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Comprehensive Bible Encyclopedia™
By The Cambridge Theological Seminary™
Where The Word of God Is: "STILL...INERRANT!"

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Cambridge

Comprehensive Bible Encyclopedia

All Entries for LETTER "K"

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"Welcome to CHRISTIPEDIA™

Understanding Future According to "HIS WORD",
Understanding History Providentially, as "HIS-STORY!"
And Today, From Where We've Been, To Where "HE'S LEADING!"
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FACT: Wikipedia is the "World's Most-Referenced Resource!"
FACT: Wiki Philosophy: ATHEIST, ANTI-CHRISTIAN, ANTI-BIBLE;
FACT: We Recognize Wikipedia's Great Success
HOWEVER, WE URGE YOU NOT TO TRUST THEIR ANTI-CHRISTIAN BIAS!

See WIKIPEDIA Founder Jimmy Wales on CELEBRATED ATHEIST PAGE]
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"CHRISTIPEDIA™ Recommendation!

Use Ameripedia, Conservapedia, Theopedia, Biblipedia, Islamipedia;
Scriptipedia, Judaeopedia, Medipedia, Christipedia, Musicipedia, etc;
For ALL information: A "BIBLICAL WORLDVIEW REALLY MATTERS!"
We plead for support to Biblical Christian Researchers, Scholars;

"CHRISTIPEDIA™" is a “Trademark” Of NewtonStein Academy,
Of Cambridge Theological Seminary™, American Bible Church;
PLEASE DO NOT INFRINGE!


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From An "INERRANT-BIBLE" VIEWPOINT

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The Web
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God's Eternal Guarantee!

"Heaven and Earth Shall Pass Away;
But GOD'S WORDS Shall NOT Pass Away! (Matthew 5:18) "
--Jesus the Messiah, AD-33
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    NewtonStein Statement On Holy Scriptures;

    The ‘Lens’ Through Which All Knowledge Is Understood;

    THE WORD of GOD, AXIOM-1:

    "IF" there exists any such thing as 'The Word of God'; [and ALL evidence proves such does exist:]

    "THEN" by inherent definition - it must be:

      Holy, Inspired, Inerrant, Intrepid, Infallible, Infinitive, Invincible, Indestructible, Inexhaustible, Inalienable, Immutable, Implacable, Impossible-to-Improve: Eternal and Indubitable NEVER FAILING and ALL CONQUERING!

      DEDUCTING from the simple fact - that God equates His Word with Himself:

        "In the Beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God, . . ." John 1:1 (and other Scriptures),
    Thus 'GOD'S WORD' can have no lesser standard than stated above;


    "GOD'S WORD MUST" THEREFORE BE:

      As true in history, archeology, geography, Earth science, medical science, nutrition, gerontology, agriculture, botany, astronomy, physics, chemistry, climatology, government, law, psychology, sociology - and every subject it touches - as in Theology, Divinity and Doctrine:

    And "IF IT BE NOT" - true in all subjects mentioned above; and And "IF IT BE NOT"

      Holy, Inspired, Inerrant, Intrepid, Infallible, Infinitive, Invincible, Indestructible, Inexhaustible, Inalienable, Immutable, Implacable, Impossible-to-Improve: Eternal and Indubitable in EVERY FIELD OF KNOWLEDGE:
    Whatever else it may be, it cannot be ‘The Incomparable Word’ of the Great Creator God!

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    [36] “CHRISTIPEDIA™" – Evangelicals Call for Government School Exodus!

    [37] “CHRISTIPEDIA™" - "Hall of Faith Christian Activist Ministers, 2nd-half 20th Century "

    [38] “CHRISTIPEDIA™" –The Early Christian-Church Outlaws Homosexuality!

    [39] “CHRISTIPEDIA™" – PREACHERS! Do You Know About PULPIT FREEDOM SUNDAY?

    [40] “CHRISTIPEDIA™" – Our GOD-GIVEN Rights, Guaranteed in the Bible: Called “Civil” and “Human” Rights

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    [45] “CHRISTIPEDIA™" –The Early Christian-Church Outlaws Homosexuality!

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    [49] “CHRISTIPEDIA™" - "TALK-RADIO REPUBLICANS, "Republican Power and Catholics!"

    [50] “AMERIPEDIA™" - George Washington Used 30-THEOLOGICAL TERMS, 3000 Times!

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          *HIS ULTIMATE TRUTH!

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          *HIGHEST AUTHORITY on Earth!

        As I UNDERSTAND the BIBLE,

          >> I will NEVER 'GO' against, 'VOTE' against, or 'SPEAK' Against,

          >> The WORD of GOD,

          >> So Help me GOD!

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    Many Fine Bible Scholars seem unaware,
    Of Christ's Great Parable covering the whole Church Age,
    From His Sowing First Seed and His Great End-Time Harvest of Souls!
    To Final Judgment of the Unsaved and their Damnation;
    To Christ’s Presence and Eternal Kingdom!

    (See Greatest Parable on End of Times!)
    Christ’s Greatest Parable on End of Times: Brief Overview

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    Translation Axiom: God's Word! "INSPIRED-INERRANT!"

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    (See Cambridge Comprehensive Concise COMMENTARY)

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    (See Cambridge Comprehensive Bible DICTIONARY)

    (See Cambridge Comprehensive Bible ENCYCLOPEDIA)

    (See Cambridge Comprehensive Bible COMMENTARY)



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    ** Cambridge Bible Commentary Concise, The Whole NEW TESTAMENT

    [1] Cambridge Bible Commentary Concise, HOMEPAGE and INDEX

    [2] Cambridge Bible Commentary Concise, INTRO and PREFACE

    [3] Cambridge Bible Commentary Concise, GENESIS - DEUTERONOMY

    [4] Cambridge Bible Commentary Concise, JOSHUA To ESTHER

    [5] Cambridge Bible Commentary Concise, JOB To SONG of SOLOMON

    [6] Cambridge Bible Commentary Concise, THE PSALMS

    [7] Cambridge Bible Commentary Concise, ISAIAH To JEREMIAH

    [8] Cambridge Bible Commentary Concise, EZEKIEL To MALACHI

    [9] Cambridge Bible Commentary Concise, MATTHEW To ACTS

    [10] Cambridge Bible Commentary Concise, ROMANS To THE-REVELATION

    ** Cambridge Bible Commentary Concise, The Whole OLD TESTAMENT

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    FINAL NOTE;

      Deuter-canonical Books are included as references, and less often, the Pseudo-pigraphia (extra-biblical New Testament Era writings - such as the Epistle of Barnabas - used for over 300 years by the early Church.

      Though these are 'NOT' Inerrant Scripture, they are very important as geographical and historical references, and helping to understand how particular Hebrew and Greek words were used.

      Since the Deuter-canonical Books were part of the Jewish Bible that Jesus and Paul used, they have great value for understanding the era between the Covenants, and all things Jewish.

      Many will be surprised to know they were in the Geneva Bible of Calvin and Knox - and the Puritan Pilgrims - and included in the King James for over 275 years . . .

      . . . and left out in later versions - ONLY to make the Bible MORE PROFITABLE, by selling at the usual price, while being much smaller to print!

      No wonder Paul said the "love of money is the root of all evil!"

      Further know, that that these books are rejected by most Bible Preachers today, BECAUSE the Jews of Jesus' Day rejected them for the Jewish Canon at the Council of Jamnia after the fall of Jerusalem.

      This seems reasonable enough, and though these Scribes and Lawyers SHOULD have had superior knowledge in ALL THINGS JEWISH . . . in their Jewish wisdom, THEY ALSO REJECTED JESUS AS THE MESSIAH!!!

      TheDeuter-canonical Books are very "Kingdom of God" and "Messianic" Oriented, thus the Jews sis NOT want any writings confirming that Jesus WAS the Jewish Messiah.

      The wise "Students-north-Scholars" will know them, as they provide light on New Testament Scripture that are NOT understood otherwise;


    Quick Example:

    In Luke 3:36 YOUR Bible reads as follows:
        "Which was the son of Cainan, which was the son of Arphaxad, which was the son of Sem (Shem), which was the son of Noe (Noah), which was the son of Lamech;"

      This ancestor of Jesus named "Cainan, son of Arphaxad: where is he in YOUR Bible; (Check Genesis 11:13, and other genealogies).

      This dilemma - which the WORLD calls a great contradiction in the linage of Jesus as the Christ - can ONLY be solved by the Bible Jesus used, which included the Deuter-canonical Books.

      Do you suppose Jesus knew more about the "Correct Books of the Bible than modern "lukewarm" Denominations?




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    How To Use This Page
    EFFICIENTLY;


    ** To SEARCH for any word, subject or Scripture on this website, use the GOLD-BOX SITE SEARCH near top of page: over 600,000 pages available from Cambridge Theological Seminary Archives;

    ** To SEARCH for anyword, subject or Scripture on this SINGULAR-WEB-PAGE you are now on, (which may be from 100-3,000 regular notebook sized pages);

      [1] Go to the TOP TOOLBAR of your Monitor and find EDIT

      [3] Click EDIT and menu drops down: "Click FIND

      [3] Type in word, Scripture or whatever you are looking for;

      [4] Then Click "MATCH CASE" if you need it;

      [5] Then Click "NEXT" or "PREVIOUS" to search as much as you desire!




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    HEBREW ROOT WORDS: INTRO;

      Consider the Hebrew Language:

      Hebrew is "The Perfect Language" - in the original form - as the Hebrew Language has evolved from perfection:

        >> God taught, or programmed, Adam and Eve perfect Hebrew;

        >> over a thousand years it eroded into informal Hebrew, as formal British-English eroded into the American dialect;

        >> over hundreds of more years it became a "dead Hebrew", meaning it is no longer spoken by any nation of people;

        >> eventually evolving into into the derivative Aramaic, which was commonly spoken in the days of Jesus;

        >> finally evolving into that "modern Hebrew" spoken in Israel in Post-AD-2000).


      The linguistics of the Hebrew Language as designed and taught by God to Adam and Eve (or perhaps "programmed" - either way does not affect the evidence of the Godhead) gives us massive and mighty "Eternal Evidence", daily clues and reminders of the Existence and Transcendence of the Almighty Godhead:

        >> God the Spirit - who is Spirit; manifest as Spirit of Ghost (that is Presence without corporeal body or manifestation such as Christ after His Resurrection);

        >> God the Father - willing to give His Son to save the World John 3:16-17;

        >> God the Son - willing to give His life to save the World! John 12:47;


      God decided to continually reveal the "THREE-FOLD-NATURE-OF-HIS-GODHEAD" by making EVERY Hebrew "root word" have THREE-CONSONANTS!"

        > NEVER 2 letters;

        > NEVER 4, 5, 6, or more;

        > BUT ALWAYS 3 letters!

        > And ONLY 3 and THREE alone!


    SCIENCE, ROOT WORDS of BIOLOGY:

      Likewise, the "Language of Life" - called by some "The Protein Language" - also designed and programmed by God to be the language of all living substance from lions to dandelions to from babies to buttercups top butterflies!

      The Protein Language is the language of Genetics, of Cells, of plants and animals and all that exists: the Code of Life;

      The PROTEIN LANGUAGE consists of "CODONS".

      This Language of all Life is also made of THREE LETTER WORDS, and each letter of these TRINITARIAN CODONS, is the life-giving code for an amino acid, creating the genetic structure of all that is LIFE!

      Thus every word that your body parts (cells, organs, glands and tissues, etc.,) write to each other, and every word your body reads in communication from another body part, these are ALL THREE LETTER WORDS!

      All of the intelligence your body has, all it knows and all it communicates - in every bodily function possible - is given in THREE LETTER WORDS!

        > NEVER 2 letters;

        > NEVER 4, 5, 6, or more;

        > ALWAYS 3 letters!

        > ONLY 3 and THREE alone!


      Can we possibly miss this, asks NewtonStein? (Not if we can count as far as 1, 2, 3!!!)


    Even the Word "G-O-D" in English . . . is Three Letters!

      Why is "GOD" in English significant?

      For the simple reason that today, in the POST-AD-2,000 word, very few scores of thousands speak Biblical Hebrew with the THREE-LETTER-ROOT-WORD structure.


      Comparatively, scores of HUNDREDS OF MILLIONS SPEAK English!

        >> ENGLISH, is an Official Language in well over 100 nations of the World!

        >> ENGLISH, is The Major Language of Science, Globally!

        >> ENGLISH, is an Official - and the Major - Language of , the United Nations!

        >> ENGLISH, is The Official Language of The Internet!

        >> ENGLISH, is The Major Language of Serious Publishing - even in Japan and Germany!

        >> ENGLISH, is The Official Language of Global Airlines and Airports!

        >> ENGLISH, is The Official Language of OF the World!

        ** THUS more people will hear the Gospel in ENGLISH than any other Language!

        ** THUS more people will read the Gospel in ENGLISH than any other Language!

        ** THUS more people will own a Bible in ENGLISH than any other Language!

        ** THUS more people will get saved from learning TRUTH in ENGLISH than any other Language!

        FACT! SINCE God knew of the ENGLISH as the Global Language before the Foundation of the World!

        FACT! SINCE God in His Goodness has ALWAYS given Signs to Those Who Believe, from Moses and Israel, to Samson, to The Virgin Birth as a sign (Isa 7:14) to the Swaddling Clothes as a sign, to the Signs of the times in Matthew 24:4-24, Mark 13:5-20 and Luke 17:31-41 and 21:10-25;

        FACT! SINCE God originally made His name a "Three-Letter-Root-Word in Hebrew - "JAH" (Psalm 68:4)

        FACT! ONCE AGAIN God made His Name a THREE LETTER WORD in ENGLISH, the Global Language of the most populated era of Earth!

      So remember this every time "GOD!" is heard, read, said, etc., teach this to others, and help your family and friends see the "SIGNS along the WAY!"


    Seeing God in Linguistics, in General;

      In linguistics, there are many, many more, that PROVE God is the Designer of (a)All language, (b)alphabet, (c)Hebrew, (d) that Hebrew is the parent language of all others, (e)word structure, (f)actual words unique to Hebrew that pertain to God . . .

      . . . that NO OTHER LANGUAGE DEVELOPED OR NEEDED . . .

      . . . BECAUSE they had no God with eternal Attributes!


    EXAMPLE: "EMMANUEL!"
      Emmanuel is the same word in every language, and no language has a word it can be translated into, because it means GOD DWELLING IN HIS PEOPLE . . . and no people had "this experience apart from the People of the One True GOD JAH, thus "Emmannuel remains the same word in all languages!

      Likewise "Halleluah" - which is a Hebrew compound word "Hallelu-JAH" - and is a Command to "PRAISE JAH!"


      "Amen!" and Hosanna are also neat, unique words and there are literally hundreds more!


      The scoffing world asks: "Where is evidence for God!?" to which we answer:

      EVERYWHERE!





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    Letter "K"

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    Letter "K"


    KAB, kab

      "something hollowed out,"

      2 Kings 6:25; Also ‘Cab’): A Hebrew dry measure and liquid measure equal to about 2 quarts. See WEIGHTS AND MEASURE.

    KABZEEL, kab zel

      "[whom] God collects"): OIK; of the "uttermost cities" of Judah toward the border of Edom in the S. (Negeb) (Joshua 15:21). It was the native place of Benaiah, 1 he son of Jehoiada, one of David's mighty men (2 Samuel 23:20; 1 Chronicles 11:22). "Jekabzeel and the villages thereof," one of the places re-inhabited by the men of Judah (Neh 11:25), appears to be the same place. The site is unknown.

    KADESH, ka desh

      (CHJ5 , kadhcsh; Kadfs, Psalm 29:8; Judges 1:9). See KADESH-BARNEA.

    KADESH-BARNEA, ka desh-bar ne-a

      kadhcsh bar tie" ; Kades): Mentioned 10 times; called also simply "Kadesh" .

      The name perhaps means "the holy place of the desert of wandering." There are references to Kadesh in early history. At En-mishpat ("the same is Kadesh") Chedorlaomer and his allies smote the Amalekite and Amorite. Abraham dwelt near Kadesh, and it was at Beer-lahai-roi between Kadesh and Bered that the Angel of Jah appeared to Hagar (Genesis 14:7; Genesis 16:14; Genesis 20:1)

      It was an important camp of the Israelites during their wanderings, and was to have been their head quarters for 38 years (Deuteronomy 1:2, Deuteronomy 2:14, Joshua 5:14).


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      There the returning spies found the camp (Numbers 13:26); there Miriam died and was buried (Numbers 20:1); from thence messengers were sent to the king of Edom (Num 20:14; b>Judges 11:16- ). There the people rebelled because of the want of water, and Moses brought water from the rock (Numbers 20:2-);

      it was called therefore Meribath or Meriboth-Kadesh (Numbers 27:14; Ezekiel 47:19; 48:28). It was situated in the wilderness of Zin (Numbers 20:1, 33:36-37) in the hill country of the Amorites (Deuteronomy 1:19), 11 days journey from Horeb, by the way of Mt. Seir (Deuteronomy 1:2),

      "in the uttermost" of the border of Edom (Numbers 20:16), and on the southern border, probably

      the S.E. corner, of Judah (Ezekiel 47:19; cf Judges 1:9). See Cobern, Homiletic Review, April and May, 1914.

      S. F. HUNTER

    KADESH IN GALILEE.

      See KEDESH, 3.

    KADESH ON THE ORONTES, 0-ron tez

      MT of 2 Samuel 24:6, which should be corrected from the LXX [Septuagint] reading: "to the land of the Hittites unto Kadesh," fixing the northern ideal boundary of Israel at the sources of the Jordan, would read "Hermon", but the conjectures of Thenius and Ilitzig of a reference to the northern Kadesh are fully confirmed by the reading given):

      Kadesh was the southern capital of the Hittites, and was situated on the upper waters of the Orontes, 80 miles North of Damascus.

      It is now represented by a large mound 5 miles S. of what, till the Middle Ages, was called the Lake of Kades, but now the Lake of Horns. Here Thotlanes III of Egypt (fl. 1650 BC, after the battle of Megiddo, met and received hostages from the Assyrians, and here too Rameses II defeated Hatesar, king of the Hittites (c 1320 BC), and concluded with him a treaty, which was formally in scribed on a disk of silver.

      The incidents of the battle are depicted on the walls of the Ramesseum, and an Egypt epic records the heroic deeds of Ramses. Under the name Kadytis, it is mentioned as being taken bv Pharaoh-necoh (Herod, II.159) in 609 BC.

      In the only Bible reference (2 Samuel 24:6), it is named as the northern limit of the census made by David. W. M. CHRISTIE

    KADMIEL, kad mi-el

      "Before God," "priest"[?]; "Cadmiel" in lists in 1 Esdras 6:26-58 AV; omitted in LXX B; A Levite (Ezra 2:40; Nehemiah 7:43), founder of a family whose descendants returned from captivity with Zerubbabel (Ezra 2:1; Nehemiah 7:43, 12:1-8).

      He is named among those who praise God for the return (Nehemiah 9:4-5; Nehemiah12:24); was of those who "set forward" the work of the Lord s house (Ezra 3:9; 1 Esdras 6:26-), and is again mentioned with those who "seal" the new Return Covenant (Nehemiah 10:28-) after the reestablishment of worship (Nehemiah 10:1-9).

    KADMONITE, kad mon-ite

      kadhmonl; Kedmonaioi, signifies "the Easterner," or, less probably, "one of the ancient race"): The Kadmonites are mentioned in Genesis 16:19 along with the Kenites and Kenizzites of Edom, and are doubtless the same as "the children of the east," whose wisdom was celebrated (1 Kings 4:30).

      "The East," was a son of Ishmael (Genesis 26:15; cf ver 6). In an Egyptian story describing the adventures of a political refugee who fled from Egypt in the time of the XVth Dynasty, it is said that, he found a refuge in Canaan in the hind of Kaduma or Kedem. A. H. SAYCB

    KAIN, kane

      (ha-kayin; AV Cain): A town in the hill country of Judah (Joshua 15:57). There is, too, apparently a reference to this place in Numbers 24:21-22:

      "And he looked on the Kenite, and took up his parable, and said,

        Strong is thy dwelling-place, And thy nest is set in the rock. Nevertheless Kain shall be wasted, Until Asshur shall carry thee away captive."

      This place has been very doubtfully identified as the ruin Yukin, a place on a lofty hill S.E. of Hebron, overlooking the wilderness of Judah; the tomb of Cain is shown there. See PEF, III, 312, Sh XXI. E.V. G. MASTKHMAN

    KAIN, kayin):

      A clan name, AV "the Kenite" (Numbers 24:22; Judges 4:11). In the first passage RV has "Kain" and m "the Kenites" in the second, RV has "the Kenite" in text and m Kain." Cf preceding article.

    KALLAI, kal a-I, kal In

      "swift": A priest among those who returned with Zerubbabel (Nehemiah 12:1). He represented the family of Sallai (Nehemiah 12:20).

    KAMON, ka mon

      (AV Camon): The place where Jair was buried (Judges 10:3-5). It is possibly represented either by Kamm or Kuineim, ruins which lie about 6 and 7 miles respectively to the S.S.E. of Umm Kcis. See further HAVVOTH- JAIH.

      The ruins of Kamm, about 200 yds. square, crown a small elevation, and point to an important place in the past. There are large rock-hewn cisterns to the S. Among the ruins of Kumein, which are not considerable, a few mud huts are built, occupied today by about 200 souls (Schumacher, Northern Ajlun, 137).

    KANAH, ka na

      (Hip , kdndh, "reeds"): Thus Cana of Galilee

      (1) The name of a "brook," i.e. wddy, or "torrent bed," which formed part of the boundary between Ephraim and Manasseh (Joshua 16:8; Joshua 17:9). The border of Ephraim went out westward from Tappuah to the brook Kanah, ending at the sea; the border of Manasseh from Tappuah, which be longed to Ephraim, "went down unto the brook of Kanah, southward of the brook."

      There seems no good reason to doubt the identification of "the brook Kanah" with the modern Waddy Kanah. The transition from the heavy If to the lighter k is easy, so the phonetic difficulty is not serious.

      The stream rises in the S.W. of Shechem, flows through Wddy Ishkar, and, joining the l Aujeh, reaches the sea not far to the North of Jaffa. Guerin, influenced, apparently, by the masses of reeds of various kinds which fill the river, argues in favor of Nahr el-Fdlik, to the North of Arsuf.

      He identifies it with Nahr el- Kasab, "river of reeds," mentioned by Behaed-Dm, the Moslem historian. But this last must be identified with Nahr el-Mafjir, 13 miles farther North, too far North for "the brook Kanah."

      (2) A town on the northern boundary of Asher (Joshua 19:28), probably identical with the village of Kana, about 7 miles S.E. of Tyre (SWP, I, 51, 64, Shi). W. EWING

    KAPH, kaf

      (‘D’): The llth letter of the Heb alphabet; transliterated in this Encyclopaedia as k, with daghesh, and kh (German ch) without daghesh.

      It came also to be used for the number #20. For name, etc., see ALPHABET.


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    KAREAH, ka-re a

      ("bald head"): The father of Johanan and Jonathan, who after the fall of Jems joined Gedaliah at, Mizpah (2 Kings 25:23; Jeremiah 40:1-5,

    KARIATHIARIUS, ka-ri-ath-i-a ri-us

      (KapiaOi- apios, Kitriiithiurii ix; B reads Kartatheiareios; Kiriathiarim, 2 Esdras 5:19]) = Kiriath-jearim in Nell 7 29.

    KARKA, kar ka

      (Karkaa); A place in the S. of Judah, between Addar d- Arlsh (Joshua 15:3). Omnii speaks of a village in Judah lying toward the wilderness, named Akiirka. It cannot now certain. The name means "the pavement," of "ground."

    KARKOR, kar kor

      (karkrir): An unidentified place where Gideon surprised and over whelmed the remnants of the army of Zeba and Zalmunnah (Judges). It probably corresponds to Karkar mentioned by Shalmaneser II, S. of Hamath (KB, 1, 173).

    KARTAH, kar ta

      (kartuh): A city in the territory of Zelmhm, assigned to the Levites (Joshua 21:34). It is not identified. Possibly it, is a variant of KATTATH, or of KAHTAN (q.v.).

    KARTAN, kar tan

      (knrtan): A city In the territory of Naphtali, given to the Gershonite Levites" (Joshua 21:32). It is called Kiriathaim in 1 Chronicles 6:70. Kartan may be a contraction of this.

      Cheyne (EB, s.v.) suggests tliat botli names may be corruptions from "Chinnereth." Neither is mentioned in Joshua 19:32. 3S, in the list of Naphtalite cities, while Chinnereth is also.

    KATTATH, kat ath

      (Hipp., knttuth}: A city in the territory of Zebtilun, named with Iphtah-el, Nahalel, and Shimron (Joshua 19:1), perhaps to be identified with Kitron (Judges 1:30), from which Zebuhm did not expel the Canaanites; and with Kartah (Joshua 21:34), which was given to the Merarite Levites.

      SEPPHORIS

      The Bab Talm (Meg. 6a) identifies Kattath with Sepphoris, the modern Xcffilrhjch (but see Neulmuer, Geographic du Talmud, 191).

      Tin 1 Jerusalm takes it as identical with Kctil/iitli, Knldnch, to the V. of Esdraelon. It should probably, however, be sought near to Shimron, the modern Semuniyeh. W. EWING

    KEDAR, ke dar

      (kedhur; K^ap, KcfJdr): Second in order of the sons of Ishmael (Genesis 25:13 - 1 Chronicles 1:29). The name occurs as typical of a distant eastern country in opposition to the lands of the Mediterranean (Jeremiah 2:10).

      The author of Isaiah introduces this tribe in company with Nebaioth, and both are represented as owners of flocks (Isaiah 60:7). Evidence of their nomadic habits appears in Jeremiah 49:28-29, where they are classed among the Bnc-Kcdhcm, and mention is made of their flocks, camels, tents, curtains and furniture.

      They are spoken of (Isaiah 42:11) as dwelling in "villages", from which it would appear that they were a somewhat settled tribe, corresponding to the Arab, "town-dwellers," as distinct from "nomads."

      Ezekiel 27:21 gives another hint of their pastoral nature where, in his detailed picture of the wealth of Tyre, Kedar and Arabia provide the Tyrians with lambs, rams and goats. The fame of the tribe is further reflected in Isaiah 21:10-17 (the only allusion to their might in war), and in the figurative references to their tents (Psalm 120:5; Canticles 1:5).

      In this last passage where the tents are made symbolic of dark beauty, the word kddhar ("to be black") may have been in the writer s mind.

      The settlements of Kedar were probably in the North West of Arabia, not far from the borders of Pal. Assyr inscriptions have thrown light upon the history of the tribe. There Kedar is mentioned along with the Arabs and Nebaioth, which decides its identity with Kedar of the ( and there is found also an account of the conflicts between the tribe and Kin Assurbanipal (see Maroliouth in HDI).

      Of the Ishmaelite tribes, Kedar must have been one of the most, important., and thus in later times the name came to be applied to all the wild tribes of the desert.

      Muhammad, Ishmael

      It is through Kedar (Arab) that Muslim genealogists trace the descent of Mohammed from Ishmael. A. S. FULTON

    KEDEMAH, ked e-ma, ke-de ma

      ("ea.st.ward"): Son of Ishmael (Genesis 25:10), head of a clan (1 Chronicles 1:31). See KADMOXITE.

    KEDEMOTH, ked o-moth, ke-de moth

      ("eastern parts"): From the wilderness to which this town gave; its name, Moses sent messengers to Sihon, king of the Amorites in Heshbon (Deuteronomy 2:20).

      It was given by Moses to the tribe of Reuben (Joshua 13:15), and assigned to the Merarite Levites 21:37; 1 Chronicles 6:79). It must probably be sought on the upper course of the Arnon. Buhl (GAP, 20S) suggests that it may be identified with Umm er-Rcsas. See JAHAZ.

    KEDESH, ke desh

      (1) One of the "uttermost cities" of Judaea "toward the border of Edom in the S." (Joshua 15:23). Possibly it is to be identified with KADESH-BARNEA (q.v.); otherwise it is strange that, this latter should be omitted from the list. Dillmann would identify it, with Kudus, to the S. of Hebron, mentioned by Mukaddasi.

      (2) A town in the territory of Issachar, given to the Gershonite Levites (1 Chronicles 6:72). In the list of Joshua 21:25) its place is taken by KISHIOX (q.v.). Cornier suggests identification with Tell AbuKades, near Megiddo.

      (3) Kedesh-naphtali, the famous city of refuge in the uplands of Naphtali. It is called "Ivedesh,"

      Simply, in Joshua 12:22, etc; Kedesh-Kedesh- naphtali in Judges 4:10; Tobiah 1:2; Kenaphtali-desh in Galilee in Joshua 20:7, etc.

      It was assigned to the Gershonite Levites (1 Chronicles 6:70). From the name "holy," we gather that it was a sanctuary from old time. It was therefore a place of asylum, and only preserved its ancient character in this respect when chosen as one of the cities of refuge.

      It was the home of Barak, and here his host assembled. When the Assyrians invaded the land under Tiglath-pileser, it was among the first cities to Judgee raptured, and its inhabitants were deported (2 Kings 15:29). Near Kedesh was fought the great battle between Jonathan the Maccabee and Demetrius (1 Maccabees 11:3-).

      Joshua says that in his time it belonged to the Tyrians, lying between their land and that of Galilee (Josephus, Antiquities, XIII, v, 0; BJ, II, xviii, 1; IV, ii, 3, etc).

      Onom places it 20 miles from Tyre, near to Paneas. It is represented by the modern village of Kcdcs, which lies on the plateau to the W. of el-PIulch. It crowns a tell which runs out in a low ridge into the little plain to the W. Near the fountain, which rises under the ridge to the N ., are the most inter esting of the ancient remains.

      There are many fine sarcophagi, some of them being used as water ing-troughs. From its lofty situation, Kedesh commanded a spacious view over a richly varied landscape, with smiling cornfields, and hills clothed with oak and terebinth. VY. EWING


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    KEDESH

      (1 Maccabees 11:63-63,AV Cades): Scene of a battle between Judas Maccabaeus and the forces of Demetrius. See KEDESH-NAPHTALI, under KEDESH, 3.

      See KEDESH-NAPHTALI, ke desh-naf ta-ll. KEDESH, 3.

    KEEPER, kep er,

      KEEPERS (mostly from "VQ , shainar: The word is used of keepers of sheep, vineyards, doors, prisons (in Genesis39:21 ff, sar; cf Acts 5:23), etc. In Keel 12:3, "The keepers of the house shall tremble," the allusion is to the decay of bodily powers, the "keepers" being specially the arms, which had become feeble through age.

    KEHELATHAH, ke-hc-la tha, ke-hel a-tha

      "gathering," "assembly"): A desert camp of the Israelites between Rissah and Alt. Shepher (Numbers 33 22.23;. Situation is unknown. See WANDERINGS OF ISRAKL.

    KEILAH, ke-l la

      (1) A city of the Shephelah mentioned (Joshua 15:44) along with Nezib, Achzib and Mareshah. Among those who repaired the walls of Jerus was "Ifasha- biah, the ruler of half the district of Keilah, fur his district. After him repaired their brethren, Bavvai the son of Henadad, the ruler of half the district of Keilah" (Nehemiah 3:17-18).

      It is, however, from the story of the wandering of David that we have most information regarding this place. It was a citv with gates I.David and bars (1 Samuel 23:7). The Philis and Keilah came against it and commenced rob bing the threshing-floors. David, after twice inquiring of JAH, went, down with his GOO men (ver 13) and "fought with tin; Philis, and brought away their cattle, and slew them with a great slaughter." Saul hearing that David and his men were within a fortified town "summoned all the people to war, to go down to Keilah, to be siege David and his men" (ver 8). Then David asked Abialhar the priest, to bring him an ephod, and he inquired of JAH whether, if Saul came, 1 he- men of Keilah would surrender him to save that city; hearing from JAH, "They will deliver thee up, he and all his men escaped from Keilah and went into the wilderness. The reputed strength of Keilah is confirmed by its mention in 5 tablets in the Am Tab under the name of Kilta (qilti, Petrie) with Gedor, Gath, Kabbah and Gezer.

      Although other identifications were proposed by the older topographers, there is now a general con sensus of opinion that the .site of this 2. Identifi- city is Khurbct Kilo, (Joshua, A id, VI, cation xiii, 1, in his account of David s ad

      venture calls the place "Killa"). It is a hill covered with ruins in the higher part of Waily CK Kur, 1,575 ft. above sea-level, whose ter raced sides are covered with cornfields. The Onom (Lat text) states that it was 8 miles from Eleutheropolis, which is about the distance of Kh. Kild from Beit Jibrln. Beit Niisib (Nezib) is a couple of miles away, and Tell Sandahannah (Mare- shah) but 7 miles" to the \\V. (Joshua 15 44). An early Christian tradition states that the prophet Ilabakkuk was buried at Keilah.

      (2) The Garmite (q.v.), 1 Chronicles 4 19; see PEF, 314, Sh XXI.

      E. W. G. MASTERMAN

      KELAIAH, kfi-la ya, ke-ll a, (rpp , kelayah, "swift for JAH"[?] ; KcoXios, Kulios, B, Kuvos, Konos) : One of the priests who had "foreign wives" (Ezra 10 23, also "Kelita"). In || list of 1 Esdras 9 23, he again has a double name "Colius" and "Calitas." A "Kelita" is named as helping Ezra at the ex pounding of the law (Xeh 8 7; cf 1 Kingssd 9 48, "Ca litas"), and also among the signatories of the covenant (Nehemiah 10 9; for nature of covenant see vs 28 ff). They may not, however, be the same person .

      KELITA, kel i-ta, k6-ll t dwarf"). See KELAIAH.

      KEMUEL, kem fi-el, ke-muYl (XTC "God s mound") :

      (1) Nephew of Abraham (Genesis 22 21), father of Aram, whom Ewald identifies with Ram of Job 32 2; but cf Genesis 10 22, where Aram is described as one of the children of Shem. They may not be the same person.

      (2) Prince of Ephraim, one of the land commis sioners who divided Canaan (Numbers 34 24).

      (3) A Levite, father of Hashabiah, one of the tribal princes of David s time, a ruler among the Levites (1 Chronicles 27 17).

      KENAN, ke nan Opp , kenan; Kaivdv, K/iindn) : A son of Knosh, the son of Seth (Genesis 5 9.10.12.13. 14; 1 Chronicles 1 2). AV form (except in 1 Chronicles 1 2), is "Cainan."

      KENATH, ke nath (r! , IfimOi; KaA9, Kndth, Kanniith in LNX, A) : A city in Bashan, taken along with its "daughters," i.e. "villages" from the Amor- ites by Nobah who gave; it his own name (Numbers 32 42). It was recaptured by Geshur and Aram (1 Chronicles

      2 23). It is probably identical with the modern Kdiian Cit, which is built on the site, and largely from the materials of an ancient city. It, lies about 16 miles to the North of Basra cski Sham, the Bostra of the Romans, on both sides of Wii-ly Kunmmt, where, descending from the slopes of Jcbcl ed-Druze, it plunges over a precipice, forming a picturesque waterfall. ( >n t he plat eau above t he modern village, there is a striking collection of Rom and Christian remains, the shapely forms of many columns lend ing distinction to the scene. One large building is associated with the name of the patriarch Job Mdkam Ay y fib. The position commands a spa cious and interesting view over the whole of the Ilnuran. The identification has been rejected by Socin (Baedeker, Pui 3 , 207), but his reasons are not, given. Moore (Judges, 222) also rejects it, but for reasons that are not convincing. W. EWING

      KENAZ, ke naz, KENEZ, ke nez (T_:p , frtiaz, "hunting"):

      (1) A "duke" of Edom, grandson of Esau (Genesis 36 11.15.42; 1 Chronicles 1 36.53).

      (2) Father of Othnicl (Joshua 15 17; Judges 1 13;

      3 9.11; 1 Chronicles 4 13).

      (3) The unidentified Jfin/z of 1 Chronicles 4 15, who appears to be a descendant of (2). There is, how ever, some difficulty with the passage here.

      KENEZITE, ke nez-It P"p , Ifnizzl; Kevetcuos, Ki tu-zaws): AV in Genesis 15 19 and RV uniformly, spell "Kenizzite." The Kenezites were the clan whose name-father was KENAZ (q.v.). Their land, along with that of their Canaanite tribes, was promised to Abram (Genesis 15 19). To this clan belonged Jephunneh, the father of Caleb (Numbers 32 12; Joshua 14 6.14). It had evidently been absorbed bv the tribe of Judah. If the Kenezites went down


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      with Jacob into Egypt, they may have become iden tified with his family there.

      KENITES, ke nlts ( n :]>n , ha-k( i, "^H , ha- ketn; in Numbers 24 22 :uid Judges 4 11, "pp , kayin; ol Ktvaloi, fini Ktnii nii, ol Kivaioi, hoi Kituiioi): A tribe of iionuids named in association with various other peoples. They are first mentioned along with the Kadmonites and Kenizzites among the peoples whose land was promised to Abnun (Genesis 16 1!)). Balaam, seeing them from the heights of Moub, puns upon their name, which resembles the Heb ken, "a nest," prophesying their destruction although their nest was "set in the rock" possibly a reference to Sela, the city. Moses father-in-law, Jethro, is called "the priest of Midian" in Exodus 3 1; 18 1; but in Judges 1 1(5 he is described as a Kenite, showing a close relation between the Kenites and Midian. At the time of Sisera s overthrow, Heber, a Kenite, at "peace" with Jabin, king of Ha/or, pitched his tent far North of his ancestral seats (Judges 4 17). There were Kenites dwelling among the Amalekites in the time of Saul (1 Samuel 15 6). They were spared because they had "showed kindness to all the children of Israel, when they came up out of Egypt." David, in his answer to Achish, links the Kenites with the inhabitants of the S. of Judah (27 10). Among the ancestors of the tribe; of Judah, the Chronicler includes the Kenite Ham- math, the father of the Rechabites (1 Chronicles 2 55). These last continued to live in tents, practising the ancient nomadic customs (Jeremiah 35 Off).

      The word kenl in Aram, means "smith." Pro fessor Sayce thinks they may really have been a tribe of smiths, resembling "the gipsies of modern Europe, as well as the traveling tinkers or black smiths of the Middle Ages" (HDB, s.v.). This would account for their relations with the different peoples, among whom they would reside in pursuit of their calling.

      In Joshua they appear as Kcndidcs, and in Ant, IV, vii, 3 he calls them "the race of the Shechemites."

      W. EwiNG

      KENIZZITE, ken i-zlt. See KENEZITE.

      KENOSIS, k6-no sis: The word "kenosis" (Ktvwffis, kenosis} has entered theological language from Phil 2 7, where in the sentence he "emptied himself" the Gr vb. is ekenoscn. "Kenosis," then, the corresponding noun, has become a technical term for the humiliation of the Son in the incarnation, but in recent years has acquired a still more techni cal sense, i.e. of the Son s emptying Himself of certain attributes, esp. of omniscience.

      (1) The theological question involved was one about as far as possible from the minds of the Chris tians of the apostolic age and appar- 1. The NT ently one that never occurred to St. Paul. For in Phil 2 7 the only "emp tying" in point is that of the (external) change from the "form of God" to the "form of a servant." Elsewhere in the NT it is usually taken as a matter of course that Christ s knowledge was far higher than that of other men (Jn 2 24 is the clearest example). But passages that imply a limitation of that knowledge do exist and are of various classes. Of not much importance are the entirely incidental references to the authorship of OT passages where the traditional authorship is considered erroneous, as no other method of quotation would have been possible. Somewhat different are the references to the nearness of the Parousia (esp. Mt 10 23; 24 29). But with these it is always a question how far the exact phraseology has been framed by the evangelists and, apart from this, how far Christ may not have been consciously using current imagery for the impending spiritual revolution,

      although knowing that the details would be quite different (see PAROUSIA). Limitation of knowl edge may perhaps be deduced from the fact that Christ could be amazed (Mt 8 10, etc), that He could be really tempted (esp. He 4 15), or that He possessed faith (He 12 2; see comm.). More explicitly Christ is said to have learned in Lk 2 52; He 5 8. And, finally, in Mk 13 32 |j Mt 24 30, Christ states categorically that He is ignorant of the exact time of the Parousia.

      (2) An older exegesis felt only the last of these passages as a real difficulty. A distinction con structed between knowledge naturally possessed and knowledge gained by experience (i.e. although the child Jesus knew the alphabet naturally, He was obliged to learn it by experience) covered most of the others. For Mk 13 32 a variety of explana tions were offered. The passage was tr d "neither the Son, except the Father know it," a tr that can be borne by the Gr. But it simply transfers the difficulty by speaking of the Father s knowledge as hypothetical, and is an impossible tr of Mt 24 3(5, where the word "only" is added. The explanations that assume that Christ knew the day but had no commission to reveal it are most unsatisfactory, for they place insincere words in His mouth; "It is not for you to know the day" would have been the inevitable form of the saying (Acts 1 7).

      (1) Yet the attempt so to misinterpret the verses is not the outcome of a barren dogmatic prejudice,

      but results from a dread lest real injury 2. Dog- be done to the fundamentals of Chris- matic tian consciousness. Not only does 1 he

      mind of the Christian revolt from seeing in Christ anything less than true God, but it revolts from finding in Him two centers of personality Christ was One. But as omniscience; is an essential attribute of God, it is an essential attribute of the incarnate Son. So does not any limitation of Christ s human knowledge tend to vitiate a sound doctrine of the incarnation? Cer tainly, to say with the upholders of the kenosis in its "classical" form that the Son, by an exercise of His will, determined to be ignorant as man, is not helpful, as the abandonment by God of one of His own essential attributes would be the prepos terous corollary. (2) Yet the Bib. data are explicit, and an explanation of some kind must be found. And the solution seems to lie in an ambiguous use of the word "knowledge," as applied to Christ as God and as man. When we speak of a man s knowledge in the sense discussed in the kenotic doctrine, we mean the totality of facts present in his intellect, and by his ignorance we mean the ab sence of a fact or of facts from that intellect. Now in the older discussions of the subject, this intel lectual knowledge was tacitly assumed (mystical theology apart) to be the only knowledge worthy of the name, and so it was at the same time also assumed that God s knowledge is intellectual also "God geometrizes." Under this assumption God s knowledge is essentially of the same kind as man s, differing from man s only in its purity and extent. And this assumption is made in all dis cussions that speak of the knowledge of the Son as God illuminating His mind as man. (3) Modern critical epistemology has, however, taught man a sharp lesson in humility by demonstrating that the intellect is by no means the perfect instrument that it has been assumed to be. And the faults are by no means faults due to lack of instruction, evil desires, etc, but are resident in the intellect itself, and inseparable from it as an intellect. Certain recent writers (Bergson, most notably) have; even built up a case of great strength ior regarding the intellect as a mere proeluct of utilitarian develop ment, with the elefects resulting naturally from such


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      an evolution. More esp. does this restriction of the intellect seem to be true in religious knowledge, even if the contentions of Kant and (esp.) Ritschl be not fully admitted. Certain it is, in any case, that even human knowledge is something far wider than intel lectual knowledge, for there are many things that we know that we never could have learned through the intellect, and, apparently, many elements of our knowledge are almost or quite incapable of transla tion into intellectual terms. Omniscience, then, is by no means intellectual omniscience, and it is not to be reached by any mere process of expansion of an intellect. An "omniscient intellect" is a con tradiction in terms. (4) In other words, God s omniscience is not merely human intellectual knowl edge raised to the infinite power, but something of an entirely different quality, hardly conceivable to human thought as different from human intel lectual knowledge as the Divine; omnipotence is different from muscular strength. Consequently, the passage of this knowledge into a human intellect is impossible, and the problem of the incarnation should be stated: What effect did Divine omnis cience in the person have on the conscious intellect of the manhood? There is so little help from the past to be gained in answering this question, that it must remain open at present if, indeed, it is ever capable of a full answer. But that ignorance in the intellect of the manhood is fully consistent with omniscience in the person seems to be not merely a safe answer to the question as stated, but an in evitable answer if the true humanity of Christ is to be maintained at all.

      LITERATURE. Sunday s Cfiristolnny nnrl Frmniinlili/,

      1011, and La Zoucho, The I rrxon. <>f Christ in Modern

      T>inui/lit, 1912, are ainotiK the latest discussions of the

      subject, with very full references to the modern literature.

      BTKTON SCOTT EASTON

      KERAS, ke ras (Ktpas, Kirns): In 1 Esdras 6 29, the head of a family of temple-servants, called "Keroz" in Ezra 2 44; Nehemiah 7 47.

      KERCHIEF, ker chif (nnSCTa , mispahdth; eirt- (SoXcua, cpibuldia): Occurs only in Ezekiel 13 18.21, in a passage which refers to some species of divination. Their exact shape or use is unknown. They were ap parently long veils or coverings put over the heads of those consulting the false prophetesses and reaching down to the feet, for they were for "per sons of every stature."

      KEREH-HAPPUCH, ker en-hap uk, ke ren- hap uk (TJIEn ")"!]? , kcren hoppukh, "horn of anti mony," i.e. beautifier; LXX Ap.a\\0as Ktpas, Amalthelas keran): The 3d daughter of Job (Job 42 14), born after his restoration from affliction. Antimony, producing a brilliant black, was used among the Orientals for coloring the edges of the eye lids, making the eyes large and lustrous. Hence the suggestiveness of this name of an article of the ladies toilet, a little horn or receptacle for the eye-paint.

      KERIOTH, ke ri-oth, -dth (rVPIp , fcrlyoth):

      (1) A city of Moab, named with Beth-meon and Bozrah (Jeremiah 48 24.41). Here was a sanctuary of Chemosh, to which Mesha says (M S, 1. 13) he dragged "the altar hearths of Davdoh." It may possibly be represented by the modern Kuraidt, between Dibdn and *Attdrus. Some (e.g. Driver on Am 2 2) think it may be only another name for Ar-Moab. Buhl (GAP, 270) would identify it with Kir of Moab (Kcrnk). No certainty is yet possible.

      (2) A city of Judah (Joshua 15 25; RV KERIOTH- HEZKON [q.v.]), possibly the modern d-Kuryatain, to the NorthE. of Tell *Arad. W. EWIXG

      . KERIOTH-HEZRON, ke ri-oth-hez ron (nT>"!]3 "P^2Zn , k c rlyoth hcgron; Joshua 15 25 says> "The same is Hazor"; AV "Kerioth and Hezron which is Hazor"): One of the cities in the "south" of Judah. Robinson (BR, II, 101) identifies it with the ruined site of Kuryatain, 4| miles North of Tdl *Arad. It has been suggested that Kerioth was the birth place of JUDAS ISCAKIOT (q.v.). Cf KERIOTH, 2.

      KERNEL, kur ncl (2^S"jn , harQnnnlm, EV "ker nels"; LXX reads slemphullon used by Aristopha nes as = olives from which oil has been pressed, later, in same, of raisin pulp): Mentioned in Numbers 6 4 along with JT , zaylt, tr 1 "husks." This tr, "ker nels" or "grape stones," is from the Tg and Talm, but is doubtful, and it may be the word should be tr 1 "sour grapes."

      KEROS, ke ros (CTp. , Arms, "fortress"!?]): One of the Nethinim (Ezra 2 44; Nehemiah 7 47), an order appointed to the liturgical offices of the temple. See NKTHINIM.

      KESIL, ke zil (Orion). See ASTRONOMY.

      KESITAH, kes i-til, ke-se ta (TTEPpp , psltali). Sec PIECE OF MONEY.

      KETAB, ke tab CK^ra^, Kcldb): Ancestor of a family of Nethinim (1 Esdras 5 30).

      KETTLE, ket"l: In EV only in 1 Samuel 2 14 for dudh, "a vessel for cooking." The same word in 2 Chronicles 35 13 is rendered "caldrons," and in Job 41 20 (Heb 12), "pot." Psalm 81 G (Heb 7) (AY "pots") belongs rather to another signification of the word (RV "basket," for carrying clay or bricks).

      KETURAH, ke-tu rii, ke-too rii (rTVrjp , k tardh; XtTTovpa, Cfu ttoiira, "incense"): The second wife of Abraham (Genesis 25 1; 1 Chronicles 1 32 f). Accord ing to the Bib. tradition, he contracted this second marriage after the death of Sarah (of Genesis 23), and very likely after the marriage of Isaac (cf Genesis 24). It is not improbable that, as some writers have sug gested, this change in the life of his son prompted Abraham to remarry in order to overcome the feel ing of lonesomeness caused by Isaac s entering the state of matrimony.

      1 Chronicles 1 32 (and also Genesis 25 G) shows us that K. was not considered to be of the same dignity as Sarah who, indeed, was the mother of the son of promise, and, for obvious reasons, the sons of Abraham s concubines were separated from Isaac. She was the mother of G sons representing Arab tribes S. and E. of Pal (Genesis 25 1-6), so that through the offspring of Keturah Abraham became "the father of many nations." WILLIAM BAUR

      KEY, ke (nrffitt, in(ipfi(e l h, an "opener"; cf K\\IS, kids, "that which shuts"): Made of wood, usually with nails which fitted into correspond ing holes in the lock, or rather bolt (Judges 3 25). Same is rendered "opening" in 1 Chronicles 9 27. See HOUSE.

      Figurative: Used fig. for power, since the key was sometimes worn on the shoulder as a sign of official authority (Isaiah 22 22). In the NT it is used several times thus fig.: of Peter: "the keys of the kingdom of heaven" (Mt 16 19); of Christ, in Rev, having the "keys of death and of Hades" (1 IS), also having "the key of David" (3 7). ^ An angel was given "the key of the pit of the abyss" (9

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      1; 20 1). Our Lord accused the teachers of t he- law of His day of taking away "the key of knowl-

      Egyptian Key.

      edge" from men, that is, locking the doors of truth against them (Lk 11 ">12; cf Mt, 23 i:i).

      EmvAHi) JiAcnY POLLARD KEYS, kez, POWER OF:

      I. THE PKHBI.KMS INVOLVED

      1. The Keys; and the Binding and Loosing

      2. Meaning of the Statements

      3. How Peter Is Related to These Powers

      4. Is the Primary Idea That of Position and Authority .

      II. VIKWS MAINTAINED

      1 . Agent of the Power

      2. Nat lire of 1 he Power ;}. Scope of t he Power

      III. DATA i OH I)r.< IDIM; THE QCESTIONS INVOLVED

      1. Passages Employing the Terms "Key," "Bind ing and Loosing"

      2. Related Passages

      :j. Kxamplcs of Exercise of This Power

      IV. CONCLISIO N

      1. Nature of the Power

      2. Au eilt of the Power

      3. Scope of the Power

      There is no more- stubbornly contested conception in Christian terminology. The thought, connects itself immediately with Nit 16 10, but it is hardly correct to say that it originates there, for the con troversy is one that grows out of the conflict of forces inherent in the institutional development of religion and of society. It must have arisen, in any event, if there had been no such word as that in Mt 16 19, although not in the same terms as it is now found. Since the Reformation it has been recognized, by Catholic and Protestant, that on the interpretation of this passage depends the authority of the Church of Rome and its exclusive claims, so far as their foundation in Scripture is concerned; while on the other hand there is involved the "va lidity" of the "sacraments," "ordinances" and "orders" of Protestantism and the very hope of salvation of Protestants.

      /. The Problems Involved. The crucial passage has two declarations, commonly spoken of as promises to Peter: to him Christ will 1. The give the keys of the kingdom of

      Keys; and heaven; whatsoever he shall bind on the Binding earth shall be bound in heaven, while and Loosing whatsoever he shall loose on earth shall be loosed in heaven. How are the facts of having committed to him the keys and the function of binding and loosing related? Are they two forms of one declaration? Is the first general, and the second a specific sphere of its appli cation?

      Both statements arc made in figurative terms. That of the keys is supposed to be drawn from the duties of the chief steward of a house, or establish ment. The idea of the keys of a city turned over to some distinguished person is advanced, but is hardly to be considered. We need, then, to

      know the functions of the chief steward and how

      they apply to the kingdom of heaven, and to Peter

      as its steward. What was Peter to

      2. Meaning bind and loose, men or things, per- of the sons or teachings? Numerous examples Statements could be cited of the use of these terms

      to signify forbidding (binding) and per mitting (loosing) conduct as legitimate under the law of the < >T (Lightfoot, McClintock and Strong, Schal f-Herzog, Hastings, etc). The strict school of Shammai bound many things loosed by the laxer school of Hillel (Broadus, Mt). Is this conclusive that Jesus is here giving Peter authority for "lay ing down the law for his fellow-disciples," "author ity to say what the law of Cod allows, and what- it forbids,"" "the power of legislation for the church"? (Cf Mason in I1DH, IV, 30.)

      Ecclesiastical contentions turn esp. on Peter s

      relation to these words of Jesus. Do they signify

      powers and "privileges" conferred on

      3. How Peter, exclusively or representatively? Peter Is Are they official or personal? Do Related to they belong to other apostles, and to These other officers besides apostles? Can Powers the powers be exercised by individuals

      or by the church alone? If any be sides Peter have these powers, do they pass to them from Peter, and how?

      What seems to the writer a fundamental question

      here is either passed over very lightly or entirely

      omitted in the discussions of this sub-

      4. Is the ject. Did Jesus mean by these words Primary to confer on Peter, or on anyone to Idea That whom they may apply, authority, or of Position obligation; privilege, or responsibility? and Does He promise position, or does He Authority? impose duty? These alternatives are

      not necessarily exclusive, but, the inter pret ation of the thought will be determined in no small measure by where the stress is laid.

      //. Views Maintained. The possibilities have been exhausted in the interpretations and appli cations advocated. It is not possible 1. Agent of to classify on lines of the creeds, ex- the Power cept very generally, for then; is little uniformity of view existing within the various communions.

      (1) Generally speaking, the Roman Catholic church gives to Peter a unique position. Her theologians also agree that all the powers and privi leges of Peter descend to his successors in the vicarate of Christ. When the question is raised of the extension of these prerogatives beyond Peter and the popes, all sorts of views are held, concern ing both the fact and the method of that extension.

      (2) Among Protestants there is general agree ment that the church is the agent of this power, but there is not uniformity as to the nature of the au thority or the manner of its exercise.

      (3) "Some think that Peter has no peculiar rela tion to the keys; that these words were spoken to him only as the first who gave expression to that conception and experience, on the basis of which Jesus commits the keys of the kingdom to any be liever in Him as the Christ of God.

      Wo may summarize; the more important views as to Peter thus: (a) the power committed to him alone and exercised, (i) at Pentecost, or (ii) at Pentecost, Caesarea and other places; (6) the power committed to Peter and to the other apostles, in cluding Paul, discharged by them, and descended to no others; (c) the power conferred on Peter officially and on his official successors; (d) the power conferred on Peter and the other apostles and to such as hold their place in the church; (e) that the power belongs to Peter as representative of the church, and so to the church to be exercised (i) by

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      the officials of the church, (ii) by the officials _and those to whom they commit it, (iii) by all priests and persons allowed to represent the church, de facto, (iv) by the church in its councils, or other formal and official decisions, (v) by the church in a less formal way than (iv), (vi) by all members of the church as representing it without specific com mission; (/) that it belongs to the Christian as such, and so is imposed upon, or offered to, all Christians. There is general not absolute agreement that the holder of the keys is to admit men into the kingdom. It is not agreed that the

      2. Nature holder of the keys may, or can,deter- of the mine who are members of the kingdom. Power Both sides are taken. Some think

      that the power is that of announcing authoritatively the conditions of entrance, while others insist that the holder of the keys also deter mines what individuals have accept ed t lie condit ions.

      (1) There is strong support for the view that the primary function of the keys lies in determining

      the teaching of the kingdom, main-

      3. Scope of taining purity of doctrine. Emphasis the Power is laid on the use of the neuter, "what soever" not "whomsoever" with the

      binding and loosing. This would lead, however, to the secondary and implied function of declaring who had or had not accepted the teaching of the kingdom.

      (2) In the Roman Catholic church we find insist ence on distinguishing between the general authority of the keys in all affairs of the church and religion, and the binding and loosing which they specifically apply to absolution. Only on this last are Catho lics in full agreement. That 1 he church administers salvation is held by Rom and (Ir Catholics and by not a few Protestants, although Protestants do not, as a rule, claim exclusive power in salvation as do the others. Absolution is held to be a general (derived) priestly function, while the authority of the keys resides in the pope alone.

      (3) Eminent Catholic authorities admit that the Fathers generally understood the keys to sig nify the power of forgiving sins, and that they seldom make any reference to the supremacy of Peter. But they claim that rarely the Fathers do take "Christ s promise in the fuller meaning of the gift of authority over the church." Snare/ was I he first to develop the doctrine that it conferred on Perer and his successors authority in its widest sense, administrative and legislative.

      (4) The extension of the authority of the keys to include ^ivil matters is a contention of the Rom church, shared in modified form by some Protes tants. Indeed the relation of ecclesiastical to civil authority must be said still to be awaiting clear definition in Protestantism. Macedo (l)e, ( larihux I ciri) claims the theologians of the church for the civil authority of the keys. Joyce in the Catholic Hue affirms that ho is unable to verify this claim, but, on the contrary, finds that the opponents of the extension of the authority of the church to civil matters use Mt 16 19 in support of their posi tion on the ground that to Peter were committed t he keys of the kingdom of heaven, not of the kingdoms of this world.

      ///. Data for Deciding the Questions Involved. We must first examine the Scriptures employing

      the terms we seek to define. (1) Mt 1. Passages 16 19, the crucial passage, is part of a Employing paragraph over which there is no end of the Terms controversy. The incident at Caesarea "Key," Philippi was understood then and after-

      "Binding" ward to mark an epoch in the life and "Loos- and teaching of Jesus. Having elicit ing" ed Peter s confession, Jesus pronounces

      a benediction on him because his in sight represented a Divinely mediated experience

      of fundamental significance in His own plan and mission. Jesus goes on to say: "And I also say unto thee, that thou art Peter ["a stone"], and upon this rock I will build my church; and the gates of Hades shall not prevail against it" (ver 18). The controversy rages about "Peter" (irerpos, petros) and the "rock" (-rrerpa, petra), "gates of Hades," and "prevail against it." Are the church to be built on the rock and the kingdom whose keys are to be given to Peter the same? Such a shift ing of figure is not conclusive against the thought. Perhaps the church is the organic form of the king dom, its personal content and expression on earth at any given time. This church exists wherever men consciously accept and are included in the kingdom. The kingdom will always embrace in fluences, institutions, individuals, not be reckoned in any organized or visible church. The church has never had in the nature of the case can never have one complete organi/ation including all the organized life of the kingdom, or even of the church. Any claims to this are contradicted by facts obvious at every moment of history. The change in figure from ver IS to ver 19 is not conclusive against sup posing the church to be built in him. But it seems far better to understand that Peter is the first stone in the building, while the foundation is that vital experience in which Peter came to know Jesus as the Christ, the Son of (!od. On this is erected the church, out of those living stones (\\idoi fibres, lit hoi zonlcs, 1 Pet 2 4) that know and confess Jesus the Christ. The transition is thus easy to giving Peter the keys of the kingdom of heaven, and the reason for giving them to him rather than to any other may be found in the fact that he is now the first so to enter into the kingdom as to be fitted for church functions.

      It is not needful to determine, for our purpose, the exact meaning of "gates of Hades" and their not prevailing against the church (cf various comrns.). It is clear that the church is to persist in the life of the world and so the kingdom will not lack or ganized and aggressive expression. Nor does the relation of binding and loosing depend at all upon the critical question of reading or omitting "and" between the two parts of tin; verse. The conviction could hardly be escaped that the latter function is intimately related to the former, and is either di rectly or indirectly involved within it.

      (2) The pi. "keys," occurs elsewhere only in Rev 1 18, where the Christ represents Himself as hold ing the keys of death and of Hades. The word "Hades" might connect this with Mt 16 19. The immediate occasion for the statement is that He who was dead, is alive; lie; has not only overcome death in His own person but has conquered it and its realm, so that they can no more have power ex cept as subject to Him, since He holds their keys. Men on earth will either fall under the power of death and Hades or they must enter the kingdom of heaven. If the living Christ has the keys of the kingdom in the hands of Peter, or other friends, and holds the keys of its enemies in His own hands, the work will go on wit h success. It is not certain that the two passages can properly be so closely con nected, but they thus afford just the assurance that is contained for the churches in Rev.

      (3) In Rev 3 7 Christ appears in the character, "he that, is holy, he that is true, he that hath the key [sing.] of David, he that openeth and none can shut, and that shutteth and none openeth." The idea is not restricted but indicates mastery over all things in the Messianic kingdom, its own operations and all forms of opposition. In the next verse, as a specific instance, He has set before the church at Philadelphia an open door (opportunity and prog ress) which none can shut. Cf as to this Eph 1 22.


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      (4) It seems It) be taken for grunted th;it Jesus, in Mt, 16 19, had direct reference to_ ls;i 22 22, yet the passage is not Messianic except in a general sense and on the assumption that the power of JAH over the nations in the OT is wielded by the Christ in the NT (see JI:HOVAH; LOUD). Eliakim is to have absolute power, holding the key of the house of David. The use of the words "open" and "shut," as well as the general conception, connects the passage rather with Rev 3 7.

      (5) Rev 91; 20 1 are to be taken together. "The key of the pit of the abyss" in the hands of the angel or angels signifies, in these_ specific cir cumstances, the same power as that indicated in 1 IS.

      (<>) In Lk 11 52 Jesus pronounces a woe upon the "lawyers" who had "taken away the key of knowledge" from the people, neither entering in nor allowing t hose about t o go in, to enter. The knowl edge of Clod and Divine things was in the control, in great measure, of these scribes. This connects the figure directly with the idea of Mt 16 19, and the connection is emphasized by comparing Mt 23 2 f ; and is made definite by the word of Jesus in Mt 13 52 with which is to be compared Lk 12 42, where it would not be allowable to suppose that Jesus meant to limit the idea of "the faithful and wise steward" to Peter. This passage with the references seems to be highly important for our subject.

      Light is to be drawn from several passages that do not use the exact terms of Mt 16 19, but that

      deal with the same general ideas. 2. Related (1) Mt 18 18 places the respon- Passages sibility for binding and loosing on all disciples (18 1), and the reason is ex plained in the assured presence of the Christ Him self in any company of two or three who have; come together in prayer touching any matter in His name, i.e. as His representatives. The immediate refer ence is to matters of discipline in the effort to rescue any "brother" from sin. The passage is to be taken of sin generally, for the reading "against thee" (ver 15) is to be rejected, in spite of both revised VSS. The reference of binding and loosing here to the man is conclusive against limiting the idea in 16 19 to teaching (cf also Lk 17 1 ff). It is also to bo noted that the responsibility is placed upon the individual Christian to cooperate with others when necessary.

      (2) Mt 9 8 shows that the multitude recognized that God had given power on earth It) pronounce forgiveness of sins, and apparently they tit) not limit this power to the Divine Person, for they do not yet know Him as such.

      (3) Jas 6 14 ff recognizes the value of elders, and probably of others also, in securing the forgiveness of them that have sinned.

      (4) What one must regard as the proper starting- point for studying this subject is Jn 20 21 ff. Ap pearing to ten of the apostles and to others on the first night after the resurrection, Jesus says: "As the Fat her sent me, even so send I you. And when he had said this, he breathed on them, and saith unto them, Whose soever sins ye forgive, they are forgiven unto them; whose soever ye retain, they are retained." By comparing this with the corre sponding account in Lk 24 we see that Jesus is direct ing that they shall carry on His work (see also Jn 14 12 1 1; 15 15.10), that He teaches them at lengt h of t lie nature of His work as seen in the OT, and that the method of their work is to be preach ing repentance and remission of sins in His name among all nations. Significant for our purpose are the presence of others than the apostles, the^gift of the Holy Spirit, His own self-projection in His messengers, and the solemn statement that the sins

      of men will be retained or forgiven as it is done through these followers.

      (1) It is remarkable that there is no distinct reference to this authority of the keys in the records

      of the work of the apostles and others 3. Examples in the NT. Their consciousness seems of Exercise most of all to have been dominated of This by the fact that they were witnesses of

      Power Jesus, and this corresponds exactly

      with the point of emphasis in all the various forms ant I occasions of the giving of t he com mission (see Acts 2 32; 3 15; 4 33; 5 32; 10 39.41;

      13 31; 1 Pet 5 1; cfCaxvcr, Missions in the Plan of the Ages). It is said of Paul and Barnabas (Acts

      14 27) that after their first missionary journey they rehearsed to the church at Antioch "all things that God had done with them, and that he had opened a door of faith unto the Gent iles." At Pent ecost and at other times Peter was the chief speaker, ami so opened the door of the kingdom. Referring to his preaching to Cornelius and his friends, Peter reminds the saints in the conference at Jerus (Acts 15) that God made choice among them, that by his mouth the Gentiles should hear the word of Got! and be lieve, but this was said by way of conciliating the Jewish party and not as claiming any priority in authority. It was Philip, the deacon-evangelist, who first preached to the Samaritans (Acts 8), and some "men of Cyprus and Gyrene, who, when they were come to Antioch, spake unto the Greeks also, preaching the Lord Jesus" (Acts 11 20), the first example of "opening a door of faith" to full heathen. Peter appears in the Jerus conference with no authority above that of other apostles and elders. By reference to Gal 2 we see that Paul was here only as a matter of prudence and fraternity, not recognizing any authority to legislate for his churches or his ministry. The decision there reached is promulgated as that of the brethren as a body, loosing all the law of Moses save four matters that were "necessary" on account of fundamental morals and of the universal presence of Jews in every city (Acts 15 20 f.28f). In the sense of teaching Christian conduct all Paul s letters are examples of binding and loosing.

      (2) As to binding and loosing sins Peter speaks in the cases of Ananias and Sapphira (Acts 5), Simon Magus (ch8), and in deciding upon the bap tism of Cornelius and his household (10 4S). Paul speaks with equal boldness in the judgment of Elymus (13 10), where we are told that he was under the Spirit; passes upon the faith of a dozen men at Ephesus, and requires their new baptism after instruction (19 3-7); commands the church at Corinth to turn over to Satan the incestuous man (1 Cor 6 5; cf 1 Tim 1 20), and later urges the man s restoration to loving fellowship, declaring that he has been forgiven (2 Cor 2 5 ff). Obscure men like Philip (Acts 8) and Ananias of Damascus in the case of Paul himself (Acts 9) exercised the same sort of judgment as to the forgiveness and reception of men into the fellowship.

      IV. Conclusion. We sum up what seems to be the teaching of Scripture. We conclude that the

      power is not a special privilege and 1. Nature extraordinary authority, but a re- of the sponsibility intrusted by Jesus Christ

      Power as the method of extending His work.

      There is in it nothing magical, mys terious, or arbitrary; not ecclesiastical or official, but spiritual and primarily personal. The keys of the kingdom of heaven are first of all the gospel of salvation through Jesus Christ. By this means men are admitted into the kingdom. The fully attested method of using the^keys is that of wit nessing personally to an experience of Jesus Christ. He was conferring power for saving and not for

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      barring from salvation. Let it be borne in mind always that Jesus was offering Peter not power but duty, not privilege but responsibility. Neither of these terms, "power" and "privilege," that have come to be associated with the gift of the keys occurs with that gift in the words of the Master. The keys are primarily for admitting to the kingdom of heaven, not for barring from the church.

      The holder of the keys is any man with that ex perience that called forth from Jesus the assurance that Peter should have the keys.

      2. Agent Such a man will be in fellowship and of the cooperation with like men, in a church, Power and the Spirit of Jesus will be present

      in them, so that their decisions and their testimony will be His as well as theirs. There is a corporate, or church, agency, therefore, and the man who would ignore that lacks the experience or the Spirit needful for the use of the keys. Yet the church is never to overshadow or exclude the indi vidual responsibility and authority.

      It is to be understood that the keys of the king dom of heaven confer no political authority or

      power, save that of holy and redemp-

      3. Scope tive influence. The kingdom of Jesus of the is not of this world. Its power is Power spiritual and is to be exercised always

      primarily in the saving of men. Men do not, need to be locked out of the kingdom. They are out, and too contented to remain so. It does happen that evil men seek to take possession of the kingdom for evil ends, and then it is that the au thority rests in spiritual men to exclude. Men that are to be brought into the kingdom of heaven are now in sin, and where the duty of releasing them is not discharged by Christians, the sinners are left bound in their sins.

      There is also involved of necessity the duty of declaring not only the conditions of entrance into the kingdom, but the courses of conduct appropriate to the kingdom. It is thus that binding and loosing in teaching devolve upon the holders of the keys. To that extent, and in that sense, alone, is there the power of "legislating" within the kingdom. This is only interpreting and applying the principles that are given us in the Scriptures. See further AB SOLUTION; IMPOSITION OF HANDS; PETER; ROCK. WILLIAM OWEN CARVER

      KEZIAH, ko-zl a (!~i:p:? , krql ah, "cassia"; KacrCa, Kftsia, A, AV/.s.sv ) : The 2d daughter of Job (Job 42 14), born after his restoration from afflic tion. The; word "cassia" became a feminine name from the fragrance of the flower.

      KEZIZ, ke ziz (f Xp , fc"fif). See KMEK-KKZIZ. KHAN, kiin, kan. See 1\\\\.

      KIBROTH-HATTAAVAH, kib-roth-ha-tfi a-va, kib-rdth- (rHSjnn rnilp , kibhroth ha-taawdh, "the graves of greed"): A desert camp of the Israelites, one day s journey from the wilderness of Sinai. There the people lusted for flesh to eat, and, a great number of emails being sent, a plague resulted; hence the name (Numbers 11 34; 33 1(5; Deuteronomy 9 22).

      KIBZAIM, kib-za im, kib /a-im. See JOKMEAM.

      KICK (\\a,KTij;a>, laklizo): In the famous vision on the road to Damascus the unseen voice said to Saul: "Why persecutest thou me? It is hard for thee to kick against the goad" (Acts 9 4f; 26 14). The words are omitted from the best MSS in 9 4. This was a familiar proverb in both Gr and Lat lit., and refers to the severer goading received by an ox which kicks back at the goad used to guide or urge

      him on. The words seem to mean that Paul s paroxysm of persecution was a painful as well as profitless resistance to the pricks of conscience by which God was leading him into the light.

      KID: (1) "Ha, g d)n (Exodus 23 19, etc); (2) fern. (fdhlydh (Isaiah 11 G, etc); (3) D" 1 -!^ "^ , (fdhl *izzlin, EV "kid," lit. "kid of the goats, " AVm (Judges 6 19, etc); (4) T7, Vz, lit, "goat" (Deuteronomy 14 21; 1 Kings

      20 27); (5) DiW T7O , s- lr *izzim, AV "kid of the goats," RV "he-goat" (Genesis 37 31; Exodus 9 3, etc); (6) pi<}>os, criphos (Lk 15 29). See GOAT.

      KIDNAPPING, kid nap-ing (MANSTEALING) : The term itself occurs only in t he NT (avdpairoSiffr^, andrapodisles ="manstealer") in 1 Tim 1 10. The crime was directly forbidden in the Heb law (Exodus

      21 10; Deuteronomy 24 7), and was made; punishable with death.

      KIDNEYS, kiil niz (always in the pi.: flT 1 *?, k f ldijoth; v<j>poC, nepliroi; Lat rcncs, whence the Eng. "reins"): "Reins" and "kidneys" are syno nyms, but AV undertook a distinction by using the former word in the figurative, the latter in the literal passages. ERV has followed AV exactly, but ARV has retained "reins" only in Job 16 13; Lam 3 13; Rev 2 23, elsewhere substituting "heart," except in Psalm 139 13, where "inward parts" is used. AV and ERV also have "reins" for D"?3bn , Mtaqayim, in Isaiah 11 5 (ARV "loins"). The physiological function of the kidneys is not referred to in the Bible, but has been introduced (quite wrongly) by AYm to Exodus 15 2; 22 4.

      (1) The kidneys owe their importance in the Bible partly to the fact that they are imbedded in fat, and fat of such purity that "fat of the kid neys" was a proverbial term for surpassing excel lence (Deuteronomy 32 14m). Eor the visceral fat was the part of the animal best adapted for sacrificial burn ing, and hence came to be deemed peculiarly sacred (Exodus 7 22-25; 1 Samuel 2 16). ^ Accordingly, the kid neys with the fat surrounding them were burned in every sacrifice in which the entire animal was not consumed, whether in peace (Exodus 3 4.10.15; 9 19), sin (Exodus 29 13; Exodus 4 9; 8 16; 9 10), or trespass (Exodus 7 4) offerings; cf the "ram of consecration" (Exodus 29 22; Exodus 8 25). So in Isaiah 34 6, "fat of the kidneys of rams" is chosen as a typical sacrifi cial term to parallel "blood of lambs and goats." (2) The position of the kidneys in the body makes them particularly inaccessible, and in cutting up an animal they are the last organs to be reached. Consequently, they were a natural symbol for the most hidden part of a man (Psalm 139 13), and in Job 16 13 to "cleave the reins asunder" is to effect the total destruction of the individual ((if 19 27; Lam 3 13). This hidden location, coupled with the sacred sacrificial use, caused the kidneys to be thought of as the scat of the innermost moral (and emotional) impulses. So the reins instruct (Psalm 16 7) or are "pricked" (Psalm 73 21), and God can be said to be far from the reins of sinners (Jeremiah 12 2). In all of these passages "conscience" gives the exact meaning. So the reins rejoice (Prov 23 16), cause torment (2 Esdras 5 34), or tremble in wrath (1 Mace 2 24). And to "know" or "try the reins" (usually joined with "the heart") is an essential power of God s, denoting His complete knowledge of the nature of every human being (Psalm 7 9; 26 2; Jeremiah 11 20; 17 10; 20 12; Wisd 1 6; Rev 2 23). See FAT; PSYCHOLOGY; SAC RIFICE. Cf 7?.S"-, 379-SO, and for Gr sacrificial paral lels Journal of Philoloyy, XIX (1X90), 46. The an atomical relations are well exhibited in the plate in Leviticus." BURTON SCOTT EASTON


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      KIDRON, kid nm (KeSpiiv, Kcdron; AY Cedron) : A place which, iu obedience to Antiochus Sidetcs, Ccndebacus fortified (1 Mace, 15 30 IT), to which, when defeated, lie fled, hotly pursued by John and

      Judas, .sons of Simon the Maccabee, who burned the city (16 4 IT). It is named along with Jainnia (Ychita) and Azotus (Esdud). It is possibly iden tical with kdlnik, a village about 3 miles S.W. of *dkir (Ekron).

      KIDRON, THE BROOK Cp1~p ^ , ttnlml kidhron; in .hi 18 1 [AY Cedron], 6 x ei H--PP v s rd>v Ke Spcov, fio ctteimtlrrhous ton, Kedrdn, according to RYm, the last t\\vo words are to be considered as meaning of the cedars." The II eb word has been very generally accepted as from "Vjj5 , kddhar, "to become black," but it, is an attractive sugges tion [Cheyne] that it may be a phonetic varia tion of "jVV^jJ, giddcron, "a spot for inclosures for cattle," of which hit ter there must liavc been many around the now buried caves which lay at the base of the cliffs around the spring Gihon) :

      The Nahal Kidhron is the valley known today as the W udy Hi/ti Miriam, which lies between the

      eastern walls of Jerus and the Mount 1. Wady of Olives. It commences in the pla- Sitti teau to the North of the city, and after

      Miriam making a wide sweep S.E., under the

      name Wady cl Jnz ("Valley of the Walnuts"), passes S. until level with the south eastern corner of the temple-area where its bed is

      Kidron, Looking S.K. from the Wall of Jerusalem.

      spanned by an old bridge; here the bottom of the valley, 40ft. beneath thepresent surface level, is 400 ft. below the temple-platform. From this point it narrows and deepens gradually, bending slightly W. of S., and, after receiving the Tyropce;>n valley, joins a little farther SAV. with the Valley of Hiunoin to form the Wady en Nar, which winds on through the wilderness of Judaea" to the Dead Sea. "Where the three valleys run together is a large open space filled with gardens (the KING S GARDENS, q.v.), which are kept irrigated all the year round by means of the overflow waters from the *Ain Silwdn (see SILOAM). It is where the Ilinnom valley runs into the Kidron that some would locate TOPHETH (q.v.). Except at the irrigated gardens, the ravine is a dry valley containing water only (luring and immedi ately af t er heavy rain, but in ancient times the rocky bottom now buried beneath many feet of rich soil must have contained a little stream from Gihon for at least some hundreds of yards. This was the "brook that flowed through the midst of the land" (2 Chronicles 32 4). The length of the valley from its head to Blr Eijyul) is 2 J miles.

      Since the 4th cent. AD, this valley has been known as the A ALLEY OP JEIIOSHAPHAT (q.v.), and from quite early times it was a favorite situation for interments (2 Kings 23 4.0.12; 2 Chronicles 34.4.5); it

      is by Moslem and Jewish tradition the scene of the

      last judgment, and was known to the Moslems in

      the Middle Ages as Wady Jc/tanniim;

      2. Tradi- see GEHENNA. It is probable that the tions "graves of the common people," where

      King Jehoiakim cast the body of the prophet Uriah, were here (Jeremiah 26 23), and it has been suggested, with less probability, that here too may have been the scene of Ezekiel s vision of the "valley of dry bones" (I0/k 37; cf Jeremiah 31 40).

      The Fields of Kidron (2 Kings 23 4), though gen erally identified with the open, lower part of this

      valley, where it is joined by the Tyro-

      3. The paeon valley, may more probably have Fields of been in the upper part where the wide Kidron expanded valley receives the name

      Wndy cl Juz; this part is actually on the road to Bethel.

      The most dramatic scene associated with the Kidron is that recorded in connection with its

      earliest Scriptural mention (2 Samuel 15

      4. Histori- 23), when David, flying before his cal Asso- rebellious son Absalom, here stood on ciations the Jerus side of the valley while all

      his adherents passed over. "And all the country wept with a loud voice, and all the people passed over: the king also himself passed over the brook Kidron .... toward the way of the wilderness." The passing over this brook ap pears to have been viewed as the solemn abandon ment of the Jerus territory (cf 1 Kings 2 37). In 1 Kings 15 13; 2 Chronicles 15 16, we read that Asa burnt at the brook Kidron "an abominable image for an Asherah" which Maacah, his mother, had set up. In the reforms of Hezekiah, "all the uncleanness that they found in the temple of JAH" was carried by the Levites to the brook Kidron (2 Chronicles 29 1(5;; "All the altars for incense took they away, and cast them into the brook Kidron" (30 14). This local ity was again used in the reforms of Josiah when the king "brought out the Asherah from the house of JAH, without Jerus, unto the brook Kidron, and burned it at the brook Kidron, and beat it to dust, and cast the dust thereof upon the graves of the com mon people" (2 Kings 23 6). The same treatment was given to the vessels made for Baal, the Asherah and the host of heaven (ver 4), and the two idolatrous altars of Manasseh (ver 12). Joshua (Ant, IX, vii, 3) states that Athaliah was slain in the valley of Kidron, but this does not quite tally with the ac count (2 Kings 11 16). It was a valley associated with graves and the ashes of abominations, but it was prophesied that it should be "holy unto JAH" (Jeremiah 31 40). Twice it is mentioned simply as "the valley," naltal (2 Chronicles 33 14; Nehemiah 2 15). Very different from these earlier scenes is the last Scriptural reference (Jn 18 1), when Jesus "went forth with his disciples over the brook Kidron" for His last hours of spiritual struggle and prayer before the turmoil of the end.

      E. W. G. MASTERMAN

      KILAN, ki lan (KiXdv, Kildn; AY Ceilan): Mentioned with A/etas in 1 Esdras 5 lo; their sons returned among the exiles with Zerubbabel. The names do not appear in the lists of E/:r and Nch.

      KIMAH, ki ma (Pleiades). See ASTRONOMY.

      KINorth See KINDRED.

      KIN, NEXT OF. See KINSMANorth

      KINAH, kl na (Hpp , klnah): An unidentified town on the southern boundary of Judah, toward Edom (Joshua 15 22). The word kltidh means "elegy," "dirge," "lament for the dead." The name, however, may have been derived from the

      1709

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      Kenites, ^S" 1 p , who had settlements in the S. (1 Samuel 27:10, etc).

      KINDNESS, klnd nes ("yH , hcsedh; XP T 1" T T1 15) chri slolcs): Kindness" in the OT is (with one ex ception) the tr of hcsedh, "kindness," favor," "mercy," etc, used chiefly of man but also of God (Genesis 20 13; 40 14; 1 Samuel 15 0; 20 14.15; 2 Samuel 9 3; Nehemiah 9 17; Psalm 141 5; Isaiah 54 8.10, etc); tdhh, "good," is once so tr 1 (2 Samuel 2 G). In the NT cfircstotcs, "usefulness," "beneficence," is rendered "kindness" 4 t in AV (2 Cor 6 (5; Eph 27; Col 3 12; Tit 3 4, and in Gal 5 22 RV); see GENTLE NESS; GOODNESS. Phildnthrdpiti, "love of man kind," is tr d "kindness" (Acts 28 2), and philn- ddjthla, "love of the brotherhood" (2 Pet 1 7, EUV "love of the brethren," ARVm "Gr, love of the brethren").

      For "kindness" (Psalm 31 21) RV has "Ipvingkindncss,"

      and ARV in other places where the reference is to (iod; for "shew," "showed kindness" (Joshua 2 1-) "deal," "dealt kindly" ; for "The desire of man is his kindness" ( Prov 19 2-) ARV has "That which maketh a man to be desired is his kindness," ERV "The desire of man is [tho measure of) his kindness," like AKV in m; for "merci ful kindness" (Psalm 117 2) AKV lias " lovingkindness." K liV "mercy"; both have " lovlngkindness " (I s 119 70); for "of great kindness" (Nehemiah 9 17; Joel 2 13; Jon 4 2) ARV has "abundant in lovlngkindness, K KV "plenteous in mercy"; RV has "kindness" for "mercy" (Ceil 39 21); for "pity" (Job 6 14); for "goodness" (Prov 20 0) ; "favor and kindness" ARV, for "grace and favor" (Est 2 17). SeeLoviNUKiNDNEss; MERCY.

      W. L. WALKER

      KINDRED, kin dred: Several words are rendered "kindred" in AV. HX , ah, "brother," was used loosely among Hebrews for a member of the same tribe or family, a relative; and isonce tr 1 "kindred" (1 Chronicles 12 29 AV). Once also somewhat loosely as the tr of Pi""Tll2 , mddha*ath, lit. "acquaintance" (Ruth 32; cf same root in 2 1, rendered "kins man"); once, for the figurative expression, "men of thy redemption" (("12553, g" iillah, referring to the law of the redemption of land by kinsmen, Exodus 25 2")). The two most common words for kindred arc: (l)rrfyVQ,moledheth, "related by birth" (Genesis 12 1; 24 4.7; 31 3.13; 32 9; 43 7; Numbers 10 30; Est 2 10.20; 86); (2) nrffilp P, mish pdhah, "family" (Genesis 24 3S.40.41; Joshua 6 23; Ruth 23; 1 Chronicles 16 28; Job 32 2; Psalm 22 27; 96 7).

      In the NT (several times), ytvos, genos, "kindred by birth," so, of same family, tribe or race (Acts 4 6; 7 13.19 RV "race"); so also a-vyy^veia, sug- geneia (Lk 1 (il; Acts 7 3.14). In AV <pv\\-f,, phulS, "tribe," rendered "kindred" (Rev 1 7; 5 9; 7 9; 11 9; 13 7; 14 G), but better "tribe" as in RV. Trarpid, pat rid, rendered "kindred" in Acts 3 25, is better "families," as in RV.

      EDWARD BAGBY POLLARD

      KINE, kin: (1) C^X, dlaphlm, pi. of CbSJ , eleph, "ox," or "cow," ARV "cattle," AV and ERV "kine" (Deuteronomy 7 13; 284.18.51); (2) np53 , bukur, "ox" or "cow," ARV "herd," AV and ERV "kine" (Deuteronomy 32 14; 2 Samuel 17 29); (3) r.T.B , parolh, ]>1. of ("HE , paruh, "young cow" or "heifer," RV "kine" in Genesis 41 2-27; 1 Samuel 6 7-14; Am 4 1; in Genesis 32 15, ARV has "cows." See CATTLE; Cow.

      KING, KINGDOM, king dum:

    I. KING

      1. Etymology and Definition

      2. Earliest Kings

      3. Biblical Signification of the Title

    II. KINGDOM

      1. Israel s Theocracy

      2. Period of Judges

      3. Establishment of the Monarchy

      4. Appointment of King

      5. Authority of the King

      6. Duties of the King

      7. Symbols of Royal Dignity

      8. Maintenance and Establishment

        (1) Income

        (2) The Royal Court

      9. Short Character Sketch of Israel s Kingdom

    LITERATURE


      10. King. The Heb word for king is 'Melek', "to reign"to be king."

        (1) in Arabic Definitions, "to possess," "to reign, asmuch as the possessor is also lord and ruler;

        (2) in the Aramaic and Assyr "counsel," and in the Syrian "to consult"; cf Latin consul.

        If, as has been suggested, the root idea of "king" is "counsellor" and not "ruler," then the rise of the kingly office and power would be due to intellectual superiority rather than to physical prowess.

        And since the first form of inonan hy known was that of a "city-state," the office of king may have evolved from that of the chief "elder," or intellectual head of the clan.

        The first king of whom we read in the Bible was

        Nimrod (Genesis 10:8-10), who was supposedly the

        founder of the Bab empire. His-

        2. Earliest torical research regarding the kings Kings of Babylonia and Egypt corroborates

        this Bib. statement in so far as the ancestry of these kings is traced back to the earliest times of antiquity. According to Isaiah 19:11, it was the pride of the Egyp princes that they could trace their lineage to most ancient kings.

        The Canaanites and Philis had kings as early as the times of Abraham (Genesis 14:2; 20:2). Thus also the Edomites, who were related to Israel (Genesis 36:31), the Moabites, and the Midianites had kings (Numbers 22:4; 31:8) earlier than the Israelites.

        In Genesis 14:18 we read of Melchizedek, who was a priest, and king of Salem. At first the extent of the dominion of kings was often very limited, as appears from 70 of them being conquered by Adoni- be/ek (Judges 1:7), 31 by Joshua (Joshua 12:7-), and 32 being subject to Ben-hadad (1 Kings 20 1).

        The earliest Bib. usage of this title "king," in consonance with the general oriental practice, de notes an absolute monarch who exer-

        3. Biblical cises unchecked control over his sub- Significa- jects. In this sense the title is applied tion of the to JAH, and to human rulers. No con- Title stitutional obligations were laid upon

        the ruler nor were any restrictions put upon his arbitrary authority. His good or bad conduct depended upon his own free will.

        The title "king" was applied also to dependent kings. In the NT it is used even for the head of a province (Rev 17 12). To distinguish him from the smaller and dependent kings, the king of Assyria bore the title "king of kings."


      Kingdom.

        The notable fact that Israel attained to the degree of a kingdom rather late, as compared with the other Sem nations, does not imply that Israel, before the establishment of the monarchy, had not arrived at the stage of consti tutional government, or that the idea of a king dom had no room in the original plan of the founder of the Heb nation. For a satisfactory explana tion we must take cognizance of the unique place that Israel held among the Sem peoples.

        It is universally recognized that Israel was a singular community. From the beginning of its existence as a nation it bore the character of a re ligious and moral community, a theocratic common-


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      wealth, having JAH Himself as the Head and Ruler.

    The theocracy is not to be mistaken for a hierarchy, nor can it strictly be identified with:

      1. Israel's existent form of political organization, Theocracy; It was rather something over and above, and therefore independent of the political organization. It did not super-sede the tribal organization of Israel, but it supplied the centralizing power, constituting Israel a nation.

      In lieu of a strong political center, the unifying bond of a common allegiance to JAH, i.e. the common faith in Him, the God of Israel, kept the tribes together.

      The consciousness that JAH was Israel s king was deeply rooted, was a national feeling, and the inspiration of a true pa triotism (Exodus 15:18; 19:6; Judges 5:1-). JAH s king ship is evinced by the laws lie gave to Israel, by the fact that justice was administered in His name (Exodus 22:2S), and by His leading and aiding Israel in its wars (Exodus 14:14; 15:3; Numbers 21:14; 1 Samuel 18:17; 25:2-).

    This decentralized system which characterized the early government of Israel politi cally, in spite of some great disadvantages, proved advantageous for Israel on the whole and served a great providential purpose. It safeguarded the individual liberties and rights of the Israelites.

    When later the monarchy was established, they enjoyed a degree of local freedom and self-control that was unknown in the rest of the Sem world; there was home rule for every community, which admitted the untrammeled cultivation of their inherited religious and social institutions.

    From the political point of view Israel, through the absence of a strong central government, was at a great disadvantage, making almost impossible its development into a world-empire. But this barrier to a policy of self-aggrandizement was a decided blessing from the viewpoint of Israel s providential mission to the world.

    It made possible the transmission of the pure religion in trusted to it, to later generations of men without destructive contamination from the ungodly forces with which Israel would inevitably have come into closer contact, had it not been for its self-contained character, resulting from the fashion of a state it was providentially molded into.

    Only as the small and insignificant nation that it was, could Israel perform its mission as "the depository and perpetuating agency of truths vital to the welfare of humanity." Thus its religion was the central authority of this nation, supplying the lack of a centralized government.

    Herein lay Israel's uniqueness and greatness, and also the secret of its strength as a nation, as long as the loyalty and devotion to JAH lasted. Under the leadership of Moses and Joshua who, though they exercised a royal authority, acted merely as representatives of JAH, the influence of religion of which these lead ers were a personal embodiment was still so strong as to keep the tribes united for common action.

    But when, after the removal of these strong leaders, Israel no longer had a standing representative of JAH, those changes took place which eventually necessitated the establishment of the monarchy.

    In the absence of a special representative of JAH, His will as Israel s King was divined by the use of the holy lot in the hand of the highest


    2. Period priest.

      But the lot would not supply of Judges the place of a strong personal leader.

      Besides, many of the Israelites came under the deteriorating influence of the Can. wor ship and began to adopt heathenish customs. The sense of religious unity weakened, the tribes became disunited and ceased to act in common, and as a result they were conquered by their foes. JAH came to their assistance by sending them leaders, who released the regions where they lived from

      foreign attacks. But these leaders were not the strong religious personalities that Moses and Joshua had been; besides, they had no oflicial authority, and their rule was only temporary and local. It was now that the need of a centralized political government was felt, and the only type of per manent organization of which the age was cog nizant was the kingship.

      The crown was offered to Gideon, but he declined it, saying: "JAH shall rule over you" (Judges 8 22.2:5). The attempt of his son, Abimelech, to establish a kingship over Shechem and the adjacent country, after the Canaanite fashion, was abortive.

      The general political condition of this period is briefly and pertinently described by the oft-recur ring statement in Judges: "In those days there was no king in Israel: every man did that which was right in his own eyes."

      Not until the time of Samuel was a formal king dom established over Israel. An attempt to ameli orate conditions by a union of civil Establishment of Eli, and religious functions in the hands the priest, had failed through of the the degeneracy of his sons.

      Similarly Monarchy the hopes of Israel in a hereditary judgeship had been disappointed through the corruption of the sons of Samuel. The Philis were threatening the independence and hope of Israel. Its very existence as a distinct race, and consequently the future of JAH s religion, imperatively demanded a king.

      Considering that it was the moral decline of the nation that had created the necessity for a monarchy, and moreover that the people s desire for a king originated from a purely national and not from a religious motive, the un willingness of Samuel, at first, to comply with the demand for a king is not surprising.

    Even JAH declared:

      "They have not rejected thee but they have rejected me," etc.

      Instead of recognizing that they themselves were responsible for the failures of the past, they blamed the form of government they had, and put all their hopes upon a king.

      That it was not the monarchy as such that was objectionable to JAH and His prophet is evidenced by the fact that to the patriarchs the promise had been given: "Kings shall come out of thy loins" (Genesis 17:6, 35:11). In view of this Moses had made provision for a kingship (Deut 17:14-20).

    According to the Mosaic charter for the kingship, the monarchy when established must be brought into consonance with the fact that JAH was Israel s king. Of this fact Israel had lost sight when it requested a kingship like that of the neighboring peoples. Samuel s gloomy prognostications were perfectly justified in view of such a kingship as they desired, which would inevitably tend to selfish despotism (1 Samuel 8:10-12).

    Therefore God directs Samuel to give them a king since the introduction of a kingship typifying the kingship of Christ lay within the plan of His economy not according to their desire, but in accordance with the instructions of the law concerning kings (Deuteronomy 17:14-20), in order to safeguard their liberties and prevent the forfeiture of their mission.

    According to the Law of Moses JAH was to choose the king of Israel, who was to be His representative. The choice of JAH in the case of Saul

    4. Appoint - is implied by the anointing of Saul by ment of Samuel and through the confirmation King of this choice by the holy lot (1 Samuel 10:1-20). This method of choosing the king did not exclude the people altogether, since Saul was publicly presented to them, and acknowledged as king (1 Samuel 10:24).

    The participation of the people in the choice of their king is more pronounced in the case of David, who, having been designated as Jen s choice by being anointed by Samuel, was anointed again by the elders of Israel before he actually became king (2 Samuel 2:4).

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      The anointing itself signified the consecration to an office in the theocracy. The custom of anointing kings was an old one, and by no means peculiar to Israel (Judges 9:8-15). The hereditary kingship began with David. Usually the firstborn succeeded to the throne, but. not necessarily. The king might choose as his successor from among his sons the one whom he thought best qualified.

      The king of Israel was much like a "constitutional monarch" in the modern sense, in that Kings of Israel were greatly limited as follows:

        >> [1] Could NOT change, add to, reduce, or break The LAW OF GOD, as God's Divine Constitution;

        >> [2] Could NOT do the work of the Priest, add to, reduce, or nullify the duties of the Priests, as God's had ordained them;

        >> [3] Could NOT supplant, usurp, override, or contradict the "High Priest", as God's had ordained them;

        >> [4] Could NOT go against, disobey, usurp, override, or contradict the "Prophet of Israel", as God's had ordained them:

          ** Such as Samuel before whom King Saul trembled;

          ** Such as Samuel, Nathan and Gad before whom King David bowed in guilt, sin and submission;

          ** Such as Isaiah, before whom King Hezekiah wept and pleaded;

        >> [5] Could NOT go against, disobey, usurp, override, or contradict the "EKKLESIA, the People of Israel", as God's had ordained them and given them ultimate authority,

      Neither were Kings of Israel autocrats in the oriental or dictatorial sense.

      5. Author - He was responsible to JAH, who had chosen him and whose vicegerent and servant King he was.

      Furthermore, his authority was more or less limited on the religious side by the prophets, the representatives of JAH, and in the political sphere by the elders," the representatives of the people, though as king he stood above all.

      Rightly conceived, his kingship in relation to JAH, who was Israel s true king, implied that he was Jell s servant, and His earthly substitute. In relation to his subjects his kingship demanded of him, according to the Law, "that his heart be not lifted up above his brethren" (Deuteronomy 17 20).

      In a summary way the king was held responsible for all Israel as the Lord s people. His main duty was to defend it against its enemies, as Commander and Chief of Armies


      6. Duties and for this reason it devolved upon of the King him to raise and maintain a standing army; and it was expected of him that he be its leader in case of war (1 Samuel 8:20).

      In respect to the judiciary the king was a kind of supreme court, or court of final appeal, and as such, as in the days of Solomon, might be approached by his most humble subjects (2 Samuel 15:2; 1 Kings 3:16 ff).

      Legislative functions he had none - as GOD ALONE was the Legislator and Law Giver - and King himself under the law (1 Kings 21:4; Deuteronomy 17:19).

      The king was also in a way the minor religious leader in Israel. His very kingship was of an entirely religious character and implied a unity of the heavenly and earthly rule over Israel through him who as JAH s substitute sat "upon the throne of the kingdom of JAH over Israel" (1 Chronicles 17:14; 28:5; 29:23),

      who was "JAH s anointed" (1 Samuel 24:10; 26:9; 2 Samuel 1:14), and also bore the title of "son of JAH" and "the first-born," the same as Israel did (Exodus 4:22; Hos 11:1; I Chro 7:14; Psalm 89:27; 2:7).

      Thus a place of honor was assigned to the king in the temple (2 Kings 11:4; 23:3; Ezekiel 46:1-2); be sides, he officiated at the national sacrifices (esp. mentioned of David and Solomon). He prayed for his people and blessed them in the name of JAH (2 Samuel 6:18; 24:25; 1 Kings 3:4-8; 8:14 8:55-62; 9:25).

      Apparently it was the king's right to appoint and dismiss the chief priests at the sanctuaries, though in his choice he was doubtless restricted to the Aaronites (1 Chronicles 16:37-39; 2 Samuel 8:17; 1 Kings 2:27-35).

      The priesthood was under the king s supervision to such an extent that he might concern himself about its organization and duties (1 Chronicles 15:10, 1 Chronicles 15:23-24; 1 Chronicles 16:4-6), and that he was responsible for the purity of the Religion and the maintenance of the order of worship.

      In general he was to watch over the religious life and conduct of his people, to eradicate the high places and every form of idolatry in the land (2 Kings 18:4). Ezekiel 45:22 demands of the prince that he shall provide at the Passover a bullock for a sin offering for all the people.

      The marks of royal dignity, besides the beautiful robes in which the king was attired (1 Kings 22:10), were:

        >> (1) the diadem, [A jeweled headband worn as a symbol of sovereignty, perhaps lighter than the crown, worn when seated on the throne].

        >> (2) the crown 2 Samuel 1:10; "2 Kings 11:12; 2 Samuel 12:30),

        >> (3) the headtire; (headress)

        >> (4) the scepter - originally a long, straight staff - the sign of dominion and authority (Genesis 49:10; Numbers 24:17; Isaiah 14:5; Jeremiah 48:17; Psalm 29:45 )

        >> (5) the Throne Royal 1 Kings 10:18-20), the symbol of Dignity majesty.

        >> (6) Israel's kings also had a palace (1 Kings 7:1-12; 22:39; Jeremiah 22:10-14),

        >> (7) a royal harem (2 Samuel 16:21),

        >> (8) a royal bodyguard (2 Samuel 8:18; 15:18);

        >> (9)guaranteed income.

        >> (10) According to the custom of the times presents were expected of the subjects (1 Samuel 10:27; 16:20) and of foreigners

        >> (11) In time of war the king would lay claim to his share of the booty (2 Samuel 8:11; 12:30; 1 Chronicles 26:27).


      7. Saul had a spear (1 Samuel 18:10; 22:10);

      8. Maintenance; (2 Samuel 8:2; 1 Kings 5:1- 10:25; 2 Chronicles 32:23), and these often took the form of an annual tribute, (h)

      Various forms of taxes were in vogue, as a part of the produce of the land (1 Kings 9:11; 1 Samuel 17:25), forced labor of the Canaanites (1 Kings 9:20; 2 Chronicles 2:10) and also of the Israelites (1 Kings 5:13; 11:28; 12:4), the first growth of the pasture lands (Amos 7:1), toll collected from caravans (1 Kings 10:15).

      (d) Subdued nations had to pay a heavy tribute (2 Kings 3:4). (e) The royal domain often comprised extensive possessions (1 Chronicles 27:25-31).

      (2) The royal court. The highest office was that of the princes (1 Kings 4:2), who were the king's advisers or counsellors. In 2 Kings 25:19 and Jeremiah 52:25 they are called "they that saw the king's face" (cf also 1 Kings 12:10, "stood before Solomon").

      The following officers of King David are mentioned: the captain of the host (commander-in-chiefj, the captain of the Cherethites and the Pelethites (bodyguard), the recorder (chronicler and reminder), the scribe (secretary of state), the overseer of the forced labor, the chief ministers or priests (confidants of the king, usually selected from the royal family) (2 Samuel 8:16-18; 20:23-26).

      During the reign of Solomon other officers were added as follows: the overseer over the twelve men "who provided victuals for the king and his household" (1 Kings 4:5-7), the officer over the house hold (1 Kings 4:6; 18:3) (steward, the head of the palace who had "the key" in his possession, Isaiah 22:22);

      the king s friend (1 Kings 4:5; 1 Chronicles 27:33) is probably the same as the king s servant mentioned among the high officials in 2 Kings 22:12. It is not stated what his duties were. Minor officials are servants, cupbearer (1 Kings 10:5), keeper of the ward robe (2 Kings 22:14; 10:22), eunuchs (chamberlains, not mentioned before the division of the kingdom) (1 Kings 22:9; 2 Kings 8:6).

      No higher conceptions of a good king have ever been given to the world than those which are pre sented in the representations of king-

      9. Short ship in the OT, l)Oth actual and ideal. Character Though Samuel s characterization of Sketch of the kingship was borne out in the Israel s example of a great number of kings of Kingdom Israel, the Divine ideal of a true king

      came as near to its realization in the case of one king of Israel, at least, as possibly no where else, viz. in the case; of David.

      Therefore 1 King David appears as the type of that king in whom the Divine ideal of a JAH-king was to find its perfect realization; toward whose reign the kingship in Israel tended. The history of the king ship in Israel after David is, indeed, characterized by that desire for political aggrandizement which had prompted the establishment of the monarchy,

      which was contrary to Israel s Divine mission as the peculiar people of the JAH-king. When Israel s kingdom terminated in the Bab exile, it became evi dent that the continued existence of the nation was

    King, Christ as


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      possible even without : monarchical form of govern- nient. Though a kingdom was established again under the, M;iccabees, as a result of the attempt of Antiochus to extinguish Israel s religion, this king dom was neither as ])erl ect ly national nor as truly religious in its character as the Davidic. It soon became dependent on Rome. The kingship of Herod was entirely alien to 1 he true Israelitish concept ion.

      It remains to he said only that the final attempt of Israel in its revolt against the Rom Empire, to establish the old monarchy, resulted in its down fall as a nation, because it would not learn the lesson that the future of a nation docs not depend upon political greatness, but upon the fulfilment of its Divine mission.

      LiTKH.vTt-KK. J. P. McCurdy, Tfixtori/. Prophecy and the Monuments; Kiclini, Hanrlwdrtcrbuch <l<:x l,it,l. Alter- tumx; 1IDH; Kinzlcr, BM. AT.

      S. 1). PKKSS

      KING, CHRIST AS:

      I. Tin-: UKM.ITY OF CHHIST S KINCSHIP

      1. The OT Koreshadowings

      In tin 1 I salms and Prophets

      2. TheC.ospel Presentation

      (1) Christ s Claim to He King

      (2) Christ s Acceptance of the Title

      (:<) Christ- Charged and Condemned as King

      (4) The Witness of the Resurrection and of Apostolic Preaching

      (5) The Testimony of the Epistles and Apoc alypse

      II. CHRIST S TITLE TO KINGSHIP

      1. By Birth

      2. By Divine Appointment :!. By Conquest

      4. By the Free Choice of TTis People III. THE NATTKE OF CHRIST S KIM;SIIII>

      1. Spiritual

      2. Universal

      (1) Kingdom of Grace, of Power

      (2) Kingdom of Glory 3. Eternal

      /. The Reality of Christ s Kingship. There can be no question but that Christ is set before us in Scripture as a king. The very t it le Christ or "Mes siah" suggests kingship, for though the priest is spoken of as "anointed," and full elucidation of the title as applied to Jesus must take account of His threefold office of prophet, priest and king, yet generally in the OT it is the king to whom the epithet is applied.

      We may briefly note some of the OT predictions of

      Christ as king. The first prediction which represents

      the Christ as having dominion is that of

      1. The OT Jacob concerning the tribe of Judali:

      p._ "Until Shiloh come; and unto him shall

      the obedience of the peoples be" (.Genesis 49

      shadowingS 10); then kingly dignity and dominion

      are suggested by the star and scepter in

      Balaam s prophecy (Xu 24 15-17). As yet, however,

      Israel has no king but God, but when afterward a king is

      given and the people become familiar with the idea, the

      prophecies all more or less have a regal tint, and the

      coming one is preeminently the coming king.

      In the Fss and I rophets. We can only indicate a few of the many royal predictions, but these will readily suggest others. In Psalm 2 the voice of JAH is heard above all the tumult of earth, declaring, "Yet I have set my king upon my holy hill of Zion." So in Pss 24, 45, 72, 89 and HO we have? special foreshadowings of the Mes sianic king. The babe that Isaiah sees born of a virgin is also the "Prince of Peace" (Isaiah 9 G./). of the increase of whose government there shall be no end, and as the prophet gazes on him he. joyfully exclaims: "Behold, a king shall reign in righteousness " (Isaiah 32 1). Jeremiah, the prophet of woe, catches bright glimpses of his coming Lord, and with rapture intensitied by the surrounding sorrow cries: "Behold, the days come, saith .JAH, that I will raise; unto David a righteous Branch, and ho shall reign as king and deal wisely, and shall execute justice and righteousness in the land" (23 5). Ezekiel, dwelling amid his wheels, sees in the course of Providence many revolutions, but they are all to bring about the dominion of Christ: "I will overturn, overturn, overturn .... until he come whose right it is; and I will give it him" (21 27). Daniel sees the rise and progress, the decline and fall of many mighty empires, but beyond all he sees the Son of man inheriting an everlasting kingdom (7 13). Hosca sees the repentant people of Israel in the latter days seeking JAH their God, and David (the greater David) their king (3 . r >). Micah sees the everlasting Ruler coming out of Bethlehem clad in the strength and

      majesty of JAH, who shall "bo great unto the ends of the earth" (5 !>. Zechariah, exulting in His near approach, cries: "Rejoice greatly, <) daughter of /Jon; shout, () daughter of Jcrns; behold, thy king Cometh unto thee" (9 0), and he follows His varied course through gloom and through glory, until the strong conviction is born in his heart and expressed in the glowing words: "JAH shall be King over all the earth" (14 !>). The more extreme! higher critics would, of course, deny that these are direct predictions of Jesus Christ, but most, if not all, would admit that they are ideal representations which were only fully realized in Jesus of Nazareth.

      The Ciospcls present Christ as king. Mt, trac ing His genealogy, gives special prominence to His

      royal lineage as son of David. He 2. The tells of the visit of the Magi who in-

      Gospel quire for the newborn king of the Jews,

      Presenta- and the scribes answer Herod s ques tion tion by showing from Micah s prophecy

      that the Christ to be born in Bethle hem would be a "governor," and would rule, "be shepherd of my people Israel" (2 .5.0). Lk s account of the Nativity contains the angel s dec laration that the child to be born and named Jesus would occupy the throne of David and reign over the house of Jacob forever (1 32.33). In John s account of the beginning of Christ s ministry, one of 1 1 is early disciples, Nathanael, hails Him as "King of Israel" (1 4<)), and Jesus does not repu diate the title. If Mark lias no such definite word, he nevertheless describes the message with which Jesus opens His ministry as the "gospel" of "the kingdom of Clod" (1 14.1.")). The people nurtured in the prophetical teaching expect the coming one to be a king, and when Jesus seems to answer to their ideal of the Messiah, they propose taking Him by force and making Him king (Jn 6 15).

      (1) Christ s claim to be king. Christ Himself claimed to be king. In claiming to be the Messiah He tacitly claimed kingship, but there are specific indications of the claim besides. In all His teach ing of the kingdom it is implied, for though He usually calls it the "kingdom of God" or "of heaven," yet it is plain rhat He is the administrator of its affairs. He assumes to Himself the highest place in it. Admission into the kingdom or ex clusion from it depends upon men s attitude toward Him. In His explanation of the parable of tin- Tares, He distinctly speaks of His kingdom, identi fying it with the kingdom of Clod. "The Son of man shall send forth his angels, and they shall gather otit of his kingdom all things that cause stumbling,

      and them that do iniquity Then shall the

      righteous shine forth as the sun in the kingdom of their Father" (Mt 13 41-43). He speaks of some seeing "the Son of man coming in his kingdom" (Mt 16 28), of the regeneration, "when the Son of man shall sit on the throne of his glory" (Mt 19 2S), of Himself under the guise of a nobleman who goes "into a far country, to receive for himself a kingdom," and does receive it (Lk 19 12-15).

      (2) Christ s acceptance of the title. When the mother of John and James comes asking that her two sons may occupy the chief places of honor in His kingdom, He does not deny that He is a king and has a kingdom, while indicating that the places on His right and left hand are already determined by the appointment of the Father (Mt 20 21-23). He deliberately takes steps to fulfil the prediction of Zee: "Behold, thy king cometh," and He ac cepts, approves and justifies the hosannas and the homage of the multitude (Mt 21 1-16; Mk 11; Lk 19; Jn 12). In His great picture of the coming judgment (Mt 25), the Son of man sits upon the throne of His glory, and it is as "the king" that He blesses and condemns. The dying thief prays, "Remember me when thou comest in thy king dom" (Lk 23 42), and Jesus gives His royal _ re sponse which implies full acceptance of the position.

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      (3) Christ charged and condemned as king. His claim throughout had been so definite that His enemies make this the basis of their charge against Him before Pilate, that He said that he himself is Christ a king," and when Pilate asks, "Art thou the King?" He answers, "Thou sayest," which was equivalent to "yes" (Lk 23 2.3). In the fuller account of Jn, Jesus speaks to Pilate of "my king dom," and says "Thou sayest that I am a king. To this end have I been born" (Jn 18 37). His claim is perpetuated in the superscription of the cross in the three languages: "This is the King of the Jews," and although the priests wished it to be altered so as to detract from His claim, they yet aflirm the fact of that claim when they say: "Write not, The King of the Jews; but, that he said, I am King of the Jews" (Jn 19 21). The curtain of His earthly life falls upon the king in seeming failure; the taunt of the multitude, "Let the Christ, the King of Israel, now come down from the cross (Mk 15 32), meets with no response, and the title on the cross seems a solemn mockery, like the elaborate, cruel jest of the brutal soldiers clothing Him with purple, crowning Him with thorns and hailing Him King of the Jews.

      (4) The witness of the resurrection and of apos tolic preaching. But the resurrection throws new light upon the scene, and fully vindicates His claims, and the sermon of Peter on the (lay of Pentecost proclaims the fact that the crucified one occupies the throne. "Let all the house of Israel therefore know assuredly, that God hath made him both Lord and Christ, this Jesus whom ye crucified" (Acts 2 3(1). The early preaching of the apostles, _ as re corded in the Ads, emphasizes His lordship, His kingship; these men were preachers in the literal sense heralds of the king.

      (5) The testimony of the Epistles and Apocalypse. We need not consider in detail the testimony of the Epp. The fact that Christ is king is every where implied and not infrequently asserted. He is "Lord of both the dead and the living" (Rom 14 9). He is risen "to rule over the ( .entiles" (Rom 15 12). "lie must reign, till he hath put all his enemies under his feet" (1 Cor 15 25). He is at the right hand of God "above all rule, and author ity," etc (Eph 1 20-22). Evil men have^ no "inheritance in the kingdom of Christ and God" (Eph 5 5), and believers are "translated into the kingdom of the Son of his love-" (Col 1 13). He- has been given the name that is above every name "that in the name of Jesus every knee should bow," etc (Phil 2 9-11). Those who suffer with Christ, are to "reign with him" (2 Tim 2 12), at "his appearing and his kingdom" (2 Tim 4 1), and He will save them "unto his heavenly kingdom" (2 Tim 4 IS); "the eternal kingdom of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ" (2 Pet 1 11). Of the Son it is said: "Thy throne, O God, is for ever and ever" (He 1 8), and He is a King-Priest "after 1 he order of Melchizedek" (He 7 17). _ In the Apoca lypse, appropriately, the predominant aspect of Christ is that of a king. He is the "ruler of the kings of the earth" (Rev 1 5), "King of the ages" (Rev 15 3), "King of kings" (17 14; 19 10), "and he shall reign for ever and ever" (11 15). The reality of Christ s kingship is thus placed be yond all doubt.

      //. Christ s Title to Kingship. After the analogy of earthly kingships it might be said that Jesus

      Christ is a king by birth. He was 1. By Birth born a king. His mother, like His

      reputed father, "was of the house and family of David" (Lk 2 4). The angel in an nouncing His birth declares that He will occupy the throne of His father David. The Pharisees have r.o hesitation in affirming that the Christ

      would be Son of David (Mt 22 45; Mk 12 35; Lk 20 41). Frequently in life He was hailed as "Son of David," and after His ascension, Peter declares that the promise God had made to David that "of the fruit of his loins he would set one upon his throne" (Acts 2 30) was fulfilled in Jesus of Nazareth; while Paul declares that the gospel of God was "concerning his Son, who was born of the seed of David according to the flesh" (Rom 1 3). So that on the human side He had the title to king ship as son of David, while on the Divine side as Son of God lie had also the right to the throne.

      David was king by Divine choice and appoint ment, and this was the ideal in the case of his successors. The figment of "Divine

      2. By Di- right," by virtue of which modern vine Ap- kings have claimed to rule was, in t he pointment first instance, a reminiscence of the

      Bib. ideal. But the ideal is realized in Christ. Of the coming Messianic King, JAH said: "Vet I have set my king upon my holy hill of Zion" (Psalm 2 6), and the great proclamation of Pentecost, was an echo of that decree: "Let all the house of Israel therefore know assuredly, that God hath made him both Lord and Christ, this Jesus whorn ye crucified" (Acts 2 3(1), while the apostle declares that "God highly exalted him, and gave unto him the name which is above every name" (Phil 2 9), and again and again the great, OT word of JAH is applied to Christ: "Sit thou on my right hand, till 1 make thine enemies the footstool of thy feet" (He 1 13).

      Often in the olden times kingship was acquired by conquest, by superior prowess. According to

      one etymology of our word king," it

      3. By Con- means the "able man," "the one who quest can," and everyone remembers Car-

      lyle s fine passage thereon. In (lie high est sense, this is true of Christ, who establishes His sway over men s hearts by His matchless prowess, the power of His infinite love and the charm of His perfect character.

      Except in the most autocratic form of kingship, some place has been given to the suffrage of the

      people, and the other phases of the

      4. By the title have been confirmed and ratified Free Choice by the voice of the people as they cry, of His "God save the king!" and no king is People well established on the throne if he is

      not supported by the free homage of his subjects. Christ as king wins the love of His people, and they gladly acknowledge His sway. They are of one heart to make Him king.

      ///. The Nature of Christ s Kingship. We know that the Jews expected a material kingdom, marked by earthly pomp and state; a kingdom on the lines of the Davidic or Solomonic kingdom, and others since have made the same mistake.

      The Scriptures plainly declare, Christ Himself clearly taught, that His kingship was spiritual.

      "My kingdom," said He, "is not of 1. Spiritual this world" (Jn 18 30), and all the

      representations given of it are all con sistent with this declaration. Some have empha sized the preposition ek here, as if that made a difference in the conception: "My kingdom is not of this world." Granted that the preposition indi cates origin, it still leaves the statement an assertion of the spirituality of the kingdom, for if it is not from this kosinos, from this earthly state of things, it must be from the other world not the earthly but the heavenly; not the material but the spiritual. The whole context shows that origin here includes character, for Christ adds, "If my kingdom were of this world, then would my servants fight, that I should not be delivered to the Jews." Because it is of an unworldly origin, it is not to be propagated by

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      worldly means, and I lie non-use of worldly moans declares it to he of an unworldly character. So that to assert that Christ means that His kingdom was not to arise out, of this world, hut to come down from heaven, is not at all to deny, hut rat her, in deed, to declare its essent ial spirituality, its unworld- liness, its otherworldliness.

      Throughout the NT, spirituality appears as the prevailing characteristic of Christ s reign. Earthly kingdoms are hased upon material power, the power of the sword, the power of wealth, etc, but the basal factor of Christ s kingdom is righteousness (Mt 5 20; 6 33; Rom 14 17; He 1 8, etc). The ruling principle in earthly kingdoms is selfish or sectional or national aggrandizement; in the kingdom of Christ it is I ruth. Christ is king of truth. "Art thou a king then?" said Pilate. "I am," said Christ (for that is the force of "thou say- est that 1 am a king"). "To this end have I been horn, and to this end am 1 come into the world, that I should hear witness unto the truth," and He adds, "Every one that is of the truth heareth my voice" (Jn 18 37). Elsewhere He says: "I am the . . . . truth" (Jn 14 (>), and at the head of the armies of heaven He still wears the title "Faithful and True" (Rev 19 11); hut if righteousness and truth occupy such a prominent place in His kingdom, it follows that it must he distinguished by its spirituality. His immediate subjects are spiritual men and women; its laws are spiritual; _its work is spiritual; all the forces emanating from it, operating through it, centering in it, are spiritual.

      The Jewish idea of the Messiah s reign was a narrow national one. For them it meant the glori fication of the sons of Abraham, the 2. Uni- supremacy of Judaism over all forms

      versal of faith and all systems of philosophy;

      the subjection to Jewish sway of the haughty Roman, the cultured Greek and the rude barbarian. The Messiah was to be a greater king than David or Solomon, but still a king after the same sort; much as the limits of the kingdom might extend, it would be but an extension on Jewish lines; others might be admitted to a share in its privileges, but they would have to become natural ized Jews, or occupy a very subordinate place. The prophetic ideal, however, was a universal kingdom, and that was the conception indorsed and empha sized by Christ. (For the prophetic ideal such pas sages may be noted as Pss 2, 22, 72;Isaiah 11 10; Did 7 l. 5.14, etc.) Of course, the predictions have a Jewish coloring, and people who did not apprehend the spirituality might well construe this amiss; but, closely examined, it will be found that the prophets indicate that men s position in the coining kingdom is to he determined by their relation to the king, and in that we get the preparation for the full NT ideal. The note of universality is very marked in the teaching of Christ. All barriers are to be broken down, and Jews and Gentiles are to share alike in the privileges of the new 7 order. "Many shall come from the east and the west, and shall sit down with Abraham, and Isaac, and Jacob, in the kingdom of heaven" (Mt 8 11), and stranger still to the Jewish ear: "The sons of the kingdom shall be cast forth into the outer darkness" (Mt 8 12). In the parables of the kingdom (Mt 13), the field, in which is sown the good seed of the kingdom, is the world, and the various other figures give the same idea of unlimited extent. The same thought is suggested by the declaration, "Other sheep I have, which are not of this fold" (Jn 10 10), also by the confident affirmation: "I, if I be lifted up from the earth, will draw all men unto myself" (Jn 12 32), and so with many other statements of the Gospels.

      The terms of the commission are enough to show

      the universal sovereignty which Christ claims over men: "Go ye therefore," He says, as possessing all authority in heaven and on earth, and make disciples of all the nations" (Mt 28 19), coupled with the royal assurance, "Ye shall be my witnesses . . . . unto the uttermost part of the earth" (Acts 1 8). The Book of Acts shows, in the carrying out of t he commission, the act ual widening of the borders of Christ s kingdom to include believers of all na tions. Peter is taught, and announces clearly, the great truth that Gentiles are to be received upon the same terms as the Jews. But through Paul as the apostle of the Gentiles this glorious truth is most fully and jubilantly made known. In the dogmatic teaching of his Epp. he shows that all banners are broken down, the middle wall of the fence between Jew and Gentile no longer exists. Those who were aliens and strangers are now made nigh in Christ, and "are no more strangers and sojourners, but ye are fellow-citi/ens with the saints, and of the household of God" (Eph 2 19). That household, that commonwealth, is, in Pauline lan guage, equivalent to the kingdom, and in the same Ep. he describes the same privileged position as being an "inheritance in the kingdom of Christ, and God" (6 5). The Saviour s kingdom cannot be bounded by earthly limits, and all attempts to map it out according to human -rules imply a failure to recognize the true Scriptural idea of its universality.

      (1) Kingdom of grace of power. Most of what we have said applies to that phase of Christ s king dom which is generally called his kingdom of grace; there is another phase called the kingdom of poircr. Christ is in a special sense king in Zion, king in His church that is universal in conception and des tined to be so in reality but He is also king of the universe. He is "head over all things"; Eph 1 22; Col 1 18, and other passages clearly intimate this. He rules over all. He does so not simply as God, but as God-man, as mediator. It is as me diator that He has the name above every name; it is as mediator that He sits upon the throne of uni versal power.

      (2) Kingdom of glory. -There is also the phase of the kingdom of glory. Christ s reign now is truly glori ous. The essent ial spirituality of it implies its glory, for as the spiritual far surpasses the material in value, so the glory of the spiritual far transcends the glory of the material. The glory of worldly pomp, of physical force, of human prowess or genius, must ever pale before the glory of righteousness, truth, spirituality. But Christ s kingdom is glorious in another sense; it is a heavenly kingdom. It is the kingdom of grace into which saved sinners now enter, but it is also the kingdom of heavenly glory, and in it the glorified saints have a place. Entrance into the kingdom of grace in this earthly state secures entrance into the kingdom of glory. Right ly does the church confess: "Thou art the King of Glory, O Christ." The kingdom is yet to assume an externally glorious form. That is connected with the appearing of Christ (2 Tim 4 1), the glory that shall be revealed, the heavenly kingdom. The kingdom in that stage cannot be entered by flesh and blood (1 Cor 15 50), man in his mortal ity but the resurrection change will give the fit ness, when in the fullest sense the kingdom of this world shall have "become the kingdom of our Lord, and of his Christ" (Rev 11 15).

      It would be easy to multiply quotations in proof of this. The great passage in Dnl 7 emphatically de clares it. The echo of this is heard in 3. Eternal the angel s announcement: "He shall reign over the house of Jacob for ever; and of his kingdom there shall be no end" (Lk 1 33). The reign of 1,000 years which so greatly occupies the thoughts of so many brethren, whatever we may

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      King, Christ as Kingdom of God

      decide as to its nature, is but. an episode in the reign of Christ. He is reigning now, He shall reign forever. Rev 11 15, above quoted, is often cited as applying to the millennium, but it goes on to say "and he shall reign [not for 1,000 years simply, but] for ever and ever." So, many of the glowing predictions of the OT, which are often assigned to the millennium, indi cate no limit, but deal with the enduring and eternal.

      The difficult passage in 1 Cor 15 24-28 must be interpreted in the light of those declarations con cerning the eternity of Christ s reign. It is evi dently as mediator that He delivers up the kingdom to the Father. The dispensation of mediator comes to an end. All has been done according to the pur pose of redemption. All the ransomed are finally gathered home. He sees of the travail of His soul and is satisfied. Obdurate enemies are subdued. God s glory has been fully vindicated. The Son becoming subject to the Father, Clod governs di rectly and is all in all. But the Son in some sense still reigns and through Him God s glory will ever shine, while the kingdom eternally rests upon redemption.

      We may summarize by saying that Christ is king of truth, king of salvation (Mt 21 5; Zee 9 9); king of grace; king of peace (Lk 19 38; He 7 2); king of righteousness (He 18; 72); king of glory (Mt 25 31-34); king eternal; king of saints, king of the ages; king of kings (Rev 19 16). "Upon his head are many diadems" (Rev 19 12). See also CHRIST, OFFICES OF. ARCHIBALD M CAIG

      KING OF THE JEWS: The title applied in mockery of Jesus, and put by Pilate on His cross (Mt 27 29.37 || Mk 15 26, etV). See JESUS CHRIST; KING, CHRIST AS.

      KINGDOM OF GOD (OF HEAVEN), THE (TJ (3a.cri.Xc to. TCOV ovpavuv TOVP 0ov, hi 1 huxilcid ton on ran on toil thcoii) :

      I. MEANING AND OUIOIN OF THE TERM

      1. Place in the Gospels

      2. " Kingdom of Heaven"

      ingdom of Heaven" and " Kingdom of dod" :<. Relation to the OT (Daniel, etc II. ITS USE BY JESUS CONTRAST WITH JEWISH CON CEPTIONS

      1. Current Jewish Opinions

      2. Relation of Jesus to Same

      :5. (irowing Divergence and Contrast

      4. Prophetic Character of the "Temptation"

      5. Modern "Futuristic" Hypothesis (J. Weiss, Schweitzer)

      0. Weakness of This View

      7. Positive Conceptions of Jesus

      III. THE IDEA IN HISTORY

      1. Apostolic and Post-apostolic Age

      2. Karly Christian Centuries

      3. Reformation Period

      4. Later Ideas

      IV. PLACE IN THEOLOGY

      1. Danger of Exaggeration

      2. Elements of Living Power in Idea LITERATURE

      The "kingdom of God" is one of the most remark able ideas and phrases of all time, having begun to be used very near the beginnings of history and continuing in force down to the present day.

      /. Meaning and Origin of the Term. Its use by Jesus is by far its most interesting aspect; for, in

      the Synoptists, at least, it is His 1. Place in watchword, or a comprehensive term the Gospels for the whole of His teaching. Of this

      the ordinary reader of Scripture may hardly be aware, but it becomes evident and sig nificant to the student. Thus, in Mt 4 23, the commencement of the ministry is described in these words, "And Jesus went about in all Galilee, teach ing in their synagogues, and preaching the gospel of the kingdom, and healing all manner of disease and all manner of sickness among the people"; anil, somewhat later, in Lk 8 1, the expansion of His activity is described in the following terms, "And

      it came to pass soon afterwards, that he went about through cities and villages, preaching and bringing the good tidings of the kingdom of God, and with him the twelve." When the Twelve are sent forth by themselves, the purpose of their mission is, in Lk 9 2, given in these words, "And he sent them forth to preach the kingdom of God, and to heal the sick." In Mt 13 11, the parables, which formed so large and prominent a portion of His teaching, are denominated collectively "the mysteries of the kingdom of heaven"; and it will be remembered how many of these commence with the phrase, "The kingdom of heaven is like."

      In these quotations, and in others which might

      easily be adduced, it will be observed that the

      phrases "the kingdom," "the king-

      2. "King- doin of God," "the kingdom of dom of heaven" are used interchangeably. Heaven" The last of the three, "the kingdom of and "King- heaven," is confined to the First Gos- dom of pel, which does not, however, always God" make use of it ; and it is not certain

      what may have been the reason for the substitution. The simplest explanation would be that heaven is a name for God, as, in the parable of the Prodigal Son, the penitent says, "I have sinned against heaven," and we ourselves might say, "Heaven forbid!" It is not, however, im probable that the true meaning has to be learned from two petitions of the Lord s Prayer, the one of which is epexegetic of the other, "Thy kingdom come. Thy will be done on earth, as it is in heaven." Here the disciples are instructed to pray that the kingdom of God may come, but this is equivalent to the petition that the will of God may be done on earth; Jesus is, however, aware of a region in the universe where the will of (iod is at present being perfectly and universally done, and, for reasons not difficult to surmise, He elevates thither the minds and hearts of those who pray. The kingdom of heaven would thus be so entitled because it is already realized there, and is, through prayer and effort, to be transferred thence to this earth.

      Although, however, the phrase held this master- position in the teaching of Jesus, it was not of His

      invention. It was employed before

      3. Relation Him by John the Baptist, of whom we to OT read, in Mt 3 1 f, "And in those days (Daniel, etc) cometh John the Baptist, preaching

      in the wilderness of Judaea, saying, Repent ye; for the kingdom of heaven is at hand." Indeed, the phrase is far older; for, on glancing toward the OT, we come at once, in Dnl 2 44, to a passage; where the young prophet, explaining to the monarch the image of gold, silver, iron and clay, which, in his dream, he had seen shattered by "a stone cut out without hands," interprets it as a succession of world-kingdoms, destined to be de stroyed by "a kingdom of God," which shall last forever; and, in his famous vision of the "son of man" in 7 14, it is said, "There was given him dominion, and glory, and a kingdom, that all the peoples, nations, and languages should serve him: his dominion is an everlasting dominion, which shall not pass away, and his kingdom that which shall not be destroyed."

      These passages in Dnl form undoubtedly the proximate source of the phrase; yet the idea which it represents mounts far higher. From the first the Jewish state was governed by laws believed to be derived directly from heaven; and, when the people demanded a king, that they might be like other nations, they were reproached for desiring any king but God Himself. With this sublime con ception the actual monarchy was only a corn- promise, the reigning monarch passing for JAH s representative on earth. In David, the man after

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      find s own heart, the compromise was not unsatis- faetory; in Solomon it was still tolerable; \\m\\ in the majoi-ity of the kings of both .Indah and Israel it was a dismal and disastrous failure. No wonder that the pious sighed and prayed that JAH might take to Himself His great power and reign, or that the prophets predicted the coming of a ruler who would he far nearer to (iod than the actual kings and of whose reign there would be no end. Even when the political kingdom perished and the people were carried away into Babylon, the intelligent and trulv religious among them did not cease to cherish the old hope, and the very aspect of the world- powers then and subsequently menacing them only widened their conceptions of what that kingdom must be which could overcome them all. The return from Babylon seemed a miraculous confirma tion of their faith, and it looked as if the day long praved for were about to dawn. Alas, it proved a day of small things. The era of the Maccabees wa s only a transitory gleam; in the person ot Herod the Great a usurper occupied 11" throne; and the eagles of the Romans were hovering on the horizon. Still Messianic hopes flourished, and Messianic language filled the mouths of the people.

      //. Its Use by Jesus Contrast with Jewish Con ceptions. Schiirer, in his llixtory of the, Jcicish People in the Tune of Jesus Christ 1. Current (II, 11, 126 IT), has drawn up a kind Jewish of Messianic creed, in no fewer than

      Opinions eleven articles, which hi; believes was extensively diffused at this period. The Sadducees, indeed, had no participation in these dreams, as they would have called them, being absorbed in money-making and courtiership; but the Pharisees cherished them, and the Zealots received their name from the ardor with which they embraced them. The true custodians, however, of these conceptions were the Prosdechomenoi, as they have been called, from what is said of them in the NT, that they "waited for the kingdom of (iod." To this class belonged such men as Nicodemus and Joseph of ArimatlKea (Lk 23 51), but it is in the beginning of the Gospel of Lk that we are intro duced to its most numerous representatives, in the groups surrounding the infant Baptist and the infant Saviour (Lk 2 25.3S); and the truest and amplest expression of their sentiments must be sought in the inspired hymns which rose from them on this occasion. The center of their aspirations, as there depicted, is a kingdom of God not, how ever, of worldly splendor and force, but of right eousness and peace and joy in the Holy Ghost; beginning in humility, and passing _to exaltation only through the dark valley of contrition.

      Such was the circle in which both the Baptist and Jesus were reared, and it was out of this atmos phere that the conception of the 2. Relation kingdom of God came into their minds, of Jesus It has frequently been said that, in to Same making use of this term, Jesus accom modated Himself to the opinions and language of His fellow-countrymen; and there is truth in this, because, in order to secure a footing on the solid earth of history, He had to connect His own activity with the world in which He found Himself. Yet the idea was native to His home and His race, and therefore to Himself; and it is not improbable that He may at first have been un aware of the wide difference between His own thoughts on the subject and those of His con temporaries.

      When, however, He began, in the course of His ministry, to speak of the kingdom of God, it soon became manifest that by Him and by His con temporaries it was used in different senses; and this contrast went on increasing until there was a

      great- gulf fixed between Him and them. The

      difference cannot better be expressed than by say

      ing, as is done by B. Weiss, that He

      3. Growing and they laid the accent on different Divergence halves of the phrase, they emphasizing and "the kingdom" and He "of God." Contrast They were thinking of the expulsion of

      the Romans, of a Jewish king and court, and of a world-wide dominion going forth from Mt. /ion; He was thinking of righteousness, holiness and peace, of the doing of the will of God on earth as it is done in heaven. So earthly and fantastic were the expectations of the Jewish multitude that He had to escape from their hands when they tried to take Him by force and make Him a king. The authorities never acknowledged the pretensions of One who seemed to them a religious dreamer, and, as they clung to their own conceptions, they grew more and more bitter against One who was turning the most cherished hopes of a nation into ridicule, besides threatening to bring down on them the heavy hand of the Roman. And at last they settled the controversy between Him and them by nailing Him to a tree.

      At one time Jesus had felt the glamor of the

      popular Messianic ideas, and at all times He must

      have been under temptation to accom-

      4. Prophetic modate His own ideas to the prej- Character udiees of those on whose favor His of the success seemed to be dependent. The "Temp- struggle of His mind and will with such tation" solicitations is embodied in what is

      called the Temptation in the Wilder ness (Mt 4 1-11). There He was tempted to accept the dominion of the world at the price of compromise with evil; to be a bread-king, giving pnnem et circenscs; and to curry favor with the multitude by some display, like springing from the pinnacle of the temple. The incidents of this scene look like representative samples of a long experience; but they are placed before the commencement of His public activity in order to show that He had already overcome them; and throughout His min istry He may be said to have been continually de claring, as He did in so many words at its close, that His kingdom was not of this world.

      It is very strange that, in spite of this, Ho should bo believed, even by Christian scholars, to have held a purely futuristic and apocalyptic view K Mnrlprn of the kingdom Himself. He was all the ? : . time expecting, it is said, that the heavens

      Futuristic W ould open and the kingdom descend from Hypothesis heaven to earth, a pure and perfect work a Woicc of (iod. This is exactly what was ex-

      .

      p oc t.(>d by the Jewish multitude, as is Schweitzer) stated in Lk 19 11; and it is precisely

      what the authorities believed Him to bo anticipating. The controversy between Him and them was as to whether JAH would intervene on His behalf or nof and, when no intervention took place, they be lieved they were justified in condemning Him. The premises being conceded, it is didicult to deny the force of their argument. If Jesus was all the time looking out for an appearance from heaven which never arrived, what better was He than a dreamer of the ghetto ?

      It was by Johannes Weiss that this hypothesis was started in recent times; and it has been worked out by

      Schweitzer as the final issue of modern R Wpfllr- speculation on the life of Christ (see his

      The Quest of the Historical Jesus). But in

      opposition to it can be quoted not a few This View sayings of Jesus which indicate that, in

      His view, the kingdom of God had al ready begun and was making progress during His earthly ministry, and that it was destined to make progress not by catastrophic and apocalyptic interference with the course of Providence, but, as the grain grows lirst the blade, then the ear, after that the full corn in the ear (Mk 4 20-29). Of such sayings the most remarkable is Lk 17 20 f, "And being asked by the Phar isees when the kingdom of God comoth, he answered them and said, The kingdom of God Cometh not with observation: neither shall they say, Lo, here! or. There! for lo, the kingdom of God is within you." "Observa tion " in this quotation, is an astronomical term, de noting exactly such a manifestation iu the physical

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      attributed to Him by those representatives of modern

      In the nature of the case the kingdom must have been growing from stage to stage during His earthly ministry. He Himself was there, 7. Positive embodying the kingdom in His person; Conceptions and the circle gathered around Him of Jesus partook of the blessings of the king dom. This circle might have grown large enough to be coextensive with the country; and, therefore, Jesus retained the consciousness of being the Messiah, and offered Himself in this char acter to His fellow-countrymen by the triumphal entry into Jerus. But the citizens of the kingdom had to enter it one by one, not in a body, as the Jews were expecting. Strait was the gate; it was the narrow gate of repentance. Jesus began by repeating the initial word of the teaching of His forerunner; and He had too much reason to con tinue repeating it, as the hypocrisy and worldliness of Pharisees and Sadducees called for denunciation from His lips. To the frailties of the publicans and sinners, on the contrary, He showed a strange mildness; but this was because lie knew the way of bringing such sinners to His feet to confess their sins themselves. To the penitent He granted pardon, claiming that the Son of man had power on earth to forgive sins. Then followed the expo sition of righteousness, of which the Sermon on the Mount is a perfect specimen. Yet it commences with another watchword that of blessedness, the ingredients of which are set forth in all their com prehensiveness. In the same way, in other pas sages, He promises "rest," "peace," and the like; and again and again, where He might be expected to employ the term "kingdom of Clod," He substi tutes "life" or "eternal life." Such were the blessings He had come into the world to bestow; and the most comprehensive designation for them all was "the kingdom of Clod."

      It is true, there was always imperfection attach ing to the kingdom as realized in His lifetime, be cause He Himself was not yet made perfect. Stead ily, from the commencement of the last stage of His career, He began to speak of His own dying and rising again. To those nearest Him such language was at the time a total mystery; but the day came when His apostlea were able to speak of His death and ascension as the crown and glory of His whole; career. When His life seemed to be plunging over the precipice, its course was so diverted by the providence of God that, by dying, He became the Redeemer of mankind and, by missing the throne of the Jews, attained to that of the universe, be coming King of kings and Lord of lords.

      ///. The Idea in History. Alter the death of Jesus, there soon ensued the destruction of the Jew ish state; and then Christianity went 1. Apos- forth among the nations, where to tolic and have spoken of it as a kingdom of God Post-apos- would have unnecessarily provoked tolic Age hostility and called forth the accusa tion of treason against the powers that be. Hence it made use of other names and let "the kingdom of God" drop. This had commenced even in Holy Scripture, where, in the later books, there is a growing infrequency in the use of the term. This may be alleged as proof that Jesus was being forgotten; but it may only prove that Christianity was then too much alive to be trammeled with words and phrases, even those of the Master, being able at every stage to find new language to express its new experience.

      In the early Christian centuries, "the kingdom of God" was used to designate heaven itself, in which

      from the first the development of the kingdom

      was to issue ; this, in fact, being not infrequently

      the meaning of the phrase even in the

      2. Early mouth of Jesus. The Alexandrian Christian thinkers brought back the phrase to Centuries designate the rule of God in the con science of men. St. Augustine s great

      work bears a title, De Ci/ itate Dei, which is a tr of our phrase; and to him the kingdom of God was the church, while the world outside of the church was the kingdom of Satan. From the time of Charle magne there were in the world, side by side, two powers, that of the emperor and that of the pope; and the history of the Middle Ages is the account of the conflict of these two for predominance, each pre tending to struggle in the name of God. The ap proaching termination of this conflict may be seen in Wyeliffe s great work De Dontinio Divino, this I it Ic also being a tr of our phrase.

      During the struggles of the Reformation the

      battles of the faith were fought out under other

      watchwords; and it was rather among

      3. Refor- such sectaries as the Baptists, that mation names like Fifth Monarchy and Rule Period of the Saints betrayed recollection of

      the evangelic phraseology; but how near, then and subsequently, the expression of men s thoughts about authority in church and state came to the language of the Gospels could easily be demonstrated, for example, from the Confessions and Books of Discipline of the Scottish church.

      The very phrase, "the kingdom of God," re appeared at the close of the Reformation period

      among the Pietists of Germany, who, as

      4. Later their multiplying benevolent and mis- Ideas sionary activities overflowed the narrow

      boundaries of the church, as it was then understood, spoke of themselves as working for the kingdom of God, and found this more to their taste than working for the church. The vague and humanitarian aspirations of Rationalism sometimes assumed to themselves the same title; but it was by Hitschl and his followers that the phrase was brought back into the very heart of theology. In the system of Ritschl there are two poles the love of God and the kingdom of God. The love of God enfolds within itself God s purpose for the world, to be realized in time; and this progressive realiza tion is the kingdom of God. It fulfils itself esp. in the faithful discharge of the duties of everyone s daily vocation and in the recognition that in the course of Providence all things are working together for good to them that love God.

      IV. Place in Theology. There are those to

      whom it appears self-evident that what was the

      leading phrase in the teaching of Jesus

      1. Danger must always be the master-word in of Exag- theology; while others think this to geration be a return from the spirit to the letter.

      Even Jesus, it may be claimed, had this phrase imposed upon Him quite as much as He chose it for Himself; and to impose it now on theology would be to entangle the movements of Christian thought with the cerements of the dead.

      This is an interesting controversy, on both sides

      of which much might be said. But in the phrase

      "the kingdom of God" there are ele-

      2. Elements ments of living power which can never of Living pass away. (1) It expresses the social Power in side of Christianity. A kingdom im- Idea plies multitude and variety, and,

      though religion begins with the indi vidual, it must aim at brotherhood, organization and expansion. (2) It expresses loyalty. However much kings and kingdoms may fail to touch the imagination in an age of the world when many


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      countries have become or are becoming republican, the strength to conquer and to endure will always have to be derived from contact with personalities. Clod is the king of the kingdom of Clod, and the Son of God is His vicegerent; and without the love of God the Father and the grace of the Lord Jesus Christ no progress can be made with the Christ ian- i/ation of the world. (3) It keeps alive the truth, suggested by Jesus in the Lord s Prayer, that the doing of the will of dod on earth is the one thing needful. This is the true end of all authority in both church and state, and behind all efforts thus directed there is at work the potency of heaven. (4) It reminds all generations of men that their true home and destiny is heaven. In not a few of Our Lord s own sayings, as has been remarked, our phrase is obviously only a name for heaven; and, while His aim was that the kingdom should be es tablished on earth. He always promised to those aiding in its establishment in this world that their efforts would be rewarded in the world to come. The constant recognition of a spiritual and eternal world is one of the unfailing marks of genuine Christianity.

      LITER \\TURK. Sec the works on NT Theology by Weiss, Beyschlag, Holtznuum. Keine, Schlatter, Welnel, Stevens, Sheldon; and on the Teaching of Jesus by Wendt Dalman, Bruce; Cundlish, The Kingdom of God; Robertson, R<><jnum Dei; Stalker, The Ethic of Jesus,

      JAMES STALKER

      KINGDOM OF ISRAEL. See ISRAEL, KING DOM OF.

      KINGDOM OF JUDAH. See JUDAH, KING DOM OF.

      KING S DALE. Sec DALE, KING S.

      KING S GARDEN (Tfbpn"]3, gan-ha-mdekh) : In Xeh 3 15, mention is made of "the pool of Shclah by the king s garden"; in 2 Kings 25 4; Jeremiah 52 7, "All the men of war fled by night by the way of the gate between the two walls, which was by the king s garden"; see also Jeremiah 39 4. The "king s winepresses" (Zee 14 10), which must have been to the extreme S. of the city, were clearly in this neighborhood. The references all point to the one situation in Jerus where it is possible for gardens to flourish all the year round, namely, the part of the Kidron valley below the Tyropoeon which is watered by the overflow from the Pool of Siloam (see SILOAM). Here the vegetable gardens of the peasants of Siloam present an aspect of green fresh ness unknown elsewhere in Jerus.

      E. W. G. MASTERMAN

      KING S MOTHER: The queen-dowager occu pied a very important position at the court of the kings of Israel, e.g. Bathsheba (1 Kings 2 19); Maacah (15 13); Athaliah (2 Chronicles 22 2); and Xe- hushta (2 Kings 24 8; Jeremiah 13 18). See QUEEN; QUEEN MOTHER.

      KING S POOL (TT2H PD-Q, b Tckhath ha- mclckfi): This is possibly the Pool of Siloam (Xeh 2 14), and may have been so named as being near to the "king s garden."

      KING S VALE (^ t Errpp? , cm,/,- hu-inclekh; LXX in Genesis reads to pvdiou ["the plain"] basileos, in 2 Samuel, he kmlds ["valley") tod basileos; AV King s Dale): The place when; the king of Sodom met Abram (Genesis 14 17). and the situation of Absalom s monument (2 Samuel 18 18). It was identical with the Vale of Shaveh, and was evidently near Salem, the city of Melchizedek (Genesis 14 17). If SALEM (q.v.) is Jerus, then Absalom s pillar was also near that city. Joshua writes (Ant, VII, x, 3), "Absalom had

      erected for himself a marble pillar in the king s dale, two furlongs [stadia] from Jerus, which he named Absalom s Hand." In all probability this "pillar" was a rough upright stone a ma^gcbhah but its site is lost. The traditional Gr-Egyp tomb of perhaps 100-200 years BC which has been hewn out of the rock on the eastern side of the Kidron valley is manifestly misnamed "Absalom s pillar," and the Kidron ravine (nahal) cannot be the King s Vale (*cmcb). E. W. G. MASTERMAN

      KINGS, BOOKS OF:

      I. TITLE IE. SCOPE

      III. CHAHACTER OF BOOKS AND POSITION IN HEBREW CANON

      1. Purpose,

      2. Character of Data

      IV. HISTORICAL VALUE

      1. Treatment- of Historical Data

      2. Chronology

      3. Value of Assyrian Records

      4. Plan

      V. COMPOSITION

      1. Nature of the Books

      2. Sources

      3. Kent s Scheme

      4. J and E VI. DATE

      LITERATURE

      /. 77f/e. The Heb title reads, D" 1 ?^ , mrlakhlm, "kings," the division into books being based on the; LXX where the Books of Kings are numbered 3d and 4th, the Books of Kingdoms (Bao-iXa uj , BasUeion), the Books of Samuel being numbered respectively 1st and 2d. The scparat ion in the Heb into 2 Books of Kings dates to the rabbinic Bible of Daniel Bomberg (Venice, 1516-17), who adds in a footnote, "Here the non-Jews [i.e. Christians] begin the 4th Book of Kings." The Heb Canon treats the 2 Books of S as one book, and the 2 Books of K as one. Hence both AV and RV read incor rectly, "The First Book of Kings," even the use of the article being superfluous.

      //. Scope. The Books of K contain 47 chs (I, 22 chs; II, 25 chs), and cover the period from the conspiracy of Adonijah and the accession of Solomon (975 BC) to the liberation of Jehoiachin after the beginning of the Exile (561 BC). The subject-matter may be grouped under certain heads, as the last days of David (1 Kings 1 2 11); Solomon and his times (1 Kings 2 1211 43); the Northern Kingdom to the coming of Assyria (1 Kings 12 16 2 Kings 17 41) (937-722 BC), including 9 dynastic changes; the Southern Kingdom to the coming of Babylon (1 Kings 12 12 Kings 25 21, the annals of the two kingdoms being given as |i records until the fall of Israel) (937-586 BC), during which time but one dynasty, that of David, occupied the throne; the period of exile to 561 BC (2 Kings 25 22-30). A simpler outline, that of Driver, would be: (1) Solo mon and his times (1 Kings 1-11) ; (2) Israel and Judah to the fall of Israel (1 Kings 122 Kings 17); Judah to the fall of Jerus (586 BC), and the captivity to the liberation of Jehoiachin (561 BC) (2 Kings 18-25).

      " Above all, there are three features in the history, which, in the mind of the author, are of prime importance as shown by the prominence he gives them in his narra tive. (1) The dynasty of David is invested with pe culiar dignity. This had two aspects. It pointed back to the Divine election of the nation in the past, and gave the guaranty of indefinite national perpetuity in the future. The, promise of the sure mercies of David was a powerful uniting influence in the Exile. (2) The Temple and its service, for which the writer had such special regard, contributed greatly to the phase of na tional character of subsequent times. AVith all the draw backs and defacements of pure worship here was the stated regular performance! of sacred rites, the develop ment and regulation of priestly order and ritual law, which stamped themselves so firmly on later Judaism. (3) Above all, this was the period of bloom of OT prophecy. Though more is said of men like Elijah and ISlisha, wljo have left no written words, we must not

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      forget the desires of preexilian prophets, whose writings have come down to us men who, against the opposi tion of rulers and the Indifference of the people, testi fied to the moral foundation on which the nation was con stituted, vindicated Divine righteousness, rebuked sin, and held up the ideal to which the nation was called." Robertson, Temple BD, 369 f.

      ///. Character of Books and Position in Hebrew Canon. The Books of K contain much historical material, yet the historical is not their primary purpose. What in our Kng. Bibles pass for his torical books are in the lie!) Canon prophetic books, the Books of Joshua, Judges, 1 Samuel, 2 Samuel, 1 Kings and 2 Kings being classed as the "Earlier Prophets."

      The chief aim of these books is didactic, the im parting of great moral lessons backed up by well- known illustrations from the nation s

      1. Purpose history and from the lives of its

      heroes and leaders. Accordingly, we have here a sort of historical archipelago, more 1 con tinuous than in the Pent, yet requiring much bridging over and conjecture in the details.

      The historical matter includes, in the case of the kings of Israel, the length of the reign and the

      death; in the case of the kings of

      2. Charac- Judah there are included also the age ter of Data at the date of accession, the name of the

      mother, and mention of the burial. The beginnings of the reigns in each case are dated from a point in the reign of the contemporary ruler, e.g. I K 15 1: "Now in the 18th year of king Jeroboam the son of Nebat began Abijam to reign over Judah."

      IV. Historical Value. These books contain a large amount of authentic data, and, along with the

      other books of this group which con-

      1. Treat- stitute a contemporaneous narrative , ment of Joshua, Judges, 1 Samuel, 2 Samuel, must be accorded Historical high rank among ancient documents. Data To be sure the ethical and religious

      value is first and highest, nevertheless the historical facts must be reckoned at their true worth. Discrepancies and contradictions are to be explained by the subordination of historical de tails to the moral and religious purpose of the books, and to the diversity of sources whence these data are taken, that is, the compilers and editors of the Books of K as they now stand were working not for a consistent, continuous historical narrative, but for a great ethical and religious treatise. The his torical material is only incidental and introduced by way of illustration and confirmation. For the oriental mind these historical examples rather than the rigor of modern logic constitute the unanswer able argument.

      There cannot be as much said relative to the chrono logical value of the books. Thus, e.g., there is a qurs- tion as to the date of the close of Aha//

      2. Chro- reign. According to 2 Kings 18 10, Samaria nology f (! i m the 6th year of Hezekiah s reign.

      The kings who followed Hezekiah aggre gate 110 years; 5S6+110+29 (Hezekiah, 2 Kings 18 2) = 725. But in 2 Kings 18 13 we learn that Sennacherib s invasion came in the 14th year of Hezekiah s reign. Then 701 +14 =715. With this last agrees the account of Hezekiah s sickness (2 Kings 20). In explanation of 2 Kings 18 13, however, it is urged by some that the writer has subtracted the 15 years of 2 Kings 20 from the 29 years of Hezekiah s reign. Again, e.g. in 1 Kings 6 1, we learn that Solomon began to build the temple 480 years "after the children of Israel were come out of the land of Egypt" (LXX here reads 440 years). This would make between Moses and David 12 generations of 40 years each. But counting the Exodus in the reign of Merenptah, 1225-1215 BO, and the beginning of the erection of the temple 975 BC, or after, we could not make out more than (1225-975) 250 years. Further, if the total length of reigns in Israel and Judah as re corded in the ;, accounts of K be added for the two king doms, the two amounts do not agree. And, again, it is not certain whether in their annals the Hebrews pre dated or post-dated the reigns of their kings, i.e. whether the year of a king s death was counted his last year and the first year of his successor s reign, or whether the following year was counted the first year of the succeed

      ing king (cf Curtis in IIDB, I, 400, 1, f Marti in EB I coll. 777 ff;.

      The Babylonians and Assyrians were

      3. Value more skilled and more careful chronologers, of Assyrian ailt * ^ s Jv reference to their accounts of ._ j tno same or of contemporary events that KecordS a sure footing is found. Hence the value of

      such monuments as those of Shalmaneser IV and Sennacherib and here mention should be made also of the Moabite Stone.

      The plan of the books is prevailingly

      4. Plan chronological, although at times the ma

      terial is arranged in groups (e.g. 2 Kings 2 1 8 15, the Elisha stories).

      V. Composition. The Books of K are of tin- nature of a compilation. The compiler has fur nished a framework into which he has

      1. Nature arranged the historical matter drawn of the from other sources. There are chrono- Books logical data, citations of authorities,

      judgments on the character and deeds of the several rulers, and moral and religious teach ings drawn from the attitude of the rulers in matters of religion, esp. toward heathen cults. The point of view is that of the prophets of the national party as one against foreign influence. "Both in point of view and in phraseology the compiler shows himself to be strongly influenced by Deuteronomy." (The principal edi .or is styled RD, i.e. Deuteronomic Redactor.) The Deuteronomic law was the touchstone, and by his loyalty to, or apostasy from, that standard, each king stands approved or condemned. This influence also appears in passages where the editor takes liberties in the expansion and adaptation of material. There is marked recurrence of phrases occurring elsewhere chiefly or even wholly in Deuteronomy, or in books showing Deuteronomic influence- (Bur- ney in HDB, II, 859 f). In 2 Kings 17 we have a test of the nation on the same standards; ef also 1 Kings 2 3 f; 9 1-9; 2 Kings 14 6; Deuteronomy 24 16.

      In numerous instances the sources are indicated, as "the book of the acts of Solomon" (I K 11 41),

      "the chronicles of the kings of Judah"

      2. Sources (1 Kings 14 29), "the chronicles of the

      kings of Israel" (1 Kings 15 31). A score or more of these sources are mentioned by title in the several books of the OT. Thus "the history of Samuel the seer," "the history of Nathan the prophet," "the history of Gad the seer" (1 Chronicles 29 29); "the prophecy of Ahijah the Shilonite," "the visions of Iddo the seer concerning Jeroboam the son of Nebat" (2 Chronicles 9 29; cf 2 Chronicles 12 15; 13 22; 20 34; 32 32). Thus the "book of the kings of Israel" is mentioned 17 t (for all kings ex cept Jehoram and Hoshea); the "book of the chronicles of the kings of Judah" is mentioned 15 t (for all except Ahaziah, Athaliah, Jehoahaz, Je- hoiachin and Zedekiah). Whether the compiler had recourse to the archives themselves or to a work based on the archives is still a question.

      Kent, Student a OT (II, chart, and pp. ix-xxvi), gives the following scheme for showing the; sources:

      (1) Early stories about the Ark (c 950

      3. Kent S BC or earlier). Saul stories and David Scheme stories (950-900 BC) were united (c 850

      BC) to make early Judacan Saul and David stories. With these last were combined (c 600 BC) popular Judaean David stories (c 700 BC), later Ephraimite Samuel narratives (c 650 BC), and very late popular prophetic traditions (650-600 BC) in a first edition of the Books of S.

      (2) Annals of Solomon (c 950 BC), early temple records (950-900 BC), were united (c 800 BC) with popular Solomon traditions (S50-SOO BC) in a "Book of the Acts of Solomon." A Jeroboam history (900850 BC). an Ahab history (c 800 BC), and a Jehu history (c 750 BC) were united with the annals of Israel (after 950 to c 700 BC) in the "Chronicles of the Kings of Israel" (700 or after). Early Ephraimite Elisha narra tives (800-750 BC), influenced by a Samaria cycle of Elisha stories (750-700 BC) and a (iilgal cycle of Elisha stories (700-650 BC), were joined about 600 BC with the "Book of the Acts of Solomon" and the "Chronicles of the Kings of Israel" in a "first edition of the Books of Kings."

      (:5) The first edition of S, the first edition of K and


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      Isaiah stories (before 550 BO were united (c 550 BO) in a final revision of S and K.

      (i) Frotn "annals of .ludiih" (before .)()() to (150 IK or aften, temple records (before S50 to after (150 BCi. and a lle/.ekiuh history (>5() HC), was drawn material for the " Chronicles of the kin.u s of Juduh" (c (>()() H( ).

      (5 1 l- rom this last work and the tinal revision of S and K was taken material for a Mi<thru*h of the Hook of the kins of Israel and .ludah" (e :)<) IH i, and from this work the tinal revision of S and K, and a possible temple history (after -KM)) -itself from the final revision of S and K came the Books of (Ml (c 250 BC).

      The distinctions between the tfreat documents of the

      Pent do not appear so clearly here. Tin; summary,

      ("epitome") is the work of a Jewish rc-

      4. T and E dactor; the longer narratives (c.tf. 1 Kings

      172 Kings 8; 13 U--!l) "are written in a

      bright and chaste Il.-b style, though some of them

      exhibit slight peculiarities of diction, due, doubtless (in

      part), to their North Israelitish origin " (K). The writers

      of these narratives are thought to have been prophets, in

      most cases from the Northern Kingdom.

      VI. Date. Then* arc numerous data bearing on the date of K, and indications of different dates appear in the books. The closing verses bring down the history to the 37th year of the Captivity (2 Kings 25 27); yet the author, incorporating his materials, was apparently not careful to adjust the dates to his own time, as in 1 Kings 8 X; 12 19; 2 Kings 8 22; 16 6, which refer to conditions that passed away with the Exile. The work was probably composed before the fall of Jerus (.">S6 BC), and was revised during or shortly after the Exile, and also supplemented by the addition of the account of the downfall of t he Judaean kingdom. There are traces of a post -exilic hand, as, e.g., the mention of "the cities of Samaria" (1 Kings 13 32), implying that Samaria was a province, which was not the case until after the Exile. The existence of altars over the land (1 Kings 19 10), and the sanctuary at Carmel, were illegal according to the Deuteronomic law, as also was the advice given to Klisha (2 Kings 3 19) to cut down the fruit trees in time of war (Deuteronomy 20 19).

      LITERATURE. K. Bucldo, Das Buck der Rirhter, Mohr. Leipzig; John Skinner, "Kings," in AVic Century Bible, Krowde, Xew York; C. F. Burney, Xntes on the Ilrli Tc.rt of tlir Books of K, Clarendon Press, Oxford, !()():}; K. ivittel. Di<- Iin,-her tier Ki>ni</r, Vandenhoeck and Ruprecht, Leipzig. 11 >()(); I. Benzinger, Die Backer der Kiini /e, Mohr, 1X91); C. F. Kent, Student s OT, Scribner. 11)05; S. II. Driver. Intro to the Lit. of the OT, Scribner, new rev. ed, 11)10; J. K. McKadyen, Intro to the or, Armstrong, New York. 11)00; ( art H. Oornill, Einleititiifi iii lie kanonischen liiirfnr AT, Mohr. (>th ed, 1DOS; A. F. Kirkpatrick, The Divine Lihrary of the OT, Macmillan, 1891.

      WALLACE North STEARNS

      KINGS SEPULCHRES (2 Chronicles 21 20) . See JERU SALEM, VIII.

      KINSFOLK, kinz fdk. Sec KINDRED.

      KINSMAN, kinz man, KINSWOMAN, kinz - woom-an: Most frequently of the *Xi* , go el, the one who had a right to "redeem"; referring to the custom of avenging the blood of a slain kinsman; hence, a blood relative (Xu 5 S; Ruth 2 20; 3 9.12; 4 1.3.<>.X.14; cf "performing the part of a kinsman," Ruth 3 13); in Ruth 2 1, better ren dered "acquaintance." Also j"1~lp , karobh, one near, rendered "kinsman" (Psalm 38 11); probably better, "neighbor." Once, "IXTZJ , sh e cr, "flesh kin," ren dered "kinsman" (Xu 27 11; cf Exodus 18 6; 25 49; 20 19; 21 2, rendered "kin"). <rvyyevr/s, snggents, "of same race" (cf ffvyytvem, snggcneia, "kindred"), used of blood relationship of varying degrees of nearness (Lk 14 12; Jn 18 26; Acts 10 24; Rom 93; 16 7.11.21). Rendered "kin" in Mk 6 4.

      Kinswoman: "iSSTp , ,s7/ r>, "kin by blood," or "by flesh" (cf above; also Exodus 18 12 f; also cf 18 6, "near _ of kin" AV); also same root, fern, form, rPXTIJ , sha ardh (Exodus 18 17), is tr d "kinswoman." In Prov 7 4, "Call understanding thy kinswoman"

      might be more accurately rendered, "thy familiar friend," RVm (from y"T52, nw<tha\\ "acquaintance"); cf similar rendering of modha^ath, under KINDRED. Lk 1 3(5 KV, "kinswoman" (ffvyyevk, SHyyenis), A\\" "cousin" (suggenes)} same is rendered "kins folk" (1 5<S RV). EDWARD BAC;BY POLLARD

      KIR, kur, kir (Tp , klr} : The meaning of Kir is

      "inclosure" or "walled place," and it is therefore

      doubtful whether it is a place-name

      1. Meaning in the true sense of the word. In 2 Kings

      16 9 it is mentioned as the place whither Tiglath-pileser IV carried the Syrian (Aramaean) captives which he deported from Damascus after he had taken that city. In Am 1 5 the prophet announces that the people of Syria (Aram) shall go into captivity unto Kir, and in 9 7 it is again referred to as the place whence the Lord had brought the Syrians (Aramaeans) as Israel had been brought out of Egypt, and the Philis from Caphtor.

      Except in one MS (LXX, A), where it appears as the Libyan Gyrene (2 Kings 16 9), it is never ren dered in the LXX as a place-name.

      2. How Thus the place whence the Syrians Rendered were brought (Am 9 7) is not Kir, in LXX but "the deep" or "the ditch" (LXX

      K pbdpov, ek bothrou, "pit"), probably a tr of some variant rather than of the word "Kir" itself. Comparing the Assyr-Bab kiru (for qlni), "wall," "inclosure," "interior," or the like, Kir might have the general meaning of a place parted off for the reception of exiled captives. Parallels would be Kir Moab, "the inclosure of Moab," Kir Hires or Kir Harcsdh, "the inclosure of brick" (LXX hoi lilhoi toil toichou). It seems probable that there was more than one place to which the Assyrians transported captives or exiles, and if their practice was to place them as far as they could from their native land, one would expect, for Palestinian exiles, a site or sites on the eastern side of the Tigris and Euphrates.

      In Isaiah 22 5 occurs the phrase, "a breaking down of the walls, and a crying to the mountains" (m e kar-

      karklr uf-shu 1 - dhd-har "asurround-

      3. An ing of the wall," etc, would be better), Emendation and the mention of klr and sho fil here of Isaiah 22:5 has caused Fried. Delitzsch to suggest

      that we have to read, instead of klr, ko a \\ combined with s/io a , as in Ezekiel 23 23. Follow ing this, but retaining klr, Cheyne translates "Kir undermineth, and Shoa 1 is at the mount," but others accept Delitzsch s emendation, Winckler conjectur ing that the rendering should be "Who stirreth up Koa and Shoa against the mountain" (Altiest. Untersiichungcn, 177). In the next verse (Isaiah 22 6) Kir is mentioned with Elam a position which a city for western exiles would require.

      v rhe mention of Elam as taking the quiver, and Kir as uncovering the shield, apparently against . Q ij- "the valley of the vision" (in or close 4 - ? 1( to Jerus), implies that soldiers from . these two places, though one might

      Assyrian expect them to be hostile to the As-

      m y Syrians in general, were to be found

      in their armies, probably as mercenaries. See Fried. Delitzsch, Wo lag das Paradies? 233; Schrader, COT, 425. T. G. PINCHES

      KIR OF MOAB (ISTO ^p , klr mo abh; LXX

      has TO TSIXOS, to tclchos, "the wall," "fortress"): The

      name, at least in this form, appears

      1. Identi- only once (Isaiah 15 1) as that of a city

      fication in Moab. It is named with Ar of

      Moab, with which possibly it may be

      identical, since l ar or V is the Hcb equivalent of

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      Kings Sepulchres Kiriath-jearim

      the Moabite Kir. The Tg hence reads "Kerak in Moab." There can be no doubt that the Kerak here intended is represented by the modern town of that name, with which, consequently, Kir Moab is almost universally identified. It must always have been a place of importance. It is mentioned as Charakmdba (XapoK^<S/3a) in the Acts of the Council of Jems (536 AD) and by the early geog raphers. It dominated the great caravan road connecting Syria with Egypt and Arabia. The Crusaders therefore directed attention to it, and held possession from 1107 till it fell again into the hands of the Moslems under Saladin, 11S8. The Chroniclers speak of it as in cl Bclkd, and the chief cily of Arabia Secunda. Under the title of Petra Desert i the Crusaders founded here a bishop s see. The Gr bishop of Petra still has his seat in Kerak.

      Kerak stands upon a lofty spur projecting west ward from the Moab plateau, with \\Vaily Mm Franjy on the 8., and Wddy cl-Kcrak 2. Descrip- on the North, about 10 miles from the tion Dead Sea. The sides of the mountain

      sink sharply into these deep ravines, which unite immediately to the W., and, as \\\\Tulij cl-Kcrak, the great hollow runs northwestward to the sea. It is a position of great natural strength, being connected with the uplands to the 10. only by a narrow neck. It is 3,370 ft. above the level of the sea. The mountains beyond the adjacent valleys are much higher. The place was surrounded by a strung wall, with five towers, which can still be traced in its whole length. The most northerly tower is well preserved. The most interesting build ing at Kerak is the huge castle on the southern side. It is separated from the adjoining hill on the right by a large artificial moat; and it is provided with a reservoir. A moat also skirts the northern side of the fortress, and on the E. the wall has a sloped or battered base. The castle is then separated from the town. The walls are very thick, and are well preserved. Beneath the castle is a chapel in which traces of frescoes are still visible. In days of an cient warfare the place must have been practically impregnable. It could be entered only by two roads passing through rock-cut tunnels. The main danger must always have been failure of water supply. There are springs immediately outside the city; but those alone would not be sufficient. Great cisterns were therefore constructed in the 1 own and also in the castle. The half-nomadic inhabit ants of Kerak today number some 1,140 families (Musil, Arabia Pclraca, III, 97). The Gr church claims about 2,000 souls; the rest are Moslems. They are wild and fearless people, not greatly in clined to treat strangers with courtesy and kindness. In the spring of 1011 the town was the center of a rising against the government, which was not quelled until much blood had been shed.

      W. EWIXG

      KIRAMA, ki-ra ma, kir a-ma (Kipa.[Aci, Kiramd; AV Cirama): The people of K. returned with Zerubbabel from Babylon (1 Esdras 6 20); the "Ramah" of Ezra 2 26 (q.v.).

      KIR-HARESETH, kur-har C-seth, -ha-re seth (roBirT-pp , klr-Mreseth, Isaiah 16 7; in 2 Kings 3 25 AV reads Kir-haraseth [pausal form]) ; KIR-HERES COin "lip, klr hcres, Jeremiah 48 31.36; in Isaiah 16 11 AV reads Kir-haresh [pausal form]): Modern scholars unanimously identify this city with Kir of Moab. In Jehoram s invasion of Moab it alone withstood his attack; and on the city wall the king of Moab sacrificed his son (2 Kings 3 25 ff). It was obviously the capital, i.e. Kir Moab. The name is generally taken to mean "city of the sun." Cheyne, however, points out (EB, s.v.): (1) that

      this explanation was unknown to the ancients; (2) that "kir" is nowhere supposed to mean "city," except in the compound names Kir-heres, Kir- hareseth, and Kir Moab; (3) that Acres, "sun," nowhere has a fern, ending, and (4) that Isaiah 16 7 (LXX and Aq.) indicates d and not r in the second part of the name (AfVe#, Descth}. He suggests, therefore, that we should possibly read miHn rP~lp, kiryath hddhashah, "new city." W. EWING

      KIRIATH, kir i-ath (TVnp , kiryath, "city"; AV Kirjath): Mentioned (Joshua 18 28) as a city of Benjamin ; has been identified with Kurict el *Endb, "town of grapes," a prosperous town on the highroad between Jems and Jaffa; it is sometimes spoken of by the inhabitants as Kuriuh. It is, however, generally thought that Kiriath here stands for KIKIATH-JEAKI.M (q.v.). See PEF, III, 132. Sh XVII.

      KIRIATHAIM, kir-i-a-tha im (nTPnp , kirya- thaylin, "two cities"; AV Kirjathaim) :

      (1) A city in the uplands of Moab formerly held bv Sihon, and given by Moses to Reuben, who is said to have fortified it (Numbers 32 37; Joshua 13 19). It is named along with Elealeh and Nebo in the former passage, and with Sibmah in the latter. It was in the hands of Moab in Mesha s time, and he claims to have fortified il (MS, 1. 10). For Jeremiah (48 1.23) and Ezekiel (25 9) it is a Moabite town. Onoin identifies it with Coraitha, a Christian vil lage 10 Rom miles W. of Madeba. This is the modern Karaiyat, about 11 miles W. of Madeba, and 5 miles E. of Machaerus. This, however, may represent, Kerioth, while the towns with which it is named would lead us to look for Kiriathaim to the North of Wddy Zcrkd Ma*~i>t. From this city was named Shaveh-kiriathaim, "the plain of Kiria thaim" (Genesis 14 5).

      (2) A city in the territory of Naphtali, assigned to the Gershonite Levites (1 Chronicles 6 76), correspond ing to "Kartan" in Joshua 21 32. W. EWIXG

      KIRIATH-ARBA, kir-i-ath-ar ba. See HEUROX. KIRIATH- ARIM, kir-i-ath-a rim (Ezra 2 25).

      See KlRIATH-JEAKIM.

      KIRIATH-BAAL, kir-i-ath-ba al. Sec KIKIATH- JEAKI.M.

      KIRIATH-HUZOTH, kir-i-ath-hu zoth, k.-hu zoth (flisri rP~Jp , kiryath hii(;ot/i, "city of streets"; LXX reads iroXeis tiravXeuv, poleis epauleon, "city of villages," from which we may infer a reading imsn, hdserutli, for mil"!, hugoth; AV Kirjath- huzoth) : A place to which, after their meeting, Balak and Balaam went together (Numbers 22 39). They met at "the City of Moab" (ver 36), which is probably identical with KIR OF MOAB (q.v.); Kiriath-huzoth was probably therefore not far from that city. Some would identify it with Kiriathaim; some with Kerioth; as yet there is no certainty.

      KIRIATH-JEARIM, kir-i-ath-je a-rim, k.-jS-a rim (2"H;pTri!Hp , kiryath-y e *arim, "city of thickets"; LXX f] iroXis lapeip., he polls lareim; AV Kirjath- jearim) : One of the four chief cities of the Gibeon- ites (Joshua 9 17); a city of Judah (Joshua 15 60), evidently an ancient Sem "high place," hence the name "Kiriath-Baal" (ib); it was one of the places on the border line between Judah and Benjamin (Joshua 18 14.15; 15 11 [where it is called "Baalah"]; cf 1 Chronicles 13 6). It is mentioned as in Judah (Joshua 15 60; 18 14; Judges 18 12), but if KIHIATH (q.v.)


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      is identical with it, it is mentioned as belonging to

      Benjamin (Joshua 18 28; in 2 Samuel 6 2, Baale-judah).

      Judges 18 12 records that the men of Dan set forth

      out of Zorah and Eslitaol and encamped in Mahan-

      eh-dau behind (\\V. of) Kiriath-jearim.

      1. Scrip- (InJgs 13 25 Mahaneh-dan ["the camp

      ture Refer- of Dan"] is described as between Zorah

      ences and Eshlaol; see MAHANEH-DANorth) To

      this sanctuary the ark of JAH was

      brought from Beth-shemesh by the people of Kiriath-

      jearim, and they "brought it into the house of

      Kuinc-d Church at Kuriet.

      Abinadab in the hill [in "Gibeah"], and sanctified Elca/.ar his son to keep the ark of JAH" (1 Samuel 7 1). Here it. abode twenty years (ver 2; 2 Samuel 6 2-4; ef 1 Ch 13 6; 2 Chronicles 1 4). Clearly it was in the hills somewhere to the E. of Beth-shemesh.

      The prophet Uriah-ben-Shernaiah, killed by Jehoi- akim, belonged to Kiriath-jearim (Jeremiah 26 20 t).

      In Ezra 2 25 (cf Nehemiah 7 29), this place occurs under the name "Kiriath-arim." In 1 Esdras 5 19 the name occurs as "Kiriathiarius."

      The exact position of this important Israelite sanctuary has never been satisfactorily settled. Some of the data appear to be contra- 2. Position dictory. For example, Joshua (Ant, VI, i, 4) says it was a city in the neigh borhood of Beth-shemesh, while Eusebius and Jerome (Onom) speak of it ("Cariathiareim") in their day as a village 9 or 10 miles from Jerus on the way to Lydda. But it is open to doubt whether the reputed site of their day had any serious claims. Any suggested site should fulfil the following condi tions: (1) It must harmonize with the boundary line of Judah and Benjamin between two known points the "waters of Nephtoah," very generally supposed to be Li/la, and Chesalon, certainly Kcsla (Joshua 15 10). (2) It should not be too far removed from the ether cities of the Gibeonites Gibeon, Chephirah and Beeroth but those places, which are all identified, are themselves fairly widely apart. (3) Mahaneh-dan ("the camp of Dan") is described as between Zorah and Eshtaol, and was W. of Kiriath-jearim; this, and the statement of Joshua that, it was in the neighborhood of Beth- shemesh, makes it probable that the site was near the western edge of the mountains of Judah. Zorah (now Sara*), Eshtaol (now Eshil^a) and Beth- shemesh (now Mm *S /tt ///s)j are all within sight of each other close to the Vale of Sorek. (4) The site should be a sanctuary (or show signs of having been such), and be at least on a height (Gibeah, 1 Samuel 7 1 m). (5) The name may help us, but it is as well to note that, 1he/i/v>7. part of the name, in the form "Kirathiarius" (1 Esdras 6 19), appears to have sur vived the exile rather than the second.

      The first suggested identification was that of Robinson (BJ , II, 11,12), viz. Kurict d *Enab, the "town of grapes," a flourishing little town about 9 miles W. of Jerus on the carriage road to Jaffa. The district around is still fairly well wooded (cf

      y f *arlnt = "thickets"). This village is commonly known as Abu Ghosh, from the name of a robber

      chieftain who, with his family, fiour- 3. Sug- ished there in the first half of the last

      gested century. Mediaeval ecclesiastical tra-

      Identifi- dition has made this place the Anathoth cations of Jeremiah, and a handsome church from the

      time of the Crusades, now thoroughly repaired, exists here to mark this tradition. This site suits well as regards the border line, and. the name Kurict is the exact equivalent of Kiriath; it also fits in with the distance and direction given in the Onuin, but it cannot be called satisfactory in all respects. JSfiba, in the neighborhood, has, on account of its commanding position, been selected, but except for this one feature it has no special claims. The late Colonel Conder has very vigor ously advocated the claims of a site he discovered on the south side of the rugged Watlylsmae l n, called Khurbct *Enna, pointing out truly that *Erma is the exact, equivalent of .Trim (Ezra 2 25). I n- fortunately the 2d part of the name would appear from the references in 1 Esdras and in Onom to be that part which was forgotten long ago, so that the argument, even of the philological the strongest grounds cannot be of much value. The greatest objections in the minds of most students are the nnsuitability of the position to the requirements of the Judah-Benjamin frontier and its distance from the other Gibeonile cities.

      The present writer suggests another site which, in his opinion, meets at least some of the require ments better than the older proposals. Standing on the hill of Beth-shemesh and looking NorthW., with the cities of Zorah GSrV//i) and Eshtaol l(Eshii a ) full in view, a lofty hill crowned by a considerable forest catches the eye. The village a little below the summit is called Bait M ah sir, and the hilltop itself is the shrine of a local saint known as /Sheikh cl A jam. So "holy" is the site, that no trees in this spot are ever cut, nor is fallen brushwood removed. There is a Wdy or sanctuary of the saint, and round about are scores of very curious and appar ently ancient graves. Southward from this site the eye follows the line of Judaean hills probably the Mt. Jearim of Joshua 15 10 until it strikes the outstanding point of Kcda (Chesalon), some 2 miles to the S. If the ark was taken here, the people of Beth-shemesh could have followed its progress almost the whole way to its new abode. Although the name, which appears to mean "besieged" or "confined," in no degree helps, in all the other re spects (see 2 above), this site suits well the condi tions of Kiriath-jearim.

      LITERATURE. Sec PEFX, 1878, 196-99; PEF, III, 43-52; HGHL, 225 f; BR, II, 11 f; Buhl, GAP, Index.

      E. W. G. MASTEEMAN KIRIATH-SANNAH, kir-i-ath-san a (HSO

      kiryath sannah; AV Kirjath Sannah) : In Joshua 15 49 it is called "Debir," and is identical with KIRIATH-

      a copyist s error for "ISC , sephcr, but Sayce con siders this an ancient Can. name meaning "city of instruction," and that it occurs in the Am Tab in the form "Bit sani."

      KIRIATH-SEPHER, kir-i-ath-se fer (ISO fPnp , kiryath sephcr; tr li by many, as if it were Heb, as "house of books." LXX irdA.is -ypafifuxTuv, polis (jrammdtdn; AV Kirjath Sepher; other suggestions have been made: "border-town" [Moore] or "toll- town" [G. A. Smith]): In two || passages (Joshua 15 15 f; Judges 1 11 f), it is mentioned as identical with DEBIR (q.v.), which has been frequently identified with edh-Dhahmych. Sayce would place

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      Kiriath-sepher to the W. of Gath. See PEFS, 1893, 33-35.

      KIRJATH, kur jath, kir jath. See KIRIATH.

      KIRJATH-ARBA, kur-jath-iir ba, kir-jat.h-iir ba. See KlEIATH-ARBA.

      KIRJATH-BAAL, kur-jath-ba al, kir-jath-ba al.

      See KlRIATH-JEARI.M.

      KIRJATHAIM, kur-ja-tha im, kir-ja-tha im. See KlRIATHAIM.

      KISEUS, kis-e us (Ki<rvs, Kiscus; LXX, B [Swete] reads Kcisaios; \\\\ Cisai) : The great grandfather of Mordecai (Ad Est 11 2). Sc< KISII, (o).

      Sec

      KISH, kish (imp, A-T.sA; Ks, A ?.s, Kc(s, AVf.s, "bow," "power"): The name of five persons men tioned in the Bible:

      (1) The son of Abiel and the father of Saul, the first king of Israel. He was of the tribe of Benja min, of the family of t lie Mutrites (1 Samuel 9 1; 14 51; cf Acts 13 21; 1 Samuel 10 21). According to 1 Chronicles 8 33 and 9 39, "Xer begat K." By reading "Xer begat Abner" (cf 1 Samuel 14 51; 1 Chronicles 26 28), the difficulty is at least partly overcome. In 1 Chronicles 12 1, K. is also mentioned as the father of Saul, and again in 2 Samuel 21 14, we are told that the sepulcher of K. was located in the country of Benjamin, in Zela. His place of residence seems to have been at Gibeah.

      (2) Another K. is mentioned (1 Chronicles 8 29 f ; 9 35 f) as the son of Jeiel and his wife Maacah. He is usually supposed to be the uncle of Saul s father.

      (3) A Levite, the son of Mahli the Merarite (1 Chronicles 23 21 f; cf 24 29).

      (4) Another Merarite Levite in the time of Heze- kiah (2 Chronicles 29 12).

      (5) The great-grandfather of Mordecai, of the tribe of Benjamin (Est 2 5). WILLIAM BAUR

      KISHI, kish I PUTp, jf mhl, "snarer," "fowler"): Father of Ethan, one of the singers David "set over the service of song" in the house of the Lord (1 Chronicles 6 31); the "Kushaiah" of 1 Chronicles 15 17 (cf 1 Chronicles 6

      44).

      KISHION, kish i-on, kish yon (l^TJJp , kishyon): A city in the territory of Issachar (Joshua 19 20), given to the Gershonite Levites (21 28; AV wrongly "Kishon"). The || passage in 1 Chronicles 6 72 reads "Kcdesh" instead of Kishion." The true reading is probably "pTIHp , kidhshon. Cornier suggests a likely identification with Tell Abu Kedes, not far from Taanach.

      KISHON, kl shon, kish on CpTZTp , jflshdn; Kticrcov, Ki ison): The "watercourse" or "torrent stream" along the banks of which the great battle was fought between Israel, led by Deborah and Barak, and the army of Sisera, in the waters of which so many perished (Judges 4 7, etc). It is probably mentioned earlier as "the brook that is before Jokneam" (Joshua 19 11; see JOKNEAM). It appears again as the scene of Elijah s slaughter of the prophets of Baal (I K 18 40). "The torrent" par excellence in the district is the modern el-Mukatta\\ a stream which drains all the plain of Esdraelon to the W. of the watershed a line drawn from Ikxal to Nain, and thence to el-Fuleh and Zcr*in. All the water E. of this line, from the Nazareth hills, Tabor and Little Hermon, flows down Wddy esh-Sherrdr and Nahr Jcilud into the Jordan. The Kishon

      collects the streams from the western slopes of Gil- boa in the rainy season; and the water from the strong spring at Jcnln. Contributions also come from the copious fountains in the neighborhood of Megiddo. At Sa*adiyeh, again, some 3 miles E. of Haifa, its volume is largely increased by springs rising at the base of Carmel, on the edge of the plain of Acre. From Jcnln in the S.E., the deep torrent bed follows a westerly direction, with numerous windings cutting the plain in two, until it reaches the pass at the northeastern base of Carmel. Through the gorge between the moun tain and the hills of Galilee it reaches the plain of Acre. From /Sa adiych it flows in a deep sluggish stream through the marsh-land to the sea near Haifa. In this part the crocodile is said to have been seen at times.

      In the summer season the water from the springs is largely absorbed by irrigation, and the upper reaches of the river are soon dry. The. bed rims along the bottom of a trench some 20 ft. deep through the plain. Jt is easily crossed at the fords by those who know how to avoid the localities of the springs. In time of heavy rains the trench is swiftly filled, and the soft soil of the, plain goes to mud. Remembering this, it is easy to understand the disaster that overwhelmed the heavily armed cavalry and chariots of Sisera. The chief ford for long was to the \\V. of the gorge where the stream issues into the plain of Acre, on the highway from JJnifil to Xazareth. Here it is now spanned by a substantial bridge, while the railway crosses a little, higher up. At the mouth of the river it is generally easily forded on the sand bank thrown up by the waves beating against the current of the stream. The main traffic here is now carried by a wooden bridge.

      The phrase nahal k e dhuinlin in Judges 6 21 is not easy of interpretation. EV translates, "that an cient river"; G. A. Smith, "torrent of spates"; while others think it may refer to a stream other than the Kishon. Guthe suggests that both names may be derived from those of places adjoining the river. Kishon may possibly mean the "tortuous" stream, referring to the windings of its course.

      W. EWIXG

      KISLEV, kis lef 0?9? , ki?lcw; AV Chisleu, RV "Chislev"): The 9th month of the Jewish year, corresponding to December. The word is found in Nehemiah 1 1 and Zee 7 1. The derivation is un certain. See CALENDAR.

      KISS (pTSl , nashak; (JnXe co, phileo, KaTa4>iX&o kataphileo, <f>CX.T)(ia, philema): The kiss is common in eastern lands in salutation, etc, on the cheek, the forehead, the beard, the hands, the feet, but not (in Pal) the lips (Cheyne, EB, s.v. "Salutations"). In the Bible there is no sure instance of the kiss in ordinary salutation. We have in the OT nashak, "to kiss," used (1) of relatives (which seems the origin of the practice of kissing; cf Cant 8 1, "Oh that thou wert as my brother .... I would kiss thee; yea, and none would despise me"); Genesis 27 26.27 (Isaac and Jacob); 29 11 (Jacob and Rachel); 33 4 (Esau and Jacob); 45 15 (Joseph and his brethren); 48 10 (Jacob and Joseph s sons); 50 1 (Joseph and his father) ; Exodus 4 27 (Aaron and Moses) ; 18 7 (Moses and Jethro, united with obeisance); Ruth 1 9.14 (Naomi and her daughters-in-law a fare well); 2 Samuel 14 33 (David and Absalom); 1 Kings 19 20 (Elisha and his parents a farewell) ; see also Genesis 29 13; 31 28.55; Tob 76; 10 12. (2) Of friendship and affection; cf 1 Samuel 20 41 (David and Jonathan); 2 Samuel 15 5 (Absalom and those who came to him) ; 19 39 (David and Barzillai a fare well); 20 9 (Joab and Amasa); Prov 27 6 ("the kisses [n shlfaah] of an enemy"); 1 Esdras 4 47 ("the king stood up, and kissed him"). (3) Of love; cf Cant 1 2, "Let him kiss me with the kisses [n e shl- kah] of his mouth"; Prov 7 13 (of the feigned love of "the strange woman"). (4) Of homage, perhaps; cf 1 Samuel 10 1 (Samuel after anointing David king);


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      (ion 41 40, I nto thy word sliull ;ill my people bo ruled," RVm "order themselves," or "do homage," AVm "Hoh ho armed or kiss" (//a.s7/aAO ; Psalm 2 \\ 2, "Kiss the son" (AHA ), ERYm "Some versions render, Lay hold of (or receive ] instruction ; others, Worship in purity "; some ancient VSS give Kiss | or, do homage] purely. (5) Of idolatrous practices; cf 1 Kings 19 IS; I ins 13 2 (cf 8 fi.ii; 10 5); Job 31 27, probably, "kissing the hand to the sun or moon" (cfvs26.27). See ADORATIONorth ((>) A figurative use may be seen in Pa 85 10; Prov 24 2(5; Ezekiel 3 13, where "touched" i,s tm.^liak (.see AYm). (7) In Ad Est 13 13 \\ve have "I could have; been content .... to kiss the solos of his feet," and in Ecclua 29 5, "Till he hath received, he will kiss a man s hands" marks of .self-humiliation or abase ment.

      In the NT we have philco, "to kiss," "to be friendly," and katup/iili d, "to kiss thoroughly," "to be very friendly" the first in Mt 26 48; Mk 14 44; Lk 22 47, "of the kiss with which Judas betrayed his Master. This was probably meant to bo taken as an expression of special regard, which is expressed by the katnp/iilco of Mt 26 49; Mk 14 45; the same word is used of the woman who kissed the feet of Christ (Lk 7 38.45); of the, father s greeting of the returning prodigal (15 20); and of the farewell to Paul of the Ephesian Christians (Acts 20 37); phUcnia, "a kiss," "a mark of friend ship," is used by Our Lord as that which Simon omitted to give him (which inay refer to ordinary hospitality), but which the woman had bestowed so impressively (Lk 7 45); of the kiss of Judas (Lk 22 48) ; and of the "holy kiss" wherewith Christians greeted each other, which, according to the general usage we have seen, would be as the members of one family in the. Lord, or as specially united in holy love (Rom 16 1(5; 1 Cor 16 20; 2 Cor 13 12; 1 Thoss 5 2(5; 1 Pet 5 14). There is reason to believe that, as a rule, men only thus greeted men, and women, women. In the Apos Const (3d cent.) it is so enjoined. W. L. WALKKH

      KITE, kit ("*X, ayyah; IKTIVOS, iktinos; Lat Milrus ictinus or rcgalis): A medium-sized member of the hawk tribe (see HAWK). This bird is 27 in. long, of bright reddish-brown color, has sharply point od wings and deeply forked tail. It is supposed to have exceptionally piercing eyes. It takes moles, mice, young game birds, snakes and frogs, as well as carrion for food. Its head and facial expression are unusually eagle-like. It was common over Pal in winter, but bred in the hills of Galilee and rough mountainous places, so it was less conspicu ous in summer. It is among the lists of abomina tions (see Exodus 11 14 and Deuteronomy 14 13). It is notable that this is the real bird intended by Job to be used as that whose eye could not trace the path to the silver mine:

      " That path no bird of prey knoweth,

      Neither hath the falcon s eye seen it" (Job 28 7).

      The word used here in the original Heb is nyydh, which was the name for kite. Our first translators used " vulture"; our latest efforts give "falcon," a smaller bird of different markings, not having the kite s reputation for eyesight.

      GENE STRATTON-PORTER

      KITHLISH, kith lish (t^bn? , kithlish). See CHITLISH.

      KITRON, kit ron (""llpp, kitrun): An unidenti fied place in Zebulun, not possessed by the tribe (Judges 1 30). It may be identical with Kattath of Joshua 19 15. In the Talm it is identified with Sepphoris, which is represented by the modern village of Se/uriych.

      KITTIM, kit im (ZTP,? , killlm, Isaiah 23 12; Jeremiah

      2 10; u^JTQ , kittiyJm, apparently pi. of kit II [not

      found, but cf (4) below]; KT|TIOI,

      1. Two Kf lioi, KITIOI, Kitioi, K-qTieip., J\\ f- Usages of ticini, Jeremiah 2 10; XtTruCjA, Chcllicim, the Name Xerruiv, Cfnilici/t): In Genesis 10 4

      the word is applied to the descendants of Javan, and indicates, therefore, the Cr-Lat races, whose territory extended along the coasts of the Mediterranean, and included its islands. By the side of Kittim are mentioned Elishah, Tarshish. and Dodanim ( = Ilodanim of 1 Chronicles 1 7), generally ex plained respectively as Sicily with Southern Italy, Spain and Rhodes. In its narrower sense Kittim appears simply to have stood for the island of Cyprus it is mentioned between Bashan (=Pal) and the isles of Elishah in Ezekiel 27 (5.7, and with this Isaiah 23 1.12 agree, Kitlim occurring in these; passages be tween Tarshish, Tyre and Sidon.

      The oldest etymology is apparently that of Joshua,

      who connects Kittim with the well-known old

      Cypriote city Kit ion (( ilium) (Ant,

      2. In Its I, vi, 1), testifying to the settling of Limited the Kittim on the island. This word Sense he further connects with Chothima,

      from Chethimus, and states that it was on account of Cyprus being the home of those people that all islands were called Chethim by the Hob. The derivation of an ancient Chethim from Chethimus, however, would make the m to be a radical, and this, with the substitution of Ch (= A7/) for K, renders his proposed etymology somewhat doubtful.

      The statement of Joshua, that "all islands, and the greatest part of the sea-coast, are called Chethim

      [ = Kittim] by the Hebrews," on the

      3. In Its other hand, must be taken as the tes- Extended timony of one well acquainted with the Sense opinions of the learned world in his

      time. In Jeremiah 2 10 and Ezekiel 27 the isles of Kittim are expressly spoken of, and this confirms the statement of Joshua concerning the ex tended meaning of the name. This would explain its application to the Rom fleet in Dnl 11 30 (so the Vulg), and the Macedonians in 1 Mace 1 1 (Xerrtet>, Chelticnn) and 8 5 (Kitians"). In the latter passage the Gr writer seems to have been thinking more of the Cyprian Kition than of the Heb Kittim.

      According to Herodotus (vii.90), Cyprus was

      colonized from Greece, Phoenicia, and Ethiopia.

      Referring to the plundering of the

      4. Coloniza- temple of Aphrodite at Askalon by tion of the Scythians (i.105), he states that her Cyprus temple in Cyprus was an offshoot from

      that ancient foundation, as reported by the Cyprians themselves, Phoenicians^ having founded it at Cythera, on arriving from Syria. The date of the earliest Phoen settlements in Cyprus is unknown, but it has been suggested that they were anterior to the time of Moses. Naturally they brought with them their religion, the worship of the moon-goddess At argatis (Dorceto) being introduced at Paphos, and the Phoen Baal at Kition. If Kition be, then, a Sem word (from the same root as the Heb Kittim), it has been transferred from the small band of Phoen settlers which it at first desig nated, to the non-Sem Japhethites of the W. Kition occurs in the Phoen inscriptions of Cyprus under the forms K(i]t(t) and K(i}t(t)i, the latter being by far the more common (CIS, I, i, 10,11,14,19, etc).

      The early history of Cyprus is uncertain. Accord ing to the Assyr copy of Sargon of Agadc s omens, that king (about 3800 BC in the opinion of Naboni- dus; 2800 BC in the opinion of many Assyriolo- gists) is said to have crossed "the sea of the setting sun" (the Mediterranean), though the Bab copy

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      makes it that of "the rising sun" i.e. the Pers Gulf.

      Be this as it may, General Cesnola discovered at

      Curium, in Cyprus, a seal-cylinder

      5. Its Sue- apparently inscribed "Mar-Istar, son cessive of Ilu-bani, servant [worshipper] of Masters Naram-Sin," the last named being the

      deified son of Sargon. In the 16t h cent . BC, Cyprus was tributary to Thot hmes III. About the year 708 BC, Sargon of Assyria received the submission of the kings of the district of Ya , in Cyprus, and set up at Citium the stele bearing his name, which is now in the Royal Museum at Berlin. Esarhaddon and his son Assur-bani-apli each re ceived tribute from the 10 Cyprian princes who acknowledged Assyr supremacy.

      The island was conquered by the Egyp king Amasis, and later formed part of the Pers empire, until the revolt of Kvagoras in 410 BC. The Assyrians knew the island under the name of Yad(a)nanu, the "edan" (Vodan) of Ezekiel 27 19 RV (Sayce, PHBA, 1912, 20). If 1 he orthodox date for the composition of Genesis be accepted, not only the Phoenicians, but also the Greeks, or a people of Gr-Lat stock,

      6. The must have been present in Cyprus, Races before the time of Moses, in sufficient Therein number to make them the prodomi- and Their nant portion of the population. As Languages far as can be judged, the Phoenicians

      occupied only the eastern and southern portion of the island. Paphos, where they had built a temple to Ashtoreth and set up an Y;.s7~/v7/< (a pillar symbolizing the goddess), was one of their principal settlements.

      The rest of the island was apparently occupied by the Aryans, whose presence there caused the name of Kittim to be applied to all the Gr-Lat countries of the Mediterranean. Gr and Phoen were the languages spoken on the island, as was proved by George Smith s demon stration of the nature of the non-Phoen text of the inscription of King Melek-yathon of Citium (370 BC). The signs used in the Gr-Cyprian inscrip tions are practically all syllabic.

      The many influences which have modified the

      Cyprian race are reflected in the ancient art, which

      shows the effect of Bab, Egyp,

      7. The Phoen and Gr contacts. Specimens Testimony are to be found in many museums, but of Cyprian the finest collection of examples of Art Cyprian art is undoubtedly that of

      tlie Metropolitan Museum of Art in Ne\\v York. Some of the full-length figures are life-size, and the better class of work is exceedingly non-worthy. See CYPRUS. T. G. PINCHES

      KNEADING, ned ing. See BREAD, III, 2.

      KNEE, no, KNEEL, nel ("knee," Tp}2 , berckh; Aram. n3D"lS, ar khubb/ih; -yow, gomi; "kneel"; !f~a, barakh; Aram, -p2, 1 Takh; -/ovim-ere co, goitupc(ed): Most of the uses are obvious, and the figurative use of "knees" as the symbol of strength (Job 4 4; He 12 12, etc) needs no explanation.

      The disease of the knees mentioned in Deuteronomy 28 3/j is perhaps some form of leprosy. In Job 3 12 the "knees" seem to be used for the lap, as the place whore a child receives its first care. Three times in Genesis the knees appear in connection with primi tive adoption customs.

      In 30 3 a fiction is enacted that purports to represent Rachel as the actual mother of Bilhah s children. By a somewhat similar rite in 48 12, Jacob (the "knees" here are Jacob s, not Joseph s) adopts Ephrann and Manas- seh, so that they are counted as two of the twelve patriarchs and not as members of a single Joseph tribe. In the same way Machir s children are ad. pted by Joseph in 60 23, and this is certainly connected with the counting of Machir (instead of

      Manasseh) as OIK- of the tribes in Judges 5 14. See TRIBES; and for the idea underlying this paternal adopt ion, cf THK;H. From among classical instances of t he same customs compare Homer, Odyssey, xix. 401 ff, where Autolukos, grandfather of Ulysses, re ceives the newborn grandchild on his knees and gives him his name-. Thus also we have to under stand the numerous representations in Egyp sculp ture, showing the king as an infant on the knees or the lap of a goddess.

      Kneeling was less commonly an attitude of prayer among the; Jews than was standing, but references to kneeling are of course abundant. For kneeling (or prostrating one s self) before a superior, see ATTITUDE, 2; SALUTATIONorth

      BriiTON SCOTT EASTON

      KNIFE, nif: (1) rDDSSig, maakhdcth, lit. an in strument for eating; but used of large knives for slaying animals, cutting up a carcase or a sacrificial victim (Genesis 22 (5.10; Judges 19 29; Prov 30 14). (2) 2"in , lu-rcbh, rendered generally "sword," but in Joshua 5 2.3 of stone knives for circumcision (cf Exodus 4 2.T), probably of similar knives in 1 Kings 18 2S, used by Baal prophets in gashing themselves. In Ezekiel 5 12 AV, "knife," probably better RV,

      Egyptian Stone Knives. Assyrian Bronze Knives.

      Ilirit. Mus.)

      "svord." (3) 1"P,, lu ur, usually rendered "razor," i;i combination with "ISCH, ha-suphcr, "knife of the writer," or "penknife" (Jeremiah 36 23). (4) ZTSbrra , tnahnluph im, "slaughter-knives" (Ezra 1 9). (5) V?to, sakkln, Aram., "knife" (Prov 23 2). Early knives were commonly made of sharp stones, esp. of flint, later of bronze and iron. The former re mained in use in religious ceremonies long after the latter were in common use.

      Knives wore not gen erally used at meals, meats being cut into bits before served, and bread being broken into fragments. Herod used a knife for paring apples, and attempted suicide with the instrument, (Joshua, Ant, XVII, vii, 1; BJ, I, xxxiii, 7). EDWARD B.-UMJY POLLAKD

      KNOCK, nok (KPOVIO, kmi til}: The oriental house was fitted with heavy doors which were bolted and locked with wooden keys too large to be carried about, so that even a member of the household could not secure entrance until in response to his knock or call the door should be opened by someone within. At night the delay would be increased by the difficulty of arousing the inmates sleeping within the inner chambers.

      To persons familiar with such experiences, the words of Jesus concern ing a higher entrance, "Knock, and it shall be opened unto you" (Mt 77; Lk 12 3o), would have a unique force not easy for us to appreciate. RUSSNLI, BENJAMIN MILLER

      KNOP, nop: In Exodus 25 31 ff; 37 17 ff (kaphlvr), part of the ornaments of the golden candlestick; in 1 Kings 6 IS; 7 24 (p kd*lin), gourd-like ornaments of the lining of Solomon s temple, and of the brazen sea (in 1 Kings 6 18, RVm "gourds"). See CANDLE STICK, GOLDEN; TEMPLE; SEA, THE MOLTENorth

      KNOW, no, KNOWLEDGE, nol ej, nol ij (in Heb chiefly 3H? , yadhaf , noun r,?H , da -ath; in Gr yivcoo-Kw, ginosko, o!8o, oida; "to know fully,


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      Knowledge strictly is the apprehension by the mind of some fact or truth in accordance with its mil nature; in a personal relation the intellectual act is necessarily conjoined with the element of affection and will (choice, love, favor, or, conversely, repugnance, dislike, etc).

      Knowledge is distinguished from "opinion" by its greater cer tainty. The mind is constituted with the capacity for knowledge, and the desire to possess and in crease it. The character of knowledge varies with its object:

      The senses give knowledge of outward appearances; the intellect connects and reasons about these appearances, and arrives at general laws or truths; moral truth is apprehended through the power inherently possessed by men of dis- t inguishing right and wrong in the light of moral principles; spiritual qualities require for their ap prehension spiritual sympathy ("They are spiritu ally judged," 1 Cor 2 14).

      The highest knowledge possible to man is the knowledge of God, and while there is that in God s infinity which transcends man s power of comprehension (Job 11 7.9), God is knowable in the measure in which He has revealed Himself in creation (Rom 1 19.20, "that which is known of God," etc), and supremely in Jesus Christ, who alone perfectly knows the Father, and reveals Him to man (Mt 11 27). This knowledge of God in Jesus Christ is "life eternal" (Jn 17 3).

      Knowledge is affirmed of both God and man, but with the wide contrast that God s knowledge is absolute, unerring, complete, intuitive, embracing all things, past, present, and future, and searching the inmost thoughts of the heart (Psalm 139 1.23); whereas man s is partial, imperfect, relative, gradually acquired, and largely mixed with error ("Now we see in a mirror darkly .... in part," 1 Cor 13 12). All these points about knowledge are amply brought out in the Scripture usage of the terms.

      A large part of the usage necessarily relates to natural knowledge (sometimes with a carnal connotation, as Genesis 4:1-17), but the greatest stress also is laid on the possession of moral and spiritual knowledge (e.g. Psalm 119:66; Prov 1:4-7, 22:29; 8:10, etc; Lk 1:77; Rom 15:14; _ 2 Pet 1:5-6). The highest knowledge, as said, is the knowledge of God and Christ, and of God s will (Hos 6:6; Rom 11:33; Eph 1:17; 4:13; Phil 1:9; 1:38; Col 1:9-10, etc).

      The moral conditions of spiritual knowledge are continually insisted on ("If any man willeth to do his will, he shall know of the teaching, whether it is of God," Jn 7 17). On the other hand, the pride of intellectual knowledge is condemned; it must be joined with love ("Knowledge puffeth up," 1 Cor 8 1).

      The stronger term epignosis is used to de note the full and more perfect knowledge which is possessed in Christ, the conditions of which are humility and love. Of knowledge as connoting favor, choice, on the part of God, there are many examples (Psalm 1 6, "JAH knoweth the way of the righteous"; Gal 4 9, "know God, or rather to be known by God"; cf Rom 8 29, "whom he fore knew"). See FOREKNOWLEDGE. JAMES ORR

      KOA, ko a (71p , /co" ) : A people named with Pekod and Shoa as enemies of Jerus (Ezekiel 23 23). Their location was probably NorthE. of Babylonia.

      KOHATH, ko hath, KOHATHITES, ko hath-Its

      (Pnp , k lititk, ^rinjx , kuftatfil; K.o.a.Q,Kadth): Second son of Levi, and ancestor of Moses and Aaron (Genesis 46 11;^ Exodus 6 16-20; Numbers 3 17; 1 Chronicles 6 1, etc). The Kohathites formed one of the three divisions of the tribe of Levi; the other two being the Ger- shonites and the Merarites (Nu317ff). The Kohathites consisted of four families, the Amramites, the Izharites, the Hebronites, and the Uzzielites

      (Numbers 3 19.27, etc). Their place in the wilderness was on the southern side of the tabernacle (Numbers 3 29), and their number is given (from a month old) as 8,600 (ver 28). Their special charge was "the ark, and the table, and the candlestick, and the altars, and the vessels of the sanctuary wherewith they minister, and the screen, and all the service thereof" (ver 31; cf 7 9). After the conquest 23 cities were assigned them by lot (Joshua 21 4. off).

      In David s time and after, Ileman, a Kohathite, and his family had a prominent place in the service of the music of the sanctuary (1 Chronicles 6 33n"; 16 41 ff; 25 Iff); David likewise divided the Levites into courses (the Kohathites, 23 12-20; 24 20-25).

      We read of the Kohathites in the reign of Jehosha- phat at Engedi (2 Chronicles 20 19), and in connection with the cleansing of the temple under Hczekiah (2 Chronicles 29 12.14). JAMKS Oim

      KOHELETH, kd-hel eth (nbnp , kfihdrlh). See

      ECCLKSIASTKS.

      KOLAIAH, ko-la ya, ko-ll a (rnblp , kdlCiyah, "voice of Jch") :

      (1) A Benjamite, son of Maaseiah (Nehemiah 11 7).

      (2) Father of Ahab, a false prophet and a lecher ous man (Jeremiah 29 21-23).

      KONAE, ko ne (Kiovd, Kund): Some MSS have KU/JLO.S, koinas, from which we have in AV "the vil lages." The name occurs in the account of the measures taken to secure the country against Holofernes (Jth 4 4). If Kona be correct, we may possibly identify the place with Cyamon.

      KOPH, kof (p , IfopK) : The 19th letter of the Hob alphabet; transliterated in this Encyclopaedia as k (intense k). It came also to be used for the num ber 100. For name, etc, see ALPHABET.

      KOR, kor. See COR.

      KORAH, k5 ra(J~np , kdruh, "baldness," possibly; Kopt, Kore) :

      (1) One of the 3 sons of Oholibamah, Esau s Hivite wife. The account says that the 3 were born in Canaan before Esau withdrew to the Seir mountain country. They are mentioned 3 t in the brief account from 3 points of view (Genesis 36 5.14. 18; 1 Chronicles 1 35), the 3d mention being in the list of "chiefs."

      (2) One of the sons of Eliphaz, the son of Adah, Esau s Hittite wife (Genesis 36 16). He is mentioned as one of the Edomite "chiefs."

      If one has the habit, finding a statement any where, of thinking that the statement ought to be changed into something else, he will be interested in the attempts to identify these Edomite Korahs with Korah (3).

      (3) A son of Hebron (1 Chronicles 2 43), the son of Mareshah, mentioned in the Caleb group of families in Judah.

      (4) The son of Izhar the son of Kohath the son of Levi (Exodus 6 16 ff; Numbers 16 1; 1 Chronicles 6 18.31-38), a younger contemporary of Moses. There may have been generations, omitted in the record, between Izhar and K.; that is a natural way of accounting for Amminadab (1 Chronicles 6 22-30).

      This Korah is best known as the man whom the opening earth is said to have swallowed up along

      with his associates when they were 1. The challenging the authority of Moses

      Catastrophe and Aaron in the wilderness (Numbers 16, in the 17). K. is presented as the principal

      Wilderness in the affair. The company is spoken

      of as his company, and those who were swallowed up as being "all the men that apper-

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      Koa

      Korahites

      tained unto K." (Numbers 16 11.32). It is under his name that the affair is referred to (Numbers 26 9; 27 3). But Dathan and Abiram of the tribe of Reuben are not much less prominent than K. In Numbers 16 and

      26 they are mentioned with K., and are mentioned without him in Deuteronomy 11 6 and Psalm 106 17. Another Reubenite, On, the son of Pcloth, was in the con spiracy. It has been inferred that he withdrew, but there is no reason either for or against the infer ence. Equally baseless is the inference that Zelo- phehad of Manasseh joined it, but withdrew (Numbers

      27 3). The account implies that there were other Levites in it besides K. (Numbers 16 7-10), and it par ticularly mentions 250 "men of renown," princes, such men as would be summoned if there were a public assembly (Numbers 16 2.17.35). These men, apparently, were of different tribes.

      The position taken by the malcontents was that "all the congregation are holy, every one of them," and that it was therefore a usurpation for Moses and Aaron to confine the functions of an incense- burning priest to Aaron alone. Logically, their objection lay equally against the separation of Aaron and his sons from the rest of the Levites, and against the separation of the Levites from the rest of the people.

      On the basis of this, Moses made expostulation with the Levites. He arranged that K. and the 250, along with Aaron, should take their places at the doorway of the tent of meeting, with their censers and fire and incense, so that JAH might indicate His will in the matter. Dathan and Abiram insolently refused his proposals.

      The record says that K. s "whole congregation," including himself and the 250 with their censers, met Moses and Aaron and "all the congregation" of Israel at the doorway of the tent of meeting.

      For the purposes of the transaction in hand the tent was now "the mishkfin of K., Dathan and Abiram," and their followers. JAH directed Moses to warn all other persons to leave the vicinity. Dathan and Abiram, however, were not at the mishkdn.

      The account says that Moses, followed by the elders of Israel, went to them to their tents; that he warned all persons to leave that vicinity also; that Dathan and Abiram and the households stood near the tents; that the earth opened and swallowed them and their property and all the ad herents of K. who were on the spot ; that fire from JAH devoured the 250 who offered incense.

      The narrative does not say whether the deaths by fire and by the opening of the earth were simultaneous. It does not say whether K. s sons participated in the rebellion, or what became of K. himself.

      In the allusion in Numbers 26 we are told, apparently, that K. was swallowed up, and that "the sons of K. died not." The deaths of the principal offenders, by fire and by being swallowed up, were followed by a plague in which 14,700 perished (Numbers 16 49 [Heb 17 14]).

      Any appreciative reader sees at once that we have here either a history of certain miraculous facts, or a wonder- story devised for teaching religious lessons. n Prjfjpoi As a story it is artistically admirable &. isiiuidi sufficiently complicated to be interesting, Treatments but clear and graphic and to the point. In of This the Heb there are 2 or :5 instances of in-

      complete grammatical construction, such as abound in the early literary products of any language, when these have been fortunate enough to escape editorial polishing. In such a case it is possibly not unwise just to take a story as it stands. Nothing will be added to either its religious or its literary value by subjecting it to doubtful alleged critical processes.

      If, however, one has committed himself to certain criti cal traditions concerning the Hex, that brings him under obligation to lead this story into conformity with the rest of his theory. Attempts of this kind have been numer ous. Some hold that the K. of this narrative is the Edomite K., and that Peleth means Phili, and that our story originally grew out of some claim made by Edqm- ites and Philis. It is held that the story of K. was origi

      nally one story, and that of Dathan and Abiram an other, and that someone manipulated the two and put them together. See the treatments of the Hook of Numbers in Driver, Intro; Addis, Documents of the Hex; Carpen ter and Battersby, Ilex; Bacon, EJ-; Paterson on Numbers, in the Polychrome Bible.

      These and other like works give source-analyses of our story. Some of the points they make are plausible. In such a case no one claims any adequate basis of fact for his work; each theory is simply a congeries of ingenious guesses, and no two of the guessers guess alike.

      As in many other Bib. instances, one of the results of the alleged critical study is the resolving of a particularly fine story into two or more supposed earlier stories each of which is absolutely bald and crude and uninteresting, the earlier stories and the combining of these into their present form being alike regarded as processes of legendary accretion.

      The necessary inference is that the line story we now have was not the product of some gifted mind, guided by facts and by literary and religious in spiration, but is an accidental result of mere patchwork. Such a theory does not commend itself to persons of lit erary appreciation.

      WILLIS J. BEECHER

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      KORAHITES, kd ra-Its pPnp , korhl), SONS OF KORAH (nnp i:2 , b ne kdrah; in AV appears also as Korhite, Kohathite, Kore): This phrase is used to denote Assir and Elkanah and Abiasaph, Koran s 3 individual sons (Kx 6 24; cf Numbers 26 11). But its more frequent use, and that to which interest attaches, is in the titles of some of the Pss.

      The genealogical details concerning K. are rather full. In :i places we lind the list of the 7 successive generations closing with the prophet Samuel and his son Joel (1 Chronicles 6 31-38. 22-150; 1 Samuel 1 1.20; 8 2); the two in Ch mention most of the, generations between K. and Joel. The fragmentary lists in 1 Chronicles 9, 25, 26 connect the list with the 4 generations following Joel (1 Chronicles 6 33; 9 19-31; 26 1 ff), and with 2 generations in the very latest Bible times (1 Chronicles 9 31).

      The adj. "Korhite" appears also in AV as "Korathite," "Kore," and "Korahite," the last being the form pre ferred in ERV. It is used 4 t in the sing. Once it designates an individual (1 Chronicles 9 3D; 3 t it denotes the successors of K. taken collectively (Exodus 6 24- Numbers 26 58; 1 Chronicles 26 19); 4 t it is used in the pi., denoting the members of this succession of men (1 Chronicles 9 !<) 12 0; 26 1: 2 Chronicles 20 19). As variants of this use, "the sonsof the Korahites" appears once, and "the children of the Korahites" once (.1 Chronicles 26 19; 2 Chronicles 20 19).

      In these various passages the K. families are counted like the other Levitical families. In 1 Chronicles 12 6 we have an account of 5 men who are desig nated as "the Korahites," who joined David when he was at Ziklag Elkanah, Isshiah, Azarel, Joezer, Jashobeam. They arc described as expert warriors, esp. with the bow and sling, and as being "of Saul s brethren of Benjamin." Some of them may plausi bly be identified with men of the same naine men tioned elsewhere. These Korahites may have been cousins of the Samuel family, and they may have resided not very far apart.

      The record speaks with some emphasis of a line of K. doorkeepers.

      In the latest OT times one Mattithiah, "the first-born of Shallum the Korahite," held "the ollice of trust over the things that were baked in pans" (1 Chronicles 9 31). Shallum was "the son of Kore, the son of Ebiasaph, the son of Korah." In this expression 15 or more genera tions are omitted between Ebiasaph and Kore, and per haps as many between Kore and Shallum. The record proceeds to supply some of the omitted names between Kore and Shallum. The representative of the line in David s time was "Zechariah the son of Meshelemiah" (ver 21). In all periods the Korahites were "keepers of the thresholds of the tent." Back in the time of "Phine- has the son of Eleazar," "their fathers had been over the camp of JAH" (vs 19.20). Zechariah was, in his time, "porter of the door of the tent of meeting" (ver 21), and Shallum was still the; chief of the porters (ver 17). The record for David s time supports and supplements this. It says that the doorkeepers, according to the arrange ments made by David, included a K. contingent, its leading men being Meshelemiah and his son Zechariah (1 Chronicles 26 1.2.9.14), and that Meshelemiah was "the son of Kore, of the sons of Asaph." Adopting the com mon conjecture that Asaph is here a variant for Ebiasaph, we have here the same abridgment of the genealogical list as in 1 Chronicles 9.

      More interesting, however, than the fighting Korahites of Benjamin, or the doorkeeping Kora-

      Korahites Lacedaemonians

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      hit es who claimed succession from Moses 1o Nehemiahe- miali, :irc tlic "sons of Korah" \\vlio were somehow connected with the service of song. One of the genealogies is introduced by the statement : "These are they whom David set over the service of song in the house of .JAH, after that the ark had rest. And they ministered with song before the taber nacle of the tent of meet ing, unt il Solomon had built the house of .JAH in Jerus" (I Ch 6 31.32). Then the writer proceeds to mention first "Heman the singer, the son of .Joel, the son of Samuel," and so on, carrying the genealogy back to Korah and Levi. After thus mentioning Heman, he speaks of "his brother Asaph, who stood on his right hand," and traces Asaph s descent back to (iershom the son of Levi; and then says, "and on the left hand their brethren the sons of Merari." Of these the prin cipal leader is Ethan (otherwise called Jeduthun), and his descent is here traced back to Levi.

      In tins way \\ve are introduced to David s :? great load ers in choral and orchestral music. Among them Heman the, Korahite lias at first the. place of primacy, though Asaph, later, comes to the front. The events just re ferred to are mentioned again, more in detail, in the account of David s bringing the ark to .lerus. There it is said that at the suggestion of David "the Levites appointed I Fenian t he son of .Joel," and also Asaph and Ethan, "and with them" several others, "their brethren of the second degree " (I (Mi 15 17. IS). The record proceeds to speak of the services of "t he singers, Heman, Asaph, and Ethan," and their associates, in the pageantry of the bringing of the ark to Jerus. After that, it says, Asaph had charge of the services of thanksgiving and praise before the ark in .Icrns, while Heman and .Icdu- th .m served in the high place at (n beon (1 Chronicles 16 4 if. 37.39-42). Later, the record says (1 Chronicles 25), David made an elaborate organization, under Asaph and Heman and Jeduthun, for prophesying with song and instru mental music.

      As the records of David s time, according to the Chronicler, thus attribute to him great achieve ments in sacred music and song, so the records of subsequent times reiterate 1 the same thing. David s interest in sacred music is mentioned in connection with Solomon s temple, in connection with the times of Joash and Hezekiah and Josiah, in connec tion with the institutions and exploits of the times after the exile (e.g. 2 Chronicles 7 G; 23 18; 29 25 ff; 35 In; Ezra 3 10; Nehemiah 12 24.3<>.45.46). Asaph and Heman and Jeduthun led the magnificent choir and orchestra at the dedication of the temple (2 Chronicles 6 12). One of the sons of Asaph prophesied, and the sons of the Korahites sang at the crisis in the time of Jehoshaphat (2 Chronicles 20 14.19). The sons of Asaph and the sons of Heman and the sons of Jeduthun were present, and there was instrumental music; and loud singing, according to the appoint ment of David and his associates, at the time of He/ekiah s Passover (2 Chronicles 29 13 ff). Singing, and Asaph and Heman and Jeduthun and David have an important place in the record concerning Josiah. And the records of the post-exilian times make the singers and the "sons of Asaph" and the arrangements of David as conspicuous as the law of Moses itself.

      Add to this that the names Asaph or Ileinan or Ethan or Jeduthun, or the designation "the sons of Korah" are attached to 25 or more of the Pss (e.g. Pss 42-49, 50, 62, 72-85), and we have a body of testimony that is at least abundant and intelli gible. It is to the effect that there was elaborate organization, on a large scale, in connection with the musical services of the temple at Jerus; that this began in the time of David, as a part of the preparation for building the temple, under the in fluence; of the family traditions of the prophet

      Samuel; and that the movement continued in the generations following David, cither surviving the exile, or being revived after the exile. In connec tion with this movement, the phrases "sons of Korah," "sons of Asaph," "sons of Heman," "sons of Jeduthun" denote, in some cases, merely lineal descent; but in other cases they denote each an aggregate of persons interested in sacred song and musii a guild or society or succession or group arising out of the movement which originated in David s time. See, for example, "sons of Asaph" (1 Chronicles 25 1.2; 2 Chronicles 20 14; cf ver 1 ,); 29 13; 35 15; Ezra 2 41; 3 10; Nehemiah 7 44; 11 22) and "sons of Korah" in the titles of Pss 42 49 and 84, 85, 87 89. Traces of these aggregates appear in the times of Solomon, of Jehoshaphat, of Joash, of Hezekiah, of Josiah, of Zerubbabel, of Ezra and Nehemiahemiah.

      If a person holds that the mention of an event in Ch is to be regarded as proof that the event never occurred, that person will of course deny that the testimony thus cited is true to fact. He is likely to hold that the guilds of singers arose in the exile", and that, some generations after Nehemiahemiah, they fabricated for themselves the ecclesiastical and physical pedigrees now found in the Hooks of Ch. If, however, we accord fair play to the Chron icler as a witness, we shall be slow to discredit the minute and interfitting testimony which he has placed before us. Y\\ ILI.IS J. HKKCIIKR

      KORATHITES, kd rath-its: In AV for "Kora hites," Numbers 26 58. See KOKAH, 4.

      KORE, kf/re" (XTp . Ic<~>rc , "one who proclaims"):

      (1) A Levite of David s time, descended from Kohath and Korah. See KOKAH, 4. Shallum, chief doorkeeper in the latest Bible times, is de scribed as "the son of Kore, the son of Ebiasaph, the son of Korah" (1 Chronicles 9 19). This expression omits the generations between Shallum and K., and those between K. and Ebiasaph, perhaps 15 generations or more in each case. The context supplies two of the omitted names, of the time of David, Meshelemiah and his son Zechariah (1 Chronicles 9 21.22). The record for the time of David mentions these two, with some particulars, calling Meshel emiah the son of K. (1 Chronicles 26 1.2.9.14). It de scribes them as "Korahites" "of the sons of Asaph." It is usual to regard this last clause as a variant for "the son of Ebiasaph," thus making the de scription identical with that in 1 Chronicles 9 19. With this understanding, the text claims that "the Korahites," K. and Meshelemiah and Zechariah, come midway in a line of sanctuary ministrants, extending continuously from Moses to Nehemiahemiah.

      (2) "The son of Imnah the Levite, the porter at theeast.gate," who "was over the freewill-offerings," in the time of Hezekiah (2 Chronicles 31 14). Very likely in the same line with (1) above.

      (3) In 1 Chronicles 26 1 AV for KOHAHITES (q.v.).

      WILLIS J. BKKCHER

      KORHITES, kor hits: In AV for "Korahites" in Exodus 6 24; 1 Chronicles 12 G; 26 1; 2 Chronicles 20 19. See KORAH, 3.

      KOZ, koz. See HAKKOZ.

      KUSHAIAH, kii-sha ya, ku-shl a OirPTT-p , kiisM- ya/m, "bow of JAH"): A Merarite Levite (1 Chronicles 15 17), called in 1 Chronicles 6 44 KISHI (q.v.).


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