikhliith is associated with "madness" ("Wickedness is folly, and .... fool ishness is madness").

      (5) p e lhl, "simple," is only once translation 1 "foolish" (Prov 9 OAV).

      (0) ba’ir, "brutish," is translation d "foolish" (Psalm 73 22 AV, RY "brutish").

      (7) taphcl, "insipid," "untempered," is translation (1 "fool ish" (Lam 2 14); tiphluh, "insipidity" (Job 1 22, "foolishly," ERV, "with foolishness" ; 24 12, "folly"; Jeremiah 23 13, "folly," AVm "unsavoury, or, an absurd thing").

      (SJ toholah (Job 4 18: "Behold, he putteth no trust in his servants; and his angels he chargeth with folly" [Delitzsch, "imperfection," others, "error"], AVm "nor in his angels in whom he put light").

      ‘. In the Apocrypha. In the continuation of the Wisdom literature in Wisd and Ecclus, "fool" frequently occurs with a signification similar to that in Prov; in Wisd we have nphrun (12 24; 15 .">, etc;, in Ecclus moron (18 18; 19 11, etc; 20 13; 21 1C), etc).

      ‘. In the New Testament. In the NT we have various words translation d "fool," "foolish," "folly," etc, in the ordinary acceptation of these; terms; (iphron, "mindless," "witless" (Luke 11 40; 12 20; 1 Corinthians 15 30; aphrosune, "want of mind or wisdom" (2 Corinthians 11 1; Alk 7 22; dnnia, "want of under standing" (2 Timothy 3 9); moniind, "to make dull," "foolish" (Rom 1 22; 1 Corinthians 1 20); mows, "dull," "stupid" (Matthew 7 20; 23 17; 25 2; 1 Corinthians 1 25.27); rndriti, "foolishness" (1 Corinthians 1 18, etc; moroloyla, "foolish talk" (Eph 5 4).

      In Matthew 5 22 Our Lord says: "Whosoever shall say [to his brother], Thou fool [more], shall be in danger of the hell of fire [the Gehenna of fire]." Two explanations of this word are possible: (1) that it is not the vocative of the Grmdros a word which was applied by Jesus Himself to the Pharisees (Matthew 23 17.19), but represents the Hebrews nwrd/i, "rebel," ap plied in Numbers 20 10 by Moses to the people, "ye rebels" (for which he was believed to be excluded from the promised land; cf ver 12; hence we have in RYm "or mdreh, a Hebrews expression of condem nation"); or (2) that, as Our Lord spake in the Aram, it is the Gr translation of a word representing the Hebrews ndbtidl, "vile, or worthless fellow," atheist, etc (Psalm 14 1; 53 1). W. L. WALKER

      FOOLERY, fool er-i: The pi. "fooleries" occurs Ecclus 22 13 AV: "Talk not much with a fool .... and thou shalt never be denied with his fooleries." The Gr word is ^vnvay^, entinagmds, "a striking or throwing in," "an attack," from enlindstid, "to strike into," "cast at," etc (1 Mace 2 30; 2 Mace 441; 1111). RV renders "Thou shalt not be de nied in his onslaught," m "defiled: in his onslaught turn." The meaning is most probably "with what he throws out," i.e. his foolish or vile speeches, as if it were slaver.

      FOOT, foot (ban , reghel, bb"lp , karsol [only twice in | passages: 2 Samuel 22 37 = Psalm 18 30, where it probably means ankle]; irovs, po-iis): The dusty roads of Pal and other eastern lands make a much

      greater care of the feet necessary than we are accus tomed to bestow upon them. The 1 absence of socks or stockings, the use of sandals and lo’v shoes rather than boots and, to an even greater degree, the fre quent habit of walking barefoot make it necessary to wash the feet repeatedly every day. This is always done when entering the house, esp. the better upper rooms which are usually carpeted. It is a common dictate of good manners to perform this duty to a visitor, either personally or through a servant; at least water for washing has to be pre- | sented (Genesis 18 4; Luke 7 44). This has therefore become almost synonymous with the bestowal of hospitality (1 Timothy 5 10). At an early date this service was considered one of the lowest tasks of servants (1 Samuel 25 41), probably because the young est and least trained servants were charged with the task, or because of the idea of defilement connected with the foot. It was, for the same reason, if rendered voluntarily, a service which betokened complete devotion. Jesus taught the greatest lesson of humility by performing this humble service to His disciples (John 13 4-15). The undoing of the latchets or leather thongs of the sandals (Mark 1 7; Luke 3 10; John 1 27) seems to refer to the same menial duty.

      Often the feet and shoes were dusted on the high way, as is being done in the Orient to this day, but if it were done in an ostentatious manner in the presence of a person or a community who had re fused hospitality to a stranger, it was understood in t he same sense in which the cut ting in two of the tablecloth was considered in the days of knighthood: it meant rejection and separation (Matthew 10 14; Acts 13 51).

      The roads of the desert were not only dusty but rough, and the wanderer was almost sure to ruin his ill-made shoes and wound his weary feet. A special providence of God protected the children of Israel from this experience during the long journey through the wilderness. "Thy raiment waxed not old upon thee, neither did thy foot swell, these forty years" (Deuteronomy 8 4; 29 5).

      In the house shoes and sandals were never worn; even the most delicate would put on shoes only when going out (Deuteronomy 28 50). The shoes were left outside of the house or in a vestibule. This was esp. done in the house of God and at the time of prayer, for whenever or wherever that might be, the law was: "Put off thy shoes from off thy feet, for the place whereon thou standest is holy ground" (Exodus 3 5; Joshua 5 15; Acts 7 33). This custom still prevails among the Moslems of our day. Prob ably it was the idea of defilement through contact with the common ground which gave rise to its moral application by the Preacher, "Keep thy foot when thou goest to the house of God" (Eccl 5 1 [Hebrews 4 17]).

      Nakedness of the feet in public, esp. among the wealthier classes, who used to wear shoes or sandals, was a token of mourning (E/k 24 17 and probably also Jeremiah 2 25 and Lsa 20 2-4). A peculiar cere mony is referred to in Deuteronomy 25 9.10, whereby a brother-in-law, who refused to perform his duty under the Levirate law, was publicly put to shame. "And his name shall be called in Israel, The house of him that hath his shoe loosed." See also Ruth 4 7.8.

      Numerous are the phrases in which the word "foot " or "feet" is used in Bib. language. "To cover the feet" (1 Samuel 24 3) is synonymous with obeying a call of Nature. "To speak with the feet" is ex pressive of the eloquence of abusive and obscene gesticulation among oriental people, where hands, eyes and feet are able to express much without the use of words (Prov 6 13). "To sit at- the feet," means to occupy the place of a learner (Deuteronomy 33 3;

      Footman Forehead



      Annotated by NewtonStein, Cambridge Theological Seminary


      Luke 10 39; Acts 22 3). Vanquished enemies had to submit, to being trodden upon by the conqueror (a ceremony often represented on Egyp monument^; Josli 10 24; Psalm 8 (i; 110 1; cf Isaiah 49 2:!). St. James warns against an undue humiliation of those

      Assyrian King Placing ITis Foot on tho Neck of an Enemy.

      who join us in the service of Clod, even though they be poor or mean-looking, by bidding them to take a lowly place at the feet of the richer members of the congregation (.las 2 3). Wo read of dying Jacob that "he gathered up his feet into the bed," for ho had evidently used his bed as a couch, on which ho had been seated while delivering his charge to his several sons (den 49 33). "Foot" or "feet" is sometimes used euphemistically for the genitals (Deuteronomy 28 57; Ezekiel 16 2f>). In Deuteronomy 11 10 an interest ing reference is made to some Egyp mode of irrigating the fields, the watering with the foot, which mode would bo unnecessary in the promised land of Canaan which "drinketh water of the rain of heaven." It is, however, uncertain whether this refers to the water-wheels worked by a treadmill arrangement or whether reference is made to the many tributary channels, which, according to rep resentations on the Egyp monuments, intersected the gardens and fields and which could bo stopped or opened by placing or removing a, piece of sod at the mouth of the channel. This was usually done with the foot. Frequently we find references to the foot in expressions connected with journeyings and pilgrimages, which formed so large a part in the experiences of Israel, e.g. Psalm 91 12, "lest thou dash thy foot against a stone"; 94 IS, "My foot slippoth"; 121 3, "Ho will not suffer thy foot to be moved," and many more. Often the reference is to the "walk," i.e. the moral conduct of life (73 2; Job 23 11; 31 5).

      Figurative: In the metaphorical language of Isaiah 62 7 "the feet" are synonymous with "the coining."

      2. L. E. LUKKING

      FOOTMAN, foot man. See WAR.

      FOOTSTOOL, foot stool OE22 , kehhes; viro- iroSiov, hui>(>iM>dion, "trodden on"): The 1.5 Scrip ture references to this term may be classified as literal or figurative. Of the former are the two pas- sagos: 2 Chronicles 9 18 and Jas 2 3. In these the foot stool was a sort of step or support for the feet placed before the throne or any pretentious seat.

      Of figurative uses, there are the following groups:

      (1) Of the earth: Isaiah 66 1; Matthew 5 35; Acts 7 49.

      (2) Of the ark: 1 Chronicles 28 2. (3) Of the Temple: Psalm 99 5; 132 7; Lam 2 1; cf Isaiah 60 13. (4) Of heathen enemies subdued by the Messianic King: Psalm 110 1; Matthew 22 44 AV; Mark 12 3(5; Luke 20 43; Acts 2 3.5; He 1 13; 10 13. Thus the uses of

      this term are mainly metaphorical and symbolic of subjection, either to (iod as universal Lord or to Cod s Son as King by redemptive right. Cf 1 Corinthians 15 2.5-27, in which all things, including death, are represented as subject to Christ and placed beneath His feet. LEONARD W. DOOLAN

      FOR, for p? , A-I [conj.], b , I", from bx, W[prep.] f and various other words. In the NT also the words are various, chiefly "yap, </<ir, KO.! yap, kni g<ir, on, huti [conjs.J; avrt, anli, diro, apu, els, c/.s, Sid, did [ace.], e-n-i, ci>i [dat. and ace.], irspi, peri [gen.], irp6s,/;/v <.s [gen. and ace.], virep, huper [gen.] [preps.]) : KKV and ARV give in many cases more literal or more accurate renderings than those in AV.

      In the NT the most important preps, from a doc trinal point of view are auli, "face to face," "over against," "instead," "on behalf of," peri, "around," "about," "concerning," huper, "over," "on behalf of." The first has been claimed as stating the substitutionary nature of Christ s sacrifice as con trasted with tin [>< r anil peri, more frequently used of it. But, although and in the NT often means "instead of," "answering to," it does not necessarily imply substitution. On the other hand, in classi cal Gr liuper is sometimes used in that sense (see Trench, XijnoinjniK). "Here as always the root idea of the prop., the root idea of the case, and the context must all bo considered" (Robertson, (!r<iini(ir, 124). Anti is found in this connection only in Matthew 20 2S, and Mark 10 45. In Matthew 26 28; Mark 14 24, we have peri, also in He 10 O.Samuel.1S.26; 1 Pet 3 IS; 1 John 2 2; 4 10. Luke 22 19.20 has ‘ , which is the word commonly used by Paul, as in Rom 6 6.8; 8 32; 14 1.5; 1 Corinthians 15 3, etc also by John in his Gospel, 6 51; 10 11, etc, and 1 John 3 Kings> also He 2 9; 10 12; 1 Pet 2 21; 3 IS; 4 1; in Rom 8 3 it is pert.

      W. L. WALKER

      FORAV, for a (2 Samuel 3 22). See WAH.

      FORBEAR, for-bar (3~n , hudhnl; dvxojiai, ancchoiiKii): In the OT fiadhul, "to leave off," is the word most frequently translation 1 "forbear" (Exodus 23 5, etc); ddnxiui, "to bo silent ," husakli, "to keep back," ma- slnikh, "to draw or stretch out," occur once each; RV renders Ezekiel 24 17 (<hlin<i>n), "Sigh, but not aloud," in "Hob bo silent"; Prov 24 11 (hdsakh), "See that thou hold back," m "or forbear thou not to deliver," AV "if thou forbear to deliver"; Neh 9 30 (imlxlHikli), "bear" instead of "forbear"; aph lit. "breathing," the "nose," hence from violent breathing, "anger" ( erekh, "long," understood), and kill "to hold," are translation d "forbearing" (Prov 25 15; Jeremiah 20 9, respectively).

      In the NT we have ancchomai, "to hold self back or up," "with longsuffering, forbearing OIK; another" (Eph 4 2; Col 3 13); anlcnii, "to send back," AV and RV "forbear threatening" (Eph 6 9); p/ie ulo- inui, "to spare," "but I forbear" (2 Corinthians 12 6); nit, enjiizefilliiii, "not to work," "to forbear working" (1 Corinthians 9 6); steyo, "to cover," "conceal": "when I could no longer forbear" (1 Thessalonians 3 1.5).

      W. L. WALKER

      FORBEARANCE, for-bar ans (dvox^i, anocht): "Forbearance" (attache, "a holding back") is as cribed to God (Rom 2 4, "the riches of his good ness and forbearance and longsuffering"; 3 25 RV, "the passing over of the sins done aforetime, in the forbearance of God," AV "remission" [m "passing over"] of sins, that are past, through the forbearance of God"); in Phil 4 5, to epieikes is translation d by RV "for bearance," in "gentleness"; it is a Christian grace in likeness to God. "Forbearing" (AVm) is sub stituted by RV for "patient" (anexikakos, "holding up under evil") in 2 Timothy 2 24. W. L. WALKER




      Annotated by NewtonStein, Cambridge Theological Seminary

      Footman Forehead

      FORBID, for-bid (5553 , kdla ; Ko>Xv>o>, kdluo): Occurs very seldom in the OT except as the rendering of hdlllah (see below) ; it is once the translation of kala , "to restrain" (Numbers 11 28, "Joshua .... said, My lord Moses, forbid them"); twice of $dwdh, "to command" (Deuteronomy 2 37, "and whereso ever Jeh our God forbade us"; 4 23, "Jeh. thy God hath forbidden thee," lit. "commanded"); once of Id , "not," RV "commanded not to be done" (Leviticus 5 17). In the phrases, "Jeh forbid" (1 Samuel 24 6; 26 11; 1 Kings 21 3), "God forbid" (Genesis 44 7; Joshua 22 29; 24 16; 1 Samuel 12 23; Job 27 5, etc), "My God forbid it me" (1 Chronicles 11 19), the word is hdlllah, denoting profanation, or abhorrence (ren dered, Genesis 18 25 AV, "that be far from thee"); ERV leaves the expressions unchanged; ARV sub stitutes "far be it from me," "thee," etc, except in 1 8 14 45; 20 2, where it is, "Far from it."

      In the NT kdluo, "to cut short," "restrain," is the word commonly translation d "forbid" (Matthew 19 14, "for bid them not," etc); in Luke 6 29, RV has "with hold not"; diakoluo, with a similar meaning, occurs in Matthew 3 14, "John forbade him," RV "would have hindered him"; akolutos, "uncut off" (Acts 28 31), is translation d "none forbidding him." The phrase "God forbid" (me genoito, "let it not be," Luke 20 10; Rom 3 4, etc) is retained by RV, with m "Be it not so," except in Gal 6 14, where the text has "Far be it from me" ; me genoito is one of the render ings of hdlllah in LXX. "( !od forbid" also appears in Apoc (1 Mace 2 21, RV Heaven forbid," m "Gr may he be propitious," 9 10, RV "Let it not be"). W. L. WALKER

      FORCES, for sis (bin , hayil) :

      (1) The word is used as a military term, equiva lent to army, in 2 Kings 25 23.20 (where AV reads "armies"); 2 Chronicles 17 2; Jeremiah 40 7, etc. See ARMY.

      (2) In Isaiah 60 5.11, it is rendered in RV by "wealth," and in Ob ver 11, by "substance."

      Two other Hebrews words are also translation d "forces" in AV, ma dmacglm (Job 36 19), and mCi dz (Dnl 11 38J, the latter being rendered in RV "fortresses."

      FORD, f5rd ("QrQ , mcfubhar [Genesis 32 22; "pass" (of Miehmash), 1 Samuel 13 23; "stroke" (RVm passing"), Isaiah 30 32] ; rrQ" 1 )? , ma bdrdh [Joshua 2 7; Judges 3 28; 12 5.0; Isaiah 16 2; "pass" (of Miehmash), 1 Samuel 14 4; "passages" (KVm "fords"), Jeremiah 61 32]; rTQy , Whurah [2 Samuel 15 28; 17 10; "ferry-boat" (RVm "convoy"), 2 Samuel 19 IS]; from

      *abhar, "to pass over"; cf Arab. -xc. , nlxir,

      Samuel O ^ J

      "to pass over," and -AJUO , mcfbar, "a ford"): In

      the journeyings of the children of Israel, in addition to the miraculous passages of the Red Sea and the Jordan, they had other streams to pass over, esp. the Zered (Hisa ) and the Arnon (Man jib) (Numbers 21 12.13; Deuteronomy 2 24). The Jabbok (Zarka) is fre quently referred to, particularly in connection with Jacob (Genesis 32 22) The most frequent references are to the Jordan which, in time of flood, was im passable (Joshua 3 15). The lower Jordan is about 100 ft. wide, and from 5 to 12 ft. deep, so that in the absence of bridges, the places where it was possible to ford were of great importance. The passage of the Jordan is referred to in connection with Jacob (Genesis 32 10), Gideon (Judges 8 4), the children of Ammon (Judges 10 9), Abner and his men (2 Samuel 2 29), David (2 Samuel 10 17; 17 22), Absalom (2 Samuel 17 24), and others. Jesus undoubtedly crossed the Jordan, and John is thought to have baptized at the ford of the Jordan near Jericho. The fords of the Jordan are specifically mentioned in Joshua 2 7 in connection with the pursuit of the spies who were hidden in Rahab s house, and in

      2 Samuel 15 28; 17 10 in connection with the flight of David. In the last, two passages we have *abhdrdh, the same word which, in the account of David s return (2 Samuel 19 18), is rendered "ferry-boat" (RVm "convoy"). See JORDAN. ALFRED ELY DAV

      FORECAST, for-kast (vb.) (3On , hdshabh): To forecast is both to plan or scheme beforehand and to consider or see beforehand. It is in the first sense that it is used in Dnl 11 24.25 (AV) as the translation of hdshabh, "to think," "meditate," "devise," "plot," "He shall forecast his devices [AVm "Hebrews think his thoughts"] against the strongholds"; "They shall forecast devices against him," RV "devise his devices"; cf Nah 1 9, "What do ye devise against Jeh?" In the second sense, the word occurs in Wisd 17 11 RV, "Wickedness .... always fore cast eth the worst lot" (proeilepheri) , m "Most authorities read hath added" (proseilephen) .

      W. L. WALKER

      FOREFATHER, fdr fa-ther:

      (1) jiDSI ax, al>h rlWi/<, "first father," "chief father," hence "early ancestor": "turned back to the iniquities of their forefathers" (Jeremiah 11 10).

      (2) irp6yovos,pr6gonos, "born before," "ancestor": "whom I serve from my forefathers" (2 Timothy 1 3). It is translation d "parents" (including grandparents) in 1 Timothy 5 4: "and to requite their parents."

      FOREFRONT, for frunt (ITIS , pan m): For "forefront," "front" is now generally used, since "back-front" has gone out of use. "Forefront" is the translation of panlm, "face" (2 Kings 16 14; Ezekiel 40 19 bis; 47 1); of mill panlm, "over against the face" (Exodus 26 9; Leviticus 8 9, "And he put the mitre upon his head; also upon the mitre even upon his fore front, did he put the golden plate"; for "upon his forefront" RV has "in front"; 2 Samuel 11 15, "in the forefront of the hottest battle"); of ro sh, "head" (2 Chronicles 20 27); of shen, "tooth" (1 Samuel 14 5, "The forefront [AVm "Hebrews tooth"] of the one was situ ated northward over against Miehmash," RV "The one crag rose up on the north in front of Mich- mash"); in 1 Mace 4 57 m it is the translation of prosopon, "face": "They decked the forefront of the temple with crowns of gold."

      RV has "forefront" for "face" (Ezekiel 40 15), "in the forefront of" for "over against" (Joshua 22 11).

      W. L. WALKEH

      FOREGO, for-go . See Foiuio.

      FOREHEAD, for ed (HSE , mc^ah; ^TWTTOV, mt- tdpon) :

      (1) In a literal sense the word is used frequently in the Scriptures. Aaron and after him every high priest was to wear on the forehead the golden front let having the engraved motto, "Holy to Jeh" (Exodus 28 30.38). The condition of the forehead was an important criterion in the diagnosis of leprosy by the priest (Leviticus 13 42.43; 2 Chronicles 26 20). It was in the forehead that brave young David smote Go liath with the stone from his sling (1 Samuel 17 49). The faulty translation of AV in Ezekiel 16 12 has been corrected in RV, reference being had in the passage to a nose ring, not to an ornament of the forehead. While the cutting or tattooing of the body was strictly for bidden to the Israelite on account of the heathen associations of the custom (Leviticus 19 28), we find frequent mention made of markings on the forehead, which were esp. used to designate slaves (see Fhilo, Deuteronomy Monarchic/,, I) or devotees of a godhead (Lucian, Deuteronomy Syria Dca, 59). In 3 Mace 2 29 we read that Ptolemy IV Philopator branded some Jews with the sign of an ivy leaf, marking them as devotees of Bacchus-Dionysos. Possibly we may compare herewith the translation of Isaiah 44 5 (RVm): "And another



      Annotated by NewtonStein, Cambridge Theological Seminary


      shall write on his hand, I nto Jeh" (or Jeh s slave). Very clear is the passage E/k 9 4.0 (and perhaps Job 31 3f>), where the word used for "mark is tair, t he name of the last let ter of the 1 1 eh alphabet. which in its earliest, form has the shape of an up right -+- (Baal Lebanon I user, llth century BC) or of a lying (St Andrew s) cross X (Moabite Inscr, 9th cent . BCj, the simplest sign in the old Israelite alpha bet, and at the same time the character whick in the Cir alphabet represents the X, the initial of Christ. In the NT we find a clear echo of the above-men tioned OT passage, the marking of the foreheads of the righteous (Rev 7 3; 94; 14 1 ; 22 4). The godless followers of the beast are marked on the (right) hand and on the forehead (13 10; 14 9; 20 4), and the apocalyptic woman dressed in scarlet and purple has her name written on her forehead (17 5).

      (2) In a metaphorical sense the expression, "a harlot s forehead," is used (,Jeremiah 3 3) to describe the shameless apostasy and faithlessness of Israel. E/k speaks of the stiff-necked obstinacy and the per sistent unwillingness of Israel to hear the message of Jeh: "All the house of Israel are of a hard fore head and of a stiff heart" (3 7), and (!od makes his prophet s "forehead hard .... as an adamant harder than flint," whereby an unflinching loyalty to God and a complete disregard of opposition is meant (vs X.9). Compare the phrase: "to harden the face," s.v. FACE. 2. L. E. LUKKI.M;

      FOREIGN DIVINITIES, for in di-vin i-tiz (Acts 17 ism). See GOD(Samuel), STEANGE.

      FOREIGNER, for in-er: Their of ">"p: , nokfin, "unknown," "foreign," frequently rendered "stran ger" (Deuteronomy 15 3; Obverll); of nCnP, tdxliabli, "a settler," "an alien resident." (Exodus 12 4f> RV "so- journcr"; cf Leviticus 25 47; Psalm 39 12); of />ar<iil:<>x, "dwelling near," "sojourner" (Eph 2 19, RV so- journers").

      RV has "foreigner" for "stranger" (Deuteronomy 17 1"> 23 20; 29 22; Ruth 2 10; 2 Samuel 15 19), for "alien" (Deuteronomy 14 21); "the hand of a foreigner" for "a stran ger s hand" (Leviticus 22 2f>). See ALIKX; STKANOKH



      fdr-nol ej :

      1. Meaning of the Term

      2. Foreknowledge us I roscicnce

      li. Foreknowledge IJused on Koreonlimition

      4. Foreknowledge as Kquivalcnt to Koivordination


      The word "foreknowledge" has two meanings. It

      is a term used in theology to denote the prescience

      or foresight of ( lod, that is, His knowl-

      1. Meaning edge of the entire course of events of the Term which are fill ure from t he human point

      of view; and it- is also used -in AV and RV to translate t he ( !r words i>r<><ji nu*l;i in and />/ </- nosis in the NT, in which instances the word "fore knowledge" approaches closely the idea of fore- ordination.

      In the sense of prescience foreknowledge is an aspect of God s omniscience (see OMNISCIENCE).

      God s knowledge, according to the

      2. Fore- Scripture, is perfect, that is, it is om- knowledge niscience. It is true that the Scripture as Pre- makes use of anthropomorphic forms science of expression as regards the way in

      which God obtains knowledge (Genesis 3 Samuel), and sometimes even represents Him as if He did not know certain things (Genesis 11 5; 18 21); nevertheless the constant representation of the Scripture is that God knows everything. This perfect knowledge of God, moreover, is not merely a knowledge which is practically unlimited for all

      religious purposes, but is omniscience in the strictest sense of the term. In the historical books of the OT the omniscience of God is a constant underlying pre supposition when it is said that God watches men s actions, knows their acts and words, and discloses to them the future; while in the Psalms, Prophets and Wisdom literature, this Divine attribute be comes an object of reflection, and finds doctrinal expression. It cannot, however, be said that this attribute of God appears only late in the history of special revelation; it is a characteristic of the Bib. idea of God from the very first, and it is only its didactic expression which comes out. with especial clearness in the later books. God s knowledge, then, is represented as perfect.. Since He is free i rom all limits of space, His omniscience is frequently connected with His omnipresence. This is the thought which underlies the anthropomorphic ex pressions where God is represented as seeing, behold ing and having eyes. Clod s eyes go to and fro throughout the whole earth (2 Chronicles 16 9), and are in every place beholding the evil and the good (Prov 16 3). Even Sheol is naked and open to God s sight (Prov 15 11; Job 26 (5). The night and darkness are light to Him, and darkness and light for God are both alike (Psalm 139 12). All ani mals and fowls are His, and so are known by Him (50 11), and as their Creator God knows all the hosts of the heavenly bodies (Psalm 147 4; Isaiah 40 20). lie knows also the heart of man and its thoughts (1 Samuel 16 7; 1 Kings 8 39; Psalm 7 9 [Ileb ]()]; 94 1 1 ; 139 2; Jeremiah 11 20; 17 9.10; 20 12; Ezekiel 11 r>). Furthermore, God knows man entirely in all his ways (Psalm 139 Lo; Prov 5 21). He looks from heaven and sees all men (Psalm 11 4; 14 2; 33 13. 14.15). Evil and sin are also known to God (Genesis 3 lh 6 a.9.13; 2 Samuel 7 20; Psalm 69 f> [Hebrews 01; Jeremiah

      16 17; 18 23). In a word, God knows with abso lute accuracy all about man (Job 11 1 1 ; 34 21; Psalm 33 lf> Prov 5 21; Hos 5 3; Jeremiah 11 20; 12 3;

      17 9f; 18 23). This perfect knowledge finds its classic expression in Psalm 139.

      God is also, according to the OT, free from all limitations of time, so that His consciousness is not in the midst of the stream of the succeeding mo ments of time, as is the case with the human con sciousness. God is not only without beginning or end of days, but with Him a thousand years art 1 as one day. Hence God knows in one eternal intui tion that which for the human consciousness is past, present and future. In a strict sense, therefore, there can be no foreknowledge or prescience with (lod, and the distinction in God s knowledge made by theologians, as knowledge of reminiscence, vision and prescience, is after all an anthropomorphism. Nevertheless this is the only way in which we can conceive of the Divine omniscience in its relation to time, and consequently the Scripture represents the matter as if God s knowledge of future events were a foreknowledge or prescience, and God is rep resented as knowing the past, present and future.

      It is God s knowledge of events which from the human point of view are future that constitutes His foreknowledge in the sense of prescience. God is represented as having a knowledge of the entire course of events before they take place. Such a knowledge belongs to the Scriptural idea of God from the very outset of special revelation. He knows beforehand what Abraham will do, and what will happen to him; He knows beforehand that Pharaoh s heart will be hardened, and that Moses will deliver Israel (Genesis 15 13 ff; Exodus 3 19; 7 4; 11 1 ff). The entire history of the patriarchal period of revelation exhibits plainly the foreknowl edge of God in this sense. In prophecy this aspect of the Divine knowledge is made the subject of explicit assertion, and its religious significance is




      Annotated by NewtonStein, Cambridge Theological Seminary

      brought out. Nothing future is hidden from Jch (Isaiah 41 22 ff; 42 9; 43 9-13; 44 0-8; 46 10; Dnl 2 22; Amos 3 7), and this foreknowledge em braces the entire course of man s life (Psalm 31 lo [Hebrews 16]; 39 5 [lleb 0]; 139 4-0.1(5; Job 14 ">). These passages from Lsa show that it is from the occurrence of events in accordance with Jeh s pre diction that the Prophet will prove his foreknowl edge; and that in contrast with the worshippers of idols which are taken by surprise, Israel is warned of the future by the omniscient Jeh.

      In the NTlikewise, God s omniscience is explicitly affirmed. Jesus taught that God knows the hidden secrets of man s heart (Luke 16 !;">); and this is also the teaching of the apostles (Acts 1 24; 15 8; 1 Corinthians 2 10; 3 20; 1 Thessalonians 2 4; Rev 2 23). In a word, according to the author of the Epistle to the He, everything is open to God, so that He is liter ally omniscient (He 4 13). And as in the OT, so also in the NT, fore-knowledge in the sense of pre science is ascribed to God. Jesus asserts a fore knowledge by God of that which is hidden from the Son (Mark 13 32), and James asserts that all God s works are foreknown by Him (Acts 15 IS). More over the many references in the NT to the fulfilment of prophecy all imply that the NT writers ascribed foreknowledge, in this sense of foresight, to God.

      Denials of the Divine foreknowledge, in this sense of prescience, have been occasioned, not by exe- getical considerations, but by the supposed conflict of this truth with human freedom. It was supposed that in order to be free, an event must be uncertain and contingent as regards the fact of its fiiturition, and that too in the most absolute sense, that is, from the Divine as well as the human point of view. Hence the Socinians and some Arminians denied the foreknowledge of God. It was supposed either that God voluntarily determines not to foresee the free volitions of man, or else that since God s omniscience is simply the knowledge of all that is knowable, it docs not embrace the free acts of man which are by their nature uncertain and so un knowable. And upon this view of freedom, this denial of God s foreknowledge was logically neces sary. If the certainty of events with respect to the fact of their futurition is inconsistent with freedom, then human freedom does conflict with Clod s fore knowledge, since God cannot know future events as certainly future unless they actually are so. Since, therefore, the Divine foreknowledge is quite as inconsistent with this view of freedom as is the Divine foreordination, the view of those who regard God as a mere onlooker on the course of future; events which are supposed to be entirely independent of His purpose and control, does not help matters in the least. If God foreknows future events as certain, then they must be certain, and if so, then the certainty of their act ually occurring must depend either upon God s decree and providential control, or else upon a fate independent of God. It was to escape these supposed difficulties that the doctrine known as scicntin media was propounded. It was supposed that God has a knowledge of events as conditionally future, that is, events neither merely possible nor certainly future, but suspended upon conditions undetermined by God. But this hy- pot hesis is of no help and is not true. Besides being cont rary to the Scripture in it s idea that many events lie outside the decree of God, and that God must wait upon man in His government of the world, there is really no such class of events as this theory asserts. If God foreknows that the conditions on which they are suspended will be fulfilled, then these events belong to the class of events which are certainly future; whereas if God does not know whether or not the conditions will be fulfilled by man, then His foreknowledge is denied, and these

      events in question belong to the class of those merely possible. Nor do the Scripture passages to which appeal is made, such as Genesis 11 0; Exodus 3 19; Deuteronomy 7 3.4; 1 Samuel 23 10-13; 2 Samuel 12 Samuel, etc, afford a basis for this doctrine. The Scripture of course recog nizes that God has put all things in relations of mu tual dependence, and speaks of what can or cannot happen under such and such conditions; but none of these passages assert or imply that the events are suspended upon conditions which are either un known or undetermined by God.

      (Sod s foreknowledge, according to the Scripture teaching, is based upon His plan or eternal purpose, which embraces everything that comes 3. Fore- to pass. God is never represented as knowledge a mere onlooker seeing the f ut lire course Based on of events, but having no part in it. Foreordi- That God has such a plan is the teach- nation ing of the entire Scripture. It is

      implied in the OT conception of God as an Omnipotent Person governing all things in accord ance with His will. This idea is involved in the names of God in the patriarchal revelation, El, Elokim, El Shadday, and in the prophetic name Jeh of Hosts. This latter name teaches not only God s infinite power and glory, but also makes Him known as interposing in accordance with His sover eign will and purpose in the affairs of this world, and as having also the spiritual powers of the heavenly world at His disposal for the execution of His eternal purpose. Hence this idea of God conies to signify the omnipotent Ruler of the universe (Psalm 24 10"; Isaiah 6 3; 51 5; 54 5; Jeremiah 10 10; Amos 9 5; cf Oehler, Tlirol. ofllicOT, ET, 2, 2SO).

      Not only m this conception of God as omnipotent and sovereign Ruler is the thought of His eternal plan evolved; it is explicitly asserted throughout the whole OT. The purpose of God as determining human history in the Book of Genesis lies clearly upon the surface of the narrative, as, for example, in the history of Abraham and of Joseph. And where there is no abstract statement of this truth, it is evident that t he writ er regards every event- as but t he unfold ing of the purpose of God. In the; Psalms, Prophets, and Wisdom literature, this truth finds explicit and reiterated assertion. Jeh has an eternal purpose (Psalm 33 11), and this purpose will certainly come to pass (Isaiah 14 27; 43 13 j. This purpose includes all events and renders certain their occurrence (Isaiah 14 24; 40 10; 46 9.10; Zee; 1 6). In the Wisdom literature the ethical character of this plan is dwelt upon, as well as its all-embracing character, and the certainty of its fulfilment (Prov 16 4.33; 19 21; 20 24; Job 28 23). The providential control wherewith Jeh executes this plan includes the heart of man (Prov 21 1).

      The NT likewise regards all history as but the unfolding of God s eternal purpose (Acts 4 2S), which includes man s salvation (Eph 1 4.o; 2 Timothy 1 9), the provision of Christ as Saviour (1 Pet 1 20), and the good works of the Christian (Eph 2 10). See PREDESTINATION.

      Now while the writers of the OT and the NT do not write in an abstract or philosophical manner nor enter into metaphysical explanations of the relation between God s foreknowledge and foreordination. it is perfectly evident that they had a clear conception upon this sub ject. Although anthropomorphisms are used in regard to the manner in which (lod knows. He is never con ceived as if lie obtained His knowledge of the future as a mere onlooker gazing down the course of events in time. The idea that the omnipotent Creator and sov ereign Ruler of the universe, should govern the. world and form 2 is plan as contingent and dependent upon a mere foresight of events outside His purpose and control is not only contrary to the entire Scriptural idea of God s sovereignty and omnipotence, but is also contrary to the Scriptural idea of God s foreknowledge which is always conceived as dependent upon His sovereign purpose. According to the Scriptural conception, God foreknows because He has foreordained all things, and because in

      Foreknow Foreskin



      Annotated by NewtonStein, Cambridge Theological Seminary


      His providence Ho will certainly bring nil to pass. His foreknowledge is not a dependent one wliieh must, wait upon events, but is simply the knowledge which (iod has of His own eternal purpose. Dillmann has called this " a productive foreknowledge " ( linn, Hutch <l. ait< .it. Throl., 2.")1). This is not exactly correct. The OT does not conceive God s foreknowledge as " producing" or causing events. But when Dillmann says that in the OT there is no hint of an "idle foreknowledge" on God s part, he is giving expression to the truth that in the OT Cod s foreknowledge is based upon His foreordination and providential control of all things. The Divine fore knowledge, therefore, depends upon the Divine purpose which has determined the world plan (Amos 3 7), and all its details (.lob 28 2I>.1>7). Before man is born Clod knows him and chooses him for his work (Jeremiah 1 5; Job 23 13.14), and Cod s thorough knowledge of man in Psalm 139 is made to rest upon the fact that God lias deter mined man s lot beforehand ( Psalm 139 14-1C>).

      The same 1 thing is true of the XT teaching on this sub ject. The Divine foreknowledge is simply Cod s knowl edge of His own eternal purpose. This is esp. clear in those cases where Cod s eternal purpose of redemption through Christ is represented as a mystery which is known by (iod and which can be known by man only when it pleases Cod to reveal it (Eph 1 ,); 3 4.D).

      While, therefore, the foreknowledge of Cod in the sense of prescience is asserted in the NT, this is not the meaning of the term when nsed 4. Fore- to translate the Cr words prot/ind- knowledge skein and jtrni/no^ia. These words as Equiva- which are translation 1 in AV and RV by the lent to word "foreknowledge," and once by

      Foreordi- the word "foreordain" (1 Pet 1 20 nation AV), mean much more than mere

      intellectual foresight or prescience. Both the vb. and the noun approach the idea of foreordination and are closely connected with that idea, in the passages where these words occur. Thus in Peter s speeches in Acts the predestination which finds expression in 4 2,Samuel is practically identified with the term prognosis in 2 23. Everything which happened to Jesus took place in accordance with "the determinate counsel and foreknowledge of Cod," so that nothing happened except that which Cod had foreordained. In this verse the term fore knowledge is an expansion of the idea of Cod s "counsel or plan, regarding it, as an intelligent prearrangement , the idea of foreknowledge being assimilated to that of foreordination. The same idea is found in 1 Pet 1 20. Here the apostle speaks of Christ as a lamb "foreordained" by Cod before the foundation of the world. The Cr vb. proegndsm&nou, meaning lit. "foreknown" (as in RV) is translation d "foreordained" in AV. It is evidently Cod s foreordination of Jesus as Saviour which Peter has in mind. Also in 1 Pet 1 2 those to whom the apostle is writing are characterized as "elect according to the foreknowledge [prognosis] of Cod," where the election is based on the "fore knowledge." By the prognosis or foreknowledge, however, far more is meant than prescience. It has the idea of a purpose which determines the course of the Divine procedure. If it meant simply prevision of faith or love or any quality in the ob jects of the election, Peter would not only flatly contradict Paul (Rom 9 11; Eph 1 3.4; 2 Timothy 1 9); but also such a rendering would conflict with the context of this passage, because the objects of election are chosen "unto obedience and sprinkling of the blood of .... Christ," so that their new obedience and relation to Christ are determined by their election by Cod, which election springs from a "foreknowledge" which therefore cannot mean a mere prescience.

      In view of the fact that there was a classical use of the simple vb. gintiskein in the sense of "resolve," and more esp. of the fact that this word is used in the NT to denote an affectionate or loving regard or approbation in accord ance with a common use of the Hob yaillia (Matthew 7 23; 1 Corinthians 83; Gal 4 9; 2 Timothy 2 l .), there is nothing arbitrary in giving it this sense when compounded with the preposition pro when the context clearly demands it, as it does in the above passage (cf Johnstone, Comm. on Pet in loc.; PIT contra Meyer on passages in Acts and

      Rom). The word timi/nox/H is, however, discriminated from "predestination." It is that loving regard in God from which the Divine election springs, which election Peter evidently regarded as sovereign, since sanetifi- cation is only a confirmation of it (2 Pet 1 10), and stumbling and disobedience are referred to appoint ment to unbelief (1 Pet 2 Samuel). Here, then, we have a pregnant use of foreknowledge in which it is assimilated to the idea of purpose, and denotes a sovereign and loving regard.

      Tlu 1 word iirnij^iijuiK is also found in this sense? in the writings of Paul, in cases where it is manifestly impossible to regard it as a mere intellectual foresight, not only because of Paul s doctrine that election is absolutely sovereign (Kph 1 3.4; Rom 9 11; 2 Timothy 1 9), but, also because of the contexts in which the term occurs.

      In Rom 8 29.30 the word "foreknow" occurs in immediate connection with Cod s predestination of the objects of salvation. Those whom Cod fore knew, He also did predestinate to be conformed to the image of Ilis son. Now the foreknowledge in this case cannot mean a mere prescience or fore sight of faith (Meyer, Godet) or love (Weiss) in the subjects of salvation, which faith or love is sup posed to determine the Divine predestination. This would not only contradict Paul s view of the absolutely sovereign and gracious character of elec tion, but is diametrically opposed to the context of this passage. These verses form a part of the en couragement which Paul offers his readers for their troubles, including their own inward weakness. The apostle tells them that they may be sure that all things work together for good to them that love Cod; and these are defined as being those whom Cod has called in accordance with His purpose. Their love to Cod is evidently their love as Chris tians, and is then-suit of ;i -calling which itself follows from an eternal purpose, so that their Christian love is simply the means by which they may know 1 hat they have been the subjects of this call. They have not come within the sphere of Cod s love bv their own choice, but have been "called" into this relationship by Cod, and that in accordance with an eternal purpose on His part.

      What follows, therefore, must have as its motive simply to unfold and ground this assurance of salvation by trac ing it all back to the "foreknowledge" of Cod. To regard this foreknowledge as contingent upon anything in man would thus be in Hat contradiction with the entire context of the passage as well as its motive. The word "foreknowledge" here evidently has the pregnant sense which we found it to have in Peter. Hence those whom (iod predestinates, calls, justifies and glorifies are just those whom He has looked upon with His sovereign love. To assign any other meaning to "foreknowledge" here would be out of accord with the usage of the term else where in the NT when it is put in connection with pre destination, and would contradict the purpose for which Paul introduces the passage, that is, to assure his readers that their ultimate salvation depends, not on their weak ness, but on God s sovereign love and grace and power.

      It is equally impossible to give the word prognosis any other sense in the other passage where Patd uses it. In Rom 11 2, speaking of the Jews, Paul says that "God did not cast off his people which he foreknew." It is quite impossible to regard this as meaning that Cod had a foresight or mere pre vision of some quality in Israel which determined His choice of them, not only because it is the teach ing of the entire Scripture that God s choice of Israel was sovereign and gracious, and not only because of the actual history of Israel, but also because of the context. Paul says that it would be absurd to suppose that God had cast off His people because He foreknew them, His foreknowledge of them being adduced as a ground for His not casting them off. Hence the argument would have no force if anything in Israel, foreseen by God, were sup posed to ground an assurance that He had not cast them off, because the context is full of the hardness of heart and unbelief of Israel. The foreknowledge here has evidently the same sense as in the former passage.




      Annotated by NewtonStein, Cambridge Theological Seminary

      Foreknow Foreskin

      Foreknowledge, therefore, in the NT is more than mere prescience. It is practically identical with the Divine decree in two instances, and in the other places where the term occurs it denotes the sov ereign loving regard out of which springs God s predestination or election of men to salvation. Sec OMNISCIENCE; PREDESTINATION.

      LITERATURE. Besides the Comras. on the appropriate passages, esp. those on Isaiah, see Dillnuuin, Ilandbuch d. alttcxl. Theol., 249-52; H. Schultz, Alttcxt. Theol., 417, 421; H. Cremer, Die chrixtliclit I.i-hre run dm Eiucn- srhaften Gnttr*, Beitrai/e zitr Fiirderumi chrixtl. Theol., I, 1)3-101 ; Stewart, art. " Foreknowledge," 11 DH. 1 I, 51-53. Considerable Bib. as well as historical material will be found in works on systematic theology, such as Bohl, Doymatik, 54-59; Bavinck, Gereformeerde Dogmatik*. 1, 1S2-95. For a history of the discussion of the problem of foreknowledge and freedom see.). M tiller, Die rlirixtl. Lrhre mn, <hr Siindc, 2I, 2, 2. See also literature under OMNISCIENCE.

      On the relation of foreknowledge and foreordination, and the meaning of proynoxix, see Kings. Miiller, Die yiittlichc Zitrorxehung und Erwdhlung, 37 f, SI f; IMleiderer, I nuli- nismus*, 268f; Urchristentum, 2S .; Gennrich, Stitdii-n znr J dulini/schen 1/eilxordituny, Samuel. A ., 1S9S, 377 f; and on the meaning of Trpoyiroxricni in Horn 8 29 see esp. pp. 3S2-95; also Cromer, liilil.-th, <>l. ‘ i>rterb., 2(i3-(i5; Beyschlag, Neutcxt. Th<,L, 2, 10 .); 15. Weiss, liin. Thtol. of ‘T, ET, I, 205 f; 2, (i; 2. llolt/.mann, L,ln-buch d. neutest. Theol., 2, 105 f; B. B. Warfield, art. "Pre destination." HDB, IV, 52 57. See also discussions of the meaning of TrpoyuWKm in the Comms. on 1 Pet and Horn. esp. Fritzsche on Horn 8 2 .), and Johnstone on 1 Pet 1 2. See also literature under PREDESTINATION. CASPAR WISTAR HODCK

      FOREORDAIN, for-m-dan , FOREORDINA TION, for-or-di-nti shun : The word "foreordain" is uniformly used in RV to render the (!r Trpoopifa, prtitirizo, in the passages where this vh. occurs (Acts 4 2s; Rom 8 29.30; 1 Corinthians 2 7; Eph 1 5.11). In the passages in Rom and Eph it takes the place of the AV word "predestinate," a return to the usage of the older Eng. VSS. The word has simply the sense of determining beforehand. It is thus kindred in meaning with a number of oilier NT words ex pressing the idea of Divine purpose, as "foreknow" (in pregnant sense, Acts 2 23; Rom 8 2(, etc); "determine" (Acts 17 20); "appoint " (1 Pet 2 8). Foreordination, in the widest sense, is coextensive with the sphere of Cod s universal providence, being but another name for that Divine plan, purpose or counsel which embraces all things, great and small (Matthew 10 29.30), that happen in Nature, or fall out. in human life. Man s free actions are not regarded in Scripture as excluded from it (Acts 2 2s i. Foreordination, at the same time, is not to be con ceived of as in any way overriding, or doing vio lence to, human freedom. Alan acts freely, as Nature acts necessarily, but it is Cod who appoints the time, place and circumstances of the free act, permits, its happening, and overrules it and its issues for the furthering of His own wise and holy ends. See PROVIDENCE. Foreordination in the sphere of grace has respect to the choice, calling and blessing of those who, through faith, are made partakers of eternal life (Rom 8 29.30; Eph 1 5.11). In this, its soteriological aspect, the subject is considered in special articles. See CHOOSE; ELECTION; PREDESTINATION. JAMES ORR

      FOREPART, for part: The translation of C^Samuel , panim, "face" (Exodus 28 27; 39 20; 1 Kings 6 20, RV "within"; Ezekiel 42 7, RV "before"), and of irpupa, prora, the forward part of a ship, the prow (Acts 27 41, "the forepart stuck fast," RV "the foreship struck").

      ARV has "its forepart into" for "with his face towards" (Joel 2 20 m "with its forepart") ; "in the forepart, thereof" for "before it" (Kx 28 25; 39 IS).

      FORERUNNER, for-run er (irp65po|jios, j>r6- drutnoa): This word occurs but once in the Bible: "Whither as a forerunner Jesus entered for us"

      (He 6 20). The word signifies one who comes in advance to a place where the rest are to follow, or one who is sent on before as a scout to take obser vations. In this sense Christ, is our forerunner for He has gone into heaven to prepare a place for His people into which He will eventually lead them. The idea of a forerunner is peculiar to the Christian dispensation. The OT Levitical economy knew nothing of such. The high priest was a represent ative, not a forerunner: where he led, viz. into the Holy of Holies, the people could not follow. He- was not the pioneer of the people; Christ is. Christ goes nowhere but where His people may follow. He is the filr-hmhr (cf He 12 2, "the author .... of faith"). He goeth before 1 His people to prepare the way for them, to open the gates of heaven by His atoning blood and priestly intercession. The believer is led into full fellow ship with God through Jesus Christ. See also JOHN THE BAPTIST; RINNEH. WILLIAM EVANS

      FORESAIL, fdr sal, for s l (Acts 27 40). See SHIPS AND BOATS.

      FORESHIP, for ship (Acts 27 30). See FORE PART; SHIPS AND BOATS.

      FORESKIN, for skin (n" , V’; dtKpo(3tj<rTa, akrobustia, often euphemistically translation d "uncircum- cision"):

      (1) In the literal sense the word is frequently mentioned owing to the rite of circumcision in vogue in Israel since the days of Abraham (Cen 17 9-14) and among several other peoples of antiquity and modern times. The act of circumcision is represent ed in the temple of Khonsu, a medical deity, at Kar- nak. Among the Jews of antiquity circumcision had to be performed by means of a flint or etone knife (Exodus 4 25; Joshua 6 2.3) on the eighth dav after birth (Cen 17 12; 21 4; Leviticus 12 3; Luke 2 21; Phil 3 5), even if this day was the Sabbath (John 7 23).

      Very early we find the practice one of which the descendants of Abraham became proud (Cen 34 14), so that we see the uncircumcised despised and scorned (1 Samuel 17 20), and in the time of oppression under King Antiochus Epiphanes many Israelites suffered martyrdom rather than give up the dis tinctive sign of their people (1 Mace 1 4S.00.01; 2 Mace 6 10). Among the Arabs and all Mo hammedans the custom of circumcision prevails from pre-Islamic times, for it is nowhere ordered in the Koran, and the appellation "uncircumcised" (oiJlfr, gholff) is considered the greatest possible insult.

      A peculiar martial custom is mentioned in 1 Samuel 18 25. 27 (cf 2 Samuel 3 14), when: Saul is represented as asking "a hundred foreskins of the, Philis" as a dowry from David for the hand of Michal. This does not seem to have been an exceptional booty in war, esp. if it meant that no very careful operation was expected to bo per formed, but the act became practically equivalent to extermination. We find in Egyp history at the time of Ramses 111, that an invasion into Egypt had been made by several Libyan tribes (see Dumichen, Hixtor. Inxchr., I. plates I- VI, and 11, plates 47 n). The Egyp army sent against the invaders defeated them and returned with a large number of kamatha which is a transcription into hieroglyphics of the Semitic (of Shem, Shemites, Jewish) word, m*lp. " not It, the word being used euphemistically as is proven by the accom panying determinative sign of a phallus. See Chabas, Ktmti s sur I antiquite historique d aprex li-x sources eyi/p- lii nnes, etc, 234; Bondi, Hebr.-Phoen. Lehuworte, im Eyjjp- tischi ii, Leipzig, 1880, 72-74.

      (2) Metaphorically the word i.s used in a variety of ways: (</) In the sense of "unlawful," "forbid den as food," "taboo." The fruit of newly planted trees was not to be eaten (Leviticus 19 23-25). (b) In the sense of "obstinacy," "opposition to Cod s law." The rite of circumcision meant submission





      under the la’v. While an outward form could not be identical with an inward attitude toward God, the use of the word "circumcision" was soon ex tended to that of purity and obedience of the heart (Deuteronomy 10 10; 30 0; and Col 2 11, where this cir cumcision is culled a "circumcision not made with hands, .... the circumcision of Christ"). The uselessness of outward circumcision, which does not include obedience and purity, is shown by St. Paul (Rom 2 25; 1 Corinthians 7 IS; cf Acts 7 51). (c) In the sense of "Gentiles," "non-Israelites" (Gal 2 7; Eph 2 11; Col 3 11). Samuel; e CIRCUMCISION; CON CISION. 2. L. E. LUKRINC;

      FOREST, for est :

      (1) TZJin, horcsfi (cf proper name Htiroshcth), 2 Chronicles 27 4. In 1 Samuel 23 15ff translation 1 "wood"; in Isaiah 17 9, "wood"; in Ezekiel 31 3, "forest-like shade." Applied to any thick growth of vegetation but not necessarily so extensive as (3).

      (2) OTli, pnr<l<~ *: Neh 2 Samuel, m "park"; Eccl 2 5, AV "orchards," RV "parks"; Cant 4 13, EY "orchard," RVm "paradise." A word of Pers origin signifying probably an inclosure. Sec PAHADISK.

      (3) ~^1, ‘" " % from root meaning "rugged"; cf Arab. iwt*r, "a rugged, stony region." It is sometimes rendered "forest" and sometimes (but less often in RV) "wood." It is used of certain defi nite wooded tracts: "the forest in Arabia" (Isaiah 21 13, m "thickets"); "the forest of Carmel" (2 Kings 19 23 AV, RV "of his fruitful field"}; "the forest of Hereth" (1 Samuel 22 ." ; "the, forest of Lebanon" (1 Kings 7 2f; 10 17-21; 2 Chronicles 9 10-20); "the forest of Ephruim," E. of the Jordan (2 Samuel 18 0.8.17). The word i/<i*ar appears also in well-known Kiriath- jearim, "the city of forests," and Matthew. Jearim (Joshua 15 10). Among numerous other references the fol lowing may be cited: Deuteronomy 19 5; Joshua 17 15. IS;

      1 Chronicles 16 33; 2 Kings 2 24; P* 80 13; 83 14; 96 12; 132 (i; Eccl 2 0; Cant 2 3; 1 Samuel 7 2; 14 25.20; Jeremiah 4 20; 46 23; E/k 34 29; Mir 3 12; 714.

      (4) TfQO i .fbhitkh, from root meaning "to inter weave." "A "thicket" (Genesis 22 13; Jeremiah 4 7); "thicket of trees" (Psalm 74 5); "thickets of the forest " (Isaiah 9 IS; 10 34).

      (5) a^y, *ahhlm, "thicket" (Jeremiah 4 29).

      From many references it is evident that Pal hud in OT times much more extensive forests and wood lands than today. For a discussion of the subject, see BOTANY. E. W. G. MASTKRMAN


      FORETELL, for-tel , FORETOLD, ior-tdld : The AV occurrences of these words in the NT repre sent us many Gr terms, and are in each case rendered differently in RV: (1) Mark 13 23 (irpoelirov, proci- pon), RV "told beforehand"; (2) Acts 3 24^ (irpo- KaTayy<l’u, prokataggello) , RV simply "told"; (3)

      2 Corinthians 13 2 (ir/ooX^yw, prolego), RV "said before hand," m "plainly"; cf 1 Thessalonians 3 4. The fore telling of future events is claimed in the OT as a prerogative of Jeh (Isaiah 41 22.23; 42 9, etc; cf Deuteronomy 18 22). See PROPHECY.

      FORFEIT, for fit (3"]n , humm): "Forfeit" (from forisfacere, "to act beyond") implies loss through transgression or non-observance of some law or rule. The word occurs only once as the translation of ha- ra/n, "to shut in," frequently to devote or conse crate a person or thing to God beyond redemption (cf Leviticus 27 2S.29; Micah 4 13; E/r 10 8, "That

      whosoever came not within three days all

      his substance should lie forfeited, and himself sepa rated from the assembly of the captivity," AVm, ARVm and RV "devoted"; cf 1 Esd 9~4, "Their cattle should be seized to the use of the temple"

      [anicruo, "to consecrate," "devote"]; 6 32, "all his goods seized for the king" [td hupdrchonta autou cinai (cis) basilikd}).

      RV has "forfeited" (kddhcsh, "consecrated," "devoted") for "denied" (Deuteronomy 22 9), m "Hebrews con- secrated"; "forfeit his life 1 " for "lose his own soul" (pxiichf-) (Matthew 16 20; Mark 8 30); "lose or for feit his own self" for "lose himself or be cast away" (Luke 9 25, heauion <lc apolesas t zemiothcis; zc- mioo is the LXX for *dn<ttsh, "to be mulcted," or "fined," Exodus 21 22; Deuteronomy 22 19; Prov 17 20 m; 19 19; 21 11; 22 3); Weymouth renders Luke 9 25, "to have lost or forfeited his own self" (or "had to pay his own self his own existence as a fine"j; in the other instance s of zciniod (1 Corinthians 3 15; Phil 3 8), AV and RV render "suffer loss," "suffered . . . . loss"; 2 Corinthians 7 9 AV, "receive damage,"

      W. L. WALKER

      FORGE, fdrj, FORGER, for jer (b?-J , laphal): "Forgers of lies" occurs in Job s reply to his com forters (13 4; cf 14 17); the word is the translation of triphal, "to patch," "lay on," "besmear," hence to impute, overcharge, etc; in Psalm 119 09, "forged" occurs with a similar meaning: "The proud have forged a lie against me" (cf Sir 51 2). "Forger," in the sense 1 of "one who forges, makes, anything," is t he RV rendering of Idtash, "to smite," or "hammer," in Genesis 4 22 AV: "Tubal-cuin, an instructor of every artificer in brass and iron," RV "the forger of every cutting instrument of brass and iron," m "an instructor of every artificer of copper and iron."

      W. L. WALKER

      FORGET, for-get , FORGETFUL, for-get ful (71ZT1J, shdkhdh; 7ri’av9dvo[xai, epilanthdnomai) . "Forget" is to fail to hold in mind, and the forget- fulness may be either innocent or blameworthy. In the OT the word is most frequently used as translation of shakhah in a blameworthy sense: to forget the covenant, the law, Jeh their God (Deuteronomy 4 9.23.31; 6 12; Judges 37; IS 12 9; Psalm 44 20, etc). In an innocent or neutral, sometimes good, sense it is used in Genesis 27 45; Deuteronomy 24 19; Job 9 27; 11 10; 24 20; Psalm 102 4, etc. It is also used of God forget ting or not seeming to care (Psalm 9 12; 10 11.12; 13 1; 42 9; 77 9; Isaiah 49 15, etc). To "forget" some times means to forsake (Psalm 45 10; 74 19, etc).

      In the NT epilanthanomai is used of simple for getting (Matthew 16 5; Mark 8 14, etc; in Luke 12 the sense 1 of cure is implied); Phil 3 13, "forgetting the things which are behind," has the force of leav ing behind. "Forgetful" in Jas 1 25 is epilesmonf, RV "a hearer that forgetteth." "Forgetfulness" Psalm 88 12, "the land of forgetfulness," is a syno- nvm for Sheol, where all forget and are forgotten. HY has "forget not" for "be ignorant of" (2" Pet 3 8; similarly ver 5). W. L. WALKER

      FORGIVENESS, for-giv nes (1S

      charizesthai, a<j>6<riS) dphesis, irdpto-is, paresis) .

      1. Etymology

      2. Pagan and Jewish Ideus

      :!. The Teaching of Christ

      4. Conditions of Forgiveness

      5. The Offended Party

      (i. Divine and Human Forgiveness

      7. Forgiveness and Justification

      8. OT Teaching

      9. Limitations of Forgiveness

      10. Christ s Power to Forgive Sins

      11. The Need of an Atonement

      12. The NT Doctrine of Atonement

      Of the seven words, three Hebrews and four Gr, which are used to express the idea of forgiveness, the last two occur in this sense only once each. 1. Ety- Apolucin (Luke 6 37) is used because

      mology of the analogy of sin to debt, and de

      notes the release from it. It has the meaning "forgiveness" in 2 Mace 12 45 also, in




      Annotated by NewtonStein, Cambridge Theological Seminary

      Forest Forgiveness

      which passage the word for sin is expressed, In Rom 3 25 Paul uses paresis instead of the usual aphesis. The former means "putting aside," "dis regarding," "pretermission"; the latter, "putting away" completely and unreservedly (Trench, Synonyms of the NT, xxxiii). It does not mean forgiveness in the complete sense, and in AV is in correctly translation d "remission." Nor does it mean that God had temporarily suspended punishment which at some later date He might inflict (Sanday on Rom 3 25). It was apparent that God had treated sins as though He had forgiven them, though in fact such an attitude on the part of God was without such a foundation as was later supplied by an adequate atonement, and so the apostle avoids saying that God forgave them. This passing over of"sins had the tendency of desl roving man s con cept ion of God s righteousness, and in order to avert this Christ was set forth as a propitiation and God s disregard of sin (paresis) became a real forgiveness (iplu xis); cf Acts 14 10; 17 30. Charizesthai is not found outside of the writings of Luke and Paul, and in the sense "to forgive sins " is peculiarly Paul ine (2 Corinthians 2 7; 12 13; Eph 4 32; Col 2 13; 3 13). It expresses, as no other of these words does, his conception of the graciousness of God s pardon. Kaphar (Deuteronomy 21 Samuel; Psalm 78 3S; Jeremiah 18 23) and salat, (Numbers 30 5.Samuel.12; 1 Kings 8 ,). 50, etc) arc used only of Divine forgiveness, while inlxa is used in this sense (Exodus 32 32; Numbers 14 10; Joshua 24 It); Psalm 25 IS; 32 1.5; 99 Samuel; _Isaiah 2 9), and also of human forgiveness (Genesis 50 17; Exodus 10 17- 1 Samuel 25 28). Remission (Matthew 26 2S; Mark 1 4; Luke 1 77; 24 47; Acts 2 3S; 10 43; He 9 22; 10 IS) and blotting out (Psalm 51 1.9; Isaiah 43 25; Jeremiah 18 23; Acts 3 19) are synonyms of forgive ness, and to understand it fully such words as save, justify, reconcile and atonement should also be considered.

      Forgiveness was not a pagan virtue. The large- souled man might disregard offences in cases where he considered them beneath his notice, 2. Pagan but to forgive was weak-spirited and Jewish (Kings. W. Robertson on 1 Corinthians 4 12). Ideas Even in the OT, man s forgiveness of

      his fellow-man is infrequently men tioned. In every case the one asking forgiveness is in a position of subserviency, and is petitioning for that to which he has no just right (Genesis 50 17; Fix 10 17; 1 Samuel 15 25; 25 2S). The Imprecatory Psalms alteM the fact that forgiveness of enemies was not esteemed as a virtue by Israel. They could appeal to the law which enjoined upon them to seek neither the peace nor the prosperity of their avowed enemies (Deuteronomy 23 0; cf E/r 9 12). Jesus gave the popular summing-up of the law and not its exact words when he said, "Ye have heard that it was said .... hate thine enemy" (Matthew 5 43), and this certainly docs represent their attitude and their understanding of the teaching of the Scriptures.

      Christ taught that forgiveness is a duty. No limit can be set to the extent of forgiveness (Luke 17 4) and it must be granted without re- 3. The serve. Jesus will not admit that there

      Teaching is any wrong so gross nor so often of Christ repeated that it is beyond forgiveness. To Him an unforgiving spirit is one of the most heinous of sins (Bruce, Parabolic Tuich- in<j, 370 ff). This is the offence which God will not forgive (Matthew 18 34.35). It is the very essence of the unpardonable sin (Mark 3 22-30). It was the one blemish of the elder son which marred an other wise irreproachable life (Luke 15 28-30). This nat ural, pagan spirit of implacability Jesus sought to displace by a generous, forgiving spirit. It is so far . the essence of His teaching that in popular language ‘

      "a Christian spirit" is not inappropriately under stood to be synonymous with a forgiving disposition. His answer to Peter that one should forgive not merely seven time s in a day, but seventy times seven (Matthew 18 21. 22), not only shows that He thought of no limit to one s forgiveness, but that the prin ciple could not be reduced to a definite formula.

      Jesus recognized that there are conditions to be fulfilled before forgiveness can be granted. For giveness is part of a mutual relation-

      4. Condi- ship; the other part is the repentance tions of of the offender. God does not forgive Forgiveness without, repentance, nor is it required

      of man. The effect of forgiveness is to restore to its former state the relationship which was broken by sin. Such a restoration requires the cooperation of both parties. There must be both a granting and an acceptance of the forgive ness. Sincere, deep-felt sorrow for the wrong which works repentance (2 Corinthians 7 10) is the condition of mind which insures the acceptance of the forgive ness. Hence Jesus commands forgiveness when the offender turns again, saying, T repent" (Luke 17 3.4). It was this state of mind which led the father joyfully to welcome the Prodigal before he even gave utterance to his newly formed purpose (15 21). It is not to be supposed, however, that failure to repent upon the part of the offender releases the offended from all obligation to extend

      5. The forgiveness, ‘ithout the repentance Offended of the one who has wronged him he can Party have a forgiving state of mind. This

      Jesus requires, as is implied by, "if ye forgive not every one his brother from your hearts" (Matthew 18 35). It is also implied by the past tense in the Lord s Prayer: "as we also have forgiven our debtors" (6 12). It is this forgiving spirit which conditions God s forgiveness of our sins (Mark 11 25; Matthew 6 14.15). In such a case the unforgiving spirit is essentially unrepentance (Matthew 18 23-35). "Of all acts, is not, for a man, repentance the most, Divine?" The offended is to go even farther and is to seek to bring the wrongdoer to repentance. This is the purpose of the rebuking commanded in Luke 17 3. More explicitly Jesus says, "If thy brother sin against thee, go, show him his fault between thee and him alone" (Matthew 18 15 17). He is to carry his pursuit to the point of making every reasonable effort to win the wrongdoer, and only when he has exhausted every effort m:iy lie abandon it. The object is the gaining of his brother. Only when this is evidently unattainable is all effort to cease.

      The power of binding and loosing, which means for bidding and allowing, was granted to Peter (16 ! .) and to the Christian community (18 IN; John 20 2H). It clearly implies the possession of the power to forgive sins. In the case of Peter s power it was exercised when he used the keys of the kingdom of heaven (Matthew 16 19). This consisted in the proclamation of the gospel and esp. of the conditions upon which men might enter into rela tionship with God (Acts 2 3.Samuel; 10 :i4 IT). It was not limited to Peter only, but was shared by the other apostles (Matthew 16 10; 18 18). Christ left no fixed rules the ob servance or non-observance of which would determine whether one is or is not in the kingdom of (!od. He gave to His disciples principles, and in the application of these principles to the problems of life there had to be the exercise of discriminating judgment. The exercise of this judgment was left to the Christian community (2 Corinthians 2 10). It is limited by the principles which are the basis of the kingdom, but within these principles the voice of the community is supreme. The forgiveness here implied is not the pronouncing of absolution for the sins of individuals, but the determination of courses of conduct and worship which will be acceptable. In doing this its decisions will be ratified in heaven (Westcott on John 20 23).

      That there is a close analogy between human and Divine forgiveness is clearly implied (Matthew 5 23.24; 612; Mark 11 25; Luke 6 37; Col 1 14; 313). God s forgiveness is conditional upon man s forgive ness of the wrongs done him, not because God for-

      Forgiveness Forgo



      Annotated by NewtonStein, Cambridge Theological Seminary


      gives grudgingly but because; forgiveness alone in dicates that disposition of mind which will humbly

      accept the Divine pardon. Repentance 6. Divine is a necessary ingredient of the fully and Human developed forgiveness. There is no Forgiveness essential difference between the human

      and the Divine pardon, though the latter is necessarily more complete. It results in the complete removal of all estrangement and aliena tion between (Jod and man. It restores completely the relationship which exist ed prior to t he sin. The total removal of the sin as a result of the Divine forgiveness is variously expressed in the Scriptures: "Thou hast cast all my sins behind thy back" (Isaiah 38 17) ; "Thou wilt, cast all their sins into the depths of the sea" (Micah 7 19); "I will forgive their iniquity, and their sin will I remember no more" (Jeremiah 31 34) ; "I, oven I, am he that blotteth out thy transgres sions" (Isaiah 43 2f>); "As far as the east is from the west, so far hath he removed our transgressions from us" (Psalm 103 12). Ideally this same result is attained in human forgiveness, but actually the memory of the sin remains with both parties as a barrier between them, and oven when there is a complete restoration of amity the former state of alienation cannot entirely be removed from memory. ‘hon (Jod forgives, however, He restores man to the condition of former favor. Release from pun ishment is involved, though Divine forgiveness is more than this. In most cases the consequences, which in some; instances are spoken of as punish ment, are not removed, but they lose all penal char acter and become disciplinary. Nor does the for giveness remove 1 from human mind the conscious ness of sin and the guilt which that involved, but it does remove the mistrust, which was the ground of the alienation. Mistrust is changed into trust, and this produces peace of mind (Psalm 32 5-7; Rom 6 1); consciousness of the Divine love and mercy (Psalm 103 2ff); removes fear of punishment (2 Samuel 12 13) ; and awakens love to God.

      Paul rarely uses the term "forgiveness," but in its place prefers justification. They are to his

      understanding practically synonymous 7. Forgive- (Stevens, Thi-olixjtj of the NT, 418). ness and He preferred the latter, however, he- Justification cause it was bolter fit tod to express the

      idea of secure, present and permanent acceptance in the sight of Cod. It connoted both a complete and a permanent state of grace. In popular thought forgiveness is not so comprehen sive, but in the Bib. sense it means no less than t his. It removes all of the guilt and cause of alienation from the past; it assures a state of grace for the present; and promises Divine mercy and aid for the future. Its fulness cannot adequately be con veyed by any one term or formula.

      Divine, like human, forgiveness is always contingent upon the fulfilment of conditions. It must he preceded by repentance and a firmly fixed intention not to repeat the offence. In addition to this, one was required to conform to certain legal or formal acts before the assur ance of pardon was his. These acts were expressive of the sinner s state of mind. They consisted of certain acts of sacrifice in the pre-Christian times and of baptism during the ministry of John the Baptist (Mark 1 4; Luke 3 3) and under Christ (Acts 2 3S; 22 Kings>). These acts are never regarded as in any sense a quid pro quo in return for which the benefit of forgiveness is granted. It is an act of pure grace on Clod s part, and these acts are re quired as expressions of the man s attitude toward Clod. The state of mind required in order to obtain the gift of forgiveness is that to which the, Prodigal Son came (Luke 15 17-19), and that of the sinner who went to his house justified rather than the Pharisee (18 9-11), because lie realized that forgiveness was to him an act of pure favor.

      There was real and actual forgiveness of sins in the ()T times as well as since Christ. Certain pas sages have been construed to teach that the Law- provided only for a passing over or rolling back of sins, and that there was not then an actual for

      giveness. The sacrifices proscribed by the Law- were not adequate atonements, so that there was constant necessity of yearly remem-

      8. OT brance of sin (He 10 3; cf Leviticus 16 Teaching 21). The atonement of Christ is, how ever, of permanent adequacy, and be came retroactive in the sense that it unified in Christ the Divine arrangement for saving mankind in all ages (He 11 40). "The passing over of the sins done aforetime" (Rom 3 25) does not imply a partial or apparent forgiveness, but moans that they were forgiven, though seemingly without adequate recognition on the part of Clod of their heinous char acter. In view of God s righteous character men might naturally have expected punishment, but instead the off enders were spared (cf Acts 14 16; 17 30). No expression in thoOT suggests any inade quacy of the forgiveness extended to Israel, but on the other hand many passages may be quoted to show how rich and full it was doomed to be (Pss 32, 103; Micah 7 1< Isaiah 38 17, Jeremiah 31 34).

      Two passages seem to limit God s forgiveness.

      They are Christ s discussion of the unpardonable

      sin (Matthew 12 31.32; Mark 3 2S-30; Ll<

      9. Limita- 12 10), and the one which men tions of tions the sin unto death (1 John 6 1(> Forgiveness cf He 6 4-6). In the former passage

      there; is mentioned a sin which has no forgiveness, and in t he lat t or, one on behalf of which the apostle cannot enjoin prayer that it be forgiven, though ho does not prohibit it. In both cases the sin is excluded from the customary forgiveness which is extended to sins of all other classes.

      The act of the Pharisees which led Jesus to speak of the unpardonable sin was the attributing of a good deed wrought by Him through the Spirit of God (Matthew 12 2*i to Mcel/obub. No one could do such a tiling unless his moral nature was completely warped. To such a person the, fundamental distinctions between good and evil were obliterated, No ordinary appeal could reach him, for to him good seemed evil and evil seemed good. The possibility of winning him back is practically gone; hence he is beyond the hope of forgiveness, not because God lias set an arbitrary line of siufuluess. beyond which His grace of forgiveness will not reach, but because the man has [>ut himself beyond the possibility of attaining to that state of mind which is the essential condition of Divine forgiveness. It is practically certain that John did not have any particular sinful act in mind when he spoke of the sin which is unto death. See BLASPHEMY.

      There is no possible way of determining what specific sin, if any, he refers to. Probably the same principle applies in this case as in that of the un pardonable sin. God s forgiveness is limited solely by the condition that man must accept it in the proper spirit.

      There are some passages which seem to imply that forgiveness was the principal Messianic task. This is suggested by the name given to the Messiah during His earthly career (Matthew 1 21), and by the fact that He was the Saviour. The remission of sins was the preparation for the advent of the- Mes siah (Luke 1 77), and repentance and remission of sins were the prerequisites to a state of preparation for the kingdom.

      It is not surprising, therefore, that we find Jesus laying claim to the power to forgive sins. This provoked a, bitter controversy with 10. Christ s the Jews, for it was axiomatic with Power to thorn that no one could forgive sins but Forgive God only (Mark 27; Luke 5 21; 7 49). Sins This Jesus did not question, but He

      would have them infer from His power to forgive sins that He was the possessor of Divine power. Jesus asserted His possession of this power on two occasions only, though it has boon insuffi ciently inferred from John 6 14; 8 11 that He was accustomed to pronounce absolution upon all of those Ho healed. On one of these occasions He not merely asserted that He possessed the power, but




      Annotated by NewtonStein, Cambridge Theological Seminary

      Forgiveness Forgo

      demonstrated it by showing Himself to be the pos sessor of the Divine gift of healing. The impostor might claim some such intangible power as the authority to forgive sins, but he would never assert the possession of such easily disproved power as the ability to heal the sick. But Jesus claimed both, and based His claim to be the possessor of the former on the demonstration that He possessed the latter. God would not support an impostor, hence his aid in healing the paralytic proved that Jesus could forgive sins. The multitude accepted this logic and "glorified God, who had given such authority unto men" (Matthew 9 2-9; cf Mark 2 3-12; Luke 6 18-26).

      On the other occasion when His possession of this power was under discussion (Luke 7 36-50), He offered no other proof than the forgiven woman s deep gratitude and love. One expression that He uses, however, has raised some discussion as to the relative order in time of her love and forgiveness (ver 47). Did she love because she was forgiven, or vice versa? Manifestly the for giveness precedes the love, in spite of the fact that ver 47 seems to assert the opposite, for this is the bearing of the parable of the Two Debtors (ys 41-43), and the latter part of ver 47 has the same implication. It is clear that she had previously repented and had been accepted, and the anointing of Jesus was an outpouring of her grati tude. The phrase of ver 47, "for she lored much," is proof of the greatness of her sin rather than a reason why she was forgiven. In both cases where Jesus for gave sins, He did so because the state of mind of the person forgiven showed worthiness of the blessing. To this as a condition of forgiveness there is no exception. Christ s prayer on the cross (Luke 23 34) would not avail to secure the pardon of His murderers without their repentance.

      Though forgiveness is on God s part an act of

      pure grace prompted by His love and mercy, and

      though He forgives freely all those

      11. The who comply with the condition of re- Need of an pentance and abandonment of sin, Atonement yet this does not dispense with the

      necessity of an atonement. The par able of the Prodigal Son was spoken to teach the free dom of God s forgiveness and acceptance of return ing sinners, and the duty of men to assume the same attitude toward them. This much it teaches, but it fails to set forth entirely God s attitude toward sin. With reference to the sinner God is love and mercy, but with reference to sin He is righteous, and this element of God s nature is no less essential to Him than His love, and must be considered in any effort to set forth completely the doctrine of God s forgiveness of sinners. The atonement of Christ and the many atonements of the Law were mani festations of this phase of God s nature.

      The idea of an atonement is fundamental in the teachings of the NT (Rom 5 10; 2 Corinthians 5 18-21;

      Col 1 21). It is very clearly implied

      12. The NT in such terms as reconciliation and Doctrine of propitiation, and is no less present in Atonement pardon, remission and forgiveness.

      The doctrine of the atonement is not developed by Jesus, but it is strongly hinted at and is unmistakably implied in the language of Matthew 20 28; 26 28; Mark 10 45; Luke 24 46.47. John the Baptist s salute, "Behold, the Lamb of God, that taketh away the sin of the world!" (John 1 29), also implies it. In the writings of the apostles it is repeatedly and clearly affirmed that our forgive ness and reconciliation to God is based upon the death of Christ. "In none other is there salvation" (Acts 4 12); through Him is the redemption (Rom 3 24) ; God set Him forth to be a propitiation (ver 25) ; through Him "we have now received the recon ciliation" (5 11); "God was in Christ reconciling the world unto himself" (2 Corinthians 5 19); "Him who knew no sin he made to be sin on our behalf" (ver 21); and "Christ redeemed us from the curse of the law, having become a curse for us" (Gal 3 13). Such citations might be greatly multiplied. That

      w T hich w r as so perfectly accomplished by the offer ing of Christ was in an analagous though imper fect way accomplished by the sacrifices required by the Law. It had "a shadow of the good things to come" (He 10 1).

      The unvarying effect of sin is to produce an estrangement between the injurer and the wronged. The nature of God is such and the relationship be tween Him and man is of such a character that sin brings about an alienation between them. It is this presupposition of an estrangement between them which renders the atonement necessary before for giveness can be extended to man. This estrange ment must be removed, and the alienation be trans formed into a reconciliation. In what then does the alienation consist?

      The sin of man produces a changed attitude toward each other on the part of both God and man. God holds no personal pique against man because of his sin. The NT language is very carefully chosen to avoid any statement which would seem to convey such a conception. Yet God s holy right eousness is such that He cannot be indifferent to sin. His wrath must rest upon the disobedient (John 3 36; Rom 1 18). It is not merely imper sonal. It is not enough to say He hates the sin. Man s unrighteousness has not merely alienated him from God, but God also from him. The word "enemies" (echlhroi) of Rom 5 10 is passive, and means the object of God s enmity (Sanday, ad loc.). It was because of this fact that God set forth Christ to be a propitiation to show His righteousness because of the passing over of sins done aforetime (3 25.26). God s passing over, without inflicting punishment, the sins of pre-Christian times had placed in jeopardy His righteousness; had exposed Him to the implication that He could tolerate sin. God could not be true to Himself while He tolerated such an imputation, and so instead of visiting pun ishment upon all who sinned which would have been one way of showing His righteousness He set forth Christ to death ("in his blood"), and in this way placed Himself beyond the imputation of un righteousness while it enabled Him to show mercy to sinners. The effect of sin upon man was to es trange him from God, to lead him farther and farther away from his Maker. Each successive sin produced a greater barrier between the two. Now the atonement was designed to remove the cause of this estrangement and restore the former relationship between God and man. This too, it has been observed, is the purpose of forgiveness, so that the atonement finds its completion in forgive ness. It should be noted that the reconciliation originates with God and not with man (Rom 3 25; 2 Corinthians 6 19). God woos man before the latter seeks God. The effect of the atonement on man is to reconcile him, attract him, to God. It shows him God s love for man, and the forgiveness, in that it removes sin completely, takes away the estranging factor between them and so wins man back to God. "We love, because he first loved us." At the same time the atonement is such a complete ex pression of both the love and the righteousness of God that, while on the one hand it exhibits his yearning for man, on the other it shows that He is not tolerant toward sin. In the atonement of Christ, therefore, is the meeting-place and the recon cilement of God s holy horror of sin and the free bestowal of forgiveness upon penitent believers.


      FORGO, for-go (from for, negative, and go): Occurs in Ecclus 7 19, as translation of aarox^, astocMo, which means "to miss the mark," "turn or swerve from." "Forgo not a wise and good wife [AV "woman"]; for her grace is above gold," meaning "Turn not away from her"; in 8 9, the word is

      Fork Fortification



      rendered "miss not"; cf 1 Timothy 1 <> 6 21; 2 Timothy 2 IS.

      FORK, fork CiVil Ip irbc , sMdsh fyill shon ) : This compound ‘vord, meaning strictly "three points" or "three prongs, " is found only once (1 Samuel 13 21), and doubtless there refers to the agricultural tool now kno’vn as the pitchfork. It might, however, also he a weapon.

      FORM, form ("1?^, ‘< " , "l^J^, lo nr; |j,op4>rj, morpht) :

      (‘) ‘tforin is "to fashion," "create," "produce." In the OT it is for the most part the translation of i/ilqur, "to form," "to fashion (leu 2 7, etc, ".leh ( iod formed man of the dust of the ground," etc); also of full and till, "to l>e twist ed," "t urned round," "to bring forth [in p;iin|" (cf Isaiah 13 Samuel; Alic 4 10; Deuteronomy 32 1SAV, "(Iod that formed thee"; Job 26 1, iAV; 1 s 90 2, "or ever tlioii hadst formed tlie earth," etc; Prov 26 10 AV). In the NT we have tnor/i/ioo, "to form" (!al 4 19, "until Christ be formed in you"); plusno, "to form," "to mold" ; Horn 9 20, "him that formed it"; 1 Timothy 2 i:.i, "Adam was first formed"; 2 Mace; 7 2H, "the Creator .... who formed the generation of man," RV "fashioned"; ver 22, "that formed the mem bers [diarrhuthmizo]," RV "brouglit into order";.

      (2) Form (noun) is used for (<) appearance, march, "sight," "appearance" (.Job 4 1C>, "I could not- discern the form thereof," RV "appearance," with "form" for "image" [t inuituli’ in next sentence; ; rili in, Aram, "image" (Did 3 I .t, "The form of his visage was changed"); rcic, "form," "likeness" (2 3’; 3 2o, RV "aspect"): tour, "visage," "form" (1 Samuel 28 14, "What form is he of?"); (l>) the fixed or characteristic form of anything, tabhnlth,"Taodel," "form" (Exk 8 3; 10 Samuel, "the form of a hand"; 8 10, "every form of creeping things"); morplic, char- act erist ic form as disl inguished from schema, chang ing fashion (Phil 2 0, "in the form of C.od"; ver 7, "the form of a servant"; less distinctly, Mark 16

      12, "in another form"); (r) shape, model, pattern, mold, fi7/v7/i, "shape," from filr, "to cut or carve" (E/,k 43 11, tcr, "the form of the house," etc ; Hiix/i/Hlt, "rule" (2 Chronicles 4 7 AV); ‘>"*, "type," "impress" (Rom 6 17, R’"m "pattern"]; 2H/IO- /M/w.s/.s , "outline," pattern (2 Timothy 1 13, RV "pat tern"; iiior/ifioxix, "form," "appearance" (Rom 2 20, "the form of knowledge"); (d) orderly ar rangement, giving shape or form (flen 1 2; Jeremiah 4 23, the earth was "wit hout form," tdttu, RV "waste" ; YVisd 11 17, dtnor/>liox); "form of speech" (2 Samuel 14 20, aspect, ptliilin, "fac.e," RV "to change the face of the matter"); as giving comeliness or beauty, to ur (Ixn 52 14; 53 2, "He hath no form nor come liness"; cf Genesis 29 17; 39 (5, etc; ‘Yisd 15 .5, "desiring the form [c nlos] of a dead image," RV "the breathless form"); (r) Show, without sub stance, mnrphofitK, "form" (2 Timothy 3 5, "holding a form of godliness").

      ARV has "didst form" for "hast possessed" CPs 139

      13, so ERVm; both have "formed" for "made" (Psalm 104 20), AKV for "framed" bix (Lsa 29 10); both for "formed thee," "nave birth" (Deuteronomy 32 IS); "pierced" (Job 26 13); "woundeth" (Prov 26 H)i; "fashioned" (Isaiah 44 10); for "are formed from" (Job 26 oi, "tremble"; for "their form" (2 Chronicles 4 7), "the ordi nance concerning them"; " form" for "similitude" (Xu 12 X; in 4 12.15); for "size" (1 Kings 6 25; 7 37); for "shape" (Luke 3 22; John 5 37); "in the form" for "si militude" (Deuteronomy 4 10); for "or the like" (4 23.25); AKV "[beholding] thy form" for "thy likeness" (Psalm 17 15, EKVm); "every form" for " all appearance " (1 Thessalonians 5 22; so ERVm "appearance").

      ‘V. L. WALK I:H

      FORMER, for mer: The word in the sense of "maker," "framer," occurs only in Jeremiah 51 11), "He is the former [from yugur, "to form"] of all things." The adj., in the sense of preceding in the order of

      time, is commonly in Ileb the translation of ri shon, "first," "foremost" (Genesis 40 13; Numbers 21 2(1; Deuteronomy 24 4, etc); in Gr of prulcros (Eph 4 22; He 10 32; 1 Pet 1 14j; and in two oases (Acts 1 1; Rev 21 4) of proton, where RV has (in Acts in m) "the first." As denoting place or position the word occurs in the OT in Zee 14 8, "the former sea" as translation of kadh- utouJ, "in front," where RV lias "eastern," i.e. the Dead Sea, in contrast with the Mediterranean, or western sea (cf E/k 47 IS; Joel 2 20). For "former iniquities" (Psalm 79 <Samuel) RV has simply "the iniquities"; other changes may be seen in Numbers 6 12; Isaiah 65 7; E/k 36 1 1 ; Mie 4 Samuel; Hag 2 3.

      W. L. WALKER FORNICATION, for-ni-ka shun. See CHIMES.

      FORSWEAR, for-swar . See CRIMES.

      FORTH, forth: "Forth," advb. (from "for"), sig nifies movement (1) forward, (2) out of, (3) beyond a certain boundary. In a few instances in the OT it is the translation of the prep. W, properly "above," "upon" (2 Kings 11 lf> 2 Chronicles 23 1-1; Amos 7 17 AV), and of liuq, "without" (Genesis 39 13; Judges 19 2">). "Forth" is often used as an expletive of various vbs., as "break [forth]," "bring [forth]," "call [forth]," etc. In I he Gospel of John it is the translation of, "without ," as "Lazarus, come forth" (11 43; so 16 6; 19 4 AV, etc; also Acts 6 34; 9 40). "Stand forth" in Mark 3 3 is the translation of ct/circ r/,s to niexoti, m "Arise into the midst." RV has a great many changes, frequently substituting "out," "away," "abroad," etc.; "forth from" for "out of" (Job 41 21; Isaiah 45 23); "spread forth" for "stretched out" (Psalm 44 20; 88 9; 136 (i), etc. In Col 1 (>, for "bringeth forth fruit" KV reads "bearing fruit."

      W. L. WALKER

      FORTIFICATION, for-ti-fi-ka shun (including FORT, FORTIFIED [FENCED] CITIES, FOR TRESS i:

      I. 1 x RKCKXT Kings xr ‘ v ATIOXS

      I. Kxcavalion of Tells l . Sites

      3. Primitive Character

      I. Walls

      5. Towers

      (i. Acropolis or Castle

      7. Masonry

      s. dates

      2. Water Supply


      1 . Before the Monarchy

      2. In the Period of the Monarchy

      3. In the Period of the Keturn

      2I. IN THF. 1 SAI.MS AND Till. Pltnl HKTS

      1 . The Psalms

      2. The Prophets IV. IN THI: NT

      1. In St. Paul s Kpistles

      2. In the Acts of the Apostles

      3. In the (lospel History


      Has a. number of words representing its various elements and aspects:

      (1) "^2^2. mihhsar, is the term generally rendered "fenced" or "defenced cit y." In both A V and RV of Isaiah and Jeremiah we find for the most part the more forma] "de- fenced city." It is found by itself (Isaiah 17 3); with ic. "city" ( l s 6 IS; 2 Kings 3 19; pi. are mihlirftr, "fenced |AKV "fortified"] cities," Numbers 32 17); with "|, for. "Tyre" (Joshua 19 29; 2 Samuel 24 7, where it is rendered ".stronghold"). (2) 2"iL"52 , misgCibh, "high fort" (Isaiah 25 12; Jor 48 1 RVm; Psalm 9 9, and many other places inthePss). (3) T1"T2 . ma Oz, "fortress," "stronghold" (Judges 6 20; Psalm 31 2; T Dnl 11 39). (4) HTIS C , ?<*- (/hdh, "fort" AV, "stronghold" RV (2 Samuel 5 9. l7). (5) rn jT C , m -fiiru/i, "fort" (Isaiah 29 3AV; pi. RV "siege. works"). (0) ^"Q, mu^abh (Isaiah 29 3, "fort" ERV, "mount" AV, "posted troops" ARV). (7) p" 1 " . ddyek, "fort" (for the siege of a city, the wall of circnmvallation cast up by the besiegers, 2 Kings 25 1; Jor 52 4; Ezekiel 4 2; 1717; 2122; 268). (8) Tip , wafor, "fortress" (Jeremiah 10 17 m, wall of circumvallation; Hab 2 1, "tower"




      Annotated by NewtonStein, Cambridge Theological Seminary

      Fork Fortification

      AV, "fortress" KVm; Zee 9 3). (9) rn"Q blrah, "palace" AV, "castlo" RV (Xeh 2 8; 7*2). Blrah Grecized is /sipn, ban s, which has the double meaning of "palace" and "fortress." Nehemiah s "castle" figures largely in the books of Maccabees and in Jos, and is the Castlo of Antonia of the Arts of the Apostles. (10) o’i,pu^a, ochuroma (2 Corinthians 10 4, its only occurrence in the NT though it is the chief equivalent of mibh^ar in LXX). In tliis connection it is to be noted that n^lH . hOmdh, is Hebrews for "‘vaU," Gr re^os, teichos; bl~! or b" 1 !! - Ml, is Hob for the "ditch," or "rampart," or "bastion" of a fortress; b"^ , mighdal, "tower"; H22 , pi- HISS. piiindh, -pinndth, "corner towers."

      From the very beginning of their history as a nation the Israelites we re acquainted with fortified cities. The report of cities "great Fortified and fortified up to heaven," inhab- Places ited by the sons of Anak, by Ama-

      lekites, Hit tit es, Jelmsites, Amorites and Canaanites, struck terror into the hearts of the Israelites in the wilderness, and called forth ^mur- nmrings from them on their way to Canaan (Xu 13 2S if; Deuteronomy 1 28). Not that these cities were at all of the extent or population of modern cities, or of Nineveh, Babylon and Memphis of old. But to a people who were as yet little better than a horde of fugitives accustomed to the simple camp life of the wilderness and unacquainted with appliances for siege and assault, the prospect of sealing the walls and conquering the inhabitants was appalling. The cities of the Canaanites were already old when Joshua led the Israelites to the conquest of the land. Not a little of their history has become; known to us, and the character of their defensive works has been disclosed by Palestinian excavation in recent years.

      /. In Recent Excavations.

      It has been largely to the tells, or mounds of buried cities, chiefly in the southwest of the land, that explora tion has been directed. The Palestine Kx- Excava- ploration Fund, drawing its resources from Great Britain and also from America, was the first, and has all along been the fore most, in the work of excavation. Through the labors of Professor Flinders I Vine at Tell el-Hcsy; of Dr. F. J. Bliss, and Professor Stewart Macalister at Tell Zakariyah, Tell es-Safi, Tell ej-Ju- deideh, Tell Sandahannah, and more recently of Pro fessor Macalister at Gezer, the Fund has added largely to our knowledge of the fenced cities of Canaan. The work of Sir Charles Warren, Sir Charles U . ‘ ilson, Colonel Conder and other explorers at Jems under the same auspices has been of great value for illustrating the defensive works of a later time. Germany and Austna have not been behind. The excavation, first, of Tell Ta anek in the Plain of Esdraelon, and, at the present time (1911), of Jericho by Professor E. Sellin, formerly of Vienna, now of Kostoek; and of Tell el-Muteselhni, the ancient Megiddo, by Gottlieb Schumacher, has yielded results of the highest importance. Since 1908 an American expedition from Harvard University, first under Schumacher and now r under Dr. Reisner, who had previously excavated at the Pyramids and other places in Egypt, has explored with remarkable results the site of the capital of the Northern Kingdom, Samaria. Excavations have also been conducted by the German Orient Committee at Sinjerli which have thrown a flood of light upon the archaeology of Northern Syria and esp. upon the wonderful Hittite people. The memoirs and reports of these excavations have furnished abundance of material for tracing the evolution and understanding the anatomy of the tell. They usefully supplement the Scripture narratives, and confirm them in many par ticulars.

      These cities of the primitive inhabitants of Canaan occupied sites easily capable of defence. They were built either upon a projecting spur of a 2 Sites mountain ridge, like Gezer, Megiddo,

      Tell es-Safi (believed to be the ancient Gath) and primitive Jerus, or upon an isolated eminence in the plain like Tell el-Hesy (Lachish) or Taanaeh. Compared with modern cities the area was small in the case of Gezer about a quarter of a mile square, Lachish 15 acres, Megiddo and Taanach 12 to 13 acres. A suffi cient water supply within easy reach was an essential feature. Speaking of Gezer, Professor Macalister says: " Water, the first necessity of life, was in abundance. The three primitive modes of livelihood hunting, pasturing, and agriculture could be practised here better than in many places. Further, for defence an other prime necessity in early days the hill is admirably

      tion of Tells

      fitted. It is steep and not easy to climb; and being fairly high it commands a wide prospect, so that the approach of enemies can be seen and prepared for" (Bible Side-Lights from (l<:,r, 25,21!).

      Their history goes back in most cases to a very remote antiquity. "It cannot have been much later than 3000

      BC," says Professor Macalister regarding 3 Primi- Gezer, " when a primitive race of men first

      realized that the bare rocky hill (as it then l:lve was) would be a suitable dwelling-place.

      Character This tribe was a cave-dwelling race" (as

      above ; and I EfS, 1904, 311 if). The primitive race had occupied the hill perhaps live hundred years when the Canaanites drove them out, as they in turn were driven out by the Israelites. But the nature of their original habitations, the earliest relics of their social life, and what can be gathered of their religious rites all bear witness to a remote antiquity. From the mound of Tell el-llesy, now almost certainly identified with the site of Lachish, eleven cities, one above the other have been disinterred, the eleventh or highest having nine cities between itself and the first Amorite buildings reared upon the original bluff. This lowest city is be lieved to go back some 2000 years BC, Professor Flinders Petrie having dated the successive cities by means of the pottery found in the strata of the mound. One of the eleven" cities, possibly the fourth from the bottom, was that of Lachish, which fell a prey to Joshua (Joshua 10 32), the walls of which, built of crude brick and 10-12 ft. in thickness, are a witness to its character as a fenced city (Bliss, A Mound of Many Cities, ch iv).

      While the site of the Can. city was chosen for its natural strength, the first settlers soon felt the need of some fortification. At 4. Walls Sinjerli the excavators have been able to trace the general growth of the site from a group of shepherds huts into a walled town. The earliest fortification attempted was a rampart of earth following the natural contour of the hill (I EFS, 1903, 113). Within some such inclosing wall, houses were built and the inhabitants lived and pursued their avocations safely. The primitive earthbank in the case of (lexer was in course of time replaced first by an inner and then by an outer wall in succession. The outer wall when it was added to strengthen the inner was the hcl, rendered in the Eng. version bulwark" (Isaiah 26 1) or "ram part" (Nah 3 8, where the waters of the Nile served the same purpose). Professor Macalister estimates that the inner wall of Gcxer had fallen into disuse and ruin by about 1450 BC and that it was 1 he- outer that saw the conquest of Canaan by the Israel ites. "Even in its present ruined form," says Pro fessor Macalister, the outer city wall is an imposing structure. In places it, still stands to a height of from 10 to 1-i ft., and these can hardly be regarded as being much more than the underground founda tions. The outer face of the city wall, towering above the hill on which the city was built, may well have seemed impregnable to the messengers ot Moses" (Bible Xi<l< -Light*, 142). The walls of a later time, as we learn from Assyr representations, were provided with battlements, very often crenel lated, and "thy pinnacles of rubies" (Isaiah 64 12, ItV, RVm windows") may refer to them. For the purpose of strengthening the walls, esp. at the least defensible points, revetments or facings of stone or kiln-burnt bricks were sometimes added. Even these again would be rendered less assailable by a trench (hel) serving to cut, off a fortress from adja cent level or sloping ground, as may still be seen outside the N. wall of Jerus, and many parts of the walls of Constantinople.

      Towers were sometimes built at the corners or at points on the wall where attack was to be ap prehended (Zeph 1 16; 2 Chronicles 14 7). 6. Towers Such towers have been disclosed on the crest of the hill at Tell Zakariyah. At Gezer 30 towers were found round the outer wall. On the w r alls of Sinjerli there rose no fewer than 800 towers (Garstang, Land of the Hiitiles, 273). On the evidence of the excavations at this ancient Hittite site we gather that the cities about the time of the entrance of the Israelites into Canaan




      Annotated by NewtonStein, Cambridge Theological Seminary


      "were already surrounded by masoned walls, sup ported by numerous external towers, and entered through gateways barred by a pair of double doors and guarded by wing towers on either hand" (Land of the Hittites, 367). For illustrations, see CITY.

      Boghaz-keui: the Hittite Fortress Culled Yenigc Kaleh.

      6. Acrop olis or Castle

      Kvery one of these ancient cities had an inner for tress which would be an internal means of protection and the last refuge of the defenders iii extremity. At Tell Zakariyah the acropolis wall has been traced, and itsshape has been found to be conditioned by the contours of the hill on which it stood. In an old Ilit- tite settlement a fortress has been found rectangular in shape and supported by an outer and lower wall at a distance of 12 to HO yds. (Land of the Ilittii,-* ir.iii. There is evidence that the mound or bluff origi nally occupied remained the fortress or acropolis of UK- city when it spread out over a larger area, and t his seems to have been the case forsometime at least with t he Jel>- usite fort taken by David and made the capital of the kingdom. At Sinjerli, while there was a wall surrounding the whole township, there was an outer as well as an inner defensive wall to the citadel. Upon this citadel were found palaces from which the Assyr king Tiglath-pileser I. copied the plan of a Ilittitu palace, called in Assyr Hilani.

      The excavations enable us to see the progress of the art of fortification from very primitive begin nings. Crude brick and rough stone- 7. Masonry work were the materials of the earliest walls. They are usually found of un- eoursed masonry in which the large stones are un dressed field bowlders. The facings of stone and the joint sin walls were of ten packed with pebbles or with limestone chippings, the stones themselves being more or less roughly trimmed and dressed to shape by a hammer. Corner-stones are found in the towers showing marks of the chisel, but it is not till well on in the Hebrews period that stones are found with bosses and marginal drafting. At ZaJkarlyah the walls of the acropolis were of rubble laid in mud, mixed with straw without lime, and they contained some well-worked stones, irregularly intermingled with field stones of various sizes. At a later time mortar was used to cover the walls and give greater strength and support. But the clay used for the purpose was apt to crack unless it was given con sistency by treading with the feet and mixing with water. Thus we read of a wall daubed with un- tempered mortar (Ezekiel 13 10-16; 22 28; cf Nah 3 14). In the masonry of the Can. period there is no appearance of the use of mortar. In the Hittite fortress (see [6] above) the masonry of the inner wall is rough, dry stonewalling, while the outer is built of stones roughly pentagonal in shape, irregular in size, fitted to one another and laid without mortar somewhat like the Cyclopean walls of the earliest periods of Gr history. See GEZER.

      The gates of the fenced cities of Canaan may not have had the social importance which the city gate came to p< issess in lat er t imes. but they 8. Gates were an important element in the de fensive works of a city. They were as few as possible, so as to give only the necessary

      ingress and egress. The gate of Jericho was shut and secured at nightfall (Joshua 2 5). The gate of Gaza had two leaves which were not hinged to the t we gate-posts, but turned on pins moving in sockets in the sill and lintel, the bar stretching between the two posts and let into them to secure the gate (Judges 16 3, with Moore s notes). The hundred gates of Babylon, according to Herodotus, were all of brass (i.179); and Jen promises to Cyrus to break in pieces the doors of brass and to "cut in sunder the bars of iron (Isaiah 45 2). That the bars were some times of wood is clear from what is said of the bars of Nineveh (Nah 3 13). To protect the gate it was supplied with towers. Uzziah built towers in Jerua at the corner gate and at the valley gate and fortified them (2 Chronicles 26 9). In the inner wall ot Gezer, to which reference has been made, a gate ol very remarkable structure has been found. The wall is of stone, but the gateway consistsof a passage between two solid towers of brick. The passage- is 9 ft. wide and 42 ft, long, roughly paved with stones. Stone slabs on each side of the passage way bear traces of fire, and the absence of any wooden barrier may be due to a conflagration at t he capture of the city. The towers remain stand ing and rise to a total height of about 16 ft, In later times watchmen were set on the tower over the the gate to descry the approach of friend or foe or messenger (2 Samuel 18 24 it), and the tower had chambers in it which might be occupied by visitors or by a guard. For the more general purposes see

      ( iATB.

      One of the essential requisites of the primitive Can. fortress was a supply of water. At Gezer a copious spring within easy reach was 9. Water available. Tell el-Hesy commands Supply the only springs in that region (A

      Mound of Many Cities, 16). It is a strong point in favor of the modern theory of the ridge of Ophel being the site of Zion or David s town that the Virgin s Fountain, the only perennial spring in the whole circuit of Jems, was close to it, and would have been an inducement to the Jebusites to build their fortress there. In the sites that have been excavated, cisterns, sometimes vaulted over and with steps down into them, have been constant ly found. Traces have also been observed of con- coaled passages or tunnels by which access has been obtained to the nearest spring. Some such explanation has been given of the "gutter" (2 Samuel 6 8 AV, "watercourse" RV), by which Joab ob tained access to the fortress of Jebus and enabled David to capture it (1 Chronicles 11 6; cf Vincent, Ca naan d apres V exploration reccntc, 26). During an investment of a fortified city by an enemy, it was a point in strategy for the inhabitants to secure the fountain and to divert or conceal the stream flowing from it so that the besiegers might be left without a wafer supply (2 Kings 3 19.25; 2 Chronicles 32 3; com pare also 2 Samuel 12 26.27, Century Bible, Kennedy s note).

      ‘. In Biblical History. On the passage of the Jordan the Israelites found in Jericho a walled city of great strength barring their 1. Before progress. The excavations recently tne made have disclosed the common

      Monarchy features of Can fortresses an outer wall, surrounding the entire area, 6^ ft. thick, a citadel and protecting walls of hardly less substantial workmanship. Nearby also is the essential spring to furnish the water supply. With in the citadel were found the walls and rooms of Can. houses, and in many cases remains of infants buried in jars under the clay floors (Driver, Modern Research as Illustrating the Bible, 91 ff). These examples of "foundation sacrifices" with which the excavations at Gezer have made us familiar give




      Annotated by NewtonStein, Cambridge Theological Seminary


      point to the account of the resettlement of the city in the clays of Ahab, when Kiel the Bethelite rebuilt Jericho, laying the foundation thereof with the loss of Abiram, his firstborn, and setting up the gates thereof with the loss of his youngest son Segub (1 Kings 16 34). See CORNER STOXE; CAXAAN.

      In the Book of Judges we read of the strong tower, or citadel, of Thebez, into which the inhabitants had crowded and to which Abimelech was setting fire when a woman upon the wall hurled a millstone upon him and broke his skull (Judges 9 51 f). It does not appear that at this period the Israelites were in pos session of the strongholds of the land, for when the Philis overran the country, they had no fortresses to flee to, but "did hide themselves in caves, and in thickets, and in rocks, and in coverts, und in pits" (1 Samuel 13 6).

      When David captured the Jebusite fortress (2 Samuel

      5 ti if) and transferred his capital from Hebron to

      Jems, a new era of independence and

      2. In the even of conquest began. The natural

      Period of strength of David s town, with such

      the fortification as had been added, made

      Monarchy it impregnable to any Phili or Syrian

      foe, and one of the strongest fortresses

      in Western Asia.

      boam, Nadab, Baasha and Elah, kings of Israel, was largely a war of sieges, one of them, that of Gibbethon, having apparently lasted 27 years (1 Kings 15 27, compared with 1 Kings 16 15 ft ).

      With Omri there arose in Israel a powerful ruler whose name is mentioned with respect in the Assyr monuments, which designate the kingdom of Israel Mat Bit Khuinri, "the land of the house of Omri." He was the builder of Samaria which remained the capital of the Northern Kingdom till its fall in 722 BC. In excavations but recently carried on by the archaeological expedition of Harvard University, the walls of Omri s palace and fortress were laid bare, giving an impression of the great strength of the place.

      While Solomon built the wall of Jems, we read that Uzziah built towers at the corner gate, and at the valley gate, and at the turning of the wall, and fortified them (2 Chronicles 26 9). Jotham his son, con tinued his father s labors in the further fortification of the city (27 3.4). He/ekiah had good reason to add still further to the strength of the city, seeing that he had to bear the brunt of Sennacherib s ex pedition to the west. Sennacherib boasts that of Hezekiah s fortified towns, he captured 46, with innumerable fortresses besides (Srhrader, COT, I,


      Although Solomon was a man of peace, lie in cluded among the great buildings which he exe cuted fortresses and works of defence. He built the wall of Jems round about. He built Millo (called Akra [ citadel"] in the LXX), and closed the breaches of the city of David, so that there might be no vulnerable point found in the defences of the city (1 Kings 9 15). This fortification is represented in LXX, which has here an addition to the MT, as securing the complete subjection of the original inhabitants who remained. Solomon also built Hazor to watch Damascus, Megiddo to guard the plain of Jezreel, and Gezer overlooking the maritime plain, his work being one of refortification rather than of building from the foundation. He fortified also Beth-heron, Upper and Nether, to block the way against Phili invasion. The store cities, and cities to accommodate his chariots and horses, were also part of his military system (1 Kings 9 18 ff).

      The disruption of the kingdoms, and the jealousy and hostility that followed between Judah and Israel, necessitated fresh undertakings of fortifica tion, on the part of both kingdoms. Rehoboam dwelt in Jerus, and built cities for defence in Judah. He fortified the strongholds and provisioned them and stored arms within them in case of siege (2 Chronicles 11 5fT). One of Jeroboam s first acts on ascending the throne was to build the two fortresses, Shechem to guard Matthew. Ephraim, and Penuel to protect Gilead (1 Kings 12 25 f). Baasha later pushed his frontier within a few miles of Jerus, fortifying Ramah to overawe Asa in his very capital. The long war which lasted through the reigns of Jero-

      2M>), but. he cannot tell that Jerus was among them, for it came through the ordeal unscathed. In the reign of Manasseh Jerus was captured and tin- king himself carried away to Nineveh, but on his repentance he was restored to the throne and set himself to strengthen the fortifications of the city (2 Chronicles 33 14). The city was unable, however, to hold out against Nebuchadrezzar and his captains; for it was taken in 597 BC, and King Jehoiachin and the flower of the population were deported to Babylon. After a siege of two years it was again taken in 586 BC, and temple and city were de stroyed, and the walls razed to the ground.

      The patriotic labor of Nehemiah in the rebuilding

      of the wall of Jerus belongs properly to the history

      of the city (see JERUSALEM). In the

      3. In the Maccabean struggle, the Akra (1 Mace

      Period of 1 33; 3 45, etc), the citadel, was long

      the Return held by a Syrian garrison, and was in

      the end delivered up to the high priest

      by Demetrius (10 32). Notable also st ill later was

      the castle of Antonia (Acts 22 24) on the site of the

      earlier castle of Nehemiah s day (Neh 2 8; 7 2).

      ‘. In the Psalms and the Prophets. Under the image- of a fortress, or mountain fastness, inaccess ible to any common foot, where there 1. The is perfect safety from enemies and

      Psalms persecutors, the Psalmist delights to

      express his confidence in God. Jeh, in virtue of His righteous judgments, is a high tower to the downtrodden, a place of refuge and security (misgabh) to those who are in trouble (Psalm 9 9). When he exults in the strength of God who haa

      Fortification Fountain



      Annotated by NewtonStein, Cambridge Theological Seminary


      given him deliverance, ho multiplies words to utter his confidence: "I love Thee, O Jeh, my strength. Jeli is my rock, and my fortress ‘>n <il<lhdh’, .... my ( iod .... my high lower [misgabh]" (Psalm 18 1.2). Thirteen times in the Pss ‘ve find tins word: 9 <> 18 2; 46 7. 11; 59 9.1(1.17 (where AV trans lates "defence" and RV "high tower"), etc. Else where in ^ il-ilfiiih is employed (Psalm 31 2; lit. "house of fortresses" ; 91 2; 144 2). If we were at liberty to accept such psalms as Pss 18 and 59 as Davidic, t lie appropriateness of them to the circumstances of the Shepherd King when persecuted by Saul, taking refuge in the cave of Adullam and enduring the perils and anxieties of an outlaw s life, would at once be apparent.

      Although Jeremiah has been called the weeping prophet, yet, for the fearless fulfilment of his com mission to a gainsaying people, (iod 2. The made him "a fortified city [ 7r ntibhgdr],

      Prophets and an iron pillar, and bra/en walls" (Jeremiah 1 IS; of Samuel 27; 15 20). Hoseain the Northern Kingdom predicted the destruction of its "fortresses" i in ihlicilr) by t he invading Assyri ans (10 14; cf 8 14). The prophets in proclaiming (iod s message to their day addressed themselves not only to Israel and Judah, but also to those great world-powers with which the Ileb people had relations. In the oracles of the prophets to the nations to Egypt, Babylon, Assyria, Syria, Edom, and others -we obtain glimpses of great and fortified cities like No-amon (Thebes), Babylon, Nineveh, Damascus, whose natural defences and added fortifications did not save them from capture and dest ruct ion. And the teaching of the prophets for the comfort of Israel and Judah is that Jeh was a better defence to them than the great rivers of Assyria and Egypt were to those; nations. When Nineveh was at the height of her pride, fierceness and worldly glory, Nalium asks her: "Art thoii better than No-amon [Thebes of Egypt], that was situate among the rivers, that had the waters round about- her; whose rampart [/""/] was the sea [the Nile], and her wall [tjon/ah] was of the sea?" (Xah 3 8). Of Nineveh itself we know that it was protected, not only by walls and fortresses of great strength, but also by canals and streams drawn round the city. Yet Nahum declares in his sublime apostrophe: "All thy fortresses shall be like fig- trees with the first-ripe figs: if they be shaken, they fall into the mouth of the eater" (ver 12). Baby lon had walls whose Strength and height, as described by Herodotus and other historians, were fabulous. Its great monarch Nebuchadrezzar was in his day the greatest, ruler of t he East , and Sir Henry Layard has told that scarcely a brick unearthed in the mounds of the great Bab plain was without his name. Yet when the day of reckoning came, the wall, said to be mountain-high, and SO ft. thick, with its moat so broad that an arrow could not be shot over it, and all its elaborate works of defence, were as if they had not been; it surrendered to Cyrus without a blow being struck. It is in the visions of the prophets, in the universal peace which is to accompany the restoration of Israel, that we hear of "them that are at rest, that dwell securely, all of them dwelling without, walls, and having neither bars nor gates" (Ezekiel 38 11). "In that day shall this song be sung in the land of Judah: We have a strong city; salvation will he appoint for walls and bulwarks" (hcl) (Isaiah 26 1). Violence shall no more be heard in thy land, desolation nor destruction within thy borders; but thou shalt call thy walls Salvation, and thy gates Praise" (60 18). Building of fenced cities, with riding upon horses and military preparation, was a note of the false prophet, who urged alliances with foreign powers such as Assyria and Egypt, and relied too much upon

      the material resources of the nation. The true prophet realized that the strength of the nation lay in (od and urged the people to put, their trust in Him (Hos 8 14). "Jerusalem," says Zochariah in the days of the Return, shall bo inhabited as villages without walls, by reason of the multitude of men and cattle therein. For I, saith Jeh, will be unto her a wall of fire round about, and I will be the glory in the midst, of her" (2 4.5; cf 8 4.5).

      IV. In the New Testament. -In a well-known

      passage (2 Corinthians 10 3-5), St. Paul, as he often does,

      draws upon his knowledge of Rom

      1. In St. methods of warfare, and introduces Paul s for the enforcement, of great spiritual Epistles lessons the pulling down of "strong holds" as the ultimate object of every

      campaign. The word employed (ochurumata) is the Cir equivalent of the Hob word commonly ren dered "fortress" (inibh^dr). "The strongholds are the rock forts, such as those which once bristled along the coast of his native Cilicia and of which he must often have heard when his father told him how they were pulled down by the Romans in their wars against the pirates. Those high things that exalt, themselves those high eminences of the pride of Nature occupied in force by hostile troops had been a familiar experience in many wars throughout Asia Minor, while one of the grandest of all was the Acropolis that towered over Corinth" (Dean Howson, The Metaphors of tit. Paul, 34 f).

      From the stairs of the Castle of Antonia, St. Paul,

      by leave of Claudius Lysias, the commandant of

      (hi 1 garrison at Jems, in whose charge

      2. In the he was, addressed the excited crowd Acts of the and told the story of his conversion. Apostles Antonia was the quarters, then, as it

      was in the time of Our Lord, of the Rom garrison, which occupied the Jewish capital (Acts 21 37; John 18 2S); and the same site is to this day covered with a Turkish barracks.

      Tower of Aiitoniii.

      Although it is not mentioned by name, the gloomy fortress of Machaerus on the Kings. of the Dead Sea is be lieved to have been t he scone of the impris onment and murder of John the Baptist. Tin-description of it given by Jos (BJ , V2, vi, 1) shows it to have been a place of im mense strength. "It was quite necessary that that fortress should be demolished lest it might draw away many itito rebellion because of its

      3. In the






      Annotated by NewtonStein, Cambridge Theological Seminary

      Fortification Fountain

      strength; for the nature of the place was very capable of affording sure hope of safety to those who held it, and delay and fear to those who attacked it. For what was defended by a fort was itself a rocky hill, rising to a very great height, which circumstance alone made it very difficult to capture it. It was also so contrived by Na ture that it could not easily be approached; for it is intrenched by ravines on all sides, so deep that the eye cannot reach their bottoms, nor are they easy to cross over, and it is quite impossible to fill them up with earth. the Herodiura, Jotapata, Masada, figured largely in the tragic scenes of the Jewish War so graphi cally described by Jos.

      LITERATURE. Bliss and Macalister, Excaratiiix in Pal- Bliss, A Mound of Many Citica; Macalister, Bible Sidt-Li,/hts from Mound of Gezvr; I EFrt for 1903-6, referring to Gezer; Driver, Minlrrn Research ax Illus trating the Bible; Vincent, ( nnnun il niirvs V exploration recente; Billerbeck, DLT Fvatumjulmu tin alien Orii-nt.

      T. Ni COL

      FORTUNATUS, for-tfi-na tus PhortouiMtos): A Rom proper name (timed into (Jr; sameasLatadj./ortwnaius, meaning "blest," or "fortunate." Found only once in the Bible (1 _Corinthians 16 17). Fortunatus, with Stephanas and Achaicus, was an amabassador of the Corinthian church, whose presence at Ephesus refreshed the spirit of the apostle Paul.

      FORTUNE, for tfm (Gad): A god of Good Luck, possibly the Hyades. See ASTKOMHIY, 10.

      FORTY, for ti (^"inX , arlxTlnt; Teo-o-apaKOvra,

      t<xxnr<il:oitta). See FOUR (5); XTMBKH.

      FORUM, fo rum: AV Appii Forum (Acts 28 15), is in KV MARKET OF APPITS (q.v.).

      FORWARD, for werd, FORWARDNESS, for - werd-nes (Hisbn , hid alt, "CI , ?/< ; erirovSaios,

      NjioHdit iitx): As an advb. "forward" has tho meaning of "onward" in space or time, or in the movement of affairs. As an adj. it has the sense of "readiness," "willingness," etc. The advb. only is found in the OT. It is the translation of hdl c dh, "distance," "onward"; in space (Xu 32 11); 1 Samuel 10 3); in time (E/k 39 22, "from that day and forward"; 43 27); once of halalch, "to go on" (Genesis 26 13, "went forward," AVm "Hebrews went going," RV "grew more and more"); twice of ma ul, "above," "upward" (1 Samuel_ 16 13; 30 25, "from that day forward"); once of yd <d, "to caus(> to go til)," "advance" (Job 30 13, "They set forward [advance or help on] mv calamity"); twice of l-phunlm, "to the front" (Jef 7 24; E/k 10 22, "They went every one straight forward," lit. "on the side of their face"); once of kedhem, "before" (Job 23 8, "Behold, I go forward, but he is not there"); once with ndkhdh, "to smite" (2 Kings 3 21 1; frequently in Numbers, and once in Exodus, of m7.w , "to lift up," "remove," "journey" (Exodus 14 15, "Speak unto the children of Israel, that they go forward"; Numbers 1 51, "when the tabernacle setteth forward"; 2 24 AV, "They shall go forward," etc); it is also the translation of uayih (Piel), "to be over," "to take the lead," "to superintend" (1 Chronicles 23 4, "to s:>t for ward [to carry onward, to advance] the work of the house of the Lord," AVm and text of RV "to over see"; 2 Chronicles 34 12, "to set it forward," RV retains, in, "to preside over it"; Exr 3 8m, "set forward the work"). This word means also "to lead" in music, to precent; hence in the title of many psalms, la-m naqe a h, "For the chief musician." Pro&rchomai, "to go forward," etc, is translation 1 "went forward" (Mark 14 35); propempo, "to sent! forward" (3 John ver 0, "bring forward," RV "set forward"); probdtto, "to throw or put forward" (Acts 19 33, "putting him forward"); as adj. it is the translation of t field, "to wish," "will" (2 Corinthians 8 10, "to be forward a year ago"; AVm CJr "willing," RV "to will"); of spoiidaios, "speedy," "earnest" (2 Corinthians 8 17, "being more forward, RV "very earnest"); of spoiiddzo, "to

      make haste," "to be earnest" (Gal 2 10, "which I also was forward to do," RV "zealous to do").

      "Forward" occurs several times in Apoc, e.g. 1 Esd 1 27, "The Lord is with me hasting me for ward" (epispeudo)} 2 Esd 3 6, "before ever the earth came forward" (ndroUnrct), meaning, perhaps, before it was ready for plant ing.

      Forwardness is the translation of spoudf , "speed," "zeal," etc (2 Corinthians 8 8, RV "earnestness"); of prothumia, "readiness of mind" (2 Corinthians 9 2, "the forwardness of your mind," RV "your readiness"; A’ isd 14 17, "that by their forwardness [apondc] they might flatter," RV "zeal").

      For "forward" RV lias "forth" (Numbers 2 24; c.f 1 Corinthians 16 Hr for "go forward" (Numbers 10 5) ," take their jour ney"; for "set forward" (21 10; 22 1), "journeyed"; "forward" for "ready" (Ot 1 41), for "forth" (Prov 25 6), for "farther" (Matthew 26 3< ; " put forward " for " ap pointed" (Acts 1 2:5); "set forward according to" for "took" (Xu 10 12); "set forward" for "went" (Numbers 10 14.34), for "departed" (ver 33); "set me forward" for "bring me" (1 Corinthians 16 0).

      ‘V. L. WALKKR

      FOUL, foul (TUSH , rdphax; aKaOapros, akdthar- tos): The vb. "to foul" (defile) occurs as the translation^of rd pints, "to trample" or "muddle" (streams) (Ezekiel 32 2; 34 IS); of hdttutr, "to burn," "to be red" (Job 16 10, "My face is foul with weeping," ARV andERVm "red"); of ?wirpos, "a treading" (‘v/.k 34 19). The adj. is the translation of (ibitliitrlu*, "unclean," "impure," "wicked" (Mark 9 25; Rev 18 2, "foul spirit," RV "unclean"), and of cln-hnun, "winter," "stormy or foul weather" (Matthew 16 3). RV has "The rivers shall become foul" ( Isaiah 19 6) instead of AV "They shall turn the rivers far away," ERY "The rivers shall stink." ‘V. L. ‘ ALKKK

      FOUNDATION, foun-da shun : In 2eb tho words

      for "foundation" are mostly derivatives from "!?? , ydsadh, "to found," and in Gr two words are used: one, /caTa/iJoXij, ktilahult , of "foundation of the world" (Matthew 13 35; 25 34; Luke 11 50; John 17 24, etc); the other, (k/j.^’Los, thenictiox, of the founda tion of a building (Luke 6 4X.4<> 14 2!); Acts 16 20, etc), in which sense it is also used metaphorically in various connections (Christ, the foundation of the church, 1 Corinthians 3 11; or the apostles and prophets the foundation, with Christ as corner-stone, Eph 2 20; the foundation of repentance, He 6 1, etc). In Psalm 11 3, "if the foundations be destroyed," the Hebrews word is xfiutli. In Jeremiah 50 15, RV reads "bul warks" for "foundations"; conversely in Psalm 89 14; 97 2, for AV "habitation," RV reads "founda tion," and in Isaiah 6 4 for AV "posts," reads "founda tions." JAMKS Oiw

      FOUNDER, foun der (from T^Samuel , ^drnph): A worker in molten metal (Judges 17 4, etc). The word in AV in Jeremiah 10 <).14; 51 17 is rendered in RV "goldsmith," and in 6 20 by a paraphrase, "They go on refining." See RKFIXKK; GOLDSMITH.

      FOUNTAIN, foun tin, foun tan: In a country where no rain falls for half of the, year, springs as sume an importance! unknown in more favored lands. In both eastern and western Pal and even in Leba non there are many villages which depend entirely upon reservoirs or cisterns of rain water. Others are situated along the courses of the few perennial streams. But wherever a spring exists it is very apt to be the nucleus of a village. It may furnish sufficient water to be used in irrigation, in which case the gardens surrounding the village become an oasis in the midst of the parched land. Or there may be a tiny stream which barely suffices for drinking water, about which the village women and girls sit and talk waiting their turns to fill their jars, sometimes until far in the night. The water of the village fountain is often conveyed by a covered

      Fountain Gate Fox



      Annotated by NewtonStein, Cambridge Theological Seminary


      conduit for some distance from the souree to ;i con venient spot in (lie village where an arch is built Up, under which the water gushes out. See CISTERN ; SPRING; WELL; EN-, and place-names compounded with Exodus-.

      Figurative: (1) of God (P.s 36 9; Jeremiah 2 13; 17 13); (~2) of Divine pardon and purification, with an obvious Messianic reference (Zee 13 1); (3) of wisdom and godliness (Prov 13 14; 14 27); (4) of wives (Prov 6 18); (5) of children (Deuteronomy 33 2S; ef Psalm 68 20; Prov 6 16); (G) of prosperity (Psalm 107 35; 114 Samuel; Hos 13 15); (7) of the heart (Keel 12 6; see CISTERN); (8) of life everlasting (Rev 7 17; 21 0). ALFKED ELY DAV


      FOUR, for (3?inX , arba’; rtVo-apts, tessares): "Four" (cardinal number) was a sacred and com plete number with the Hebrews, as well as with several other peoples. It occurs very frequently in the OT and (he NT.

      (1) It indicates completeness. We have the four rivers of Paradise (Genesis 2 10); the four winds of heaven (Ezekiel 37 9; Dnl 7 2; 8 Samuel; 11 4; Zoo 6 5, RVm "spirits"; 2 Esd 13 5); "the four winds" (Matthew 24 31; Mark 13 27); "the four corners of the earth" (Isaiah 11 12; Rev 7 1; 20 8, AV "quarters"); "the four corners of the house" (Job 1 10); Jophthah s daughter was bewailed four days a year (Judges 11 40); "four cities" are several times mentioned in Joshua in the allotment of inheritances (19 7; 21 18, etc); Nehemiah s enemies sent to him "four times" (Neh 6 4); "four kinds" (HVm "families" of destroyers were threatened, Jeremiah 15 3); Jeh s "four sore judg ments" (Ezekiel 14 21); "four generations" were seen by Job (42 10).

      (2) "Four" is frequent in prophetic visions: Daniel saw "four .... beasts" arise, represent ing four kings (7 3.17); "four notable horns" (8 8. 22; cf 2 Esd 11 39); "four gates" (2 Esd 3 19; four wings, 12 2 AV); "four horns" were seen by Zechariah, as (ho powers that had scattered Israel, and "four smiths" (RV)as powers that would east the four horns down (1 18-21); "four chariots and .... horses" represented the "four spirits," AV and RVm (bettor than "winds"), that went "forth from standing before the Lord of all the earth" (6 1-5); in the visions of E/k, "four living creatures," each with four faces, four wings, etc, were t he bearers of t he t hrone of God (1 5 f .23) ; so, in the visions of John there were "four living crea tures" before and around the throne (Rev 4 0; 6 0.8.14; 6 1; 15 7; 19 4); John saw "four angels" of destruction loosed for their work (Rev 9 14 f).

      (3) "Four" occurs frequently in the measure ments of the sacred buildings, etc (a) of the taber nacle (Exodus 25; 26; 27; 28 17; 36, etc); (ft) of Solomon s temple (1 Kings 7 2, etc; 1 Chronicles 9 24); (c) of Ezekiel s temple (Ezekiel 40 41; 41 5; 42 20; 43 14, etc).

      (4) "Four" is used as an alternative with "three" (Prov 30; we have "three or four" (2 Esd 16 29.31); "the third and .... the fourth generation" (Exodus 20 5; 34 7; Numbers 14 18; Deuteronomy 5 9).

      (5) Ten times four, or forty is also a special and sacred number, e.g. forty years did Israel eat manna (Exodus 16 35); forty years in the wilderness (Numbers 14 33; 32 13); "the land had rest forty years" (Judges 3 11; 5 31); Israel was delivered unto the hands of the Philis for forty years (13 1) ; Eli judged Israel forty years (184 18); Moses was forty years old when he visited" his brethren (Acts 7 23) ; the flood continued for "forty days and forty nights" (Genesis 7 4); Moses was in the Mount "forty days and forty nights" (Exodus 24 18; 34 28; Deuteronomy 9 9);

      Jesus fasted in the desert forty days and nights (Matthew 4 2, etc); He remained with His disciples forty days after His resurrection (Acts 1 3J.

      (6) Fourscore is also frequent (sh e monlm) (Exodus 7 7; Judges 3 30; Jeremiah 41 5, etc; ogduskonta, Luke 2 37; 16 7).

      (7) Four hundred represents a large number, e.g. the years of the oppression in Egypt (Genesis 15 13) ; Esau s company (33 1); the men with David (1 Samuel

      22 2; 25 13; 30 10.17); the prophets of Baal four hundred and fifty," of Asherah, "four hundred" (1 Kings 18 19.22); the prophets of Israel (22 0). Four thousand represents a larger number, e.g. the musicians and porters of Solomon s temple (1 Chronicles

      23 ); the stalls for horses in Solomon s stables (2 Chronicles 9 25); the Assassins who made insurrection under an Egyptian (Acts 21 38); Christ fed "four thousand men, besides women and children" (Matthew 15 38). Four hundred thousand represents a virij large number, e.g. the congregation of Israel that gathered at Mizpah, "four hundred thousand foot men that drew sword" (Judges 20 2.17); Abijah s army (2 Chronicles 13 3; Jeroboam s, twice that number).

      (8) The fourth part also frequently occurs (Exodus 29 40; Leviticus 23 13; Numbers 23 10; Rev 6 8, etc).



      FOURFOLD, fdr fold: Occurs but twice in EV: 2 Samuel 12 (>, "He shall restore the lamb fourfold"; and Luke 19 8 AV, "If I have wrongfully exacted ought .... I res tore fourfold." From this state ment of Zacchaeus we are to understand that four fold the amount of that which was stolen was the restoration the law required of a thief. This was the extreme penalty the law imposed. In some cases double the amount was to be restored (Exodus 22 4.7); in others, a fifth of its value was added to the thing restored (Leviticus 6 5); still again, an amount equal to that taken was to be restored (1 Samuel 12 3).

      FOURSCORE, for skdr. See FOUR; NUMBER.

      FOURSQUARE, fdr skwar (?:n , rnbkcf; Ttrpd- ycovos, tetrdgdnos) . "Foursquare," meaning equal in length and breadth, not round, is the translation of rdbha* (from obs. r c bha’ "four"); it occurs in the descrip tion of the altar of burnt offering (Exodus 27 1; 38 1); of the altar of incense (30 2; 37 25); of the breast plate of the high priest (28 10; 39 !); of the panels of the gravings upon the mouth of the brazen or molten sea in Solomon s temple (1 Kings 7 31); of the inner court of Ezekiel s temple (Ezekiel 40 47); of "the holy oblation" of the city of Ezekiel s vision (48 20, r c bhi*l, "fourth") ; of the new Jerus of John s vision (Rev 21 10, tetragonos). and conveys the idea of perfect symmetry. In AVm of 1 Kings 6 31, we have "five-square," square being formerly used for equal-sided, as it still is in "three-square file."

      W. L. WALKER

      FOURTEEN, for ten. See NUMBER.


      FOWL, foul (817 , *dph; irtrtivov, pcieinon) : The word is now r generally restricted to the larger, esp. the edible birds, but formerly it denoted all flying creatures; in Ley 11 20 AV we have even, "all fowls that creep, going upon all four," ver 21, "every flying creeping thing that goeth upon all four."

      The word most frequently translation d "fowl" is *5ph from *uph, "to cover," hence wing; it is used collectively for birds and fowl in general (Genesis 1 20, etc; 2 19.20, etc); aylt (from <ut, "to rush") means a




      Annotated by NewtonStein, Cambridge Theological Seminary

      Fountain Gate Fox

      ravenous beast, or bird of prey, used collectively

      of ravenous birds (den 15 11 AV; Jsa 18 AV

      "fowls"; Job 28 7, "a path which no

      1. OT fowl knoweth," RV "no bird of prey"); Terms and in Isaiah 46 11 it is used as a symbol References of a conqueror (ef Jeremiah 12 9, "bird,"

      "birds of prey"; E/k 39 4, "ravenous birds"); fippdr, Aram, f ‘;/; (from ^dphtir, "to twitter or chirp"), "a chirper," denotes a small bird or sparrow (Deuteronomy 4 17 AV; Noli 5 IS; Dnl 4 14); to give the carcases of men to the fowls (birds) of the air was an image of destruction (Deuteronomy 28 20 AV; 1 Samuel 17 44.46; Psalm 79 2; Jeremiah 7 33, etc); bnrbunm, rendered (1 Kings 4 23) "fatted fowl" (among the provisions for Solomon s table for oneday), is prob ably a mimetic word, like dr htirlxirott, Lat inur- iiiuro, Eng. bubble, perhaps denoting f/< from their cackle (desenius, from burar, "to cleanse," referring to their white plumage; but other derivations and renderings are given). They might have been ducks or swans. "They could have been guineas or pigeons. The young of the ostrich was delicious food, and no doubt when Solomon s ships brought peafowl they also brought word that, they were a delicacy for a king s table. The domestic fowl was not common so early in Pal, but it. may have been brought by Solomon with other imports from the Mast; in XT times chickens were common: !>n <i[ L /linl/i/i, "owner of a wing," is used for a bird of any kind in Prov 1 17. "In vain is the net. spread in the sight of any bird," AVm "Hebrews, in the eyes of everything that hath a wing."

      In the Levitical law fowls (birds) were distin guished as clean and unclean (Leviticus 11 13 f; Deuteronomy 14 11-20; cf den 8 20); the first were

      2. In the allowed to be eaten because they fed Levitical on grains, seeds, and vegetables; the Law second were forbidden because they

      fed on flesh and carrion.

      In the NT the common word for "fowl" is pi-ti i-

      11.011, "winged fowl." "The fowls of the air" (RV

      "the birds of the heaven") are pointed

      3. NT Ref- to by Our Lord as examples of the erences and providential care of dod (Matthew 6 20; Illustrative Luke 12 24); in another connection the Uses "sparrows" (slrouthion) sold cheap,

      probably for food, are so employed (Matthew 10 20, "Are not two sparrows sold for a penny?" Luke 12 0, "five .... for two pence"); their quickly picking up seeds from the ground is made to illustrate the influences which render "the word" powerless (Matthew 13 4); their being sheltered in the branches, the growth of the kingdom (13 32, petei- tui/n; the hen s (o/v</.s) sheltering care for her chickens, His desire to protect and save Jerus (Matthew 23 37; cf 2 Ks.l 1 30; Ruth 2 12); the fowls were shown in vision to Peter as among the things made clean by dod (Acts 10 12; 11 0); in Rev 18 2; 19 17.21, orncon, "bird," "fowl," a carnivo rous bird (RV "bird"), is the representative of deso lation and of destruction.

      For "fowls" ARV has "birds" (Genesis 6 7.20; 7 3; Leviticus 20 256; Acts 10 12; 11 <> with KKV Matthew 6 20; 13 l; Mark 4 -t.: ,2; Luke 8 "> 12 24; 13 l!>i; for "every feathered fowl" ( Kzk 39 17), RV has " the birds of every sort"- for "all fowls that creep" (Leviticus 11 20) and for every flying creeping thing " (ver21), "all winged creep ing things."

      W. L. WALKER FOWL, FATTED. See preceding article.

      FOWLER, foul er (EJp n , ydkc^ti}: A professional birdcateher. In the days previous to firearms, birds were- captured with nets spread on the ground, in traps and snares. There was a method of taking young birds from a nest, raising them by hand, and when they had become very tame, they were con fined in hidden cages so that their voices would call

      others of their kind to the spot, and they could be killed by arrows of concealed bowmen or the use of the throw-stick (Ecclus 11 30). This was a stick l- 2 - ft. in length and ‘ in. in diameter, hurled with a rotary motion at the legs of the birds and was very effective when thrown into flocks of ground birds, such as partridge or quail, esp. if the birds we re 1 run ning up hill. There was also a practice of sewing a

      captured bird s eyelids together and confining it so that its cries would call large numbers of birds through curiosity and they could then be taken in the several ways mentioned. The fowlers supplied the demand for doves and other birds used for caged pets, and furnished the market- with wild pigeons and doves for sacrifice and such small birds as were used for food. Psalm 91 3:

      "For ho will deliver 1 hee from I he snare of the fowler, And from the deadly pestilence."

      This is David s promise that the Almighty will de liver us from the evil plans laid to ruin us, as a bird sometimes in its struggles slips the hair and escapes from the "snare" (q.v.) set for it. Psalm 124 7:

      "Our soul is escaped as a bird out of the snare of the

      fowlers: The snare is broken, and we are escaped."

      Here is the fulfilment of the former promise in a cry of rejoicing. Sometimes the snare held fast, some times it broke; then the joy in the heart of a freed man was like the wild exultation in the heart of the escaping bird. Prov 6 ">:

      "Deliver thyself as a roe from the hands of the hunter, And as a bird from the hand of the fowler."

      With methods so primitive as these for taking birds, it must have occurred frequently that a stunned, wounded or entrapped bird slipped even from the hand that, held it and made good its escape.

      Jeremiah 5 20: "For among my people are found wicked men: Ihey watch, as fowlers lie in wait; they set a trap, they catch men." Here is the plain compari son strongly drawn between wicked men entrap ping their fellows and fowlers taking unsuspecting birds.

      The last reference is in 2os 9 Samuel: "Ephraim was a watchman with my dod: as for the prophet, a fowl er s snare is in all his ways, and enmity in the house of his dod." Wherever he goes, t he prophet is in dan ger of being trapped. GK.VE STRATTON-PORTCR

      FOX (birnB, shifal; cf Arab. ^X*J , thn lab [Jo-s 15 4; Neh 4 3; Psalm 63 10; Cain 2 15; Lam 5 IS; Ezekiel 13 4]; aXwir^, alopcx [Matthew 8 20; Luke 9 58; 13 32]): The foxes of different parts of Europe and Western Asia differ more or less from each other, and some authors have given the local

      Fragment Fret, Fretting



      Annotated by NewtonStein, Cambridge Theological Seminary


      types distinct specific names. Tristnun, for in stance, distinguishes the Egyp fox, Vulpcx nilo/ica, of Southern Pal, and the tawny fox, Valpc.^ Jl<ir<x- ccns, of the N. und E. It is possible that the range of the desert fox, ‘ nlj><x h ucofxtx, of Soutluvestern Asia may also reach Syria. ‘Ye have, however, the authority of the Royal Xnl/irnl 2 ixtory for consider ing all these as merely local races of one species, the



      common fox, Vulpes aln/xx or Can in rnl]>cs. The natives of Syria and Pal do not always distinguish the fox and jackal although the two animals are markedly different. The jackal and ‘volf also are frequently confounded. See DHA<O’; JACKAL.

      In Psalm 63 Of we have, "Those that seek my soul, to destroy it, . . . . shall be given over to the power of the sword: they shall be a portion for foxes" (xhu all/n). It lias been thought that the jackal is meant here (RVm), and that may well be, though it is also true that the fox does not refuse carrion. In RVm, "jackal" is suggested in two other pas sages, though why is not clear, since the rendering "fox" seems quite appropriate in both. They are Neh 43,".... if a fox go up, he shall break down their stone wall," and Lam 5 17 f, ". . . . our eyes are dim; for the mountain of Zion which is desolate: the foxes walk upon it." RVm also has "jackals" in Judges 16 4 f, where Samson "caught three hundred foxes .... and put a firebrand in the midst between every two tails .... and let them go into the standing grain of the Philis, and burnt up both the shocks and the standing grain, and also the oliveyards." Jackals are probably more numerous than foxes, but the substitution does not appreciably diminish the difficulties in the way of any natural explanation of the story. In Cant 2 15 we have a reference to the fondness of the fox for grapes. In Matthew 8 20 and Luke 9 58 Jesus says in warning to a would-be follower, "The foxes have holes, and the birds of the heaven have nests; but the Son of man hath not when 1 to lay his head." Foxes differ from most of the Canit/ac in burrowing holes for their lairs, unless indeed they take posses sion of the burrow of another animal, such as the badger. In Luke 13 32 Jesus compares Herod to a fox. ALFRED ELY DAV

      FRAGMENT, frag ment (KXao-jxa, kldsma): "Fragment," a piece broken off, occurs only in the pi., in the accounts of the miracles of the Loaves in the Gospels and references thereto. It is the translation of klasma (from kldo, "to break"), "a piece broken off" (Matthew 14 20 AVI; "broken meat" (15 37).

      RV has in each instance "broken pieces." The change is important because it shows that the pieces left over were not mere fragments or crumbs left by the people after eating, but some of the original

      pieces into which it is said in all the synoptic narra tives and references Jesus "broke;" the "loaves," which, being thin cakes, were usually broken, before distribution; hence the phrase, "breaking of bread." See 1 1 1)1 ,, s.v. "Fragment"; ‘Veyrnouth translates "broken portions," viz. "those into which the Lord had broken the loaves; not mere scraps or crumbs."

      ‘V. L. WALKER FRAME, f ram:

      (1) "I3T , /yrfcr (from root y Cigar, "to knead," mold wit li the fingers) : "For he knoweth our frame; he remembereth that we are dust" (Psalm 103 14).

      (2) TJ")" , V/rA /i (from root *amkh, "to put in order," "to set in a row," "to arrange"): "goodly frame" (Job 41 12, AV "goodly proportion").

      (3) C2, *r>qcin, "bony frame," "body": "My frame was not hidden from thee, when I was made; in secret" (Psalm 139 15), AV "my substance," AVm "my strength, or, my body." See also HONE.

      (4) niZP? , mill/inch, "building, frame" (Ezekiel 40 2, "frame of a city").

      (5) l*Tj , ndt/ian, "to give," "to direct": "The} will not frame 1 their doings" (2os 5 4, AV and RVm).

      (>) o-uvapfxoXo yeu, sunarmolog&d, "to fit or join closely together" (Eph 2 21).

      (7) Ka.Ta.pTLi>, Ici/laii izd, "to fit out," "make fit," "adjust" (lie 11 3). 11. L. E. LUERIXU

      FRANKINCENSE, frank in-senH (PEIlb , I bho- ttuli, from root meaning "whiteness," referring to the milky color of the fresh juice: Exodus 30 34; Leviticus 2 1 f.!5f; 6 11; 6 15; 24 7; Numbers 6 15; 1 Chronicles 9 29; Neh 13 5.1); Cant 3 (i; 4 G.14; Isaiah 43 23; 60 (> 66 3; Jeremiah 6 20; 17 2r> 41 5; translation 1 in the last six references "incense" in AV, but correctly in RV; ‘ipavos, Hhunox: Matthew 2 11; Rev 18 13. The Eng. word is derived from old Fr. franc cnccns, i.e. "pure incense"): The common frankincense of the phar- macopoeas is a gum derived from the common fir,

      Frankincense (Boswellia serrata).

      but the frankincense of the Jews, as well as of the Greeks ami Romans, is a substance now called Olibanum (from the Arab, el lubun), a product of certain trees of the genus Boswdlia (N.O. Amyrida- ci ae), growing on the limestone rocks of south Arabia and Somali-land (Isaiah 60 6; Jeremiah 6 20). The most important species are B. Cartcri and B. Frcreana. Some of the trees grow to a considerable height and send down their roots to extraordinary depths. The gum is obtained by incising the bark,




      Annotated by NewtonStein, Cambridge Theological Seminary

      Fragment Fret, Fretting

      and is collected in yellowish, semitransparent tears, readily pulverized; it has a nauseous taste. It is used for making incense for burning in churches and in Indian temples, as it was among the Jews (Exodus 30 34). See INCENSE. It is often associated with myrrh (Cant 36; 46) and with it was made an offering to the infant Saviour (Matthew 211). A specially "pure" kind, l r bhondh zakkdh, was pre sented with the shewbread (Leviticus 24 7).

      E. ‘V. ( .. MASTERMAX

      FRANKLY, frank li (xapii;oficu, charizomai): "Frankly" in the sense of freely," "readily," "gra ciously," occurs only in the 1 translation of charizomai, prop erly "to gratify," "to do that which is grateful or pleasing," "to forgive" (Luke 7 42, "He frankly for gave them both," RV has simply "forgave"; the same word is translation 1 in ver 43, AV and RV, "forgave," in ver 21 AV it is "gave," RV "bestowed," granted to see). It occurs in the NT only in Luke and Paul.

      FRAV, fra (Tin, haradh, "to make afraid," "cause to tremble": AV of Deuteronomy 28 20; Jeremiah 7 33; Zee 1 21; RV "frighten," "terrify"). See WAR.

      FRECKLED, frek"ld, SPOT (pr.2 , bdhak; LXX d’<j>6s, alphas, called in RV "a tetter," and described as a bright shining spot [ ‘ drdth I bhcndth}): These white eruptions did not render the person so marked ceremonially unclean (Leviticus 13 39). This form of skin disease is described by Hippocrates as usually of no great importance and indicative of a sluggishness of body; it is probably some form of local psoriasis. There is a cognate modern Arab. word applied to a facial eezeinatous eruption. For other references to skin diseases, see LEPROSY.


      FREEDMAN, fred man, FREEMAN, fre man: The term occurs in 1 Corinthians 7 22; Col 311, and Rev 6 15, and represents two slightly different words. In 1 Corinthians 7 22 the word is d-n-eXevDepos, <i/>clfu- thcros, "a freeman," one who was born a slave and has received freedom. In this case it refers to spiritual freedom. He that was in bondage to sin has been presented with spiritual freedom by the Lord. In Rev 6 15 the word is simply fXeMepos, eleutheros, "a free man" as opposed to a slave.

      FREELY, fre li (Z2n , hinndm, HI":, n dhdbhdli; Sajpedv, ddrnin, irappTio-id^oiiai, parrhesidzomai) . "Freely" occurs in three senses:

      (1) (Jratis, for nothing (Numbers 11 5, hinndm, "for nought," "the fish which we did eat, in Egvpt freelv," RV "for nought"); Alt 10 Samuel, dorcan, "Freely ye have received, freely give," RV omits "have"; Rom 321, "being justified freely by his grace"; 2 Corinthians 11 7, "1 have preached to you the gospel freely," RV "for nought"; Rev 21 G; 22 17, "Take the water of life freely"; charizomai (Rom 8 32) is translation d "freely give," id charisllientn (1 Corinthians 2 12), "the things that are freely given," ARV has "were" for "are."

      (2) Willingly, spontaneously: n dhdbhdJi, "will ing offering" (Psalm 54 6, "I will freely sacrifice unto thee," RV "with a freewill-offering"; Hos 14 4, "I will love them freely"); nddhabh, "to give will ingly" (Ezr 2 68, RV "willingly offered"; cf 1 6); n dabh Aram. (7 15; cf vs 13.16).

      (3) Without hindrance or restraint, dkhal, "to eat" is rendered in Genesis 2 16, "Thou mayest freely eat," AVm "Hebrews, eating thou shalt eat"; 1 Samuel 14 30, "if .... the people had eaten freely"; par- rh esiazomai, "to speak freely, openly, boldly" (Acts 26 26, "Unto whom also I speak freely"); meld parrhesias, "with full speech" (2 29, "1 may say un to you freely").

      RV has "have drunk freelv" for "well drunk" (John 2 10). The word is inrllnixko, Pass, "to become drunk." Comparison with Luke 12 45; Eph 5 IS; 1 Thessalonians 5 7; Rev 17 2, where the same word is translation d AV "made drunk," RV "made drunken" (Mt24 49; Acts 2 15; 1 Corinthians 11 21; Rev 17 6, "drunken"), will show that the meaning is "drunk," which was the rendering of Tyndale and Cranmer; Vulg has cum incbriati fncriid; Plummer renders "have become drunk, are drunk."

      W. L. WALKER

      FREEWILL OFFERING, fre wil ofer-ing. See SACRIFICE.

      FREEWOMAN, fre woom-aii (i’t’>Qtpa, dcuthera) : Found but, 4 t in AV (Gal 4 In the first three passages it refers to Sarah, the freewoman and true wife of Abraham as in cont rast with Hagar, the Egyp slave girl who became his concubine (Genesis 16 1 ff). In the last, passage a metaphorical appli cation of the term is made to the Christians who are the children of promise, of freedom, of the spirit, the children of the freewoman, in contrast with the Jews who are the children of tin- letter, of bondage, of the bondwoman.

      FREQUENT, fre kwent (irtpicro-OTe pcos, pcris- soterd.i): "Frequent," adj. (from Lat frequens, fre-

      (juctiti/i, "crowded") occurs only once in the text of AV, as the translation of per insole rux, advb. in comparative degree of pcrissos, "abundantly," hence "more abundantly" (cf 2 Corinthians 1 12); in 2 Corinthians 11 23, "in prisons more frequent," RV "more abundantly"; and once in m of AV (Prov 27 6) as translation of df/tar, "to be abundant," RV in text, "profuse."

      ARV has "frequent" for "open" (1 Samuel 3 1, "The word of Jehovah was precious [in, rare] in those days; there was no frequent vision," m "Hebrews widely spread" (the word is />drac,, "to break forth," "to scatter," etc). ERV retains "open," with "fre quent, Hebrews widely spread" in m. "I-Yequent" (the vb.) does not occur. W. L. WALKEH

      FRESH, adj.: The translation of thn , hndhunh, "new," "freshy (Job 29 20, "My glory is fresh in me"); of "li f, I sfiadh, "sap," "moisture" (Numbers 11 8, of the manna, "as the taste of fresh oil," RVm "cakes baked with oil"; of "I<1 , r<i*andn, "to be fresh and green" (Psalm 92 10, "fresh oil"); of y’vKiJS, t/lukux, "sweet" (Jas 3 12, "salt water. and fresh," RV "sweet"). Fresher is the translation of CJ|5i3^, ruta- pfmsh, "to become fresh" (Job 33 25; "His flesh shall be fresher than a child s").

      RV has "fresh" for "green" (Genesis 30 37; Leviticus 23 14), for "moist" (Numbers 6 3), for "full" (Leviticus 2 14; 2 Kings 4 42), for "new" (Judges 15 15; Matthew 9 17; Mark 2 22; Luke 5 38). W. L. WALKEH

      FRET, FRETTING (rnn , hdrdh, 1X13, md ar): To "fret" is from for (prefix) and clan, "to eat," "to consume." The word is both trans and intraiis in AV: (1) trans as translation of hdrdh, "to burn," Hithpael, "to fret one s self," "to be angry" (Psalm 37 1, "Fret not thyself because of evil-doers"; vs 7.8; Prov 24 19); of kd^fiph, "to be angry," etc (Isaiah 8 21, "They shall fret themselves, and curse," etc); of rug/uiz, "to be moved" (with anger, etc) (E/k 16 43, "Thou hast fretted me in all these things," ARV "raged against me"). For Leviticus 13 55, see under Fretting below. (2) Intrans, it is the translation of rd*<tm, "to rage," Hiphil, "to provoke to anger" (1 Samuel 1 6, "Her rival provoked her sore, to make her fret") ; of zd*<t/>ft, "to be sad," "to fret" (Prov 19 3, "His heart fretteth against Jeh").

      Fretting in the sense of eating away, consuming, is used of the leprosy, tnd ar, "to be sharp, bitter,

      Fried Fuel



      Annotated by NewtonStein, Cambridge Theological Seminary


      painful" (Leviticus 13 f>l..~>2;14 44, ";i fretting leprosy 1 ; in ver f>~> we have "il [is| fret inward" ("fret" pas), part.), as (lie 1 r ol /> Iji >/n l/i from /tiiljntii, Mo dig" (a pit ), t he word meaning "a depression," "a hollow or sunken spot in a garment, affected by a kind of leprosy," RV "it is a fret ."

      RV has "fretful" for "angry" (Prov 21 I D, in "vexation." ‘V. L. WALKKU

      FRIED, frld. LOCUSTS.

      See BUKAD, 2I, I!, (2); FOOD, 2;

      FRIEND, frend, FRIENDSHIP, frend ship: In

      the OT two words, variously translation 1 "friend" or "com panion": ~>~! , rrVA, indicating a mere associate, passing friend, neighbor, or companion; 2 HS , (ilialtli, indicating affection natural or unnatural. In the NT also two words: ercupos, IK tut m*. "a comrade, or "fellow," and </H’OS, jt/tilox, suggesting a more affectionate relation.

      Literal lire a hounds in concrete examples of friend ship of either kind noted above, and of profoundly philosophic as well as sentimental and poetic expo sitions of the idea of friendship. Notable among these are the OT examples. Abraham, because of t he intimacy of his relations, was called "the friend of God" (-2 Chronicles 20 7; Isaiah 41 Samuel; Jas 2 2)5). "Jeli spake unto Moses face to face, as a man .... unto his friend" (Exodus 33 11). The romantic, aspect of the friendship of Huth and Naomi is interesting (Huth 1 Hi-lS). The devotion of Ilushai, who is repeat edly referred to as David s friend (2 Samuel 15 37; 16 lli), is a notable illust ration of the affect ion of a sub ordinate for his superior. The mutual friendship of David and Jonathan (1 Samuel 18 1), from which the author is made to say, "The soul of Jonathan was knit wit h t he soul of David, and Jonathan loved him as his own soul," is another example. Again in his pathetic lament, for Jonathan (2 Samuel 1 2l>), David says in highly emotional tones that his love "was wonderful, passing the love of women." Elijah and Elisha form a unique illustration of semi- professional affection (2 Kings 2).

      In the NT, Jesus and His disciples illustrate the growth of friendship from that of teacher and dis ciple, lord and servant, to that of friend and friend (John 15 13-ir>). Paul and Timothy are likewise conspicuous (2 Timothy 1 2).

      In general lit. we have the classic incident, re corded by Plutarch, of Damon and Pythias during the rule of J)ionysius. Pythias, condemned to death, was about to be executed but desired to see his family. Damon offered himself as a ransom in case he .should not return in time for the hour of execution. Returning in time, both were released by (lie great. Dionysius, who asked to be taken into the secret, of Mich friendship. The writings on friendship are many. Plato and Cicero have immor talized themselves by their comments. Cicero held dearly the friendship of Scipio, declaring that of all that, Nature or Fortune ever gave him there was nothing which could compare with the friend ship of Scipio. Bacon, Emerson, Black, Gladden, King, Ilillis, and many others in later days have written extensively concerning friendship. The best illustration of the double use of the word (see above) is that in Prov 18 24, "lie that maketh many friends doeth it to his own destruction; but there is a friend that sticketh closer t han a brother." Again, "Iron sharpeneth iron; so a man sharpeneth the countenance of his friend" (27 17). The honesty and frankness of genuine friends are set forth in the maxim, "Faithful are the wounds of a friend" (27 15). W ALTER G. CL2>PIX<I.;R

      FRIENDS, CHIEF FRIENDS (ol 4>iXoi irpdiToi,

      J-oi /iliiloi jirotoi): Expressions used in 1 and 2 Mace

      to designate the favored courtiers of the Antioehi. Matlathias is promised enrolment among the king s friends, to tempt him to apostatize (1 Mace 2 IS); Alexander I alas writes Jonathan among his Chief Friends (10 <>.">). Cf also 1 Mace 3 3S; 6 10.11; 10 lilt; 11 20.27; 2 Mace 8 <).

      FRINGES, frin jis (flUTi , <l<ith, "tassel, lock" [Numbers 15 3S.3!)], 2 p"!^, i/ ilhlllni, "twisted threads," "festoons" [Deuteronomy 22 12]j: Tassels worn by the Israel ites on the four corners of their garments as remind ers of "all the commandments of Jehovah," in

      l- rin^ed Skirls from Tomb at IJiib-el Melook.

      accordance with the law set out in Numbers 15 37-41 and Deuteronomy 22 12. These tassels originally contained a thread of Fkheleth, "violet." Jewish tradition, however, has failed to retain the Vkhclcth, because of doubt as to the exact meaning of the term, and instead dark blue lines were dyed on the borders of the talllth or garment in which the fringes were placed. According to tradition any garment having four corners required the mnemonic- fringes, the importance of which was weighed against "all the commandments of the Lord." In NT times such garments were still worn (cf Matthew 9 20; 14 30; 23 ">). The later Jews, alter adopting the garments of the Diaspora, in order to observe the ^Iciili, com mandment began to use two extra four-cornen d fringed garments: the large taUlUi while at prayer, and the small tallJI/i, or /irlm /.-/t/i /i/iot/i, as an undergarment during the day. Their tradition prescribes the exact manner in which (Mich tassel

      Assyrian Fringed Garment.

      shall be made, and gives a symbolic meaning to the numbers of windings and knots, somewhat after the manner of the string-writing of several early civilizations (cf the Peruvian quipus). Thus in the flqith a long cord is wrapped around seven shorter cords first seven times, then eight, then eleven, and




      Annotated by NewtonStein, Cambridge Theological Seminary

      Fried Fuel

      finally thirteen, each series being separated from the others by two knots. The numbers seven and eight constituting fifteen together suggest !"P , YH, and the number eleven, HI, W2. Together they make up the holy name YnUWc2. The number thirteen stands for "inX , ehadh, the letters of which taken as numerals equal thirteen. The sentence Yahweh chwlh means "Yahweh is one." Many other suggestions, more or less fanciful, have been worked out, all tending to associate the fringes with the Law in the mind of t he wearer. See DRESS.


      FROCK, frok (flVKjiP, simldh; W|AO’IVOV, hfimo- linon): The hempen frock, mentioned in Kcclus 40 4 as a mark of the lowly, was a simple garment consisting of a square piece of cloth wrapped around the body. It is the same as the garment (xintldh) which we find the poor man using as his only bed covering by night (Exodus 22 20 f); the traveler, as the receptacle for his belongings (cf Exodus 12 34); and the common people of both sexes as their general outer garments, (hough (here was some difference in appearance 1 between (he siinldh of (he man and that of the woman (D( 22 5). See DRESS. ELLA DAVIS ISAACS

      FROG (SH-}E, c phanle"*; cf Arab.

      (jnf.lH* [Exodus 8 2fT; Psalm 78 4.5; 105 30]; bdlrticltoH [Rev 16 1-5]): The references in I ss, as well as in Exodus, are to the plague of frogs. In Kev 16 13 we have, "And I saw coming out of the mouth of the dragon, and out of the mouth of the beast , and out of the mouth of (he false prophet, three unclean spirits, as it were frogs." The word f />/innlc" ~ probably referred both to frogs and to loads, as does (he Aral), da/da 1 . In Pal and Syria Rtnui esculenla, Bufo ririilix and 2 yln arboreaare common. According to Mr. Michael ,]. Nicoll, assistant di rector of the Zoological Gardens at (il~nh, near Cairo, the commonest Egyp species are JI 2/KI nnix- ctiiici/tiis and Bufo rcyuldris. Runn cxi-itlt nlu, Bufo ririilix and Bufo villains are also found, but are much less common. ALFRED ELY DAV

      FRONTIER, fron ter, frun ter (HSp r , /,v7rr’): The word occurs once in pi. in Ezekiel 25 9. RVm has "in every quarter."

      FRONTLETS, fnmt lets (rii:"J , tntd/il/dlli, (rtil/i/i, "to bind"): Ornaments worn on the fore head, particularly phylacteries (which see), which were worn in this manner and also on the arms (Exodus 13 Hi; Deuteronomy 6 8; 11 IS; cf also Exodus 13 9).

      FROST, frost t ("1E3 , frphor, "hoar-frosl ," Exodus 16 1 1; Job 38 29; Vcrn, hanamal, ])erh. "the r;/>’.s,"

      Psalm 78*47; rP.J3, kcrah, "cold," Genesis 1. Forma- 31 40; Job 37 lOAV; Jeremiah 36 30): A tion temperature of freezing or lower is

      called frost. Dew forms when the temperature is decreased; and if below freezing, the dew lakes (he form of a while film or covering over rocks and leaves. This white covering is called hoar-frost. Like dew it is the result of conden sation of the moisture of the air on objects which radiate their heat quickly. In order that conden sation may take place the atmosphere must be saturated. Frost may be expected on clear, still nights when the radiation is sufficient to reduce the temperature below the freezing-point.

      In Syria and Pal frost is a very rare occurrence at sea-level; but on the hills and elevated plains it is usual in winter, beginning with November, and on the highest elevations throughout (he year. Lale spring frosts in March or early April

      do great damage to fruit. In clear weather there is

      often a great variation in the 1 emperature of the day

      and the night, esp. on the inland plains,

      2. In Syria so that lit ., as Jacob said to Laban, "In and the day the drought consumed me, and Palestine the frost by night" (Genesis 31 40); "In

      the day to the heat, and in the night to

      the frost" (Jeremiah 36 30; cf 22 19), a passage which

      suggests that Jehoiakim s corpse was left unburied.

      The meaning of hdndnidl, translation 1 "frost" in Psalm 78 47

      (see above), "He destroyed .... their sycomore-

      trees with frost" (m "great hail-

      3. In Egypt stones"), is uncertain. "Frost is un

      known in Egypt, and Gesenius suggests ants, comparing it with Arab, tuuntil" (Temple, BD, s.v.).

      The manna in the wilderness is compared to hoar frost. "A small round thing, small as the hoar frost" (Exodus 16 14). Manna is occa-

      4. Figura- sionally found in Syria now as a tive Uses flaky, gelatinous substance formed on

      bushes and rocks. The elements of Nature are indications of God s power, and are re ferred to as signs of His might : "By the breath of Ciod frost is given" (Job 37 10 AV). "The hoary frost of heaven, who hath gendered it?" (Job 38 29); "lie destroyed their vines with hail, and their sycomore-trees with frost" (Psalm 78 -17): "He scat- tereth the hoar-frost like ashes" (Psalm 147 10).

      . ‘LFUK1) 2. JOY"

      .FROWARDNESS, fro werd-nes: The translation of r lSriP, , (<i/i/>u/;/idth, the pi. of (nhpuLi/tlh, "per versity," "foolishness" (from lidji/iuklt, "(o turn about") in Prov 2 14, "delight in the frowardness of the wicked," ARV "the perverseness of evil," m "the evil man" (cf ver 12; some render "deceit"); 6 14 ARV, "perverseness"; 10 32, "the mouth of the wicked speaketh frowardness," ARV "spcaketii perverseness," m "is."

      FRUIT, froot. Sec FOOD; BOTANY, and special arts, on APPLE; FIG; VINE, etc.

      FRUSTRATE, frus trat (T1S , purur; deert w, athdeu): "Frustrate" (from fr/ixlm, "vain") is the translation of pdrar, "to break," "to make void," "(o bring to nothing" (Ezr 4 5), "to frustrate their purpose" (Isaiah 44 25, "that frustrate th the signs of the liars"); of atheteo, "to displace," "to reject or make void or null": Gal 2 21, "I do not, frustrate the grace of God" (by setting up the righteousness which is "through the law"), 1! V "make void" ; cf I Mace 11 30, "Nothing hereof shall be revoked," H’ "an nulled" (utlit tcd).

      RV has "frustrateth" for "disappointeth" (Job 5 12, pa r(ir).

      The adj. appears (2 Esd 10 34), "frustrate of my hope" (Jth 11 11, "frustrate of his purpose" Id/iral-ctos]). ‘V. L. WALKEH

      FRYING-PAN, frl ing-pan. See BREAD; PAN.

      FUEL, fu el (Hb;X , ok/ddh, or , ma d- kholclh, "food"): Is mentioned specifically only in the OT, in Isaiah 9 5.19; Kings/k 15 4.0; 21 32. Its general, lit. meaning in these connections is "food for fire," and might, include any sort of combustible material. The common forms of fuel were wood of various soils (even including (horns, Psalm 58 9; 118 12; Eccl 7 0), and dried stalks of flowers or grass (Matthew 6 30), charred wood as charcoal (Leviticus 16 12; Isaiah 44 19, and frequently), and dried (lung (Ezekiel 4 12.1. )]. There is no certain indication that our coal was known to the Hebrews as fuel, and t heir houses, being without chimneys, wen; not, con structed for (he extensive use of fuel for warmth. LEONARD W. DOOLAN

      Fugitive Furnish



      Annotated by NewtonStein, Cambridge Theological Seminary


      , palit, from from <^- , nil a ‘ "to

      FUGITIVE, fu ji-tiv (IT

      paint, "to escape"; 3?!, ?m waver"; 5D3 , nophcl, from 522 , ndphal, "to fall"; rP-Q, />rl/i, IT 1 "!?, 6"ri/i, and rH^E , mibhrah, from HIS, barah, "to flee"): One who flees from danger (Isaiah 15 5; E/k 17 21); escapes from bond age (2 Alacc 8 35 |as adj.]); deserts from duty (Judges 12 4; 2 Kings 25 11 AV; cf Jth 16 12AV),or wanders aimlessly (Genesis 4 12.14).

      FULFIL, fool-fil (XV?, 7/m/c ; irX^pow, plcroo, reXt o), te/eo, with other words): "Fulfil" is used (1) in a sense more or less obsolete, "to fill up," com plete (Genesis 29 21.2S; Exodus 23 2<> Job 36 17, RV "full," in "filled up"; Alt 3 lf>, "to fulfil all right- eousness": Phil 2 2, "Fulfil ye my joy," ARV "make full"; cf 2 Corinthians 10 6); (2) in the sense of "to ac complish," "to carry into effect," as to fulfil the wordof,Jeh(l Kings 2 27; 8 15.24; 2 Chronicles 36 21, etc); in the NT very frequently used of the fulfilment of prophetic Scripture (Mi 1 22; 2 !.">, etc). Love is declared to be "the fulfilment {plf-rnma, "fulness"] of the law" (Rom 13 10). For "fulfil" RV has "do" (Rev 17 17); for "fulfilled" has "performed" (2 Samuel 14 22), "accomplished" (Kings/r 1 1; Alt 5 IS; 24 34; Luke 21 32; John 19 2S), with numerous other changes. ‘V. L. WALKER

      FULLER, fool er (C22 , kubhtiy; lit. "to trample," yva4>vs, (jn(ij>linix): The fuller was usually the dyer, since, before the woven cloth could be properly dyed, it must be freed from the oily and gummy substances naturally found on the raw fiber. Many different substances were anciently used for cleans ing. Among them were white clay, putrid urine, and the ashes of certain desert plants (Arab, kuli, Bib. "soap"; Mai 3 2). The fuller s shop was usually outside the city (2 Kings 18 17; Isaiah 7 3; 36 2), first, that he might have sufficient room to spread

      Egyptian Puller.

      out his cloth for drying and sunning, and second, because of the offensive odors sometimes produced by his processes. The Syrian indigo dyer still uses a cleaning process closely allied to that pictured on the Egyp monuments. The unbleached cotton is soaked in water and then sprinkled with the pow dered ashes of t he vWi ‘<’, locally called ktili, and then beaten in heaps on a flat stone either with another stone or with a large wooden paddle. The cloth is washed free from the alkali by small boys tread ing on it in a running stream or in many changes of clean water (cf En-roycl, lit. "foot fountain," but translation 1 also "fuller s fountain" because of the fullers method of washing their cloth). Mark describes Jesus garments at the time of His transfiguration as being whiter than any fuller on earth could whiten them (Alk 9 3). JAMES A. PATCH

      FULLER Samuel FIELD, fool ers feld, THE D5"O , s e dheh khobhes): In all references occurs "the conduit of the upper pool, in the highway of the fuller s field"; this must have been a well-known landmark at Jerus in the time of the monarchy.

      Here stood Rabshakeh in his interview with Elia- kim and others on the wall (2 Kings 18 17; Isaiah 36 2); clearly the highway was within easy earshot of the walls. Here Isaiah met Ahaz and Shear-jashub his son by command of Jeh (Isaiah 7 3). An old view placed these events somewhere near the present Jaffa Gate, as here runs an aqueduct from the Birlcet Main ilia outside the walls of the Birkct 2 amain d Hiitnib, inside the walls; the former was considered the "Upper Pool" and is traditionally called the "Upper Pool" of Gihon. But, these pools and this aqueduct are certainly of Liter date (see JERUSALEM). Another view puts this highway to the N. side; of the city, where there are extensive remains of a "conduit" running in from the N. In favor of this is the fact that the N. was the usual side for attack and the probable posit ion for Rabshakeh to gather his army; it also suits the conditions of Isaiah 7 3. Further, Jos (BJ, V, iv, 2) in his description of the walls places a "Monument of the Fuller" at the N.E. corner, and the name "fuller" survived in connec tion with the N. wall to the 7th century, as UK; pilgrim Arculf mentions a gate ‘V. of the Damascus gate called I orta V iliac Fullonis. The most probable view, however, is that this conduit was one con nected wit h ( iihon, the present "Virgin s Fountain" (see GIHON). This was well known as "the upper spring" (2 Chronicles 32 30), and the pool, which, we know, was at the source, would probably be called the "Upper Pool." In this neighborhood or lower down the valley near En-rogel, which is supposed by some to mean "the spring of the fuller" is the natural place to expect "fulling." Somewhere along the Kidron valley between the Virgin s Foun tain and the junction with the Tyropooon was the probable scene of the interview with Rabshakeh; the conversation may quite probably have occurred across the valley, the Assyr general standing on some part of the cliffs now covered by the village of Siloam. E. W. (!. A!ASTERMAN


      FULNESS, fool nes: The translation of TrX^pco/xa, pl&roma, which is generally, but not invariably, rendered "fulness" in the NT. Etymologically, plfrtlma which itself is derived from the vb. />l< n xl, "I fill" signifies "that which is or has been filled"; it also means "that which fills or with which a thing is filled"; then it signifies "fulness," "a fulfilling."

      In the Gospels it occurs as follows: Matthew 9 10 and

      Alk 2 21: in both of these passages it means "the

      fulness," that by which a gap or rent

      1. "Ful- is filled up, when an old garment is ness" in the repaired by a patch: Alk 6 43, They Gospels took up fragments, the fulness of

      twelve baskets ; 8 20, The fulness of how many baskets of fragments did ye take up? John 1 Kings), out of his fulness we all received.

      Elsewhere in the NT "fulness" is used by Paul alone, who employs it 12 t, in addition to the fre quent use he makes of the vb. "to fill."

      2. Its Use ( )f these 12, no fewer than 6 are in Eph in the and Col. The references are these: Pauline Rom 11 12, "If . . . . their loss [is] the Epistles riches of the Gentiles; how much more

      their fulness?" The "fulness" of Israel here refers to their being, as a nation, received by God to a participation in all the benefits of Christ s salvation. Ver 2.">, "A hardening .... hath be fallen Israel, until the fulness of t he ( Jentiles be come in." 13 10, "Love .... is the fulfilment [the ful filling] of the law"; that is, love is not a partial ful filment, by obedience to this or that commandment, but a complete filling up of what the law enjoins. 15 29, "I shall come in the fulness of the blessing of Christ." 1 Corinthians 10 26, "The earth is the Lord s,




      Annotated by NewtonStein, Cambridge Theological Seminary

      Fugitive Furnish

      and the fulness thereof." Gal 4 4, "when the ful ness of the time came." The fulness of the time is that portion of time by which the longer antecedent period is completed. Eph 1 10, "unto a dispen sation of the fulness of the times." Ver 23, "the church, which is his body, the fulness of him that filleth all in all." The church is the fulness of Christ; the body of believers is filled with the pres ence, power, agency and riches of Christ. 3 19, "that ye may be filled unto all the fulness of God"- that ye may be wholly filled with God and with His presence and power and grace. 4 13, "unto the measure of the stature of the fulness of Christ." Col 1 19, "In him should all the fulness dwell." 2 9, "In him dwelleth all the fulness of the Godhead bodily" (cf Luke 2 40.52; 4 I).

      "Fulness" in Eph and Col is used to present some

      of the most prominent thoughts in these epistles,

      sometimes referring to Christ, some-

      3. "Ful- times to the church and the individual ness" in Christian. Christ is Himself to "ful- Eph and fil" all things in heaven and on earth Col (Eph 4 10 AVm). We cannot sepa rate "the fulness of Christ" in this

      passage (vcr 13) from the statement in 1 23, that the Christ is being fulfilled, and finds His fulness in the church. When all the saints have come to the unity which is their destined goal, or in other words, to the full-grown man, the Christ, will have been fulfilled. Thus they will have together reached "the full measure of the maturity of the fulness of the Christ" (J. Armitage Robinson, Conim. on Eph, 1S3). The church and individual believers have, by faith, the full possession of all that Christ has to impart the grace and comfort and strength of Christ received by them now. Cf John 1 10; In him ye are complete, are made full (Col 2 10); that is, the fulness of moral, intellectual and spiritual perfection is communicated by Christ to all who are united to Him. "When as the result of the Holy Spirit s inward strengthening, Christ dwells in the heart, and His knowledge-surpassing love is known, the only limit to spiritual excellence is to be filled unto all the fulness of God !" (2 DK, 735).

      In the passages from Col, "the fulness" in Christ is contrasted with the mediating aeons or angel- powers or spiritual manifestations

      4. Its Use supposed to be intermediate between by the False God and the world. The false teach- Teachers at ers at Colossae seem to have used "ful- Colossae ness," as a technical or semi-technical

      term, for the purpose of their phil osophical or theosophical teaching, employing it to signify the entire series of angels or aeons, which filled the space or interval between a holy God and a world of matter, which was conceived of as essen tially and necessarily evil. Teaching of this sort was entirely derogatory to the person and work of Christ. In opposition, therefore, to the Colossian false teaching in regard to "the fulness," Paul shows what the facts really are, that in Christ dwells all the fulness of the Godhead bodily. The fulness of

      the Godhead is the totality of the Di-

      5. The Ful- vine powers and attributes, all the ness in wealth of the being and of the nature Christ of God eternal, infinite, unchangeable

      in existence, in knowledge, in wisdom, in power, in holiness, in goodness, in truth, in love. This is the fulness of the nature of God life, light , love; and this has its permanent, its settled abode in Christ. All that is His own by right is Ills by His Father s good pleasure also. It was the Fat lier s good pleasure that in Christ should all the fulness dwell.

      Any limitation, therefore, of the meaning of "ful ness," which would make the indwelling of the ful ness of the Godhead in Christ a matter either of

      the future, or of the past only, is inconsistent with what is said of "the fulness" in Him, in Col 1 19; 2 9. The reference in both passages is to the time less and eternal communication of the fulness of the Godhead from the Father to the Son.

      It was in a sense developed along the lines of the Colossian teaching regarding "the fulness," that the Gnostics afterward used the term. See GNOS TICISM. JOHN RUTHERFURD

      FUNERAL, fu ner-al. See BURIAL.

      FURLONG, fur long (o-raSiov, stddion, "sta dium"; Luke 24 13; John 6 19; 11 IS; Rev 14 20; 21 16) : A Gr measure of length, being GOO Gr ft., or 100 orguial equal to 000 J- Eng. ft., and thus some what less than a furlong, which is OGO ft. See WEIGHTS AND MEASURES.

      FURNACE, fur nas: The word is used in the OT EV to translate several Hebrews words:

      Kibhshun, in Genesis 19 2S, where the smoke of the destruction of the cities of the plain is said to have ascended "as the smoke of a f."; in Exodus 9 8, where Jeh commands to take "handfuls of ashes of the f. and . . . . sprinkle it toward heaven," etc.

      Kur, in Deuteronomy 4 20, where Jeh is represented, when speaking of taking the children of Israel out of Egypt, as taking them "out of the iron furnace."

      l Alll, in Psalm 12 0, when- "the words of Jeh" are said to be "pure," "as silver tried in a f."; cf Prov 17 3, "f. for gold."

      Attun, in Dnl 3 6, where mention is made of "a burning fiery f." into which Daniel and his compan ions were cast. There is good reason to believe that these words all stand for either a brick-kiln or a smelting furnace.

      In the NT a notable figurative use is made of the word in the phrase "the f. of fire," r’ Kdfj-Lvos TOV Trvp6s t he kdminos toil piiros. It is found in the parable of the Tares (Matthew 13 42) as part of the remarkable imagery of that parable; while in the companion parable of the Drag-Net (ver 50) it stands as a symbol of the final destiny of the impenitent, a synonym of "hell"; cf Jeremiah 29 22; Dnl 3 0.22; Rev 20 14^15, etc, and "eternal fire" (Matthew 25 41), "un quenchable fire" (3 12), "the Gehenna of fire" (5 22m; 18 9 ;j Mark 9 43m, etc). A fact- which modern travelers speak of, that furnaces for punishment have been found in Persia as elsewhere in the East, sheds some light upon this use of the expression "the f. of fire." GEO. B. EAGER


      FURNISH, fur nisii (tfb. Q , male ; ir’^9o|Aai, plt- thoinai): To "furnish" is to supply with what is useful or necessary, to fit out, provide, equip. It is the translation of several Hebrews or Gr words: of mule , "to fill in or up," "to complete" (Isaiah 65 11 AV); ntisd, "to lift up," "to aid" (1 Kings 9 11); *anak, Hiphil, prob. "to lay on the neck," "to encircle" (with a bracelet) (Deuteronomy 15 14), of a slave set at, liberty; *drakh, "to arrange in order," "to lay out a table" (Psalm 78 19 AV; Prov 9 2); *dsah k f ll, "to make a vessel for containing things" (Jeremiah 46 19, "Furnish thyself to go into captivity," RVm "Hebrews, make thee vessels of captivity"); plethomai, "to be filled" (Matthew 22 10 AV); stronnumi, "to strew," "to spread" (Mark 14 15; Luke 22 12); cxartizo, "to complete fully," "to equip" (2 Timothy 3 17).

      In Ecclus 29 26 we have "furnish a table" _(A:os- mco); 44 6, "furnished with ability" (choreged); 1 Mace 14 34 AV, "He furnished them with all things" (tithemi). W. L. WALKER

      Furniture Gad



      Annotated by NewtonStein, Cambridge Theological Seminary

      FURNITURE, fur ni-tur ("G , ktir, D" 1 ??, kt llm; o-KevT), /,-< ‘rj : In (Jen 31 34 Av7r is translation 1 "furniture" in AV, but, "saddle" in ARV. The latter is decidedly preferable. It was the "camel- basket," or the basket-saddle of the camel, which was a sort, of palanquin bound upon the saddle. I pon this saddle-basket Rachel sat with the tera- phini hidden h, and her wily father did not suspect .(ho presence of his gods in such a place. In oilier places the word L tTini is used, and is generally rendered "vessels," though sometimes furniture. It may have many other renderings also (see BDli). Exodus 31 7; 39 33 mention the furniture of the Tent, which is specified in other places. Moses is in structed (25 2) to make a sanctuary or tabernacle and the furniture thereof according to the pattern showed him in the Mount. The furniture of the Court consisted of the bra/en altar and laver (40 2<l.:;0); that of the Holy Place, of the table of show- bread, t he golden lampstand and altar of incense (39 3(1; 40 2-2 -L li; He. 9 2); tha< of the Holy of Holies, ot the ark MIX! mercy-seat overshadowed by the cherubim. The tribe of Levi was set apart by ,Ieh to "keep all the furniture of the tent of meeting 1 (Numbers 3 <X). When David organized the tabemacle- worship in Jerus and assigned the Leviles their sepa rate duties, certain men "were appointed over the furniture, and over all the vessels of the sanctuary" (1 Chronicles 9 29). In Nah 2 9 the sing, form of the word /,"‘, is used, and is rendered "furniture." The prophet, refers to the abundant, costly, luxurious furniture and raiment, largely the results of their conquests and plunder in manv countries.

      In Acts 27 1!) the word skeue is translation 1 in AV and RV "tackling," with "furniture" in RYm.

      By way of information regarding the general furniture of the house little is said directly in the Scriptures. The chamber built for Elisha upon the wall contained a bed, a table, a seat, and lampstand. This was doubtless the furnishing of most bedrooms when it could be afforded. The prophet Amos had a supreme contempt for the luxurious furniture of the grandees of Samaria, (3 12; 6-1). For full par ticulars see Horsi-; TAHKKXACLK; TKMPIJO.

      J. J. RKKVK

      FURROW, fur d (25P, tclem): The word is fr 1 "furrows" in Job 39 10; 31 38; Psalm 65 !() llos 10 1; 1211 (Psalm 65 10 AV, "ridges"). In these passages the fields are pictured as they were

      in the springtime or late autumn. When the showers had softened the earth, the seed was sown and the soil turned over with the plow and left in furrows, not harrowed and pulverized as in our modern farming. The Syrian farmer today follows the custom of his ancient predecessors.

      Another word, n:"T3 , nni /li/d/t, occurs in two passages, first in the figurative sense in Psalm 129 3, and second in an obscure passage in 1 Samuel 14 14. Three other words, ‘~tril.(/li(lh, "p?, ‘ujin, translation 1 "furrows" in AV, are probablv more properly rendered in ARY "ridges" (Psalm 66 10), "beds" (Ezekiel 17 7.10), and "trans gressions" (2os 10 10). See AGRICULTURE; PLOW.


      FURTHER, fm ther, FURTHERANCE, fur ther- ans (r?^, yayajth; tn, <’, TrpoKOTr-f], itm/cn/if): Further, advli. and adj., is comparative of "forth," meaning "to a greater distance," "something more," "moreover," etc; the vl>. "to further," means "to help forward," "advance," "assist." The vb. occurs (Ezr 8 30) as the translation of iidsa , "to lift up": "They furthered the people and the house of God" (cf 1 Kings 911; Ezr 1 4); of pilk "to send forth," "carry out" (Psalm 140 8, " Further not his evil device").

      Furtherance is the translation of prnkopr, "a going for ward," "advance" (Phil 1 12, "the furtherance of the gospel," RY "progress," vcr 12"), "for your furtherance and joy," KV "progress").

      Furthermore is the Ir of cil/i, "then," "so then" (Tie 12 !); of In Inijinn, "for the rest," or as to the rest" (1 Thcss 4 1, RV "finally then").

      RV omits " further" (Acts 12 3); has " further" for "more than right" (Job 34 23), for "farther 1 hence" (Mark 1 1<i, different, text ) ; "What further need have we of witnesses?" for "What need we anv further witnesses?" (14 (53); "your fellowship in furtherance of the gospel" (Phil 1 f> 2 22); "to the furthest bound" for "all perfection" (Job 28

      3). ‘. L. WALK!-:!!

      FURY, fu ri (dXacmop, tili mlnr, "not, to forget," "significant of revenge"): Occurs only in 2 Mace 7 2 AV, "Thou like a fury |RY "Thou, miscreant"] takest us out of this present life." See also WRATH;

      FIKKCK.XKSS; A’<i-:it.

      FUTURE, fu tjir, fu chur. See ESC2ATOUHJY.

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      [16] "AMERIPEDIA™" - "Rush Limbaugh Quotes" on Christ and Christianity!

      [17] "AMERIPEDIA™" - PNN, "PALIN NEWS-NETWORK”: Her Book Sales Set Records!

      [18] "AMERIPEDIA™" - "TALK-RADIO REPUBLICANS, Michele Bachmann, BRIEF-BIO!"

      [19] "AMERIPEDIA™" - "TALK-RADIO REPUBLICANS, "Republican Power and Catholics!"

      [20] "AMERIPEDIA™" - "Hall of Faith Christian Activist Ministers, 2nd-half 20th Century "

      [21] "AMERIPEDIA™" - "TALK-RADIO REPUBLICANS, "American Bible Catholics!"


      [23] "AMERIPEDIA™" - Reagan Republicans Home Page

      [24] "AMERIPEDIA™" - PRO-LIFE Page

      [25] "AMERIPEDIA™" - Michele-Bachmann, TEA PARTY DARLING Causing “Hysteria-on-the-Left!”

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