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Where The Word of God Is: "STILL...INERRANT!"

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Comprehensive Bible Encyclopedia

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"Welcome to CHRISTIPEDIA™

Understanding Future According to "HIS WORD",
Understanding History Providentially, as "HIS-STORY!"
And Today, From Where We've Been, To Where "HE'S LEADING!"
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FACT: Wikipedia is the "World's Most-Referenced Resource!"
FACT: Wiki Philosophy: ATHEIST, ANTI-CHRISTIAN, ANTI-BIBLE;
FACT: We Recognize Wikipedia's Great Success
HOWEVER, WE URGE YOU NOT TO TRUST THEIR ANTI-CHRISTIAN BIAS!

See WIKIPEDIA Founder Jimmy Wales on CELEBRATED ATHEIST PAGE]
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"CHRISTIPEDIA™ Recommendation!

Use Ameripedia, Conservapedia, Theopedia, Biblipedia, Islamipedia;
Scriptipedia, Judaeopedia, Medipedia, Christipedia, Musicipedia, etc;
For ALL information: A "BIBLICAL WORLDVIEW REALLY MATTERS!"
We plead for support to Biblical Christian Researchers, Scholars;

"CHRISTIPEDIA™" is a “Trademark” Of NewtonStein Academy,
Of Cambridge Theological Seminary™, American Bible Church;
PLEASE DO NOT INFRINGE!


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God's Eternal Guarantee!

"Heaven and Earth Shall Pass Away;
But GOD'S WORDS Shall NOT Pass Away! (Matthew 5:18) "
--Jesus the Messiah, AD-33
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    NewtonStein Statement On Holy Scriptures;

    The ‘Lens’ Through Which All Knowledge Is Understood;

    THE WORD of GOD, AXIOM-1:

    "IF" there exists any such thing as 'The Word of God'; [and ALL evidence proves such does exist:]

    "THEN" by inherent definition - it must be:

      Holy, Inspired, Inerrant, Intrepid, Infallible, Infinitive, Invincible, Indestructible, Inexhaustible, Inalienable, Immutable, Implacable, Impossible-to-Improve: Eternal and Indubitable NEVER FAILING and ALL CONQUERING!

      DEDUCTING from the simple fact - that God equates His Word with Himself:

        "In the Beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God, . . ." John 1:1 (and other Scriptures),
    Thus 'GOD'S WORD' can have no lesser standard than stated above;


    "GOD'S WORD MUST" THEREFORE BE:

      As true in history, archeology, geography, Earth science, medical science, nutrition, gerontology, agriculture, botany, astronomy, physics, chemistry, climatology, government, law, psychology, sociology - and every subject it touches - as in Theology, Divinity and Doctrine:

    And "IF IT BE NOT" - true in all subjects mentioned above; and And "IF IT BE NOT"

      Holy, Inspired, Inerrant, Intrepid, Infallible, Infinitive, Invincible, Indestructible, Inexhaustible, Inalienable, Immutable, Implacable, Impossible-to-Improve: Eternal and Indubitable in EVERY FIELD OF KNOWLEDGE:
    Whatever else it may be, it cannot be ‘The Incomparable Word’ of the Great Creator God!

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        As I UNDERSTAND the BIBLE,

          >> I will NEVER 'GO' against, 'VOTE' against, or 'SPEAK' Against,

          >> The WORD of GOD,

          >> So Help me GOD!

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    From His Sowing First Seed and His Great End-Time Harvest of Souls!
    To Final Judgment of the Unsaved and their Damnation;
    To Christ’s Presence and Eternal Kingdom!

    (See Greatest Parable on End of Times!)
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    (See Cambridge Comprehensive Concise COMMENTARY)

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    (See Cambridge Comprehensive Bible COMMENTARY)



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    ** Cambridge Bible Commentary Concise, The Whole NEW TESTAMENT

    [1] Cambridge Bible Commentary Concise, HOMEPAGE and INDEX

    [2] Cambridge Bible Commentary Concise, INTRO and PREFACE

    [3] Cambridge Bible Commentary Concise, GENESIS - DEUTERONOMY

    [4] Cambridge Bible Commentary Concise, JOSHUA To ESTHER

    [5] Cambridge Bible Commentary Concise, JOB To SONG of SOLOMON

    [6] Cambridge Bible Commentary Concise, THE PSALMS

    [7] Cambridge Bible Commentary Concise, ISAIAH To JEREMIAH

    [8] Cambridge Bible Commentary Concise, EZEKIEL To MALACHI

    [9] Cambridge Bible Commentary Concise, MATTHEW To ACTS

    [10] Cambridge Bible Commentary Concise, ROMANS To THE-REVELATION

    ** Cambridge Bible Commentary Concise, The Whole OLD TESTAMENT

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    FINAL NOTE;

      Deuter-canonical Books are included as references, and less often, the Pseudo-pigraphia (extra-biblical New Testament Era writings - such as the Epistle of Barnabas - used for over 300 years by the early Church.

      Though these are 'NOT' Inerrant Scripture, they are very important as geographical and historical references, and helping to understand how particular Hebrew and Greek words were used.

      Since the Deuter-canonical Books were part of the Jewish Bible that Jesus and Paul used, they have great value for understanding the era between the Covenants, and all things Jewish.

      Many will be surprised to know they were in the Geneva Bible of Calvin and Knox - and the Puritan Pilgrims - and included in the King James for over 275 years . . .

      . . . and left out in later versions - ONLY to make the Bible MORE PROFITABLE, by selling at the usual price, while being much smaller to print!

      No wonder Paul said the "love of money is the root of all evil!"

      Further know, that that these books are rejected by most Bible Preachers today, BECAUSE the Jews of Jesus' Day rejected them for the Jewish Canon at the Council of Jamnia after the fall of Jerusalem.

      This seems reasonable enough, and though these Scribes and Lawyers SHOULD have had superior knowledge in ALL THINGS JEWISH . . . in their Jewish wisdom, THEY ALSO REJECTED JESUS AS THE MESSIAH!!!

      TheDeuter-canonical Books are very "Kingdom of God" and "Messianic" Oriented, thus the Jews sis NOT want any writings confirming that Jesus WAS the Jewish Messiah.

      The wise "Students-north-Scholars" will know them, as they provide light on New Testament Scripture that are NOT understood otherwise;


    Quick Example:

    In Luke 3:36 YOUR Bible reads as follows:
        "Which was the son of Cainan, which was the son of Arphaxad, which was the son of Sem (Shem), which was the son of Noe (Noah), which was the son of Lamech;"

      This ancestor of Jesus named "Cainan, son of Arphaxad: where is he in YOUR Bible; (Check Genesis 11:13, and other genealogies).

      This dilemma - which the WORLD calls a great contradiction in the linage of Jesus as the Christ - can ONLY be solved by the Bible Jesus used, which included the Deuter-canonical Books.

      Do you suppose Jesus knew more about the "Correct Books of the Bible than modern "lukewarm" Denominations?




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    How To Use This Page
    EFFICIENTLY;


    ** To SEARCH for any word, subject or Scripture on this website, use the GOLD-BOX SITE SEARCH near top of page: over 600,000 pages available from Cambridge Theological Seminary Archives;

    ** To SEARCH for anyword, subject or Scripture on this SINGULAR-WEB-PAGE you are now on, (which may be from 100-3,000 regular notebook sized pages);

      [1] Go to the TOP TOOLBAR of your Monitor and find EDIT

      [3] Click EDIT and menu drops down: "Click FIND

      [3] Type in word, Scripture or whatever you are looking for;

      [4] Then Click "MATCH CASE" if you need it;

      [5] Then Click "NEXT" or "PREVIOUS" to search as much as you desire!




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    HEBREW ROOT WORDS: INTRO;

      Consider the Hebrew Language:

      Hebrew is "The Perfect Language" - in the original form - as the Hebrew Language has evolved from perfection:

        >> God taught, or programmed, Adam and Eve perfect Hebrew;

        >> over a thousand years it eroded into informal Hebrew, as formal British-English eroded into the American dialect;

        >> over hundreds of more years it became a "dead Hebrew", meaning it is no longer spoken by any nation of people;

        >> eventually evolving into into the derivative Aramaic, which was commonly spoken in the days of Jesus;

        >> finally evolving into that "modern Hebrew" spoken in Israel in Post-AD-2000).


      The linguistics of the Hebrew Language as designed and taught by God to Adam and Eve (or perhaps "programmed" - either way does not affect the evidence of the Godhead) gives us massive and mighty "Eternal Evidence", daily clues and reminders of the Existence and Transcendence of the Almighty Godhead:

        >> God the Spirit - who is Spirit; manifest as Spirit of Ghost (that is Presence without corporeal body or manifestation such as Christ after His Resurrection);

        >> God the Father - willing to give His Son to save the World John 3:16-17;

        >> God the Son - willing to give His life to save the World! John 12:47;


      God decided to continually reveal the "THREE-FOLD-NATURE-OF-HIS-GODHEAD" by making EVERY Hebrew "root word" have THREE-CONSONANTS!"

        > NEVER 2 letters;

        > NEVER 4, 5, 6, or more;

        > BUT ALWAYS 3 letters!

        > And ONLY 3 and THREE alone!


    SCIENCE, ROOT WORDS of BIOLOGY:

      Likewise, the "Language of Life" - called by some "The Protein Language" - also designed and programmed by God to be the language of all living substance from lions to dandelions to from babies to buttercups top butterflies!

      The Protein Language is the language of Genetics, of Cells, of plants and animals and all that exists: the Code of Life;

      The PROTEIN LANGUAGE consists of "CODONS".

      This Language of all Life is also made of THREE LETTER WORDS, and each letter of these TRINITARIAN CODONS, is the life-giving code for an amino acid, creating the genetic structure of all that is LIFE!

      Thus every word that your body parts (cells, organs, glands and tissues, etc.,) write to each other, and every word your body reads in communication from another body part, these are ALL THREE LETTER WORDS!

      All of the intelligence your body has, all it knows and all it communicates - in every bodily function possible - is given in THREE LETTER WORDS!

        > NEVER 2 letters;

        > NEVER 4, 5, 6, or more;

        > ALWAYS 3 letters!

        > ONLY 3 and THREE alone!


      Can we possibly miss this, asks NewtonStein? (Not if we can count as far as 1, 2, 3!!!)


    Even the Word "G-O-D" in English . . . is Three Letters!

      Why is "GOD" in English significant?

      For the simple reason that today, in the POST-AD-2,000 word, very few scores of thousands speak Biblical Hebrew with the THREE-LETTER-ROOT-WORD structure.


      Comparatively, scores of HUNDREDS OF MILLIONS SPEAK English!

        >> ENGLISH, is an Official Language in well over 100 nations of the World!

        >> ENGLISH, is The Major Language of Science, Globally!

        >> ENGLISH, is an Official - and the Major - Language of , the United Nations!

        >> ENGLISH, is The Official Language of The Internet!

        >> ENGLISH, is The Major Language of Serious Publishing - even in Japan and Germany!

        >> ENGLISH, is The Official Language of Global Airlines and Airports!

        >> ENGLISH, is The Official Language of OF the World!

        ** THUS more people will hear the Gospel in ENGLISH than any other Language!

        ** THUS more people will read the Gospel in ENGLISH than any other Language!

        ** THUS more people will own a Bible in ENGLISH than any other Language!

        ** THUS more people will get saved from learning TRUTH in ENGLISH than any other Language!

        FACT! SINCE God knew of the ENGLISH as the Global Language before the Foundation of the World!

        FACT! SINCE God in His Goodness has ALWAYS given Signs to Those Who Believe, from Moses and Israel, to Samson, to The Virgin Birth as a sign (Isa 7:14) to the Swaddling Clothes as a sign, to the Signs of the times in Matthew 24:4-24, Mark 13:5-20 and Luke 17:31-41 and 21:10-25;

        FACT! SINCE God originally made His name a "Three-Letter-Root-Word in Hebrew - "JAH" (Psalm 68:4)

        FACT! ONCE AGAIN God made His Name a THREE LETTER WORD in ENGLISH, the Global Language of the most populated era of Earth!

      So remember this every time "GOD!" is heard, read, said, etc., teach this to others, and help your family and friends see the "SIGNS along the WAY!"


    Seeing God in Linguistics, in General;

      In linguistics, there are many, many more, that PROVE God is the Designer of (a)All language, (b)alphabet, (c)Hebrew, (d) that Hebrew is the parent language of all others, (e)word structure, (f)actual words unique to Hebrew that pertain to God . . .

      . . . that NO OTHER LANGUAGE DEVELOPED OR NEEDED . . .

      . . . BECAUSE they had no God with eternal Attributes!


    EXAMPLE: "EMMANUEL!"
      Emmanuel is the same word in every language, and no language has a word it can be translated into, because it means GOD DWELLING IN HIS PEOPLE . . . and no people had "this experience apart from the People of the One True GOD JAH, thus "Emmannuel remains the same word in all languages!

      Likewise "Halleluah" - which is a Hebrew compound word "Hallelu-JAH" - and is a Command to "PRAISE JAH!"


      "Amen!" and Hosanna are also neat, unique words and there are literally hundreds more!


      The scoffing world asks: "Where is evidence for God!?" to which we answer:

      EVERYWHERE!





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    Letter "O"

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    Letter "O"


    OABDIUS, 6-ab'di-us

      in AV): One of the sons of Ela who put away their "strange wives" (1 Esd 9 27) = "Abdi" of Ezr 10:26.

    OAK, ok:
      Several Heb words are so tr"', but there has always been great doubt as to which words should be tr"* "oak" and which "terebinth." This uncertainty appears in the LXX and all through EV; in recent revisions "terebinth" has been in- creasingly added in the m. All the Heb words are closely allied and may originally have had simply the meaning of "tree," but it is clear that, when the OT was written, they indicated some special kind of tree.

      The words and references are as follows :

      (1) nbX. 'llah (in LXX usually -repi^iveoi, terebin- thos. in Vulg terebinlhus, or. more commonly, quercun)

      (Gen 35 4; Jgs 6 11.19; 2 S 18 9.10.14; 1 Hebrew l K 13 14; l Ch 10 12; Isa 1 30; Ezk riT ,A^ ^„A 6 13 — in all these m "terebinth"). In Isa Words and g jj (^y „teii tree") and Hos 4 13 (AV References "elms") the tr is "terebinths" because of

      the juxtaposition of 'allon, tr

      (2) nix, 'atlah (terebinthos, quercus [VulgD, appar- ently a 'slight variant for 'llah: only in Josh 24 26; Gen 35 4 ('ildh) and in Jgs 9 6 {'Hon).

      (3) D^'5S or D''b^S . 'elim, perhaps pi. of 'elah, occurs in Isa 1 29 (m "terebinths"); 57 5, m "with idols," AV "idols," m "oaks"; 61 3, "trees"; Ezk 31 14 (text very doubtful), " height," AVm " upon themselves " ; bis. 'eZ, inEl-paran(LXX (ere5i;ilAos) (Gen 14 6), prob- ably means the ' ' tree " or " terebinth "of Paran. Celsius (Hicrob. 1.34 ff) argues at length that the above words apply well to the Tekebinth (q.v.) in all the passages in which they occur.

      (4) "libiS. 'elon (usually JpO?, drus, "oak"), in Gen 12 6; 13 18; 14 13; 18 1; Dt 11 30; Josh 19 33; Jgs 4 11; 9 6.37; 1 S 10 3 (AV "plain"); in all these references m has "terebinth" or "terebinths." In Gen 12 6; Dt 11 30 we have "oak" or "oaks" "of the teacher" (Moreh) ; "oak in Zaanannim" in .Igs 4 11; Josh 19 33; the "oak of Meonenim," m "the augurs' oak (or, terebinth) " in Jgs 9 37.

      (5) ^"1355. 'allon (commonly 5pus, drus, or ayo^, bdlanos), in Gen 35 8 (cf ver 4); Hos 4 13; Isa 6 13. is contrasted with 'Hah. showing that 'allon and 'eldh cannot bT identical, so no marginal references occur; also in Isa 44 14; Am 2 9, but in all other pa.ssages, m "terebinth" or "terebinths" occurs. "Oaks of Bashan" occurs in Isa 2 13; Ezk 27 6; Zee 11 2.

      If (1) (2) (3) refer esp. to the terebinth, then (4) and (5) are probably correctly tr'^ "oak." If we may judge at all by present conditions, "oaks" of Bashan is far more correct than "terebinths" of Bashan.

      There are, according to Post {Flora of Palestine, 737-41), no less than 9 species of oak (N.O. Cupu-

      liferae) in Syria, and he adds to these 2. Varieties 12 sub-varieties. Many of these have of Oak no interest except to the botanist. The

      following species are widespread and distinctive: (1) The "Turkey oak," Quercus cerris, known in Arab, as Ballul, as its name implies, abounds all over European Turkey and Greece and is common in Pal. Under favorable conditions

      Oak at Gilcad, the Sindeeyan (Quercus cocci/era).

      it attains to great size, reaching as much as 60 ft. in height. It is distinguished by its large sessile acorns with hemispherical cups covered with long, narrow, almost bristly, scales, giving them a mossy aspect. The wood is hard and of fine grain. Galls are common upon its branches.

      (2) Quercus lusitariica (or Ballola), also known in Arab, as BalMt, like the last is frequently found dwarfed to a bush, but, when protected, attains a height of 30 ft. or more. The leaves are dentate or crenate and last late into the winter, but are shed before the new twigs are developed. The acorns are solitary or few in cluster, and the cupules are more or less smooth. Galls are common, and a variety of this species is often known as Q. infec- loria, on account of its liability to infection with galls.

      (3) The Valonica oak (Q. aegolops), known in Arab, as MellM, has large oblong or ovate deciduous leaves, with deep serrations terminating in a bristle- like point, and very large acorns, globular, thick cupules covered with long retiexed scales. The

      Oak

      Obadiah.Bookof 'THE INTERNATIONAL STANDARD BIBLE ENCYCLOPAEDIA

      2172

      cupules, known commercially as valonica, furnish one of the richest of tanning materials.

      (4) The Evergreen oak is often classed under the general name "Ilex oak" or Holm (i.e. holly-like) oak. Several varieties are described as occurring in Pal. Q. ilex usually has rather a shrublike

      "Joshua's Oak" — a Terebinth (Near Abord in Ephraim. Supposed to Be the Largest Tree in Palestine).

      growth, with abundant glossy, dark-green leaves, oval in shape and more or less prickly at the mar- gins, though sometimes entire. The cupules of the acorns are woolly. It shows a marked predilection for the neighborhood of the sea. The Q. cocdfera (with var. Q. pseudococcifcra) is known in Arab, as Sindian. The leaves, like the last, usually are prickly. The acorns are solitary or twin, and the hemispherical cupules are more or less velvety. On the Q. cocdfera are found the insects which make the well-known Kermcs dye. These evergreen oaks are the common trees at sacred tombs, and the once magnificent, but now dying, "Abraham's oak" at Hebron is one of this species.

      Oaks occur in all parts of Pal, in spite of the steady ruthless destruction which has been going on

      for centuries. All over Carmel, Tabor, 3. Oaks in around Banias and in the hills to the Modern W. of Nazareth, to mention well- Palestine known localities, there are forests of

      oak; great tracts of country, esp. in Gal- ilee and E. of the Jordan, are covered by a stunted brushwood which, were it not for the wood-cutter, would grow into noble trees. Solitary oaks of magnificent proportions occur in many parts of the land, esp. upon hilltops; such trees are saved from destruction because of their "sacred" character.

      To bury beneath such a tree has ever been a favorite custom (cf Gen 35 S; 1 Ch 10 12). Large trees like these, seen often from great distances, are fre- quently landmarks (.losh 19 33) or places of meet- ing (cf "Oak of Tabor," 1 S 10 3). The custom of heathen worship beneath oaks or terebinths (Hps 4 13; Ezk 6 1.3, etc) finds its modern counterpart in the cult of the Wehj in Pal. The oak is sometimes connected with some historical event, as e.g. Abraham's oak of Mamre now shown at Hebron,

      and "the oak of weeping," Allan bacuth, of Gen 35 S. E. W. G. Masterman

    OAK OF TABOR
      (^i^n 'jibX, 'Hon iabhor): Thus RV in 1 S 10 3 for'AV "plain of Tabor" (RVm "terebinth"). Tabor was famous for its groves of oak, but what "oak" is meant here is not known. Ewald thinks that "Tabor" is a different pronunciation for "Deborah," and connects with Gen 35 8; but this is not likely. See Oak, 3.

    OAR, or.
      See Ships and Boats, II, 2, (3).

    OATH, oth
      (nyilTB, sh'bhu'ah, probably from shebha "seven," the sacred number, which occurs frequently in the ritual of an oath; opKos, horkos; and the stronger word nbs , 'aldh, by which a curse is actually invoked upon the oath-breaker [LXX dpa, ard]):

      In Mt 26 70-74 Peter first denies his Lord simply, then with an oath (sh'bhu^ah), then invokes a curse ('dlah), thus passing through every stage of asseveration.

      The oath is the invoking of a curse upon one's self if one has not spoken the truth (Mt 26 74), or if one fails to keep a promise (1 S 19

      1. Law Re- 6; 20 17; 2 S 15 21; 19 23). It garding played a very important part, not only Oaths in lawsuits (Ex 22 11; Lev 6 3.5)

      and state affairs (Ant, XV, x, 4), but also in the dealings of ever3'day life (Gen 24 37; 50 5; Jgs 21 5; 1 K 18 10; Ezr 10 5). The Mosaic laws concerning oaths were not meant to limit the widespread custom of making oaths, so much as to impress upon the people the sacredness of an oath,

      forbidding on the one hand swearing falsely (Ex 20 7; Lev 19 12; Zee 8 17, etc), and on the other swearing by false gods, which latter was considered to be a very dark sin (Jer 12 16; Am 8 14).

      In the Law only two kinds of false swearing are mentioned : false swearing of a witness, and false asseveration upon oath regarding a thing found or received (Lev 5 1; 6 2ff;cfProv 29 24). Both required a sin offering (Lev 5 Iff). The Talm gives additional rules, and lays down certain punishments for false swearing; in the case of a thing found it states what the false swearer must pay (Makkoth 2^3; Sh'bhiTdth 8 3).

      The Jewish interpretation of the 3d commandment is that it is not concerned with oaths, but rather forbids the use of the name of Jeh in ordinary cases (so Dalman) . Swearing in the name of the Lord (Gen 14 22; Dt 6 13; Jgs 21 7; Ruth 1 17, etc) was a sign of loyalty to Him (Dt 10 20; Isa

      2. Forms 48 11; Jer 12 16). We know from of Swearing Scripture (see above) that swearing

      by false gods was frequent, and we learn also from the newly discovered Elephantine papyrus that the people not only swore by Jahu ( = Jeh) or by the Lord of Heaven, but also among a certain class of other gods, e.g. by Hercm- Bethel, and by Isum.

      In ordinary intercourse it was customary to swear by the life of the person addressed (1 S 1 26; 20 3; 2 K 2 2); by the life of the king (1 S 17 55; 25 26; 2 S 11 11); by one's own head (Mt 5 36) ; by the earth (Mt 5 35); by the heaven (Mt 5 34; 23 22); by the angels (BJ, II, xvi, 4); by the temple (Mt 23 16) and by different parts of it (Mt 23 16) ; by Jcrus (Mt 5 35; cf K'thilbhoth 2 9).

      The oath "by heaven" (Mt 5 34; 23 22) is counted by Jesus as the oath in which God's name is invoked. Jesus does not mean that God and heaven are identical, but He desires to rebuke those who paltered with an oath by avoiding a direct mention of a name of God.

      He teaches that such an oath is a real oath and must be considered as sacredly binding.

      THE INTERNATIONAL STANDARD BIBLE ENCYCLOPAEDIA

      Not much is told us as to the ceremonies observed

      in taking an oath. In patriarchal times he who

      took the oath put his hand under the

      3. The thigh of him to whom the oath was Formula taken (Gen 24 2; 47 29). The most

      usual form was to hold up the hand to heaven (Gen 14 22; Ex 6 8; Dt 32 40; Ezk 20 5). The wife suspected of unfaithfulness, when brought before the priest, had to answer "Amen, Amen" to his adjuration, and this was considered to be an oath on her part (Nu 5 22). The usual formula of an oath was either: "God is witness betwixt me and thee" (Gen 31 50), or more com- monly: "As Jeh [or God] liveth" (Jgs 8 19; Ruth 3 13; 2 S 2 27; Jer 38 16) or "Jeh be a true and faithful witness amongst us (Jer 42 5). Usually the penalty invoked by the oath was only suggested : "Jeh [or God] do so to me" (Ruth 1 17; 2 S 3 9. 35;1K2 23;2K631); in some cases the punish- ment was expressly mentioned (Jer 29 22). Nowack suggests that in general the punishment was not expressly mentioned because of a superstitious fear that the person swearing, although speaking the truth, might draw upon himself some of the punish- ment by merely mentioning it.

      Philo expresses the desire (ii.l94) that the prac- tice of swearing should be discontinued, and the Essenes used no oaths {BJ, II, viii, 6; Ant, XV,

      That oaths are permissible to Christians is shown

      by the example of Our Lord (Mt 26 63 f), and of

      Paul (2 Cor 1 23; Gal 1 20) and

      4. Oaths even of God Himself (He 6 13-18). Permissible Consequently when Christ said, "Swear

      not at all" (Mt 5 34), He was laying down the principle that the Christian must not have two standards of truth, but that his ordinary speech must be as sacredly true as his oath. In the kingdom of God, where that principle holds sway, oaths become unnecessary.

      Paul Levertoff

    OBADIAH, o-ba-dl'a
      (n^'l^j? , 'obhadhyah, more fully ^n^l5i^ , 'obhadhyahu, "servant of Yahweh") :

      (1) The steward or prime minister of Ahab, who did his best to protect the prophets of Jeh against Jezebel's persecution. He met Elijah on his return from Zarephath, and bore to Ahab the news of Elijah's reappearance (1 K 18 3-16).

      (2) The prophet (Ob ver 1). See Obadiah, Book

      OF.

      (3) A descendant of David (1 Ch 3 21).

      (4) A chief of the tribe of Issachar (1 Ch 7 3). (.5) A descendant of Saul (1 Ch 8 38; 9 44).

      (6) A Levite descended from Jeduthun (1 Ch 9 16), identical with Abda(Neh 11 17).

      (7) A chief of the Gadites (1 Ch 12 9).

      (8) A Zebulunite, father of the chief Ishmaiah (1 Ch 27 19).

      (9) One of the princes sent by Jehoshaphat to teach the law in Judah (2 Ch 17 7).

      (10) A Merarite employed by Josiah to oversee the workmen in repairing the temple (2 Ch 34 12).

      (11) The head of a family who went up with Ezra from Babylon (Ezr 8 9).

      (12) One of the men who sealed the covenant with Nehemiah (Neh 10 .5).

      (13) A gate-keeper in the days of Nehemiah (Neh 12 2.5).

      The name "Obadiah" was common in Israel from the days of David to the close of the OT. An an- cient Heb seal bears the inscription "Obadiah the servant of the King." John Richard Sampey

      OBADIAH, BOOK OF: Obadiah is the shortest book in the OT. The theme of the book is the de- struction of Edom. Consequent upon the over-

      throw of Edom is the enlargement of the borders of Judah and the establishment of the kingship of Jeh. Thus far all scholars are agreed; but on questions of authorship and date there is wide divergence of opinion.

      (1) Jeh summons the nations to the overthrow of proud Edom. The men of Esau will be brought

      down from their lofty strongholds; 1. Contents their hidden treasures will be rifled; of the Book their confederates will turn against

      them; nor will the wise and the mighty men in Eclom be able to avert the crushing calamity (vs 1-9). (2) The overthrow of Edom is due to the violence and cruelty shown toward his brother Jacob. The prophet describes the cruelty and shameless gloating over a brother's calamity, in the form of earnest appeals to Edom not to do the selfish and heartless deeds of which he had been guilty when Jcrus was sacked by foreign foes (vs 10-14). (3) The day of the display of Jeh's retrib- utive righteousness upon the nations is near. Edom shall be completely destroyed by the people whom he has tried to uproot, while Israel's captives shall return to take possession of their own land and also to seize and rule the mount of Esau. Thus the kingship of Jeh shall be established (vs 15-21).

      The unity of Ob was first challenged by Eichhom in 1824, vs 17—21 being regarded by him as an appendix

      attached to the original exilic prophecy o TTnitv rtf in the time of Alexander Jannaeus (104— 78 tC n t EC). Ewald thought that an exilic tne i)OOK prophet, to whom he ascribed vs 11-14

      and 19-21, had made use ol an older prophecy by Obadiah in vs 1-10, and in vs 15-18 of material from another older prophet who was contem- porary, like Obadiah, with Isaiah. As the years went on, the material assigned to the older oracle was limited by some to vs 1-9 and by others to vs 1-6. Wellhausen assigned to Obadiah vs 1-5.7.10.11.13.14.15!), while all else was regarded as a later appendix. Barton's theory of the composition of Ob is thus surmned up by Bewer: "Vs 1-6 are a preexllic oracle of Ob, which was quoted by Jeremiah, and readapted with additions (vs 7-15) by another Obadiah in the early post-exilic days; vs 16—21 form an appendix, probably from Maccabean times" (ICC, 5) . Bewer's own view is closely akin to Barton's. He thinks that Obadiah, writing in the 5th cent. BO, "quoted vs 1^ almost, though not quite, literally; that he commented on the older oracle in vs 5-7, partly in the words ol the older prophet, partly in his own words, in order to show that it had been fulfilled in his own day; and that in vs 8.9 he quoted once more from the older oracle without any show of iiteralness." He ascribes to Obadiah vs 10-14 and 156. The appendix consists of two sections, vs 15a. 16-18 and vs 19-21, possibly by different authors, ver 18 being a quotation from some older prophecy. To the average Bible student all this minute analysis of a brief prophecy must seem hyper- critical. He will prefer to read the book as a unity ; and in doing so will get the essence of the message it has for the present day.

      Certain preliminary problems require solution before the question of date can be settled.

      (1) Relation of Ob and Jer 49. — ■ 3. Date of (a) Did Obadiah quote from Jer? the Book Pusey thus sets forth the impossibility of such a solution: "Out of 16 verses of which the prophecy of Jeremiah against Edom consists, four are identical with those of Obadiah; a fifth embodies a verse of Obadiah's; of the eleven which remain, ten have some turns of expression or idioms, more or fewer, which recur in Jer, either in these prophecies against foreign nations, or in his prophecies generally. Now it would be wholly improbable that a prophet, selecting verses out of the prophecy of Jeremiah, should have selected precisely those which contain none of Jeremiah's characteristic expressions; whereas it perfectly fits in with the supposition that Jeremiah interwove verses of Obadiah with his own prophecy, that in verses so interwoven there is not one expression which occurs elsewhere in Jer" {Minor Prophets, I, 347). (6) Did Jeremiah quote from Ob? It is almost incredible that the vigorous and well- articulated prophec;y in Ob could have been made

      Obadiah, Book of Obedience of Christ

      THE INTERNATIONAL STANDARD BIBLE ENCYCLOPAEDIA

      2174

      by piecing together detached quotations from Jer; but Jeremiah may well have taken from Ob many expressions that fell in with his general purpose. There are difficulties in applying this view to one or two verses, but it has not been disproved by the arguments from meter advanced by Bewer and others, (c) Did both Obadiah and Jeremiah quote from an older oracle? This is the favorite solution among recent scholars, most of whom think that Obadiah preserves the vigor of the original, while Jeremiah quotes with more freedom ; but Bewer in ICC, after a detailed comparison, thus sums up: "Our conclusioyi is that Obadiah quoted in vs 1-9 an older oracle, the original of which is better 'preserved in Jer 49." The student will do well to get his own first-hand impression from a careful comparison of the two passages. With Ob vs 1-4 of Jer 49 14- 16; with Ob vs 5.6 cf Jer 49 9.10a; with Ob ver 8 cf Jer 49 7; with Ob ver 9a cf Jer 49 226. On the whole, the view that Jeremiah, who often quotes from earlier prophets, draws directly from Ob, with free working over of the older prophets, seems still tenable.

      (2) Relation of Ob and Joel. — There seems to be in Joel 2 32 (Hcb 3 5) a direct allusion to Ob ver 17. If Joel prophesied during the minority of the boy king Joash (c 830 BC), Obadiah would be, on this hypothesis, the earliest of the writing prophets.

      (3) What capture of Jerus is described in Ob vs 10- 14 ? — The disaster seems to have been great enough to be called "destruction" (Ob ver 12). Hence most scholars identify the calamity described by Ob with the capture and destruction of Jerus by the Chaldaeans in 587 BC. But it is remarkable, on this hypothesis, that no allusion is made either in Ob or Jer 49 7-22 to the Chaldaeans or to the destruction of the temple or to the wholesale transportation of the inhabitants of Jerus to Baby- lonia. We know, however, from Ezk 35 1-15 and Ps 137 7 that Edom rejoiced over the final de- struction of Jerus by the Chaldaeans in 587 BC, and that they encouraged the destroyers to blot out the holy city. Certain it is that the events of 587 accord remarkably with the language of Ob vs 10- 14. Pusey indeed argues from the use of the form of the direct prohibition in Ob vs 12-14 that Edom had not yet committed the sins against which the prophet warns him, and so Jerus was not yet de- stroyed, when Obadiah wrote. But almost all modern scholars interpret the language of vs 12-14 as referring to what was already past; the prophet "speaks of what the Edomites had actually done as of what they ought not to do." The scholars who regard Obadiah as the first of the writing prophets locate his ministry in Judah during the reign of Jehoram (c 845 BC). Both 2 K and 2 Ch tell of the war of rebellion in the days of Jehoram when Edom, after a fierce struggle, threw off the yoke of Judah (2 K 8 20-22; 2 Ch 21 8-10). Shortly aftertherevoltof Edom, according to 2 Ch 21 16 f, the Philis and Arabians broke into Judah, "and carried away all the substance that was found in the king's house, and his sons also, and his wives; so that there was never a son left him, save Jchoahaz, the youngest of his sons." Evidently the capital city fell into the hands of the invaders. It was a calamity of no mean projiortions.

      The advocates of a late date call attention to three points that weaken the case for an early date for Ob : (a) The silence of 2 K as to the invasion of the Philis and Arabians. But what motive could the author of Ch have had for inventing the story? (6) The absence of any mention of the destruction of the city by the Phihs and Arabians. It must be acknowledged that the events of 587 BC accord more fully with the description in Ob vs 10-14,

      though the disaster in the days of Jehoram must have been terrible, (c) The silence as to Edom in 2 Ch 21 16 f . But so also are the historic books silent as to the part that Edom took in the destruc- tion of Jerus in 587. It is true that exilic and post- exilic prophets and psalmists speak in bitter denun- ciation of the unbrotherly conduct of Edom (Lam 4 21.22; Ezk 25 12-14; 35 1-15; Ps 137 7; Mai

      I 1-5; cf also Isa 34 and 63 1-6); but it is also true that the earliest Heb literature bears witness to the keen rivalry between Esau and Jacob (Gen 25 22 f; 27 41; Nu 20 14-21), and one of the earliest of the writing prophets denounces Edom for unnatural cruelty toward his brother (Am 1

      II f; cf Joel 3 19 [Heb 4 19]).

      (4) The style of Ob. — Most early critics praise the style. Some of the more recent critics argue for different authors on the basis of a marked differ- ence in style within the compass of the twenty- one verses in the little roll. Thus Selbie writes in HDB: "There is a difference in style between the two halves of the book, the first being terse, ani- mated, and full of striking figures, while the second is diffuse and marked by poverty of ideas and trite figures." The criticism of the latter part of the book is somewhat exaggerated, though it may be freely granted that the first half is more original and vigorous. The Heb of the book is classic, with scarcely any admixture of Aram, words or con- structions. The author may well have lived in the golden age of the Heb language and literature.

      (5) Geographical and historical allusions. — The references to the different sections and cities in the land of Israel and in the land of Edom are quite intelligible. As to Sepharad (ver 20) there is con- siderable difference of opinion. Schrader and some others identify it with a Shaparda in Media, men- tioned in the annals of Sargon (722-705 BC). Many think of Asia Minor, or a region in Asia Minor mentioned in Pers inscriptions, perhaps Bithynia or Galatia (Sayce). Some think that the mention of "the captives of this host of the children of Israel" and "the captives of Jerus" (ver 20) proves that both the Assyr captivity and the Bab exile were already past. This argument has con- siderable force; but it is well to remember that Amos, in the first half of the 8th cent., describes wholesale deportations from the land of Israel by men engaged in the slave trade (Am 1 6-10). The problem of the date of Ob has not been solved to the satisfaction of Bib. students. Our choice must be between a very early date (c 845) and a date

      shortly after 587, with the scales almost 4. Interpre- evenly balanced.

      tation of Ob is to be interpreted as prediction

      the Book rather than history. In vs 11-14

      there are elements of historic descrip- tion, but vs 1-10 and 1.5-21 are predictive.

      LiTERATtiKE.— Comms.: Caspari, Der Prophet Obadiah ausoelegl, 1842; Pusey, The Minor Prophets I860- Ewald, Comm. nn the Prophets of the OT (ET) II 277 ff' 1875; Keil (ET). 1880; T. T. Perowne {in Cambridge BMe). 1889; von Orelli (ET), The Minor Prophets, 1893- Wellhausen, Die klemen Propheten. 1808; G. A. Smith' The Book of the Twelve Prophets, II, 163 £t, 1898- Nowack' ?nnJ'^'V'"\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ ^''°^t'"Vi- ^^°'^' Marti. Dodekapropheton. J^9?' ?¥.'''®'!; ^'"' ^»"<"- Prophets, 1907; Bewer, ICC l?^^-i Miscellaneous: Kirkpatrick. Doctrine of the Prophets, 33 «'Intros of Driver, Wildeboer, etc; Selbie ■" ^n^Vr^'iJJJ"®"' Bartonin JE, IX, 369-70; Cheyne n;,^io',n"T>'^*i^'^o^2.' Peckham, An Intro to the .Study of Ob, 1910; Kent, Students' OT, III, 1910.

      John Richaed Sampey OBAL, 6'bal. See Ebal, 1.

      OjBDIA, ob-di'a (A, 'OpSCa, Obdla, B, 'Oppnd, Hobbeia): One of the families of usurping priests (1 Esd 5 38) = "Habaiah"of Ezr 2 61; "Hobaiah" of Neh 7 63.

      2175

      THE INTERNATIONAL STANDARD BIBLE ENCYCLOPAEDIA S?^^!^'"' ^°°^ °* Obedience of Christ

      OBED.o'bedOniy, iy$;obhedh, "worshipper"; in the NT 'lo>pifi, lohU) :

      (1) Son of Boaz and Ruth and grandfather of David (Ruth 4 17.21.22: 1 Ch 2 12; Mt 1 5; Lk 3 32).

      (2) Son of Ephlal and descendant of Sheshan, the Jeralimeehte, through his daughter who was married to Jarha, an Egyp servant of her father's (1 Ch 2 37.38).

      (3) One of David's mighty men (1 Ch 11 47).

      (4) A Korahite doorlceeper, son of Shemaiah, and grandson of Obed-edom (1 Ch 26 7).

      (5) Father of Azariah, one of the centurions who took part with Jehoiada in deposing Queen AthaUah and crowning Joash (2 Ch 23 1; of 2 K 11 1-16).

      David Francis Roberts

      OBED-EDOM, o'bed-e'dom (DinX-nnb [2 Ch 25 24], DhS-nnis> [2 S 6 10; 1 Ch 13 13.14; 15 25], but elsewhere without hyphen, 'obhedh-'Sdhmn, "servant of [god] Edom"; so W. R. Smith, Religion of Semites', 42, and H. P. Smith, Samuel, 294 f, though others explain it as = "servant of man"): In 2 S 6 10.11.12; 1 Ch 13 13.14 a Philistine of Gath and servant of David, who received the Ark of Jeh into his house when David brought it into Jerus from Kiriath-jearim. Because of the sudden death of Uzzah, David was unwiUing to proceed with the Ark to his citadel, and it remained three months in the house of Obed-edom, "and Jeh blessed Obed-edom, and all his house" (2 S 6 11). According to 1 Ch 13 14 the Ark had a special "house" of its own while there. He is probably the same as the Levite of 1 Ch 15 25. In 1 Ch 15 16-21 Obed-edom is a "singer," and in 1 Ch 15 24 a "doorkeeper," while according to 1 Ch 26 4-8.15 he is a Korahite doorkeeper, to whose house fell the overseership of the storehouse (ver 15), while 1 Ch 16 5.38 names him as a "minister before the ark," a member of the house or perhaps guild of Jeduthun (see 2 Ch 25 24).

      Obed-edom is an illustration of the service rendered to Heb religion by foreigners, reminding one of the Simon of Cyrene who bore the cross of Jesus (Mt 27 32, etc). The Chronicler naturally desired to think that only Levites could discharge such duties as Obed-edom performed, and hence the references to him as a Levite.

      David Francis Roberts .

      OBEDIENCE, S-be'di-ens, OBEY, 5-ba' (ypiB , shmna^; iiraKo^, hupakoe) : In its simpler OT mean- ing the word signifies "to hear," "to 1. Meaning listen." It carries with it, however, of Terms the ethical significance of hearing with reverence and obedient assent. In the NT a different origin is suggestive of "hearing under" or of subordinating one's self to the person or thing heard, hence, "to obey." There is another NT usage, however, indicating persuasion from, TreWo/iai, pelthomai.

      The relation expressed is twofold: first, human, as between master and servant, and particularly between parents and children. "If a man have a stubborn and rebellious son, that will not obey the voice of his father, or the voice of his mother, and, though they chasten him, will not hearken unto them; then shall his father and his mother lay hold on him, and bring him out unto the elders of his city, and unto the gate of his place" (Dt 21 18.19; cf Prov 15 20); or between sovereign and subjects, "The foreigners shall submit themselves unto me: as soon as they hear of me, they shall obey me" (2 S 22 45; 1 Ch 29 23).

      The highest significance of its usage, however, is that of the relation of man to God. Obedience is the supreme test of faith in God and reverence for Him. The OT conception of obedience was vital.

      It was the one important relationship which must

      not be broken. While sometimes this relation may

      have been formal and cold, it neverthe-

      2. The OT less was the one strong tie which held Conception the people close to God. The signifi- cant spiritual relation is expressed by

      Samuel when he asks the question, "Hath Jeh as great delight in burnt-offerings and sacrifices, as in obeying the voice of Jeh? Behold, to obey is better than sacrifice, and to hearken than the fat of rams" (1 S 15 22). It was the condition without which no right relation might be sustained to Jeh. This is most clearly stated in the relation between Abra- ham and Jeh when he is assured "In thy seed shall all the nations of the earth be blessed; because thou hast obeyed my voice" (Gen 22 18).

      In prophetic utterances, future blessing and prosperity weie conditioned upon obedience: "If ye be willing and obedient, ye shall eat the good of the land" (Isa 1 19). After surveying the glories of the Messianic kingdom, the prophet assures the people that "this shall come to pass, if ye will diligently obey the voice of Jeh your God" (Zee 6 15). On the other hand misfortune, calamity, distress and famine are due to their disobedience and distrust of Jeh. See Disobedience.

      This obedience or disobedience was usually related to the specific commands of Jeh as con- tained in the law, yet they conceived of God as giving commands by other means. Note esp. the rebuke of Samuel to Saul: "Because thou obeyedst not the voice of Jeh, .... therefore hath Jeh done this thing unto thee this day" (1 S 28 18).

      In the NT a higher spiritual and moral relation

      IS sustained than in the OT. The importance of

      obedience is just as greatly empha-

      3. The NT sized. Christ Himself is its one great Conception illustration of obedience. He "hum- bled himself, becoming obedient even

      unto death, yea, the death of the cross" (Phil 2 8). By obedience to Him we are through Him made partakers of His salvation (He 6 9). This act is a supreme test of faith in Christ. Indeed, it is so vitally related that they are in some cases almost synonymous. "Obedience of faith" is a combina- tion used by Paul to express this idea (Rom 1 5). Peter designates believers in Christ as "children of obedience" (1 Pet 1 14). Thus it is seen that the test of fellowship with Jeh in the OT is obedience. The bond of union with Christ in the NT is obedi- ence through faith, by which they become identified and the believer becomes a disciple.

      Walter G. Clippinger

      OBEDIENCE OF CHRIST: The "obedience" (uiraKori, hupakoe) of Christ is directly mentioned but 3 t in the NT, although many other passages describe or allude to it: "Through the obedience of the one shall the many be made righteous" (Rom 5 19); "He humbled himself,, becoming obedient even unto death, yea, the death of the cross" (PhU 2 8); "Though he was a Son, yet learned obedience by the things which he suffered" (He 5 8). In 2 Cor 10 5, the phrase signifies an atti- tude toward Christ: "every thought into cap- tivity to the obedience of Christ."

      His subjection to His parents (Lk 2 61) was a necessary manifestation of His loving and sinless character, and of His disposition and 1. As an power to do the right in any situation. Element of His obedience to the moral law in Conduct every particular is asserted by the and NT writers: "without sin" (He 4 15);

      Character "who knew no sin" (2 Cor 5 21); "holy, guileless, undefiled, separated from sinners" (He 7 26), etc; and is affirmed by Himself: "Which of you convicteth me of sin?" (Jn 8 46); and implicitly conceded by His ene-

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      mies, since no shadow of accusation against His character appears. Of His ready, loving, joyful, exact and eager obedience to the Father, mention will be made later, but it was His central and most outstanding characteristic, the filial at its highest reach, limitless, "unto death." His usually sub- missive and law-abiding attitude toward the authorities and the great movements and religious requirements of His day was a part of His loyalty to God, and of the strategy of His campaign, the action of the one who wo^ild set an example and wield an influence, as at His baptism: "Thus it becometh us to fulfil all righteousness" (Mt 3 15); the synagogue worship (Lk 4 16, "as his custom was"); the incident of the tribute money: "Therefore the sons are free. But, lest we cause them to stumble," etc (Mt 17 24-27). Early, however, the necessi- ties of His mission as Son of God and institutor of the new dispensation obliged Him frequently to display a judicial antagonism to current pre- scription and an authoritative superiority to the rulers, and even to important details of the Law, that would in most eyes mark Him as insurgent, and did culminate in the cross, but was the sublim- est obedience to the Father, whose authority alone He, as full-grown man, and Son of man, could recognize.

      Two Scriptural statements raise an important question as to the inner experience of Jesus. He 5 8 states that "though he was a Son, 2. Its yet learned [he] obedience by the

      Christologi- things which he suffered" {emathen cal Bearing aph' hon epathen ten hupakoen); Phil 2 6.8: "Existing in the form of God .... he humbled himself, becoming obedient, even unto death." As Son of God, His will was never out of accord with the Father's will. How then was it necessary to, or could He, learn obe- dience, or become obedient? The same question in another form arises from another part of the passage in He 5 9: "And having been made perfect, he became unto all them that obey him the author [cause] of eternal salvation"; also He 2 10: "It became him [God] .... to make the author [captain] of their salvation perfect through suffer- ings." How and why should the perfect be made perfect? Gethsemane, with which, indeed. He 5 8 is directly related, presents the same problem. It finds its solution in the conditions of the Re- deemer's work and life on earth in the light of His true humanity. Both in His eternal essence and in His human existence, obedience to His Father was His dominant principle, so declared through the prophet-psalmist before His birth: He 10 7 (Ps 40 7), "Lo, I am come (in the roll of the book it is written of me) to do thy will, O God." It was His law of life: "I do always the things that are pleasing to him. I do nothing of myself, but as the Father taught me, I speak these things" (Jn

      8 29.28); "I can of myself do nothing I

      seek not mine own will, but the will of him that sent me" (5 30). It was the indispensable process of His activity as the "image of the invisible God," the expression of the Deity in terms of the phe- nomenal and the human. He could be a perfect revelation only by the perfect correspondence in every detail, of will, word and work with the Father's will (Jn 5 19). Obedience was also His life nourishment and satisfaction (Jn 4 34). It was the guiding principle which dircctefl the details of His work: "I have power to lay it [life] down, and I have power to take it again. This commandment received I from my Father" (Jn 10 IS); "The Father that sent me, he hath given me a command- ment, what I should say, and what I should speak" (Jn 12 49; cf 14 31, etc). But in the Incarnation this essential and filial obedience must find expres-

      sion in human forms according to human demands and processes of development. As true man, obedient disposition on His part must meet the test of voluntary choice under all representative conditions, culminating in that which was supreme- ly hard, and at the limit which should reveal its perfection of extent and strength. It must become hardened, as it were, and confirmed, through a defi- nite obedient act, into obedient human character. The patriot must become the veteran. The Son, obedient on the throne, must exercise the practical virtue of obedience on earth. Gethsemane was the culmination of this process, when in full view of the awful, shameful, horrifying meaning of Calvary, the obedient disposition was crowned, and the obe- dient Divine-human life reached its highest mani- festation, in the great ratification: "Nevertheless, not my will, but thine, be done." But just as Jesus' growth in knowledge was not from error to truth, but from partial knowledge to completer, so His "learning obedience" led Him not from dis- obedience or debate to submission, but from obe- dience at the present stage to an obedience at ever deeper and deeper cost. The process was necessary for His complete humanity, in which sense He was "made perfect," complete, by suffering. It was also necessary for His perfection as example and sympathetic High Priest. He must fight the hu- man battles under the human conditions. Having translated obedient aspiration and disposition into obedient action in the face of, and in suffering unto, death, even the death of the cross. He is able to lead the procession of obedient sons of God through every possible trial and surrender. Without this testing of His obedience He could have had the sympathy of clear and accurate knowledge, for He "knew what was in man," but He would have lacked the sympathy of a kindred experience. Lacking this. He would have been for us, and perhaps also in Himself, but an imperfect "captain of our salva- tion," certainly no "file leader" going before us in the very paths we have to tread, and tempted in all points like as we are, yet without sin. It may be worth noting that He "learned obedience" and was "made perfect" by suffering, not the results of His own sins, as we do largely, but alto- gether the results of the sins of others.

      In Rom 5 19, in the series of contrasts between sin and salvation ("Not as the trespass, so also is the free gift"), we are told: "For as 3. In Its through the one man's disobedience Soterio- the many were made sinners, even so logical through the obedience of the one shall

      Bearings the many be made righteous." In- terpreters and theologians, esp. the latter, differ as to whether "obedience" here refers to the specific and supreme act of obedience on the cross, or to the sum total of Christ's incarnate obe- dience through His whole life; and they have made the distinction between His "passive obedience," yielded on the cross, and His "active obedience" in carrying out without a flaw the Father's will at all times. This distinction is hardly tenable, as the whole Scriptural representation, esp. His own, is that He was never more intensely active than in His death: "I have a baptism to be baptized with; and how am I straitened till it be accomplished" (Lk 12 50); "I lay down my life, that I may take it again. No one takcth it away from me, but I lay it down of myself. I have power to lay it down, and I have power to talce it again" (Jn 10 17.18). "Who through the eternal Spirit offered himself without blemish unto God" (He 9 14), indi- cates the active obedience of one who was both priest and sacrifice. As to the question whether it was the total obedience of Christ, or His death on the cross, that constituted the atonement, and

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      the kindred question whether it was not the spirit of obedience in the act of death, rather than the act itself, that furnished the value of His redemp- tive work, it might conceivably, though improbably, be said that "the one act of righteousness" through which "the free gift came" was His whole life con- sidered as one act. But these ideas are out of line with the unmistakable trend of Scripture, which everywhere lays principal stress on the death of Christ itself; it is the center and soul of the two ordinances, baptism and the Lord's Supper; it holds first place in the Gospels, not as obedience, but as redemptive suffering and death; it is un- mistakably put forth in this light by Christ Himself in His few references to His death: "ransom," "my blood," etc. Paul's teaching everywhere empha- sizes the death, and in but two places the obedience; Peter indeed speaks of Christ as an ensample, but leaves as his characteristic thought that Christ "suffered for sins once .... put to death in the flesh" (1 Pet 3 18). In He the center and signifi- cance of Christ's whole work is that He "put away sin by the sacrifice of himself" (9 26) ; while John in many places emphasizes the death as atonement: "Unto him that .... loosed us from our sins by his blood" (Rev 1 6), and elsewhere. The Scrip- ture teaching is that "God set [him] forth to be a propitiation, through faith, in his blood" (Rom 3 25). His lifelong obedience enters in chiefly as making and marking Him the "Lamb without blemish and without spot," who alone could be the atoning sacrifice. If it enters further, it is as the preparation and anticipation of that death, His life so dominated and suffused with the consciousness of the coming sacrifice that it becomes really a part of the death. His obedience at the time of His death could not have been atonement, for it had always existed and had not atoned; but it was the obedience that turned the possibility of atonement into the fact of atonement. He obediently offered up, not His obedience, but Himself. He is set forth as propitiation, not in His obedience, but in His blood, His death, borne as the penalty of sin, in His own body on the tree. The distinction is not one of mere academic theological interest. It involves the whole question of the substitutionary and propitiatory in Christ's redemptive work, which is central, vital and formative, shaping the entire conception of Christianity. The blessed and help- ful part which Our Lord's complete and loving obedience plays in the working out of Christian character, by His example and inspiration, must not be underestimated, nor its meaning as indicating the quality of the life which is imparted to the soul which accepts for itself His mediatorial death. These bring the consummation and crown of sal- vation; they are not its channel, or instrument, or price. See also Atonement.

      LiTEBATUBE. — DCG, art. "Obedience of Christ"; Denney, Death of Christ, esp. pp. 231-33; Cliampion, Living Atonement; Forsytlie. Crucialiti/ of the Cross, etc; worlis on the Atonement; Conuu-s.. in loc.

      Philip Wendell Crannell

      OBEISANCE, 5-ba'sans: Is used 9 t in AV in the phrase "made [or did] obeisance" as a rendering of the reflexive form of HnilJ (shdhdh), and denotes the bow or curtsey indicative of deference and respect. The same form of the vb. is sometimes tr'' "to bow one's self" when it expresses the deferential attitude of one person to another (Gen 33 6.7, etc). Occasionally the vow of homage or fealty to a king on the part of a subject is suggested. In Joseph^s dream his brother's sheaves made obeisance to his sheaf (Gen 43 28; cf also 2 S 15 5; 2 Ch 24 17). But in a large number of instances the vb. denotes the prostrate posture of the worshipper in the presence of Deity, and is generally rendered, "*"

      to

      worship" in AV. In all probability this was the original significance of the word (Gen 24 26, etc). Obeisance ( = obedience) originally signified the vow of obedience made by a vassal to his lord or a slave to his master, but in time denoted the act of bowing as a token of respect. T. Lewis

      OBELISK, ob's-lisk, ob'el-isk: A sacred stone or maisebhdh. For ma(;i;ebhah RV has used "pillar" in the text, with "obelisk" in the m in many instances (Ex 23 24; Lev 26 1; Dt 12 3; IK 14 23; Hos 3 4; 10 1.2, etc), but not consistently (e.g. Gen 28 18). See Pillar.

      OBETH, o'beth ('fip^ie, Ohm, B, Oiip<)v, OuMn): One of those who went up with Ezra (1 Esd 8 32) = "Ebed" of Ezr 8 6.

      OBIL, o'bil (biniS , 'obhil, "camel driver"): An Ishmaelite who was "over the camels" in David's palace (1 Ch 27 30).

      OBJECT, ob-jekt': Now used only in the sense "to make opposition," but formerly in a variety of meanings derived from the literal sense "to throw against." So with the meaning "to charge with" in Wisd 2 12, AV "He objecteth to our infamy the transgressing of our education" (RV "layeth to our charge sins against our disciphne"), or "to make charges against" in Acts 24 19, AV "who ought to have been here before thee, and object, if they had ought against me" (RV "and to make accusa- tion").

      OBLATION, ob-la'shun: In Lev and Nu, AV occasionally uses "oblation," but generally "offer- ing," as a rendering of "^l]? , korban — a general term for all kinds of offering, but used only in Ezk, Lev and Nu. RV renders consistently "oblation." In Ezk (also Isa 40 20), "oblation" renders np^ip, t'rumah, generally tr'' "heave offering." In some cases (e.g. Isa 1 13; Dnl 9 21) "oblation" in AV corresponds to nrtJ'Q , minhah, the ordinary word for "gift," in P "grain offering." See Sacrifice.

      OBOTH, o'both, o'both (nhX, 'obhoth, "water- bags") : A desert camp of the Israelites, the 3d after leaving Mt. Hor and close to the borders of Moab (Nu 21 10.11; 33 43.44). See Wanderings of Israel.

      OBSCURITY, ob-sku'ri-ti: In modern Eng. gen- erally denotes a state of very faint but still per- ceptible illumination, and only when preceded by some such adj. as "total" does it imply the absence of all light. In Bib. Eng., however, only the latter meaning is found. So in Isa 29 18 ( jE'S , 'ophel, "darkness"); 58 10; 59 9 (^llJn , hdshekh, "dark- ness"); Ad Est 11 8 (7^4005, gnophos, "darkness"). Cf Prov 20 20, AV "in obscure darkness," ERV "in the blackest darkness," ARV "in blackness of darkness."

      OBSERVE, ob-zilrv' (representing various words, but chiefly ipip , shamar, "to keep," "to watch," etc): Properly means "to take heed to," as in Isa 42 20, "Thou seest many things, but thou observest not," and from this sense all the usages of the word in EV can be understood. Most of them, indeed, are quite good modern usage (as "observe a feast," Ex 12 17, etc; "observe a law," Lev 19 37, etc), but a few are archaic. So Gen 37 11, AV "His father observed the saying" (RV "kept the saying in mind"); Hos 13 7, "As a leopard .... will I observe them" (RV "watch"); Jon 2 8, "ob-

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      serve lying vanities" (RV "regard," but "give heed to" would be clearer; of Ps 107 43). Still farther from modern usage is Hos 14 8, "I have heard him, and observed him" (RV "will regard"; the meaning is "care for"); and Mk 6 20, "For Herod feared John .... and observed him" (RV "kept him safe"). In the last case, the AV editors seem to have used "to observe" as meaning "to give reverence to."

      Observation is found in Lk 17 20, "The kingdom of God Cometh not with observation" (neTo. -wapa- TTjpT^a-eus, meld paratereseos) . The meaning of the Eng. is, "so that it can be observed," but the exact force of the underlying Gr ("visibly"? "so that it can be computed in advance"?) is a matter of ex- traordinary dispute at the present time. See Kingdom of God. Burton Scott Easton

      OBSERVER, ob-ztrr'ver, OF TIMES. See Divi- nation.

      OBSTINACY, ob'sti-na-si. See Habdening.

      OCCASION, o-ka'zhun: The uses in EV are all modern, but in Jer 2 24 "occasion" is employed (both in Heb and Eng.) as a euphemism for "time of conception of offspring."

      OCCUPY, ok'n-pl: Is in AV the tr of 7 different words: (1) "nS , naihan; (2) "ino , ^ahar; (3) Sny , "-drabh; (4) HTEy , 'asdh, either with or without the added word, riDSbn , m'la'khdh; (5) avairXr]- poOv, atiapleroun; (6) irepiiraTetv, peripateln; (7) ■n-pa-y|jiaTeii«iv, pragmateuein. In almost every case the meanings of "to occupy" as used in AV in harmony with the common usage of the time have become obsolete. (1) In Ezk 27 16.19.22, naihan meant "to trade," and RV reads "traded." (2) From ^ahar, "to go about," was derived a des- ignation of "merchants" (RV) (Ezk 27 21). (3) 'Arabh (Ezk 27 9) signifies "to exchange" (ERV and ARVm, but ARV "deal in"). (4) 'asa/i (Ex 38 24) means simply "to use" (RV), and the same word in Jgs 16 11, with m'ld'khah ("work") added, signifies that work had been done (RV). (5) In 1 Cor 14 16, "occupy," the AV render- ing of anapUroun, would still be as intelligible to most as RV "fill." (6) "Occupy" in He 13 9, in the sense of "being taken up with a thing," is the tr (both AV and RV) of peripalein, lit. "to walk." Finally (7) pragmaleuein (Lk 19 13) is rendered in AV "occupy" in its obsolete sense of "trade" (RV). David Foster Estes

      OCCURRENT, o-kur'ent (AV, ERV, 1 K 5 4): An obsolete form of "occurrence" (so ARV).

      OCHIELUS, 6-ki-c'lus ('Ox£tiX.os, Ochielos, B, '0^i.fi\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\os, Ozitlos; AV Ochiel): One of the "cap- tains over thousands" who furnished the Levites with much cattle for .losiah's Passover (1 Esd 1 9) = "Jeiel"of 2 Ch 35 9.

      OCHRAN, ok'ran (T}?^, 'okhrdn, from 'dkhar, "trouble"; AV Ocran): The father of Pagiel, the prince of the tribe of Asher (Nu 1 13; 2 27; 7 72. 77; 10 26).

      OCHRE, o'ker, RED (Isa 44 13, "He marketh it put with a pencil," m "red ochre," AV "line"; Till) , seredh, a word found only here, and of unknown etymology): Designates the implement used by the carpenter to mark the wood after measuring and before cutting. "Red ochre" sup- poses this to have been a crayon (as does "pencil"), but a scratch-awl is quite as likely. Ochre is a clay colored by an iron compound.

      OCIDELUS, os-i-de'lus, ok-i-de'lus (A,_ 'IiK«£8ii- Xos, Okeidelos, B and Swete, 'flKatX.T)8os, Okailedos, Fritzsche, 'flKoS-qXcs, Okodelos; AV and Fritzsche Ocodelus): One of the priests who had married a "strange wife" (1 Esd 9 22); it stands in the place of "Jozabad" in Ezr 10 22 of which it is probably a corruption.

      OCINA, 6-si'na, os'i-na, ok'i-na ('Ok(iv6., Okeind) : A town on the Phoen coast S. of Tyre, mentioned only in Jth 2 28, in the account of the campaign of Holofernes in Syria. The site is un- known, but from the mention of Sidon and Tyre immediately preceding and Jemnaan, Azotus and Ascalon following, it must have been S. of Tyre. One might conjecture that it was Sandalium (Is- kanderuna) or Utnm ul-'Awamid, but there is nothing in the name to suggest such an identifi- cation.

      OCRAN, ok'ran. See Ochran.

      ODED, o'ded (~liy [2 Ch 15], Tiy [elsewhere], ^odhedh, "restorer"):

      (1) According to 2 Ch 15 1, he was the father of Azariah who prophesied in the reign of Asa of Judah (c 918-877), but ver 8 makes Oded himself the prophet. The two verses should agree, so we should probably read in ver 8, "the prophecy of Azariah, the son of Oded, the prophet," or else "the prophecy of Azariah the prophet." See Azariah.

      (2) A prophet of Samaria (2 Ch 28 9) who lived in the reigns of Pekah, king of the Northern King- dom, and Ahaz, king of Judah. According to 2 Ch 28, Oded protested against the enslavement of the captives which Pekah had brought from Judah and Jerus on his return from the Syro-Ephraimitic attack on the Southern Kingdom (735 BC). In this protest he was joined by some of the chiefs of Ephraim, and the captives were well treated. After those wdio were naked (i.e. those who had scanty clothing; cf the meaning of the word "naked" in Mk 14 51) had been supplied with clothing from the spoil, and the bruised anointed with oil, the prisoners were escorted to Jericho.

      The narrative of ch 28 as a whole does not agree with that of 2 K 15 37; 16 5 f , where the allied armies of Rezin of Damascus and Pekah besieged Jerus, but failed to capture it (cf Isa 7 1-17; 8 5-8a). As Curtis points out [Chron, 459, where he compares Ex 21 2ff; Lev 25 29-43; Dt 15 12-18), wholesale enslavement of their fellow- countrymen was not allowed to the Hebrews, and this fact the passage illustrates. It seems to be a fulfilment in spirit of Isa 61 1-2, a portion which Our Lord read in the synagogue at Nazareth (Lk 4 16-20). David Francis Roberts

      ODES, odz, OF SOLOMON. See Apocalyptic Literature.

      ODOLLAM, 6-dol'am ('08o\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\d|i, OdolUin): The Gr form of Adullam (q.v.), found only in 2 Mace 12 38.

      ODOMERA, od-6-me'ra ('08o|xiipa, Odomerd, B, '08oaappif|s, Odoaarres, Itala Odare?t; AV Odonarkes, m Odomarra) : It is not certain whether Odomera was an independent Bedouin chief, perhaps an ally of the Syrians, or an officer of Bacchides. He was defeated by Jonathan in his campaign against Bacchides (1 Mace 9 66) in 156 BC.

      ODOR, o'der: In the OT the rendering of DTBa , besem, "fragrance" (2 Ch 16 14; Est 2 12; "in Jer 34 5,RV "burnings"), and of one or two other

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      words; in the NT of icrii-fi, osme (Jn 12 3; Phil 4 18; Eph 5 2RV); in Rev 5 8; 18 13, of evfj.la,j.a, thwnlama, where RV (with AVm in former passage) has "incense." See also Savor.

      OF, ov: (1) In Anglo-Saxon, had the meaning "from," "away from" (as the strengthened form "off" has still), and was not used for genitive or possessive relations, these being expressed by special case-forms. In the Norman period, however, "of" was taken to represent the French de (a use well de- veloped by the time of Chaucer), and in the Eliza- bethan period both senses of "of were in common use. But after about 1600 the later force of the word became predominant, and in the earlier sense (which is now practically obsolete) it was replaced by other prepositions. In consequence AV (and in some cases RV) contains many uses of "of" that are no longer familiar — most of them, to be sure, causing no difficulty, but there still being a few re- sponsible for real obscurities. (2) Of the uses where "of" signifies "from," the most common obscure passages are those where "of" follows a vb. of hearing. In modern Eng. "hear of" signifies "to gain information about," as it does frequently in AV (Mk 7 2.5; Rom 10 14, etc). But more com- monly this use of "of" in AV denotes the source from which the information is derived. So Jn 15 15, "all things that I have heard of my Father"; Acts 10 22, "to hear words of thee"; 28 22, "We desire to hear of thee"; cf 1 Thess 2 13; 2 Tim 1 13; 2 2, etc (similarly Mt 11 29, "and learn of me"; cf Jn 6 45). All of these are ambiguous and in modern Eng. give a wrong meaning, so that in most cases (but not Mt 11 29 or Acts 28 22) RV substitutes "from." A different example of the same use of "of" is 2 Cor 6 1, "a building of God" (RV "from"). So Mk 9 21, "of a child," means "from childhood" ("from a child," RV, is dubious Eng.). A still more obscure passage is Mt 23 25, "full of extortion and excess." "Full of" else- where in AV (and even in the immediate context, Mt 23 27.28) refers to the contents, but here the "of" represents the Gr ^«:, ek, "out of," and denotes the source — "The contents of your cup and platter have been purchased from the gains of extortion and excess." RV again substitutes "from," with rather awkward results, but the Gr itself is unduly compressed. In Mk 11 8, one of the changes made after AV was printed has relieved an obscurity, for where the ed of 1611 read "cut down branches of the trees," the modern edd have "off" (RV "from"). For clear examples of this use of "of," without the obscurities, cf Jth 2 21, "they went forth of Nineveh"; 2 Mace 4 34, "forth of the sanctuary"; and, esp., Mt 21 25, "The baptisrn of John, whence was it? from heaven, or of men?" Here "from" and "of" represent exactly the same Gr prep., and the change in Eng. is arbitrary (RV writes "from" in both cases). (3) In a weakened sense this use of "of" as "from" was employed rather loosely to connect an act with its source or motive. Such uses are generally clear enough, but the Eng. today seems sometimes rather curious: Mt 18 13, "rejoiceth more of that sheep" (RV "over"); Ps 99 8, "vengeance of their inventions" (so AV); 1 Cor 7 4, "hath not power of her own body" (RV "over"), etc. (4) A very common use of "of" in AV is to designate the agent — a use com- plicated by the fact that "by" is also employed for the same purpose and the two interchanged freely. So in Lk 9 7, "all that was done by him .... it was said of some ....," the two words are used side by side for the same Gr prep. (RV replaces "of" by "by," but follows a different text in the first part of the verse) . Again, most of the examples are clear enough, but there are some obscurities.

      So in Mt 19 12, "which were made eunuchs of men," the "of men" is at first sight possessive (RV "by men"). Similarly, 2 Esd 16 30, "There are left some clusters of them that diligently seek through the vineyard" (RV "by them"). So 1 Cor 14 24, "He is convinced of all, he is judged of all," is quite misleading (RV "by all" in both cases). Phil 3 12, AV "I am apprehended of Christ Jesus," seems almost meaningless (RV "by"). (5) In some cases the usage of the older Eng. is not suflBcient to explain "of" in AV. So Mt 18 23, "take account of his servants," is a very poor rendition of "make a reckoning with his servants" (so RV). In Acts 27 5, the "sea of Cilicia" may have been felt to be the "sea which is off Cilicia" (cf RV), but there are no other instances of this use. In 2 Cor 2 12, "A door was opened unto me of the Lord" should be "in the Lord" (so RV). 2 S 21 4, "We will have no silver nor gold of Saul, nor of his house," is very loose, and RV rewrites the verse entirely. In all these cases, AV seems to have looked solely for smooth Eng., without caring much for exactness. In 1 Pet 1 11, however, "sufferings of Christ" probably yields a correct sense for a difficult phrase in the Gr (so RV, with "unto" in the m), but a paraphrase is needed to give the precise meaning. And, finally, in He 11 18, the Gr itself is ambiguous and there is no way of deciding whether the prep, employed (^piSs, pr6s) means "to" (so RV) or "of" (so AV, RVm; cf He 1 7, where "of" is necessary). BuHTON Scott Easton

      OFFENCE, o-fens', OFFEND, o-fond' (blTCSTa , mikhshol, DTIJN , 'dsham, i5Un , hats'; o-KdvSaXov, skdndalon, o-Kav8a\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\tJa), skandalizo) : "Offend" is either trans or intrans. As trans it is primarily "to strike against," hence "to displease," "to make angry," "to do harm to," "to affront," in Scripture, "to cause to sin"; intrans it is "to sin," "to cause anger," in Scripture, "to be caused to sin." "Of- fence" is either the cause of anger, displeasure, etc, or a sin. In Scripture we have the special signifi- cance of a stumbling-block, or cause of falling, sin, etc.

      In the OT it is frequently the tr of 'asham, "to

      be guilty," "to transgress": Jer 2 3, RV "shall be

      held guilty"; 50 7, RV "not guilty";

      I. OT Ezk 25 12, "hath greatly offended"; Usage Hos 4 15, RVm "become guilty";

      5 15, "till they acknowledge theii offence," RVm "have borne their guilt"; 13 1, "He offended in Baal," RVm "became guilty" ; Hab 1

      II, "He shall pass over, and offend, [imputing] this his power unto his god," RV "Then shall he sweep by [as] a wind, and shall pass over [m "transgress"], ancl be guilty, [even] he whose might is his god."

      In 2 Ch 28 13, we have 'ashmath 'al, lit. "tlie oflence against," RV " a trespass [m "or guilt"] against Jeh" ; we have also hatd\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ "to miss tlie niarlv," "to sin," "to err" (Gen 20 9' liV "sinned against thee"; 40 1, "offended their lord"; 2 K 18 14; Jer 37 18, RV "sinned against thee"); bdohadh, "to deal treacherously" (Ps 73 15, "offend against the generation of thy children," RV "dealt treacherously with"}; hdbhal, "to act wickedly" (Job 34 31); mikhshol, " a stumbling block " (Lev 19 14: tr

      The NT usage of these words deserves special attention. The word most frequently tr'' "offend" in AV is skandalizO (skandalon, "offence"), very

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      frequent in the Gospels (Mt 5 29, "if thy right eye offend thee"; 5 30; 11 6; 18 6, "whoso shall

      offend one of these little ones"; 13 41, 2. NT ; 'all things that offend"; Lk 17 1, "It

      Usage is impossible but that offences will

      come," etc; Rom 14 21; 16 17, "Mark them which cause .... offences"; 1 Cor 8 13 bis, "if meat make my brother to offend," etc). Skandalon is primarily "a trap-stick," "a bent- stick on which the bait is fastened which the animal strikes against and so springs the trap," hence it came to denote a "snare," or anything which one strikes against injuriously (it is LXX for mohesh, a "noose" or "snare," .losh 23 13; 1 S 18 21); "a stumbling-block" (LXX for mikhshol [see above], Lev 19 14). For skandalizo, skandalon, tr"" in AV, "offend," "offence," RV gives "cause to stumble," "stumbling-block," etc; thus, Mt 5 29, "if thy right eye causeth thee to stumble," i.e. "is an occasionfor thy falhng into sin"; Mt 16 23, "Thou art a stumbling-block unto me," an occasion of turning aside from the right path; in Mt 26 31.33 bis, "offended" is retained, m 33 bis, "Gr caused to stumble" (same word in ver 31); Mk 9 42, "who- soever shall cause one of these little ones that be- lieve on me to stumble," to fall away from the faith, or fall into sin ; Lk 17 1, "It is impossible but that occasions of stumbling should come; but woe unto him, through whom they come"; in Rom 14 21; 16 17; in 1 Cor 8, Paul's language has the s.ame meaning, and we see how truly he had laid to heart the Saviour's earnest admonitions — "weak breth- ren" with him answering to the master's "little ones who beUeve"; Rom 14 21, "It is good not to eat flesh, nor to drink wine, nor to do anything whereby thy brother stumbleth," i.e. "is led by your example to do that which he cannot do with a good con- science"; ver 20, "It is evil for that man who eateth with offence [did proskummatos]," so as to place a stumbling-block before his brother, or, rather, 'without the confidence that he is doing right'; cf ver 23, "He that doubteth is condemned if he eat, because he eateth not of faith; and whatsoever is not of faith is-sin"; so 1 Cor 8 13; Rom 16 17, "Mark them that are causing the divisions and occasions of stumbling, contrary to the doctrine, [m "teaching"] which ye learned" (Is not the "teaching" of Christ Himself implied here?) . Every- thing that would embolden another to do that which would be wTong for him, or that would turn any- one away from the faith, must be carefully avoided, seeking to please, not ourselves, but to care for our brother, "for whom Christ died," "giving no occa- sion of stumbling [proskope] in anything" (2 Cor 6 3).

      Aprdskopos. "not causing to stumble." is tr

      3 2 his, "offend," RV "stumble," "stumbleth"); pnrd- ptoma. "a falling aside or away." is trJ "offence" (Rom

      4 25; 5 1.5t,is.l0.17.1S.2O. in each case RV "trespass")- adikeo, " to be unrighteous" (Acts 25 11, RV "wrong- doer," AV "offender").

      In Apoc we have "offence" (skandalon, .Tth 18 2). RV ' ' I will not cat thereof, lest there be an occasion of stumbling"; "offend" (hamartano. Ecclus 7 7) RV'sin"- "greatly offended" (prosochlhtzd, 25 2); "offended" (s/tan- daKzo, 32 1.5), RV "stumble."

      W. L Walker

      OFFER, of'er, OFFERING, of'er-ing. See Sac- rifice.

      OFFICE, of 'is: In the OT the word is often used in periphrastic renderings, e.g. "minister .... in the priest's office," lit. act as prie.st (Ex 28 1, etc); "do the office of a midwife," lit. cause or help to

      give birth (Ex 1 16). But the word is also used as a rendering of different Heb words, e.g. "jS , ken, "pedestal," "place" (Gen 40 13, AV "place"; 41 13); nnny, 'dbhodhah, "labor," "work" (1 Ch 6 32); n'l]5S , p'kuddah, "oversight," "charge" (Ps 109 8) ; ' "ip?T3 , ma'amadk, lit. "standing," e.g. waiting at table (1 Ch 23 28); 1^T|JP, mish- mdr, "charge," observance or service of the temple (Neh 13 14 AV).

      Similarly in the NT the word is used in peri- phrastic renderings, e.g. priest's office (Lk 1 8.9); office of a deacon (SiaKOfla, diakonla, 1 Tim 3 10); office of a bishop {iiTiaKOTr-fi, episkope, 1 Tim 3 1). RV uses other renderings, e.g. "ministry" (Rom 11 13); "serve as deacons" (1 Tim 3 10). In Acts 1 20, RV has "office" (m "overseership") for AV "bishoprick." T. Lewis

      OFFICER, ot'i-ser: In AV the term is employed to render different words denoting various officials, domestic, civil and military, such as D'''1D , .sarij, "eunuch," "minister of state" (Gen 37 36)'; "I^pS, pakldh, "person in charge," "overseer" (Gen 41 34); 3"'3i5, n'gibh, "stationed," "garrison," "prefect" (1 K 4 19); "ItiTlJ, sholer, "scribe" or "secretary" (perhaps arranger or organizer), then any official or overseer. In Est 9 3 for AV "officers of the king" RV has (more literal) "they that did the king's business."

      In the NT "officer" generally corresponds to the Gr word vTnjpirris, huperetes, "servant," or any person in the employ of another. In Mt 5 25 the terni evidently means "bailiff" or exactor of the fine imposed by the magistrate, and corresponds to irp6.KTuip, prdktor, used in Lk 12 58. T. Lewis

      OFFICES OF CHRIST.

      OF.

      See Christ, Offices

      OFFSCOURING, of 'skour-ing : This strong and expressive word occurs only once in the OT and once in the NT. The weeping prophet uses it as he looks upon his erstwhile fair and holy city, de- spoiled, defiled, derided by the profane, the enemies of God and of His people (Lam 3 45, TIO , s'hl). The favored people, whose city lies in heaps and is patrolled by the heathen, are hailed and held up as the scrapings, the offscouring, the offal of the earth. They are humbled to earth, crushed into the dust, carried away to be the slaves of licentious idolaters. The haughty, cruel, cutting boastful- ness of the victors covered Israel with contumely.

      In 1 Cor 4 13 the greatest of the apostles reminds the prosperous and self-satisfied Corinthians that they, the apostles, were "made as the filth of the world, the offscouring of all things." In such con- tempt were they held by the unbelieving world and by false apostles. The strange, strong word {weplyl/r,p.a, peri.psema) should remind us what it cost in former times to be a true servant of Christ.

      G. H. Gerberdinq

      OFFSPRING, of'spring. See Children.

      OFTEN, of'n (irojKvis, puknos, "thick," "close"): An archaic usage for "frequent": "Thine often infirmities" (1 Tim 5 23); cf "by oSien rumina- tion (Shakespeare, As You Like It, IV, i, 18)- "The often round" (Ben Jonson, The Forest^ III); "Of wrench'd or broken limb— an often chance" (Tennyson, Gareth ajid Lynette).

      OG {TlV , 'ogh; "Qy, 6g) : King of Bash.an, whose territory, embracing 60 cities, was conquered by Moses and the Israelites immediately after the conquest of Sihon, king of the Amorites (Nu 21

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      33-35; Dt 3 1-12). The defeat took place at Edrei, one of the chief of these cities (Nu 21 33; Josh 12 4), and Og and his people were "utterly destroyed" (Dt 3 6). Og is described as the last of the Rephaim (q.v.), or giant-race of that district, and his giant stature is borne out by what is told in Dt 3 11 of the dimensions of his "bedstead of iron" Qeres harzel), 9 cubits long and 4 broad (13| ft. by 6 ft.), said to be still preserved at Rabbath of Amnaon when the verse describing it was written. It is not, of course, necessary to conclude that Og's own height, though immense, was as great as this. Some, however, prefer to suppose that what is in- tended is "a sarcophagus of black basalt," which iron-like substance abounds in the Hauran. The conquered territory was subsequently bestowed on the Reubenites, Gadites, and the half-tribe of Manasseh (Nu 32 33; Dt 3 12.13). Other ref- erences to Og are Dt 1 4; 4 47; 31 4; Josh 2 10; 9 10; 13 12.30). The memory of this great con- quest lingered all through the national history (Ps 135 11; 136 20). On the conquest, cf Stanley, Lectures on the History of the Jewish Church, I, 185-87, and see Akgob; Bashan. Jambs Orr

      OHAD, o'had ("o'', 'ohadh, meaning unknown): A son of Simeon, mentioned as third in order (Gen 46 10; Ex 6 15). The name is not found in the list of Nu 26 12-14.

      OHEL, o'hel (bni? , 'ohel, "tent"): A son of Zerubbabel (1 Ch 3 20).

      OHOLAH, 5-ho'la (nbnx , 'ohdldh; AV Aholah) : The exact meaning is a matter of dispute. As written, it seems to mean a tent-woman, or the woman living in a tent. With a mappik in the last consonant it could mean "her tent." The term is used symbolically by Ezekiel to designate Samaria or the kingdom of Israel (Ezk 23 4.5.36.44). See Oholibah.

      OHOLIAB, 6-ho'li-ab (31SibnN , 'ohdll'abh, "father's tent"; AV AhoUab): A Danite artificer, who assisted Bezalel in the construction of the tabernacle and its furniture (Ex 31 6; 35 34; 35 If; 38 23).

      OHOLIBAH, 6-hol'i-ba, 6-h6'li-ba (nn^briN, 'ohdlibhah, "tent in her," or "my tent is in her"): An opprobrious and symbolical name given by Ezekiel to Jerus, representing the kingdom of Judah, because of her intrigues and base alliances with Eg}T)t, Assyria and Babylonia, just as the name Oholah (q.v.) was given to Samaria or the Northern Kingdom, because of her alliances with Egypt and Assyria. There is a play upon the words in the Heb which cannot be reproduced in Eng. Both Oholah and Oholibah, or Samaria and Jerus, are the daughters of one mother, and wives of Jeh, and both are guilty of religious and political al- liance with heathen nations. Idolatry is constantly compared by the Heb prophets to marital unfaith- fulness or adultery. W. W. Da VIES

      OHOLIBAMAH, 6-hol-i-ba'ma, o-hol-i-ba'ma (npiibnN , 'ohmbhamah, "tent of the high place") :

      (1) One of Esau's wives, and a daughter of Anah the Hivite (Gen 36 2.5). It is strange that she is not named along with Esau's other wives in either Gen 28 9 or 26 30. Various explanations have been given, but none of them is satisfactory. There is probably some error in the text.

      (2) An Edomite chief (Gen 36 41; 1 Ch 1 52).

      OIL, oil (1^ip> shemen; eXaiov, elaion):

      1. Terms

      2. Production and Storage

      3. tJses

      (1) As a Commodity of Excliango

      (2) As a Cosmetic

      (3) As a Medicine

      (4) As a Food

      (5) As an lUuminant

      (6) In Religious Ritus (a) Consecration (6) Offerings

      (c) Burials

      4. Figurative Uses

      Shemen, lit. "fat," corresponds to the common Arab, senin of similar meaning, although now ap- plied to boiled butter fat. Another

      1. Terms Heb word, zayith (zelh), "olive," occurs

      with shemen in several passages (Ex 27 20; 30 24; Lev 24 2). The corresponding Arab. zeit, a contraction of zeitun, which is the name for the olive tree as well as the fruit, is now applied to oils in general, to distinguish them from solid fats. Zeit usually means olive oil, unless some qualifying name indicates another oil. A corresponding use was made of shemen, and the oil referred to so many times in the Bible was olive oil (except Est 2 12). Compare this with the Gr eXaioK, elaion, "oil," a neuter noun from i\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ala, elaia, "olive," the origin of the Eng. word "oil." 1I7¥"'-> Vi-shar, lit. "glisten- ing," which occurs less frequently, is used possibly because of the light-giving quality of olive oil, or it may have been used to indicate fresh oil, as the clean, newly pressed oil is bright. HTCp , m'shah, a Chald word, occurs twice: Ezr 6 9; 7 22. eXaiov, elaion, is the NT term.

      Olive oil has been obtained, from the earliest times, by pressing the fruit in such a way as to

      filter out the oil and other liquids from

      2. Pro- the residue. The Scriptural references duction correspond so nearly to the methods

      practised in Syria up to the present time, and the presses uncovered by excavators at such sites as Gezer substantiate so well the simi- larity of these methods, that a description of the oil presses and modes of expression still being em- ployed in Syria will be equally true of those in use in early Israelitish times.

      The olives to yield the greatest amount of oil are allowed to ripen, although some oil is expressed from the green fruit. As the olive ripens it turns black. The fruit begins to fall from the trees in September, but the main crop is gathered after the first rains in November. The olives which have not fallen naturally or have not been blown off by the storms are beaten from the trees with long poles (cf Dt 24 20). The fruit is gathered from the ground into baskets and carried on the heads of the women, or on donkeys to the houses or oil presses. Those carried to the houses are preserved for eating. Those carried to the presses are piled in heaps until fermentation begins. This breaks down the oil cells and causes a more abundant flow of oil. The fruit thus softened may be trod out with the feet (Mic 6 15) — which is now seldom practised — or crushed in a handmill. Such a mill was uncovered at Gezer beside an oil press. Stone mortars with wooden pestles are also used. Any of these methods crushes the fruit, leaving only the stone unbroken, and yields a purer oil (Ex 27 20). The method now generally practised of crushing the fruit and kernels with an edgerunner mill probably dates from Rom times. These mills are of crude con- struction. The stones are cut from native lime- stone and are turned by horses or mules. Remains of huge stones of this type are found near the old Rom presses in Mt. Lebanon and other districts.

      The second step in the preparation of the oil is

      ou

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      the expression. In districts where the olives are plentiful and there is no commercial demand for the oil, the householders crush the fruit in a mortar, mix the crushed mass with water, and after the solid portions have had time to settle, the pure sweet oil is skimmed from the surface of the water.

      Ancient Oil Presses (Land and the Book).

      This method gives a delicious oil, but is wasteful. This is no doubt the beaten oil referred to in con- nection with religious ceremonials (Ex 27 20). Usually the crushed fruit is spread in portions on mats of reeds or goats' hair, the corners of which are folded over the mass, and the packets thus formed are piled one upon another between upright supports. These supports were formerly two stone columns or the two sections of a split stone cylinder hollowed out within to receive the mats. Large hollow tree trunks are still similarly used in Syria. A flat stone is next jilaced on top, and then a heavy log is placed on the pile in such a manner that one end can be fitted into a socket made in a wall or rock in close proximity to the pile. This socket becomes the fulcrum of a large lever of the second class. The lever is worked in the same manner as that used in the wine presses (see Wine Press). These presses are now being almost wholly super- seded by hydraulic presses. The juice which runs from the press, consisting of oil, extractive matter and water, is conducted to vats or run into jars and allowed to stand until the oil separates. The oil is then drawn off from the surface, or the watery fluid and sediment is drawn away through a hole near the bottom of the jar, leaving the oil in the container. (For the construction of the ancient oil presses, see The Excavations of Gczer, bj' Macalister.) The oil, after standing for some time to allow further sediment to settle, is stored either in huge earthen- ware jars holding 100 to 200 gallons, or in under- ground cisterns (cf 1 Ch 27 28) holding a much larger quantity. Some of these cisterns in Beirut hold several tons of oil each (2 Ch 11 11; 32 28; Neh 13 5.12; Prov 21 20). In the homes the oil is kept in small earthen jars of various shapes, usually having spouts by which the oil can be easily poured (1 K 17 12; '2 K 4 2). In 1 S 16 13; 1 K 1 39, horns of oil are mentioned.

      (1) As a commodity of exchange. — Olive oil when properly made and stored will keep sweet for years,

      hence was a good form of merchandise 3. Uses to hold. Oil is still sometimes given

      in payment (1 K 5 11; Ezk 27 17; Hos 12 1; Lk 16 6; Rev 18 13).

      (2) As a cosmetic. — From earliest times oil was used as a cosmetic, esp. for oiling the limbs and head. Oil used in this way was usually scented (see Ointment). Oil is still used in this manner by the Arabs, principally to keep the skin and scalp soft when traveling in dry de.sert regions where there is no opportunity to bathe. Sesam6 oil has

      replaced olive oil to some extent for this purpose. Homer, Pliny and other early writers mention its use for external application. Pliny claimed it was used to protect the body against the cold. Many Bib. references indicate the use of oil as a cosmetic (Ex 25 6; Dt 28 40; Ruth 3 3; 2 S 12 20; 14 2; Est 2 12; Ps 23 5; 92 10; 104 15; 141 5; Ezk 16 9; Mic 6 15; Lk 7 46).

      (3) As a medicine. — From early Egyp literature down to late Arab, medical works, oil is mentioned as a valuable remedy. Man}' queer prescriptions contain olive oil as one of their ingredients. The good Samaritan used oil mingled with wine to dress the wounds of the man who fell among robbers (Mk 6 13; Lk 10 34.)

      (4) ^.s a food. — Olive oil replaces butter to a large extent in the diet of the people of the Mediter- ranean countries. In Bible lands food is fried in it, it is added to stews, and is poured over boiled vegetables, such as beans, peas and lentils, and over salads, sour milk, cheese and other foods as a dress- ing. A cake is prepared from ordinary bread dough which is smeared with oil and sprinkled with herbs before baking (Lev 2 4). At times of fasting oriental Christians use only vegetable oils, usually olive oil, for cooking. For Bib. references to the use of oil as food see Nu 11 8; Dt 7 13; 14 23; 32 13; 1 K 17 12.14.16; 2 K 4 2.6.7; 1 Ch 12 40; 2 Ch 2 10.15; Ezr 3 7; Prov 21 17; Ezk 16 13.18; Hos 2 5.8.22; Hag 2 12; Rev 6 6.

      (5) As an illuminant. — Olive oil until recent years was universally used for lighting purposes (see Lamp). In Pal are many homes where a most primitive form of lamp similar to those employed by the Israelites is still in use. The prejudice in favor of the exclusive use of olive oil for lighting holy places is disappearing. Formerly any other illuminant was forbidden (cf Ex 25 6; 27 20; 35 8.14.2S; 39 37; Mt 25 3.4.8).

      (6) In religious riles. — (a) Consecration of offi- cials or sacred things (Gen 28 18; 35 14; Ex 29 7.21 ff; Lev 2 Iff; Nu 4 9 ff; 1 S 10 1; 16 1.13; 2 S 1 21; 1 K 1 39; 2 K 9 1.3.6; Ps 89 20): This was adopted by the early Christians in their ceremonies (Jas 5 14), and is still used in the con- secration of crowned rulers and church dignitaries. (5) Offerings, votive and otherwise; The custom of making offerings of oil to holy places still survives in oriental religions. One may see burning before the shrines along a Syrian roadside or in the churches, small lamps whose supply of oil is kept renewed by pious adherents. In Israelitish times oil was u.sed in the meal offering, in the consecration offerings offerings of purification from leprosy, etc (Ex 29 2 409 ff; Lev 2 2ff; Nu 4 9ff; Dt 18 4; 1 Ch 9 29 2 Ch 31 5; Neh 10 37.-39; 13 5.12; Ezk 16 18.19. 45; 46; Mic 6 7). (c) In connection with the burial of the dead: Egyp papyri mention this use. In the OT no direct mention is made of the custom. Jesus referred to it in connection with His own burial (Mt 26 12; Mk 14 3-8; Lk 23 56; Jn 12 3-8; 19 40).

      Abundant oil was a figure of general prosperity (Dt 32 13; 33 24; 2 K 18 .32; Job 29 6; Joel

      2 19.24). Langutshing of the oil in- 4. Figur- dicated general famine (Joel 1 10; ative Hag 1 11). Joy is described as the

      oil of joy (isa 6i 3), or the oil of glad- ness (Ps 45 7; He 1 9). Ezekiel prophesies that the rivers shall run like oil, i.e. become viscous (Ezk 32 14). Words of deceit are softer than oil (Ps 55 21; Prov 5 3). Cursing becomes a habit with the wicked as readily as oil soaks into bones (Ps 109 18). Excessive u.se of oil indicates waste- fulne.ss (Prov 21 17), while the saving of it is a charactertstic of the wise (Prov 21 20). Oil was

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      Old Prophet

      carried into Egypt, i.e. a treaty was made with that country (Hos 12 1). James A. Patch

      OIL, ANOINTING (nnipTSn Taip , shemen ha- mishhah): This holy oil, the composition of which is described in Ex 30 22-33, was designed for use in the anointing of the tabernacle, its furniture and vessels, the altar and laver, and the priest, that being thus consecrated, they might be "most holy." It was to be "a holy anointing oil" unto Jeh throughout all generations (ver 31). On its uses, cf Ex 37 29; Lev 8 12; 10 7; 21 10. The care of this holy oil was subsequently entrusted to Eleazar (Nu 4 16) ; in later times it seems to have been prepared by the sons of the priests (1 Ch 9 30). There is a figurative allusion to the oil on Aaron's head in Ps 133 2. See Oil; Anointing.

      James Orr

      OIL, BEATEN (Ex 27 20; Lev 24 2; Nu 28 5). See Oil; Golden Candlestick.

      OIL, HOLY. See Oil; Anointing.

      OIL, OLIVE. See Oil; Olive Tree.

      OIL PRESS. See Oil; Wine Press.

      OIL-MAKING. See Cr.^fts, II, 11.

      OLL TREE, oil tre (jPip y?, "ff sheme7i [Isa 41 19], m "oleaster," in Neh 8 15, tr"* "wild olive," AV "pine";lpTlJ ""2^, 'dfe shemen, in 1 K 6 23.31.32, tr'' "olive wood"): The name "oleaster" used to be applied to the wild olive, but now belongs to quite another plant, the silver-berry, Eleagnus horlensis (N.O. Elaeagnaceae) , known in Arab, as Zeizafdn. It is a pretty shrub with sweet-smelling white flowers and silver-grey-green leaves. It is difficult to see how all the three references can apply to this tree; it will suit the first two, but this small shrub would never supply wood for carpentry work such as that mentioned in 1 K, hence the tr "olive wood." On the other hand, in the reference in Neh 8 15, olive branches are mentioned just before, so the tr "wild olive" (the difference being too slight) is improbable. Post suggests the tr of 'ef shemen by Pine (q.v.), which if accepted would suit all the requirements. E. W. G. Masterman

      OINTMENT, oint'ment: The present use of the word "ointment" is to designate a thick unguent of buttery or tallow-like consistency. AV in frequent instances translates shemen or m'shah (see Ex 30 25) "ointment" where a perfumed oil seemed to be indicated. ARV has consequently substituted the word "oil" in most of the passages. Merkdhah is rendered "ointment" once in the OT (.lob 41 31 [Heb 41 23]). The well-known power of oils and fats to absorb odors was made use of by the ancient perfumers. The composition of the holy anointing oil used in the tabernacle worship is mentioned in Ex 30 2.3-25. Olive oil formed the base. This was scented with "flowing myrrh .... sweet cin- namon .... sweet calamus .... and .... cas- sia." The oil was probably mixed with the above ingredients added in a powdered form and heated until the oil had absorbed their odors and then allowed to stand until the insoluble matter settled, when the oil could be decanted. Olive oil, being a non-drying oil which does not thicken readily, yielded an ointment of oily consistency. This is indicated by Ps 133 2, where it says that the precious oil ran down on Aaron's beard and on the collar of his outer garment. Anyone attempting to make the holy anointing oil would be cut off from his people (Ex 30 33). The scented oils or ointments were kept in

      jars or vials (not boxes) made of alabaster. These jars are frequently found as part of the equipment of ancient tombs.

      The word tr'' "ointment" in the NT is /j-vpoii, muron, "myrrh." This would indicate that myrrh, an aromatic gum resin, was the substance commonly added to the oil to give it odor, la Lk 7 40 both kinds of oil are mentioned, and the verse might be paraphrased thus: My head with common oil thou didst not anoint; but she hath anointed my feet with costly scented oil.

      For the uses of scented oils or ointments see Anointing; Oil. James A. Patch

      OLAMUS, ol'a-mus ('HXaiios, Olamds): One of the Israelites who had taken a "strange wife" (1 Esd 9 30) = "Meshullam" of Ezr 10 29.

      OLD, old. See Age, Old.

      OLD GATE. See Jerusalem.

      OLD MAN (iraXaios, palaids, "old," "ancient"): A term thrice used by Paul (Rom 6 6; Eph 4 22; Col 3 9) to signify the unrenewed man, the natu- ral man in the corruption of sin, i.e. sinful human nature before conversion and regeneration. It is theologically synonymous with "flesh" (Rom 8 3-9), which stands, not for bodily organism, but for the whole nature of man (body and soul) turned away from God and devoted to self and earthly things.

      The old man is "in the flesh"; the new man "in the Spirit." In the former "the works of the flesh" (Gal 5 19-21) are manifest; in the latter "the fruit of the Spirit" (vs 22.23). One is "corrupt accord- ing to the deceitful lusts"; the other "created in righteousness and true holiness" (Eph 4 22-24 AV). See also Man, Natural; Man, New.

      DwiGHT M. Pratt

      OLD PROPHET, THE CJpJT nns XinS, ndbhl' 'ehddh zdlfen, "an old prophet" '[1 K 13 11], ^?^5^^ IpJO, ha-ndbhl' ha-zaken, "the old 1. The prophet" ]ver 29]): The narrative of

      Narrative 1 K 13 11-32, in which the old prophet is mentioned, is part of a larger account telling of a visit paid to Bethel by "a man of God" from Judah. The Judaean prophet uttered a curse upon the altar erected there by Jeroboam I. When the king attempted to use force against him, the prophet was saved by Divine intervention; the king then invited him to receive royal hospi- tality, but he refused because of a command of God to him not to eat or drink there. The Judaean then departed (vs 1-10). An old prophet who lived in Bethel heard of the stranger's words, and went after him and offered him hospitality. This offer too was refused. But when the old prophet resorted to falsehood and pleaded a Divine command on the subject, the Judaean returned with him. While at table the old prophet is given a message to declare that death will follow the southerner's disobedience to the first command. A lion kills him on his way home. The old prophet hears of the death and explains it as due to disobedience to God; he then buries the dead body in his own grave and expresses a wish that he also at death should be buried in the same sepulcher.

      There are several difBcultie-s in tlie text. In ver 1 1 , AV

      reads "his sons came" instead of "one of his sons came,"

      and tr ver \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\2b: "And his sons shewed ttie

      O Pri+iral ^^^ ^^^ man of God went." There is a

      i. \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\^Ti\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\.n,

      ver 20; and ver 2.3 should be tr<^, "And it came to pass after he had eaten bread and drunk water, that he saddled for himself the ass. and departed again" (following LXX, B with W. B. Stevenson, HDB. Ill, 594a, n.).

      Old Testament Olives, Mount of

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      2184

      Benzinger ("Die Bucher der Konige," Kurz. Hand-Komm. zum AT, 91) holds that wc have here an example of a midrash, i.e. according to LOT, 529, "an imaginative development of a thought or theme suggested by Scripture, esp. a didactic or homiletio exposition or an edifying religious story." 2 Ch 24 27 refers to a "midhrash of the book of the kings," and 2 Ch 13 22 to a "midhrash of the prophet Iddo." In 2 Ch 9 29 we have a reference to "the visions of Iddo the seer concerning Jeroboam the son of Nebat." Jos names the Judaean prophet Jadon (Ant, VIII, viii, 5), and so some would trace this narrative to the midrash of Iddo, which would be a late Jewish work. There is a trace of late Heb in ver 3, and evidence in several places of a later editing of the original narrative. Kittel and Benzinger think it possible that the section may be based on a historical incident. If the narrative is historical in the main, the mention of Josiah by name in ver 2 may be a later insertion; if not his- torical, the prophecy there is ex eventu, and the whole section a midrash on 2 K 23 15-20.

      (1) Several questions are suggested by the narra- tive, but in putting as well as in answering these

      questions, it must be remembered that 3. Central the old prophet himself, as has been Truths pointed out, is not the chief character

      of the piece. Hence it is a little point- less to ask what became of the old prophet, or whether he was not piunished for his falsehood. The passage should be studied, like the parables of Jesus, with an eye on the great central truth, which is, here, that God punishes disobedience even in "a, man of God." It is not inconsistent with this to regard the old prophet as an example of "Satan fashioning himself into an angel of light" (2 Cor 11 14), or of the beast which "had two horns like unto a lamb" (Rev 13 11).

      (2) It must also be remembered that the false prophets of the OT are called prophets in spite of their false prophecies. So here the old prophet in spite of his former lie is given a Divine message to declare that death will follow the other's dis- obedience.

      (.3) One other question suggests itself, and demands an answer. Why did the old prophet make the request that at death he should be buried in the same grave as the .Tudaean {ver 31) ? The answer is implied in ver 32, and is more fully given in 2 K 23 15-20, where King Josiah defiles the graves of the prophets at Bethel. On seeing a "monument" or grave-stone by one of the graves, he inquires what it is, and is told that it marks the grave of the prophet from Judah. Thereupon he orders that his bones be not disturbed. "With these the bones of the old prophet escape. Perhaps no clearer instance of a certain kind of meanness exists in the OT. The very man who has been the cause of another's downfall and ruin is tiase enough to plan his own escape imder cover of the virtues of his victim. And the parallels in modern life are many. David Francis Roberts

      OLD TESTAMENT. See Text of the OT.

      OLD TESTAMENT CANON.

      THE OT.

      See Canon of

      OLD TESTAMENT LANGUAGES. See Lan- guages OP THE OT.

      OLEASTER, o-le-as'ter (Isa 41 19 RVm). See Oil Tree.

      OLIVE. See Olive Tree.

      OLIVE BERRIES, bcr'iz. Sec Olive Tree.

      OLIVE, GRAFTED. See Olive Tree.

      OLIVE TREE, ol'iv tre (rT^T, zayilh, a word occurring also in Aram., Ethiopic and Arab.; in the last it means "olive oil," and zaitiin, "the olive

      tree"; eXa£a, elaia): The olive tree has all through history been one of the most characteristic, most

      valued and most useful of trees in Pal. 1. The It is only right that it is the first named

      Olive Tree "king" of the trees (Jgs 9 8.9). When

      the children of Israel came to the land they acquired olive trees which they planted

      Typical Grove of Olive Trees at Jerusalem.

      not (Dt 6 11; cf Josh 24 13). The cultivation of the olive goes back to the earliest times in Canaan. The frequent references in the Bible, the evidences (see 4 below) from archaeology and the important place the product of this tree has held in the economy of the inhabitants of Syria make it highly probable that this land is the actual home of the cultivated olive. The wild olive is indigenous there. The most fruitful trees are the product of bare and rocky ground (cf Dt 32 13) situated prefer- ably at no great distance from the sea. The terraced hills of Pal, where the earth lies never many inches above the limestone rocks, the long rainless summer of unbroken sunshine, and the heavy "dews" of the autumn afford conditions which are extraordinarily favorable to at least the indigenous olive.

      The olive, Olea Europaea (N.O. Oleaceae), is a slow- growing tree, requiring years of patient labor before reaching full fruitfulness. Its growth implies a certain degree of settlement and peace, for a hostile army can in a few days destroy the patient work of two generations. Possibly this may have something to do with its being the emblem of peace. Enemies of a village or of an individual often today carry out revenge by cutting away a ring of bark from the trunks of the olives, thus killing the trees in a few months. The beauty of this tree is referred to in Jer 11 16; Hos 14 6, and its fruitfulness in Ps 128 3. The characteristic olive-green of its foliage, frosted silver below and the twisted and gnarled trunks — often hollow in the center — are some of the most picturesque and constant signs of settled habitations. In some parts of the land large plantations occur: the famous olive grove near Beirut is 5 miles square; there are also fine, ancient trees in great nmnbers near Bethlehem.

      In starting an oliveyard the fellah not infrequently plants young wild olive trees which grow plentifully over many parts of the land, or he may grow from cuttings. When the young trees are 3 years old they are grafted from a choice stock and after another three or four years they may commence to bear fruit, but they take quite a decade more before reaching full fruition. Much attention is, however, required. The soil around the trees must be frequently plowed and broken up; water must be conducted to the roots from the earliest rain, and the soil must be freely enriched with a kind of marl known in Arab, as huwwarah. If neglected, the older trees soon send up a great many shoots from the roots all around the parent stem (perhaps the

      o

      ^

      w

      m

      >

      z

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      2!

      2185

      THE INTERNATIONAL STANDARD BIBLE ENCYCLOPAEDIA

      Old Testament Olives, Mount of

      idea in Ps 128 3) ; these must be pruned away, al- tiiougli, should the parent stem decay, some of these may be capable of taking its place. Being, however, from the root, below the original point of grafting, they are of the wild olive type — with smaller, stiffcr leaves and prickly stem — and need grafting before they are of use. The olive tree furnishes a wood valuable for many forms of carpentry, and in modern Pal is extensively burnt as fuel.

      The olive is in flower about May; it produces clusters of small white flowers, springing from the axils of the leaves, which fall as 2. The showers to the ground (Job 15 33).

      Fruit The first olives mature as early as

      September in some places, but, in the mountain districts, the olive harvest is not till November or even December. Much of the earliest fruit falls to the ground and is left by the o'ivner un- gathered until the harvest. The trees are beaten with long sticks (Dt 24 20), the young folks often cliinbing into the branches to reach the highest fruit, while the women and older girls gather up the fruit from the ground. The immature fruit left after such an ingathering is described graphically in Isa 17 6: "There shall be left therein gleanings, as the shaking [m "beating"] of an olive-tree, two or three berries in the top of the uppermost bough, four or five in the outmost branches of a fruitful tree." Such gleanings belonged to the poor (Dt

      'C^^

      m- A. \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\

      Olive (Olea Europaea).

      24 20), as is the case today. Modem villages in Pal allow the poor of even neighboring villages to glean the olives. The yield of an olive tree is very uncertain; a year of great fruitfulness may be followed by a very scanty crop or by a succession of such.

      The olive is an important article of diet in Pal. Some are gathered green and pickled in brine, after slight bruising, and others, the "black" olives, are gathered quite ripe and are either packed in salt or in Ijrine. In both cases the salt modifies the bitter taste. They are eaten with bread.

      More important commercially is the oil. This is sometimes extracted in a primitive way by crushing a few berries by hand in the hollow of a

      stone (cf Ex 27 20), from which a shallow channel

      runs for the oil. It is an old custom to tread them

      by foot (Mic 6 15). Oil is obtained

      3. Olive Oil on a larger scale in one of the many

      varieties of oil mills. The berries are carried in baskets, by donkeys, to the mill, and they are crushed by heavy weights. A better class of oil can be obtained by collecting the first oil to come off separately, but not much attention is given to this in Pal, and usually the berries are crushed, stones and all, by a circular millstone revolving upright round a central pivot. A plenteous har- vest of oil was looked upon as one of God's blessings (Joel 2 24; 3 13). That the "labor of the olive" should fail was one of the trials to faith in Jeh (Hab 3 17). Olive oil is extensively used as food, morsels of bread being dipped into it in eating; also medicinally (Lk 10 34; Jas 6 14). In ancient times it was greatly used for anointing the person (Ps 23 5; Mt 6 17). In Rome's days of luxury it was a common maxim that a long and pleasant life depended upon two fluids — "wine within and oil without." In modern times this use of oil for the person is replaced by the employment of soap, which in Pal is made from olive oil. In all ages this oil has been used for illumination (Mt 25 3).

      Comparatively plentiful as olive trees are today in Pal, there is abundant evidence that the culti- vation was once much more extensive.

      4. Greater "The countless rock-cut oil- and wine- Plenty of presses, both within and without the Olive Trees walls of the city [of Gezer], show that in Ancient the cultivation of the olive and vine Times was of much greater importance than

      it is anywhere in Pal today

      Excessive taxation has made olive culture unprofit- able" ("Gezer Mem," PEF, II, 23). A further evidence of this is seen today in many now deserted sites which are covered with wild olive trees, de- scendants of large plantations of the

      5. Wild cultivated tree which have quite dis- Olives appeared. Many of these spring from

      the old roots; others are from the fallen drupes. Isolated trees scattered over many parts of the land, esp. in Galilee, are sown by the birds. As a rule the wild olive is but a shrub, with small leaves, a stem more or less prickly, and a small, hard drupe with but little or no oil. That a wild olive branch should be grafted into a fruitful tree would be a proceeding useless and contrary to Nature (Rom 11 17.24). On the mention of "branches of wild olive" in Neh 8 15, see Oil Tree. E. W. G. Masterman OLIVE, WILD: Figuratively used in Rom 11 17.24 for the Gentiles, grafted into "the good olive tree" of Israel. See Olive Tree.

      OLLVE YARD, ol'iv yard. See Olive Tree.

      OLIVES, ol'ivz, MOUNT OF (D'Tli-'in— IH , har ha-zelhlm [Zee 14 4], DTllTnTlbyiQ , ma'aleh ha- zethlm, "the ascent of the mount of Olives" [2 S 15 30, AV "the ascent of (mount) Olivet"]; to dpos Tuv 4X.aiwv, 16 6ros ton elaion, "the Mount of Olives" [Mt 21 1; 24 3; 26 30; Mk 11 1; 13 3; 14 26; Lk 19 37; 22 39; Jn 8 1], to dpos to KaXoipicvov cXaiuv, 16 6ros t6 kaloiimenon elaion, "the mount that is called Olivet" [Lk 19 29; 21 37; in both references in AV "the mount called (the mount) of Olives"], Tov eXaiuvos, toil elaionos [Acts 1 12, EV "Olivet" lit. "olive garden"]):

      1. Names

      2. Situation and Extent

      3. OT Associations

      (1) David's Escape from Absaiom

      (2) Tlie Vision of Ezoldel

      (3) Tiie Vision of Zecliariah

      Olives, Mount of THE INTERNATIONAL STANDARD BIBLE ENCYCLOPAEDIA

      2186

      4. High Places

      5. Olivet and Jesus

      6. View of tlie City from Olivet

      7. Churches and Ecclesiastical Traditions Literature

      Olivet comes to us through the Vulg Olivelum, "an oliveyard."

      Jos frequently uses the expression "Motint of

      Olives" (e.g. Ant, VII, ix, 2; XX, viii, 6; BJ,

      V, ii, 3; xii, 2), but later Jewish

      1. Names writings give the name nnT2J'Qn""in ,

      har ha-mishhdh, "Mount of Oil"; this occurs in some MSS in 2 K 23 13, and the common reading n^n'lJ5'Qn~"in , har ha-rnashhith, "Mount of Corruption," m "destruction," may possibly be a deliberate alteration (see below). In later ages the Mount was termed "the mountain of lights," be- cause here there used to be kindled at one time the first beacon light to announce throughout Jewry the appearance of the new moon.

      To the natives of Pal today it is usually known as Jehel et THr ("mountain of the elevation," or "tower"), or, less commonly, as Jebel Tur ez zait ("mountain of the elevation of oil"). The name Jehel ez-znitUn ("Mount of Olives") is also well known. Early Arab, writers use the term THr Zait, "Mount of Oil."

      The mountain ridge which lies E. of Jerus leaves

      the central range near the valley of Sha'phat and

      runs for about 2 miles due S. After

      2. Situation culminating in the mountain mass on and Extent which lies the "Church of the Ascen- sion," it may be considered as giving

      off two branches: one lower one, which runs S.S.W., forming the southern side of the Kidron valley, terminating at the Wwly en Ndr, and another, higher one, which slopes eastward and terminates a little beyond el-'Azareyeh (modern Bethany). The main ridge is considerably higher than the site of ancient Jerus, and still retains a thick cap of the soft chalky limestone, mixed with flint, known variously as Nari and Ka'kuli, which has been entirely denuded over the Jerus site (see Jerusalem, II, 1). The flints were the cause of a large settlement of paleo- lithic man which occurred in prehistoric times on the northern end of the ridge, while the soft chalky stone breaks down to form a soil valuable for the cultivation of olives and other trees and shrubs. The one drawback to arboriculture upon this ridge is the strong northwest wind which permanently bends most trees toward the S.E., but affects the sturd}', slow-growing olive less than the quicker- growing pine. The eastern slopes are more shel- tered. In respect of -ndnd the Mount of Olives is far more exposed than the site of old Jerus.

      The lofty ridge of Olivet is visible from far, a fact now emphasized by the high Russian tower which can be seen for many scores of m.iles on the E. of the Jordan. The range presents, from such a point of view particularly, a succession of summits. Taking as the northern limit the dip which is crossed by the ancient Anathoth {'ariatd) road, the most northerly summit is that now crowned by the house and garden of Sir John Gray Hill, 2,690 ft. above sea- level. This is sometimes incorrectly pointed out as Scopus, which lay farther to the N.W. A second sharp dip in the ridge separates this northern sum- mit from the next, a broad plateau now occupied by the great Kaiserin Augusta Victoria Stiftung and grounds. The road makes a sharp descent into a valley which is traversed from W. to E. by an im- portant and ancient road from Jerus, which runs eastward along the Wady er Rawaheh. S. of this dip lies the main mass of the mountain, that known characteristically as the Olivet of ecclesiastical tradition. This mass consists of two principal

      summits and two subsidiary spurs. The northern of the two main summits is that knowm as Karem ej Sayydd, "the vineyard of the hunter," and also as "Galilee," or, more correctly, as Viri Galilaei (see below, 7). It reaches a height of 2,723 ft. above the Mediterranean and is separated from the southern summit by a narrow neck traversed today by the carriage road. The southern summit, of practically the same elevation, is the traditional "Moimt of the Ascension," and for several years has been distinguished by a lofty, though some- what inartistic, tower erected by the Russians. The two subsidiary spurs referred to above are: (1) a somewhat isolated ridge running S.E., upon which lies the squalid village of el ^Azareyeh — Bethany; (2) a small spur running S., covered with grass, which is known as "the Prophets," on account of a remarkable 4th-cent. Christian tomb found there, which is known as "the tomb of the Prophets" — a spot much venerated by modern Jews.

      A further extension of the ridge as Bain el Hawa, "the belly of the wind," or traditionally as "the Mount of Offence" (cf 1 K 11 7; 2 K 23 13), is usually included in the Mount of Olives, but its lower altitude — it is on a level with the temple- platform — and its position S. of the city mark it off as practically a distinct hill. Upon its lower slopes are clustered the houses of Silwdn (Siloam).

      The notices of the Mount of Olives in the OT are, considering its nearness to Jerus, remarkably scanty.

      (1) David fleeing before his rebellious son Ab- salom (2 S 15 16) crossed the Kidron and "went

      up by the ascent of the mount of 3. OT Olives, and wept as he went up; and

      Associations he had his head covered, and went

      barefoot: and all the people that were with him covered every man his head, and they went

      up, weeping as they went [ver 30] And it

      came to pass, that, when David was come to the top of the ascent, where he was wont to worship God, [m], behold, Hushai the Archite came to meet him with his coat rent, and earth upon his head [ver 32]. And when David was a little past the top of the ascent, behold, Ziba the servant of Mephibosheth met him, with a couple of asses saddled, and upon them two hundred loaves of bread, and a hundred clusters of raisins, and a hundred of summer fruits, and a bottle of wine" (16 1).

      It is highly probable that David's route to the wilderness was neither by the much-trodden Ana- thoth road nor over the summit of the mountain, but by the path running N.E. from the city, which runs between the Viri Galilaei hill and that sup- porting the German Sanatorium and descends into the wilderness by WAdy er Rawdbi. See Bahurim.

      (2) Ezekiel in a vision (11 23) saw the glory of Jeh go up from the midst of the city and stand "upon the mountain which is on the east side of the city" (cf 43 2). In connection with this the Rabbi Janna records the tradition that the sh'khindh stood 3i years upon Olivet, and preached, saying, "Seek ye the Lord while he may be found, call ye upon him while he is near" — a strange story to come from a Jewish source, suggesting some overt refer- ence to Christ.

      (3) In Zee 14 4 the prophet sees Jeh in that day stand upon the Mount of Olives, "and the Mount of Olives shall be cleft in the midst thereof toward the east and toward the west, and there shall be a very great valley; and half of the mountain shall remove toward the north, and half of it toward the south."

      In addition to these direct references, Jewish tradition associates with this mount — this "mount of Corruption"— the rite of the red heifer (Nu 19); and many authorities consider that this is also the

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      THE INTERNATIONAL STANDARD BIBLE ENCYCLOPAEDIA Olives, Mount of

      mount referred to in Neh 8 15, whence the people are directed to fetch ohve branches, branches of wild olive, myrtle branches, palm branches and branches of thick trees to make their booths.

      It is hardly possible that a spot with such a wide

      outlook — esp. the marvelous view over the Jordan

      valley and Dead Sea to the lands of

      4. High Ammon and Moab — should have been Places neglected in the days when Sem reli- gion crowned such spots with their

      sanctuaries. There is OT evidence that there was a "high place" here. In the account of David's flight mention is made of the spot on the summit "where he was wont to worship God" (2 S 15 32 m). This is certainly a reference to a sanctuary, and there are strong reasons for believing that this place may have been Nob (q.v.) (see 1 S 21 1; 22 9.11.19; Neh 11 32; but esp. Isa 10 32). This last reference seems to imply a site more commanding in its out- look over the ancient city than Ras el Musharif proposed by Driver, one at least as far S. as the Anathoth road, or even that from Wddy er Rawabi. But besides this we have the definite statement (1 K 11 7): "Then did Solomon build a high place for Chemosh the abomination of Moab, in the mount that is before [i.e. E. of] Jcrus, and for Mo- lech the abomination of the children of Ammon," and the further account that the "high places that were before [E. of] Jerus, which were on the right hand [S.] of the mount of corruption [m "destruc- tion"], which Solomon the king of Israel had builded for Ashtoreth the abomination of the Sidonians, and for Chemosh the abomination of Moab, and for Milcom the abomination of the children of Ammon, did the king [Josiah] defile" (2 K 23 13). That these high places were somewhere upon what is generally recognized as the Mount of Olives, seems clear, and the most probable site is the main mass where are today the Christian sanctuaries, though Graetz and Dean Stanley favor the summit known as Viri Galilaei. It is the recognition of this which has kept alive the Jewish name "Mount of Cor- ruption" for this mount to this day. The term Mons offensionis, given to the southeastern exten- sion, S. of the city, is merely an ecclesiastical tradi- dition going back to Quaresmius in the 17th cent., which is repeated by Burckhardt (1823 AD).

      More important to us are the NT associations of

      this sacred spot. In those days the mountain must

      have been far different from its con-

      5. Olivet dition today. Titus in his siege of and Jesus Jerus destroyed all the timber here as

      elsewhere in the environs, but before this the hillsides must have been clothed with verdure — oliveyards, fig orchards and palm groves, with myrtle and other shrubs. Here in the fresh breezes and among the thick foliage, Jesus, the country-bred Galilean, must gladly have taken Himself from the noise and closeness of the over- crowded city. It is to the Passion Week, with the exception of Jn 8 1, that all the incidents belong which are expressly mentioned as occurring on the Mount of Olives; while there would be a special reason at this time in the densely packed city, it is probable that on other occasions also Our Lord preferred to stay outside the walls. Bethany would indeed appear to have been His home in Judaea, as Capernaum was in Galilee. Here we read of Him as staying with Mary and Martha (Lk 10 38-42); again He comes to Bethany from the wilderness road from Jericho for the raising of Lazarus (Jn 11), and later He is at a feast, six days before the Passover (Jn 12 1), at the house of Simon (Mt 26 6-12; Mk 14 3-9; Jn 12 1-9). The Mount of Olives is expressly mentioned in many of the events of the Passion Week. He approached Jerus, "unto Bethphage and Bethany, at the mount

      of Olives" (Mk 11 1; Mt 21 1; Lk 19 29); over a shoulder of this mount — very probably by the route of the present Jericho carriage road — He made His triumphal entry to the city (Mt 21; Mk 11; Lk 19), and on this road, when probably the full sight of the city first burst into view, He

      Mount of Olives from the Golden Gate.

      wept over Jerus (Lk 19 41). During all that week "every day he was teaching in the temple; and every night he went out, and lodged in the mount that is called Olivet" (Lk 21 37) — the special part of the mount being Bethany (Mt 21 17; Mk 11 11). It was on the road from Bethany that He gave the sign of the withering of the fruitless fig tree (Mt 21 17-19; Mk 11 12-14.20-24), and "as he sat on the mount of Olives" (Mt 24 3 f ; Mk 13 3 f) Jesus gave His memorable sermon with the doomed city lying below Him.

      On the lower slopes of Olivet, in the Garden of Gethsemane (q.v.), Jesus endured His agony, the betrayal and arrest, while upon one of its higher points — not, as tradition has it, on the inhabited highest summit, but on the secluded eastern slopes "over against Bethanj'" (Lk 24 50-52) — He took leave of His disciples (cf Acts 1 12).

      The view of Jerus from the Mount of Olives must ever be one of the most striking impressions which any visitor to Jerus carries away with 6. View of him. It has been described countless the City times. It is today a view but of ruin from Olivet and departed glory compared with that over which Jesus wept. A modern writer "with historic imagination has thus graphically sketched the salient features of that sight :

      "We are standing on the road from Bethany as it breaks round the Mount of Olives and on looking north- west this is what we see There spreads a vast

      stone stage, almost ^ectang^llar, some 400 yds. N. and S. by 300 E. and W., held up above Ophel and the Kidron valley by a high and massive wall, from 50 to 150 ft. and more in height, according to the levels of the rock from which it rises. Deep cloisters surround this

      platform on the inside of the walls Every gate

      has its watch and other guards patrol the courts. The crowds, which pour through the south gates upon the platform for the most part keep to the right; the e.x- ceptions, turning westward, are excommunicated or in mourning. But the crowd are not all Israelites. Num- bers ol Gentiles mingle with them; there are costumes and colors from all lands. In the cloisters sit teachers with groups of disciples about them. On the open pave- ment stand the booths of hucksters and money changers ; and from the N. sheep and bullocks are being driven toward the Inner Sanctuary. This lies not in the centet of the great platform, but in the northwest corner. It is a separately fortified, oblong enclosiu-e; its high walls with their 9 gates rising from a narrow terrace at a slight elevation above the platlorm and the terrace encom-

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      passed by a fence within which none but Israelites may

      pass Upon its higher western end rises a house

      'lilie a lion broad in front and narrow behind.' . . . . Prom the open porch of this house stone steps descend to a great blocli of an altar perpetually smoking with

      sacrifices Off the N.W. of the Outer Sanctuary

      a castle (the Antonla) dominates the whole with its 4 lofty towers. Beyond .... the Upper City rises in curved tiers lilie a theater, while all the lower slopes to the S. are a crowded mass of houses, girded by the east- ern wall of the city. Against that crowded background the sanctuary with its high house gleams white and fresh. But the front of the house, glittering mtli gold plates, is obscured by a column of smoke rising from the altar; and the Priests' Court about the latter is colored by the slaughterers and sacrifices — a splash of red, as our imagination takes it, in the center of the prevailing white. At intervals there are bursts of music; the singing of psalms, the clash of cymbals and a great blare of trumpets, at which the people in their court in the Inner Sanctuary fall down and worship" (extracts from G. A. Smith's Jerusalem, II, 518-20).

      To the Bible student the NT ia the best guide to Olivet; tradition and "sites" only bewilder him. Once the main hilltop was a mass of 7. Churches churches. There was the "Church of and Eccle- the Ascension" to mark the spot siastical whereby tradition (contrary to the Traditions direct statement of Luke) states that the Ascension occurred; now the site is marked by a small octagonal chapel, built in 1834, which is in the hands of the Moslems. There a "footprint of Christ" is shown in the rock. A large basilica of Helena was built over the place where it was said that Christ taught His disciples. In 1869 the Princess de Latour d'Auvergne, learn- ing that there was a Moslem tradition that this site was at a spot called el Battaniyeh south of the sum- mit, here erected a beautiful church known as the Church of the Pater Noster and around the court- yard she had the Lord's Prayer inscribed in 32 languages. When the church was in course of erection certain fragments of old walls and mosaics were found, but, in 1911, as a result of a careful excavation of the site, the foundations of a more extensive mass of old buildings, with some beautiful mosaic in the baptistry, were revealed in the neigh- borhood; there is little doubt but that these founda- tions belonged to the actual Basilica of Helena. It is proposed to rebuild the church.

      Mention has been made of the name Viri Gali- laei or Galilee as given to the northern summit of the main mass of Olivet. The name "Mount Galilee" appears to have been first given to this hill early in the 4th cent, and in 1573 AD Rau- wolf explains the name by the statement that here was anciently a khan where the Galileans lodged who came up to Jerus. In 1620 Quaresmius applies the names "Galilee" and Viri Galilaei to this site and thinks the latter name may be due to its having been the spot where the two angels appeared and addressed the disciples as "Ye men of Galilee" (Acts 1 11). Attempts have been made, without much success, to maintain that this "Galilee" was the spot which Our Lord intended (Mt 28 10.16) to indicate to His disciples as the place of meeting.

      The Russian inclosure includes a chapel, a lofty tower — from which a magnificent view is obtain- able — a hospice and a pleasant pine grove. Be- tween the Russian buildings to the N. and the Church of the Ascension lies the squalid village of et THr, inhabited by a peculiarly turbulent and rapacious crowd of Moslems, who prey upon the passing pilgrims and do much to spoil the sentiment of a visit to this sacred spot. It is possible it may be the original site of Bethphage (q.v.).

      Literature. — PEF, Memoirs, "Jerusalem" volume; G. A. Smith, Jerusalem; Robinson, BRP, I, 18.38; Stanley, Sinai and Pal; Baedeker's Pal and Syria (by Socin and Bensinger); Tobler, Die Siloahquelle und der Oelberg, 1852; Porter, Murray's Pal and Syria; R Hofmann, Galilaea auf dem Oelberg, Leipzig, 1896 Schick, "The Mount of Olives," PEFS, 1889, 174-84

      Warren, art. "Mount of Olives," in HDB; Gauthier, in EB, s.v. ; Vincent (Pere), "The Tombs of the Prophets," Retue Biblique, 1901.

      E. W. G. Mastehman OLIVET, ol'i-vet. See Olives, Mount op.

      OLYMPAS, 6-lim'pas ('OXv|nrds, Olumpds) : The name of a Rom Christian to whom Paul sent greet- ings (Rom 16 15). Olympas is an abbreviated form of Olympiadorus. The joining in one salu- tation of the Christians mentioned in ver 15 sug- gests that they formed by themselves a small com- munity in the earliest Rom church.

      OLYMPrUS, 5-lim'pi-us ('OXv|j.irios, Olumpios) : An epithet of Jupiter or Zeus (q.v.) from Mt. Oljonpus in Thessaly, where the gods held court presided over by Zeus. Antiochus Epiphanes, "who on God's altars dansed," insulted the Jewish religion by dedicating the temple of Jerus to Jupiter Olympius, 168 BC (2 Mace 6 2; 1 Mace 1 54 ff).

      OMAERUS, om-a-e'rus: AV = RV "Ismaerus" (1 Esd 9 34).

      OMAR, o'mar ("ipiS, 'mnar, connected perhaps with 'dmar, "speak"; LXX 'liiidv, Oman, or 'Ii|iap, Omar) : Grandson of Esau and son of Eliphaz in Gen 36 11; 1 Ch 1 36; given the title "duke" or "chief" in Gen 36 15.

      OMEGA, o'me-ga, 5-me'ga, 6-meg'a. See Alpha AND Omega.

      OMENS, o'menz. See Augury; Divination.

      OMER, o'mer (yCtS , 'omer): A dry measure, the tenth of an ephah, equal to about 7i pints. See Weights and Measures.

      OMNIPOTENCE, om-nip'g-tens: The noun

      "omnipotence" is not found in the Eng. Bible, nor

      any noun exactly corresponding to it

      1. Terms in the original Heb or Gr.

      and Usage rpj^^ ^^^ "omnipotent" occurs in Rev 19 6 AV; the Gr for this, TTayrotcpaTiup, pan- tokrdtor. Occurs also in 2 Cor 6 18; Rev 18; 4 8; 11 17; 15 3; 16 7.14; 19 15; 21 22 (in all of which AV and RV render " almighty "). It is also found frequently in LXX, esp. iri the rendering of the Divine names Jeh ^ebhaoth and 'El Shadday. In pantokrator, the element of "authority," "sovereignty," side by side with that of "power," makes itself more distinctly felt than it does to the modern ear in "omnipotent," although it is meant to be included in the latter also. Cf further 6 {tii-nTo;, ho dunaios, in Lk 1 49.

      The formal conception of omnipotence- as worked

      out in theology does not occur in the OT. The

      substance of the idea is conveyed in

      2. Inherent various indirect ways. The notion of in OT "strength" is inherent in the OT con- Names of ception of God from the beginning, God being already represented in one of

      the two Divine names inherited by Israel from ancient Sem rehgion, the name 'El. According to one etymology it is also inherent in the other, the nanie 'Elohlm, and in this case the pi. form, by bringing out the fulness of power in God, would mark an approach to the idea of omnipotence. See God, Names of.

      In the patriarchal religion the conception of "might" occupies a prominent place, as is indicated by the name characteristic of this period, 'El Shadday; cf Gen 17 1; 28 3; 35 11; 43 14; 48 3; 49 24.25; Ex 6 3. Tliis name, however, designates the Divine power as standing in the service of His covenant-relation to the patriarchs, as transcending Nature and overpowering it in the In- terests of redemption.

      Another Divine name which signalizes this attribute is Jeh Q'bhd'oth, Jeh of Hosts. This name, characteristic

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      ol the prophetic period, describes God as the King sur- rounded and followed by the angelic hosts, and since the might of an oriental king is measured by the splendor of his retinue, as of great, incomparable power, the King Omnipotent (Ps 24 10; Isa 2 12; 6 3.5; 8 13; Jer 46 18; Mai 1 14).

      Still another name expressive of the same idea is 'Abhlr. " Strong One," compounded with Jacob or Israel (Gen 49 24; Ps 132 2.5; Isa 1 24; 49 26; 60 16). Further, 'El Gibbor, "God-Hero" (Isa 9 6 [of the Mes- siah]; cl for the adj. jidftor, Jer 20 11); and tho figurative designation of God as C^ur, " Rock," occurring esp. in the address to God in the Psalter (Isa 30 29. AV "Mighty One"). The specific energy with which the Divine nature operates finds expression also in the name 'Kt Hay, "Living God," which God bears over against the impotent idols (1 S 17 26.36; 2 K 19 4.16; Ps 18 46; Jer 23 36; Dnl 6 20.26 f). An anthropomorphic de- scription of tlie power of God is in the figures of His "hand," His "arm," His "finger." See God.

      Some of the attributes of Jeh have an intimate

      connection with His omnipotence. Under this

      head esp. God's nature as Spirit and

      3. Other His hoUness come under consideration. Modes of The representation of God as Spirit in Expression the OT does not primarily refer to the

      incorporealness of the Divine nature, but to its inherent energy. The physical element underlying the conception of Spirit is that of air in motion, and in this at first not the invisibility but the force forms the point of comparison. The opposite of "Spirit" in this sense is "flesh," which expresses the weakness and impotence of the crea- ture over against God (Isa 2 22; 31 3).

      The holiness of God in its earliest and widest sense (not restricted to the ethical sphere) describes the majes- tic, specifically Divine character of His being, that which evokes in man religious awe. It is not a single attribute coordinated with others, but a peculiar aspect under which all the attributes can be viewed, that which renders them distinct from anything analogous in the creature (1 S 2 2; Hos 11 9). In this way holiness becomes closely associated with the power of God, indeed some- times becomes synonymous with Divine power =oni- nipotence (Ex 15 11; Nu 20 12), and esp. in Ezk, where God's "holy name" is often equivalent to His renown tor power, hence interchangeable with His " great name" (Ezk 36 20-24). The objective Spirit as a dis- tinct hypostasis and the executive of the Godhead on its one side also represents the Divine power (Isa 32 15; Mt 12 28; Lk 1 35; 4 14; Acts 10 38; Rom 15 19; 1 Cor 2 4).

      In aU these forms of expression a great and specifi- caUy Divine power is predicated of God. State- ments in which the absolutely un-

      4. Unlimit- limited extent of this power is explicitly ed Extent affirmed are rare. The reason, how- of the ever, lies not in any actual restriction Divine placed on this power, but in the con- Power Crete practical form of religious think- ing which prevents abstract formula- tion of the principle. The point to be noticed is that no statement is anywhere made exempting aught from the reach of Divine power. Nearest to a general formula come such statements as nothing is "too hard for Jeh" (Gen 18 14; Jer 32 17); or "I know that thou canst do everything," or "God .... hath done whatever he pleased" (Ps 115 3; 135 6), or, negatively, no one "can hinder" God in carrying out His purpose (Isa 43 13), or God's hand is not "waxed short" (Nu 11 23); in the NT: "With God all things are possible" (Mt 19 26; Mk 10 27; Lk 18 27); "Nothing is impos- sible with God" (RV "No word from God shall be void of power," Lk 1 37). Indirectly the omnipo- tence of God is implied in the effect ascribed to faith (Mt 17 20: "Nothing shall be impossible unto you"; Mk 9 23: "All things are possible to him that believeth"), because faith puts the Divine power at the disposal of the believer. On its sub- jective side the principle of inexhaustible power finds expression in Isa 40 28: God is not subject to weariness. Because God is conscious of the un- Umited extent of His resources nothing is marvelous in His eyes (Zee 8 6).

      It is chiefly through its forms of manifestation

      that the distinctive quality of the Divine power

      which renders it omnipotent becomes

      5. Forms of apparent. The Divine power operates Manifes- not merely in single concrete acts, but tation is comprehensively related to the world

      as such. Both in Nature and history, in creation and in redemption, it produces and controls and directs everything that comes to pass. Nothing in the realm of actual or conceivable things is withdrawn from it (Am 9 2.3; Dnl 4 35); even to the minutest and most recondite sequences of cause and effect it extends and masters all details of reality (Mt 10 30; Lk 12 7). There is no acci- dent (1 S 6 9; cf with ver 12; Prov 16 33). It need not operate through second causes; it itself underlies all second causes and makes them what they are.

      It is creative power producing its effect through a mere word (Gen 1 3 ff ; Dt 8 3; Ps 33 9; Rom 4 17; He

      I 3; 11 30). Among the prophets, esp. Isaiah empha- sizes this manner of the working of the Divine power in its immediateness and suddenness (Isa 9 8; 17 13; 18 4-6; 29 5). All the processes of Nature are ascribed to the causation of Jeh (Job 5 9 H; 9 5 if; chs 38 and 39; Isa 40 12 fl; Am 4 13; 5 8.9; 9 5.6); esp. God's con- trol of the sea is named as illustrative of this (Ps 65 7; 104 9; Isa 50 2; Jer 5 22; 31 35). The OT seldom says "it rains" (Am 4 7), but usually God causes it to rain (Lev 26 4; Dt 11 17; 1 S 12 17; Job 36 27; Pss 29 and 65; Mt 5 45; Acts 14 17).

      The same is true of the processes of history. God sovereignly disposes, not merely of Israel, but of all other nations, even of the most powerful, e.g. the Assyrians, as His instruments for the accomplish- ment of His purpose (Am 1 — 2 3; 9 7; Isa 10 5.15; 28 2; 45 1; Jer 25 9; 27 6; 43 10). The prophets ascribe to Jeh not merely relatively greater power than to the gods of the nations, but His power extends into the sphere of the nations, and the heathen gods are ignored in the estimate put upon His might (Isa 31 3).

      Even more than the sphere of Nature and history, that of redemption reveals the Divine omnipotence, from the point of view of the supernatural and miraculous. Thus Ex 15 celebrates the power of Jeh in the wonders of the exodus. It is God's ex- clusive prerogative to do wonders (Job 5 9; 9 10; Ps 72 18); He alone can make "a new thing" (Nu 16 30; Isa 43 19; Jer 31 22). In the NT the great embodiment of this redemptive omnipotence is the resurrection of believers (Mt 22 29; Mk 12 24) and specifically the resurrection of Christ (Rom 4 17.21.24; Eph 1 19 ff); but it is evidenced in the whole process of redemption (Mt 19 26; Mk 10 27; Rom 8 31; Eph 3 7.20; 1 Pet 1 5; Rev

      II 17).

      The significance of the idea may be traced along

      two distinct lines. On the one hand the Divine

      omnipotence appears as a support of

      6. Signifi- faith. On the other hand it is pro- cance for ductive of that specifically religious Biblical state of consciousness which Scripture Religion calls "the fear of Jeh." Omnipotence

      in God is that to which human faith addresses itself. In it lies the ground for assurance that He is able to save, as in His love that He is willing to save (Ps 65 5.6; 72 18; 118 14-16; Eph 3 20).

      As to the other aspect of its significance, the Divine omnipotence in itself, and not merely for soteriological reasons, evokes a specific religious response. This is true, not only of the OT, where the element of the fear of God stands comparatively in the foreground, but remains true also of the NT. Even in Our Lord's teaching the prominence given to the fatherhood and love of God does not preclude that the transcendent majesty of the Divine nature, including omnipotence, is kept in full view and

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      made a potent factor in the cultivation of the reli- gious mind (Mt 6 9). The beauty of Jesus' teach- ing on the nature of God consists in this, that He keeps the exaltation of God above every creature and His loving condescension toward the creature in perfect equilibrium and makes them mutually fructified by each other. Religion is more than the inclusion of God in the general altruistic movement of the human mind; it is a devotion at every point colored by the consciousness of that Divine unique- ness in which God's omnipotence occupies a fore- most place.

      LiTEEATUKE. — OeMer, Theologie des AT'. 131, 139 ff; Riehm, AlUestamentliche Theologie, 2.50 ff; DiUmann, Handbuch der alttestameniUchen Theologie, 244; Davidson. OT Theology, 163 ff; Konig, Geschichte der altlestamenl- lichen Religion, 127, 135 ff, 391, 475.

      Geeehardus Vos OMNIPRESENCE, om-ni-prez'ens: Neither the noun "omnipresence" nor adj. "omnipresent" occurs in Scripture, but the idea that God

      1. Non- is everywhere present is throughout Occurrence presupposed and sometimes explicitly of the Term formulated. God's omnipresence is in Scripture closely related to His omnipotence and

      omniscience: that He is everywhere enables Him to act everywhere and to know all things, and, conversely, through omnipotent action and omniscient knowledge He has access to all places and all secrets (cf Ps 139). Thus conceived, the attribute is but the correlate of the mono- theistic conception of God as the Infinite Creator, Preserver and Governor of the universe, immanent in His works as well as transcendent above them.

      The philosophical idea of omnipresence is that of exemption from the limitations of space, subject- ively as well as objectively; subject-

      2. Philo- ively, in so far as space, which is a sophical necessary form of all created conscious- and Popular ness in the sphere of sense-perception. Ideas of is not thus constitutionally inherent Onmi- in the mind of God; objectively, in so presence far as the actuality of space-relations

      in the created world imposes no limit upon the presence and operation of God. This metaphysical conception of transcendence above all space is, of course, foreign to the Bible, which in regard to this, as in regard to the other tran- scendent attributes, clothes the truth of revelation in popular language, and speaks of exemption from the limitations of space in terms and figures derived from space itself. Thus the very term "omni- presence" in its two component parts "everywhere" and "present" contains a double inadequacy of expression, both the notion of "everjTvhere" and that of "presence" being spacial concepts. Another point, in regard to which the popular nature of the Scriptural teaching on this subject must be kept in mind, concerns the mode of the Divine omni- presence. In treating the concept philosophically, it is of importance to distinguish between its appli- cation to the essence, to the activity, and to the knowledge of God. The Bible does not draw these distinctions in the abstract. Although sometimes it speaks of God's omnipresence with reference to the pervasive immanence of His being, it frequently contents itself with affirming the universal extent of God's power and knowledge (Dt 4 39; 10 14; Ps 139 6-16; Prov 15 3; Jer 23 23.24; Am 9 2).

      This observation has given rise to the theories of a mere omnipresence of power or omnipresence by an act

      of will, as distinct from an omnipresence of 3 Theories ''eing. But it is plain that in this anti- _J . thetical form such a distinction is foreign

      Uenymg to the intent of the Bib. statements in

      Omnir question. The writers in these passages

      ^^p(,p-pp content themselves with describing the f' ° . practical effects of the attribute without

      01 iiemg reflecting upon the difference between this

      and its ontological aspect; the latter is neither affirmed nor denied. That no denial of the omni-

      presence of being is intended may be seen from Jer 23 24, where in the former half of the verse the omnipresence of ■ ver 23 is expressed in terms of omniscience, while in the latter half the idea finds ontological expression. Similarly, in Ps 139, cf ver 2 with vs 7 ff, and vs 13 ff. As here, so in other passages the presence of God with His being in all space is explicitly affirmed (1 K 8 27; 2 Ch 2 6; Isa 66 1; Acts 17 28).

      Omnipresence being the correlate of monotheism, the presence of the idea in the earlier parts of the OT is de- nied by all those who assign the develop-

      4. Denial ment of monotheism in the OT religion to of the ^^^ prophetic period from the 8th cent. p f OQward. It is undoubtedly true that the presence or earliest narratives speak very anthropo- the Idea in morphlcally of God's relation to space; the Earlier f^ey describe Him as coming and going T5 , f in language such as might be used of a ±'arts 01 human person. But it does not follow the OT from this that the writers who do so con- ceive of God's being as circumscribed by

      space. Where such forms of statement occur, not the presence of God in general, but His visible pres- ence in theophany is referred to. If from the local ele- ment entering into the description God's subjection to the limitations of space were inferred, then one might with equal warrant, on the basis of the physical, sensual elements entering into the representation, im- pute to the writers the view that the Divine nature is corporeal.

      The theophanic form of appearance does not disclose

      what God is ontologically in Himself, but merely how He

      condescends to appear and work for the

      5. The redemption of His people. It establishes Special ^ redemptive and revelatory presence in Ppj .- definite localities, which does not, in the Keaemprive mind of the writer, detract from the Di- ana vine omnipresence. Hence, it is not con- Revelatory fined to one place; the altars built in p recognition of it are in patriarchal history

      « r^ J erected in several places and coexist as

      of God each and all offering access to the special

      Divine presence. It is significant that already during the patriarchal period these theophanies and the altars connected with them are confined to the Holy Land. This shows that the idea embodied in them has nothing to do with a crude conception of the Deity as locally circumscribed, but marks the beginning of that gradual restoration of the gracious presence of God to fallen humanity, the completion of which forms the goal of redemption. Thus God is said to dwell in the ark, in the tabernacle, on Mt. Zion (Nu 10 35; 2 S 6 2; 2 K 19 15; Ps 3 4; 99 1); in the temple (1 K 8; Ps 20 2; 26 8; 46 5; 48 2; Isa 8 18; Joel 3 16.21; Am 1 2); in the Holy Land (1 S 26 19; Hos 9 3); in Christ (Jn 1 14; 2 19; Col 2 9); in the church (Jn 14 23; Rom 8 9.11; 1 Cor 3 16; 6 19; Eph 2 21.22; 3 11; 2 Tim 3 15; He 10 21; 1 Pet 3 5); in the esehatologi- cal assembly of His people (Rev 21 3). In the light of the same principle must be interpreted the presence of God in heaven. This also is not to be understood as an ontological presence, but as a presence of specific theocratic manifestation (1 K 8 27; Ps 2 4; 11 4 ; 33 13 ff; 104 3; Isa 6 1 ft; 63 15; 66 1; Hab 2 20; Mt 5 34; 6 9; Acts 7 48; 17 28; Eph 1 20; He 1 3). How little this is meant to exclude the presence of God elsewhere may be seen from the fact that the two representations, that of God's self-manifestation in heaven and in the earthly sanctuary, occur side by side (1 K 8 26-53; Ps 20 2-6; Am 9 6). It has been alleged that the idea of God's dwelling in heaven marks a comparatively late attainment in the religion of Israel, of wliich in the pre-prophetic period no trace can as vet be discovered (so Stade. Bibl. Theol. des AT, I, 103, 1()4). There are, however, a number of passages in the Pent bearing witness to the early existence of this belief (Gen

      11 1-9; 19 24; 21 17; 22 11; 28 12). Jeh comes, according to the belief of the earliest period, with the ?l?H5''' iS^ 14 19-20; 19 9.18; 24 15; Nu 11 25;

      12 5). That even in the opinion of the people Jeh's local presence in an earthly sanctuary need not have excluded Him from heaven follows also from the un- hesitating belief in His simultaneous presence in a plural- ity of sanctuaries. If it was not a question of locally circumscribed presence as between sanctuary and sanc- tuary, it need not have been as between earth and heaven (cf Gunkel, Gen. 157).

      Both from a generally religious and from a specifi- cally soteriological point of view the omnipresence

      of God is of great practical importance 6. Religious for the rehgious life. In the former Significance respect it contains the guaranty that

      the actual nearness of God and a real communion with Him may be enjoyed everywhere, even apart from the places hallowed for such pur- pose by a specific gracious self-manifestation (Ps 139 5-10). In the other respect the Divine omni- presence assures the believer that God is at hand

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      to save in every place where from any danger or foe His people need salvation (Isa 43 2) .

      LiTERATHBE. — Oehler, Theologie des AT'. 174 ff; Riehm, AlUestamenUiche Theotogie, 262 11; nillmann, Handbuch der alUestamentlichen Theologie, 246 fif; David- Son, OT Theology, 180 fl; Kbnig, GescMchte der alUesta- mentlichen Religion, 197 ff.

      Geerhardus Vos OMNISCIENCE, om-nish'ens : The term does not occur in Scripture, either in its nominal or in its adjectival form.

      In the OT it is expressed in connection witli such words

      as ri?!. da'ath, n213, bindh, nDIDP. I'bhunah, nUDn,

      hokhmah; also "seeing" and "hearing,"

      1. Words ''the eye" and "the ear" occur as figures nnH TToocro 'o'' W^^ linowledge of God, as "arm," auu us.

      _ power. In the NT are found yLfdttrKeLi', gindskein, yvwait;, gndsis, ei5ecat, eidlnai, <70(/)ta, Sophia, in the same connections.

      Scripture everywhere teaches the absolute uni- versality of the Divine knowledge. In the his- torical books, although there is no

      2. Tacit abstract formula, and occasional an- Assumption thropomorphic references to God's and Explicit taking knowledge of things occur (Gen Aflarmation 11 5; .18 21; Dt 8 3), none the less

      the principle is everywhere presup- posed in what is related about God's cognizance of the doings of man, about the hearing of prayer, the disclosing of the future (1 S 16 7; 23 9-12; 1 K 8 39; 2 Ch 16 9). Explicit affirmation of the principle is made in the Psalter, the Prophets, the hokhmah literature and in the NT. This is due to the increased internalizing of religion, by which its hidden side, to which the Divine omniscience corresponds, receives greater emphasis (Job 26 6; 28 24; 34 22; Ps 139 12; 147 4; Prov 15 3.11; Isa 40 26; Acts 1 24; He 4 13; Rev 2 23).

      This absolute universality is affirmed with refer- ence to the various categories that comprise within

      themselves all that is possible or ac-

      3. Extends tual. It extends to God's own being, to All as well as to what exists outside of Him Spheres in the created world. God has perfect

      possession in consciousness of His own being. The unconscious finds no place in Him (Acts 15 18; 1 Jn 1 5). Next to Himself God knows the world in its totality. This knowledge extends to small as well as to great affairs (Mt 6 8.32; 10 30); to the hidden heart and mind of man as well as to that which is open and manifest (Job 11 11; 34 21.23; Ps 14 2; 17 2ff; 33 13- 18; 102 19 f; 139 1-4; Prov 5 21; 15 3; Isa 29 15; Jer 17 10; Am 4 13; Lk 16 1.5; Acts 1 24; 1 Thess 2 4; He 4 13; Rev 2 23). It extends to all the divisions of time, the past, present and future alike (Job 14 17; Ps 66 8; Isa 41 22-24; 44 6-8; Jer 1 5; Hos 13 12; Mai 3 16). It embraces that which is contingent from the human viewpoint as well as that which is certain (1 S 23 9-12; Mt 11 22.23).

      Scripture brings God's knowledge into connection

      with His omnipresence. Ps 139 is the clearest

      expression of this. Omniscience is the

      4. Mode of omnipresence of cognition (Jer 23 the Divine 23 ff). It is also closely related to Knowledge God's eternity, for the latter makes

      Him in His knowledge independent of the limitations of time (Isa 43 8-12). God's creative relation to all that exists is represented as underlying His omniscience (Ps 33 15; 97 9; 139 13; Isa 29 15). His all-comprehensive purpose forms the basis of His knowledge of all events and developments (Isa 41 22-27; Am 3 7).

      This, however, does not mean that God's knowl- edge of things is identical with His creation of them, as has been suggested by Augustine and others. The act of creation, while necessarily connected with

      the knowledge of that which is to be actual, is not identical with such knowledge or with the purpose on which such knowledge rests, for in God, as well as in man, the intellect and the will are distinct faculties. In the last analysis, God's knowledge of the world has its source in His self-knowledge. The world is a revelation of God. All that is actual or possible in it therefore is a reflection in created form of what exists uncreated in God, and thus the knowledge of the one becomes a reproduction of the knowledge of the other (Acts 17 27; Rom 1 20). The Divine knowledge of the world also partakes of the quality of the Divine self-knowledge in this respect, that it is never dormant. God does not depend for embracing the multitude and complex- ity of the existing world on such mental processes 'as abstraction and generalization.

      The Bible nowhere represents Him as attaining to knowledge by reasoning, but everywhere as simply knowing. From what has been said about the immanent sources of the Divine knowledge, it follows that the latter is not a posteriori derived from its objects, as all human knowledge based on experience is, but is exercised without receptivity or dependence. In knowing, as well as in all other activities of His nature, God is sovereign and self- sufficient. In cognizing the reality of all things He needs not wait upon the things, but draws His knowledge directly from the basis of reality as it lies in Himself. While the two are thus closely con- nected it is nevertheless of importance to distin- guish between God's knowledge of Himself and God's knowledge of the world, and also between His knowledge of the actual and His knowledge of the possible. These distinctions mark off the theistic conception of omniscience from the panthe- istic idea regarding it. God is not bound up in His life with the world in such a sense as to have no scope of activity beyond it.

      Since Scripture includes in the objects of the Divine knowledge also the issue of the exercise of freewill on the part of man, the prob- 5. God's lem arises, how the contingent char- Omnis- acter of such decisions and the cer-

      cience and tainty of the Divine knowledge can Human coexist. It is true that the knowledge

      Freewill of God and the purposing will of God are distinct, and that not the former but the latter determines the certainty of the out- come. Consequently the Divine omniscience in such cases adds or detracts nothing in regard to the certainty of the event. God's omniscience does not produce but presupposes the certainty by which the problem is raised. At the same time, precisely because omniscience presupposes certainty, it ap- pears to exclude every conception of contingency in the free acts of man, such as would render the latter in their very essence undetermined. The knowledge of the issue must have a fixed point of certainty to terminate upon, if it is to be knowledge at all. Those who make the essence of freedom absolute indeterminateness must, therefore, exempt this class of events from the scope of the Di-vine omniscience. But this is contrary to all the testi- mony of Scripture, which distinctly makes God's absolute knowledge extend to such acts (Acts 2 23). It has been attempted to construe a peculiar form of the Divine knowledge, which would relate to this class of acts specifically, the so-called scienlia media, to be distinguished from the scienlia necessaria, which has for its object God Himself, and the scienlia libera which terminates upon the certainties of the world outside of God, as determined by His freewill. This scienlia media would then be based on God's foresight of the outcome of the free choice of man. It would involve a knowledge of recep- tivity, a contribution to the sum total of what God

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      knows derived from observation on His part of the world-process. That is to say, it would be knowl- edge a posteriori in essence, although not in point of time. It is, however, difficult to see how such a knowledge can be possible in God, when the out- come is psychologically undetermined and unde- terminable. The knowledge could originate no sooner than the determination originates through the free decision of man. It would, therefore, neces- sarily become an a posteriori knowledge in time as well as in essence. The appeal to God's eternity as bringing Him equally near to the future as to the present and enabling Him to see the future deci- isions of man's free will as though they were present cannot remove this difficulty, for when once the observation and knowledge of God are made de- pendent on any temporal issue, the Divine eternity itself is thereby virtually denied. Nothing remains but to recognize that God's eternal knowledge of the outcome of the freewill choices of man implies that there enters into these choices, notwithstand- ing their free character, an element of predetermi- nation, to which the knowledge of God can attach itself.

      Tne Di\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\'ine omniscience is most important for the religious life. The very essence of religion as

      communion with God depends on His 6. Religious all-comprehensive cognizance of the Importance life of man at every moment. Hence

      it is characteristic of the irreligious to deny the omniscience of God (Ps 10 11.12; 94 7-9; Isa 29 15; Jer 23 2.3; Ezk 8 12; 9 9). Esp. along three lines this fundamental religious importance reveals itself: (a) it lends support and comfort when the pious suffer from the misunder- standing and misrepresentation of men; (h) it acts as a deterrent to tfiose tempted by sin, esp. secret sin, and becomes a judging principle to all hypocrisy and false security; (c) it furnishes the source from which man's desire for self-knowledge can obtain satisfaction (Ps 19 12; 51 6; 139 23.24).

      LiTEHATTjBE. — Oehlef, Theologie lies AT', S76; Riehm, Alttestameniliche Theologie, 263; Dilimann, Handhuch der altteslamentlichen Theologie, 249; Davidson, OT Theology, 180 fl.

      Geerhardus Vos OMRI, om'ri Oip? , 'omri; LXX 'A|iPpC, Ambri; Assyr "Humri" and "Humria"):

      (1) The 6th king of Northern Israel, and founder of the Hid Dynasty which reigned for nearly 50 years. Omri reigned 12 years, c 887-876 BC. The historical sources of his reign are contained in 1 K 16 15-28; 20 34, the M S, Assyr inscriptions, and in the published accounts of recent excavations in Samaria. In spite of the brief passage given to Omri in the OT, he was one of the most important of the military kings of Northern Israel.

      O. is first mentioned as an officer in the army of Elah, which was engaged in the siege of the Phili town of Gibbethon. XMiile O. was 1. His thus engaged, Zimri, another officer

      Accession of Elah's army, conspired against the king, whom he assassinated in a drunken debauch, exterminating at the same time the remnant of the house of Baasha. The con- spiracy evidently lacked the support of the people, for the report that Zimri had usurped the throne no sooner reached the army at Gibbethon, than the people proclaimed O., the more powerful military leader, Idng over Israel. O. lost not a moment, but leaving Gibbethon in the hands of the Philis, he marched to Tirzah, which he besieged and captured, while Zimri perished in the flames of the palace to which he had set fu-e with his own hands (1 K 16 IS). O., however, had still another opponent in Tibni the son of Ginath, who laid claim to the throne, and who was supported in his claims by his

      brother Joram (1 K 16 22 LXX) and by a large number of the people. Civil war followed this rivalry for the throne, which seems to have lasted for a period of four years (cf 1 K 16 15, with vs 23 and 29) before O. gained full control.

      O.'s military ability is seen from his choice of Samaria as the royal residence and capital of the Northern Kingdom. This step may have been suggested to O. by his own easy conquest of Tirzah, the former capital. Accordingly, he purchased the hill Shomeron of Shemer for two talents of silver, about ,$4,352.00 in American money. The conical hill, which rose from the surrounding plain to the height of 400 ft., and on the top of which there was room for a large city, was capable of easy defence.

      The superior strategic importance of Samaria is evidenced by the sieges it endured repeatedly by the Syrians and Assyrians. It 2. The was finally taken by Sargon in 722,

      Founding after the siege had lasted for 3 years. of Samaria That the Northern Kingdom endured as long as it did was due largely to the strength of its capital. With the fall of Samaria, the nation fell.

      Palace ot Omri and Ahab at Samaria.

      Recent excavations in Samaria under the direction of Harvard University throw new light upon the ancient capital of Israel. The first results were the xmcovering of massive foundation walls of a large building, includ- ing a stairway 80 ft. wide. This building, which is Rom in architecture, is supposed to have been a temple, the work of Herod, Under this Rom building was re- covered a part of a massive Heb structure, believed to be the palace of O. and Ahab. During the year 1910 the explorations revealed a building covering 15 acres of ground. Pour periods of construction were recognized, which, on archaeological grounds, were tentatively as- signed to the reigns of O., Ahab, Jehu, and Jeroboam II. See Samaria and articles by David G. Lyon in Harvard Theological Review, IV, 1911; JBL, V, XXX, Part I 1911- PEFS, 1911, 79-83.

      Concerning O.'s foreign policy the OT is silent beyond a single hint contained in 1 K 20 34. Here we learn that he had to bow 3. His before the stronger power of Syria. It Foreign is probable that Ben-hadad I besieged Policy Samaria shortly after it was built, for he forced O. to make "streets" in the city for the Syrians. It is probable, too, that at this time Ramoth-gilead was lost to the Syrians. Evidently O. was weakened in his foreign poUcy at the beginning of his reign by the civil conflict engendered by his accession. However, he showed strength of character in his dealings with foreign powers. At least he regained control over the northern part of Moab, as we learn from the M S. Lmes 4-8 tell us that "Omri was king of Israel and afflicted Moab many days because Chemosh was angry with his land Omri obtained pos- session of the land of Medeba and dwelt therein during his days and half the days of his son, forty years."

      O. was the first king of Israel to pay tribute to the Assyrians under their king Asurnaoirpal III,

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      in 876 BC. From the days of Shahnaneser II (860 BC) down to the time of Sargon (722 BC), Northern Israel was known to the Assyrians as "the land of the house of Omri." On Shalmaneser's black obehsk, Jehu, who overthrew the dynasty of O., is called Ja'ua abal Humri, "Jehu son of Omri."

      O. entered into an alliance with the Phoenicians by the marriage of his son Ahab to Jezebel, daughter of Ethbaal, king of the Sidonians. This may have been done as protection against the powers from the East, and as such would have seemed to be a wise pohtical move, but it was one fraught with evil for Israel.

      Although O. laid the foundation of a strong kingdom, he failed to impart to it the vitaUzing and rejuvenating force of a healthy 4. His spiritual rehgion. The testimony of

      Religious 1 K 16 25.26, that he "dealt wickedly Influence above all that were before him," and Death coupled with the reference to "the statutes of Omri" in Mic 6 16, indi- cates that he may have had a share in substituting foreign religions for the worship of Jeh, and there- fore the unfavorable light in which he is regarded is justified. LTpon his death, O. was succeeded upon the throne by his son Ahab, to whom was left the task of shaking off the Syrian yoke, and who went beyond his father in making the Phoen influ- ence along with Baahsm of prime importance in Israel, thus leading the nation into the paths that hastened its downfall.

      (2) A Benjamite, son of Becher (1 Ch 7 8).

      (3) A Judahite, descendant of Perez, who lived at Jerus (1 Ch 9 4).

      (4) A prince of Issachar in the time of David (1 Ch 27 18). S. K. MosiMAN

      ON, on (pX, 'on; Egyp An, Ant, Annu, prob- ably pronounced An only, as this is often all that is written, a "stone" or "stone pillars"): Later called Heliopolis. The name On occurs only in Gen 41 45. 50; 46 20. It occurs in one other place in LXX (Ex 1 11), where On is mentioned -ndth Pithom and Raamses as strong cities which the Israelites built. Heb slaves may have worked upon fortifi- cations here, but certainly did not build the city. On is possibly referred to as D^nn Tiy , %r ha-here^, in Isa 19 18 (see Ir-ha-heres). On may also be mentioned by Jeremiah (43 13) under the name Beth-shemesh. Ezekiel speaks of an Aven {'Q^ , 'dwen) (Ezk 30 17), where it is mentioned with Pi- beseth (Bubastis) . Aven in this passage is almost certainly the same as On in Gen 41 45; 46 20, as the letters of both words are the same in the Heb. Only the placing of the vowel-points makes any differ- ence. If there is a mistake, it is a mistake of the Massoretes, not of the Heb writer.

      There were two 0ns in Egypt: one in Upper Egypt, An-res (Hermonthis) ; the other in Lower Egypt, An-Meheet (Brugsch, Geogr. 1. Location hischr., 254, 255, nos. 1217, a, b, 1218, and De- 8708, 1225). The latter is the On scription referred to in the Bible. It lay about 20 miles N. of the site of old Memphis, about 10 miles N.E. of the location of modem Cairo. It has left until this time about 4 sq. miles of ruins within the old walls. Little or nothing remains outside the walls.

      On was built at the edge of the desert, which has now retreated some 3 or 4 miles eastward, the result of the rising of the bed of the Nile by sediment from the inundation, and the broadening of the area of infiltration which now carries the water of the Nile that much to the E. The land around On has risen about 10 ft., and the waters of infiltration at

      the time of lowest Nile are now about 11 ft. above

      the floor-level of the temple.

      The history of On is very obscure, yet its very

      great importance is in no doubt. No clear de- scription of the ancient city or sanc-

      2. History tuary has come down to us, but there are so many incidental references, and

      so much is implied in ancient records, that it stands

      Obelisk at On.

      out as of the very first importance, both as capital and sanctuary. The city comes from the 1st Dynasty, when it was the seat of government, and indeed must have been founded by the 1st Dynasty or have come down to it from pre-historic time. From the Illd to the Vlth Dynasty the seat of gov- ernment was shifted from On to Memphis, and in the Xllth Dynasty to Diospolis. Throughout these changes On retained its religious importance. It had been the great sanctuary in the time of the Pyramid Texts, the oldest religious texts of Egypt, and judging from the evident great development of the temple of On at the time of the writing of the texts, the city must have antedated them by con- siderable time (Budge, Hist of Egypt, II, S3, 84, 108; Breasted, Development of Religion and Thought in Egypt, chs i, ii). The mj'th of Osiris makes even the charge against Set for the murder of Osiris to have been preferred at Heliopolis (Breasted, op. cit., 34). This certainly implies a very great age for the sanctuary at On. It con- tained a temple of the sun under the name Ra, the sun, and also Atum, the setting sun, or the sun of the Underworld. There was also a Phoenix Hall and a sacred object called a ben, probably a stone, and the origin of the name An, a "stone" or "pillar" (cf Breasted, op. cit., 76, 11, and 71). Though the Xllth Dynasty removed the capital to Diospolis, Usertsen I (Senwesret) of that Dynasty erected a great obelisk at On in front of the entrance to the temple. The situation of this obelisk in the temple- area indicates that the great temple was already more than a half-mile in length as early as the Xllth Dynasty. The mate of this obelisk on the opposite side of the entrance seems not to have been

      On

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      erected until the XVIIIth Dynasty. Its founda- tions were discovered in 1912 by Petrie. Some scraps of the granite of the obeUsk bear inscriptions of Thothmes III. A great Hylisos wall, also dis- covered by Petrie in 1912, exactly similar to that of the fortified camp at Tel el Yehudiyeh, 4 miles N., makes it quite certain that these usurpers between the Old Empire and the New fortified On as the capital once more. The manifest subserviency of the priests of On in the story of Joseph makes it most probable that the old capital at On had already been subjugated in Joseph's time, and that within this old fortification still existing Joseph ruled as prime minister of Egypt. Merenptah in his Sth year began to fortify On. Sheshonk III called himself "divine prince of Annu," and seems to have made On one of the greatest sanctuaries of his long reign. On still figured in Egyp history in the rebel- lion against Ashurbanipal. The city has been deserted since the Pers invasion of 525 BC. Tra- dition makes the dwelling-place of Joseph and Mary with the child Jesus, while in Egypt, to have been near Heliopolis.

      The exploration of On was attempted by Schiap- arelli, but was not carried out, and his work has not been published. In 1912 Petrie began a systematic work of excavation which, it is expected, will con- tinue until the whole city has been examined. The only great discovery of the first season was the Hyksos wall of fortification. Its full import can only be determined by the continuance of the exploration. M. G. Kyle

      ON (pX, 'on; Avv, Aun): A Reubenite, son of Peleth, who took part with Dathan and Abiram in their revolt against Moses (Nu 16 1).

      ONAM, o'nam (D31X, 'onam, "vigorous"; cf Onan) :

      (1) "Son" of Shobal "son" of Seir the Horite (Gen 36 23; 1 Ch 1 40).

      (2) "Son" of Jerahmeel by Atarah; perhaps the name is connected with Onan son of Judah (1 Ch 2 26.28).

      ONAN, o'nan (1;^X , 'onan, "vigorous"; cf Onam): A "son" of Judah (Gen 38 4.8-10; 46 12; Nu26 19; 1 Ch 2 3). "The story of the untimely death of Er and Onan implies that two of the an- cient clans of Judah early disappeared" (Curtis, Chron, 84). See Skinner, Gen, 452, where it is pointed out that in Gen 38 11 Judah plainly at- tributes the death of his sons in some way to Tamar herself. The name is aUied to Onam.

      ONE, wun. See Number.

      ONESIMUS, d-nes'i-mus ('Ovii(ri.(j.os, Ontsimos, ht. "profitable," "helpful" [Col 4 9; Philem ver 10]):

      Onesimus was a slave (Philem ver 16) 1. With belonging to Philemon who was a

      Paul in wealthy citizen of Colossae, and a prom-

      Rome inent member of the church there. O.

      was still a heathen when he defrauded his master and ran off from Colossae. He found his way to Rome, where evil men tended to flock as to a common center, as Tacitus tells us they did at that period. In Rome he came into contact with Paul, who was then in his own hired house, in mili- tary custody.

      What brought him into contact with Paul we do not know. It may have been hunger; it may have been the pang.s of conscience. He couid not forget that his master's house in Colossae was the place where the Christians met in their weekly assemblies for the wor- ship of Christ. Neither could he forget how Philemon had many a time spoken of Paul, to whom he owed his

      conversion. Now that O. was in Rome — what a strange coincidence — Paul also was in Rome.

      The result of their meeting was that O. was converted to Christ, through the instrumentality of the apostle ("my child, whom I have begotten in my bonds," Philem ver 10). His services had been, very acceptable to Paul, who would gladly have kept O. with him; but as he could not do this without the knowledge and consent of Philemon, he sent O. back to Colossae, to his master there.

      At the same time Paul wrote to the church in Colossae on other matters, and he intrusted the Ep. to the Col to the joint care of 2. Paul's Tychicus and O. The apostle recom- Epistles to mends O. to the brethren in Colossae, Colossae as a "faithful and beloved brother, and to who is one of you," and he goes on

      Philemon to say that Tychicus and O. will make known to them all things that have happened to Paul in Rome. Such a commendation would greatly facilitate O.'s return to Colossae.

      But Paul does more. He furnishes O. with a letter written by himself to Philemon. Returning to a city where it was well known that he had been neither a Christian nor even an honest man, he needed someone to vouch for the reaUty of the change which had taken place in his fife. And Paul does this for him both in the Ep. to the Col and in that to Philemon.

      With what exquisite delicacy is O. introduced! 'Receive him,' says the apostle, 'for he is my own very heart' (Philem ver 12). "The man whom the Colosslans had only known hitherto, if they knew him at all, as a worthless runaway slave, is thus commended to them, as no more a slave but a brother, no more dis- honest and faithless but trustworthy; no more an object of contempt but of love" (Lightfoofs Comm. on Col, 235).

      (1) Onesimus profitable. — The apostle accord- mgly begs Philemon to give O. the same reception as he would rejoice to give to himself. The past history of O. had been such as to beUe the meaning of his name. He had not been "profitable" — far from it. But ah-eady his consistent conduct in Rome and his wiUing service to Paul there have changed all that; he has been profitable to Paul, and he will be profitable to Philemon too.

      (2) Paul guarantees. — O. had evidently stolen his master's goods before leaving Colossae, but in regard to that the apostle writes that if he has defrauded Philemon in anything, he becomes his surety. Philemon can regard Paul's handwritmg as a bond guaranteeing payment: "Put that to mme account," are his words, "I will repay it " Had Philemon not been a Christian, and had Paul not written this most beautiful letter, O. might well have been afraid to return. In the Rom empire slaves were constantly crucified for smaller offences than those of which he had been guilty. A thief and a runaway had nothing but torture or death to e.xpect.

      (3) The change which Christ makes. — But now under the sway of Christ all is changed. The master who has been defrauded now owns allegiance to Jesus. The letter, which is deUvered to him by his slave, IS written by a bound "prisoner of Jesus Christ. The slave too is now a brother in Christ, beloved by Paul: surely he will be beloved by Philemon also. Then Paul intimates that he hopes soon to be set free, and then he will come and visit them in Colossae. Will PhUemon receive him into his house as his guest?

      (4) 'The result.— It cannot be imagined that this appeal in behalf of O. was in vain. Philemon would do more than Paul asked; and on the apostle's visit to Colossae he would find the warmest welcome, both from Philemon and from Onesimus.

      John Rutherfurd

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      ONESIPHORUS, o-ng-sif'6-rus ('OvT|(rC

      Oneslphoros, lit. "profit bringei'" [2 Tim 1 16; 4 19]) : Onesiphorus was a friend of

      1. The the apostle Paul, who mentions him Friend of twice when writing to Timothy. In Paul the former of the two passages where

      his name occurs, his conduct is con- trasted with that of Phygellus and Hermogenes and others — all of whom, like O. himself, were of the province of Asia — from whom Paul might well have expected to receive sympathy and help. These persons had "turned away" from him. O. acted in a different way, for "he oft refreshed me, and was not ashamed of my chain; but, when he was in Rome, he sought me diligently, and found me."

      O. was one of the Christians of the church in Ephesus; and the second passage, where his name is found, merely sends a message of greeting from Paul, which Timothy in Ephesus is requested to deliver to "the household of O." (AV).

      O. then had come from Ephesus to Rome. It

      was to Paul that the church at Ephesus owed its

      origin, and it was to him therefore that

      2. Visits O. and the Christians there were in- Paul in deb ted for all that they knew of Christ. Rome O. gratefully remembered these facts,

      and having arrived in Rome, and learned that Paul was in prison, he "very diligently" sought for the apostle. But to do this, though it was only his duty, involved much personal danger at that particular time. For the persecution, in- augurated by Nero against the Christians, had raged bitterly; its fury was not yet abated, and this made the profession of the Christian name a matter which involved very great risk of persecu- tion and of death.

      Paul was not the man to think lightly of what his Ephesian friend had done. He remembered too, "in how many things he ministered at Ephesus." And, writing to Timothy, he reminded him that O.'s kindly ministrations at Ephesus were already well known to him, from his residence in Ephesus, and from his position, as minister of the church there.

      It should be observed that the ministration of O. at Ephesus was not, as AV gives it, "to me," that is, to Paul himself. "To me" is omitted in RV. What O. had done there was a wide Christian min- istry of kindly action; it embraced "many things," which were too well known — for such is the force of the word — to Timothy to require repetition.

      The visits which O. paid to Paul in his Rom prison were intensely "refreshing." And it was not once or twice that he thus visited the chained pris- oner, but he did so ofttimes.

      Though O. had come to Rome, his household had

      remained in Ephesus; and a last salutation is sent

      to them by Paul. He could not write

      3. His again, ashewasnowready to beoffered, Household and his execution could not long be

      delayed. But as he writes, he enter- tains the kindest feelings toward O. and his house- hold, and he prays that the Lord will give mercy to the household of O.

      He also uses these words in regard to O. himself: "The Lord grant unto him to find mercy of the Lord in that day." It is not clear whether O. was living, or whether he had died, before Paul wrote this ep. Different opinions have been held on the subject.

      The way in which Paul refers twice to "the house- hold fRV "house"] of Onesiphorus," makes it possible that O. himself had died. If this is so — but certainty is impossible — the apostle's words in regard to him would be a pious wish, which has nothing in common with the abuses which have

      gathered round the subject of prayers for the dead, a practice which has no foundation in Scripture.

      John Rdtherfdrd ONIARES, g-nl'a-rez, 6-ni-a'rez: 1 Mace 12 19 AV = RV Arids (q.v.).

      ONIAS, O-nl'as ('Ov£as, Onias): There were 3 high priests of the name of Onias, and a 4th Onias who did not become a high priest but was known as the builder of the temple of Leontopolis (Jos, Ant, XIII, iii, 1-3). Only two persons of the name are mentioned in the Apoc — Onias I and Onias III.

      (1) Onias I, according to Jos {Ant, XI, viii, 7), the son of Jaddua and father of Simon the Just (ib, XII, ii, 5; Sir 50), and, according to 1 Mace 12 7.20, a contemporary of Areus (Arius), king of Sparta, who reigned 309-265 BC (Diod. xx.29). This Onias was the recipient of a friendly letter from Areus of Sparta (1 Mace 12 7; see MSS readings here, and 12 20). Jos {Ant, XII, iv, 10) repre- sents this letter as written to Onias III, which ia an error, for only two Areuses are known, and Areus II reigned about 255 BC and died a child of 8 years (Pans. iii. 6. 6). The letter — if genuine — exists in two copies (Jos, Ant, XII, iv, 10, and 1 Mace 12 20 ff) (see Schilrer, Hist of the Jewish People, 4th ed, I, 182 and 237).

      (2) Onias III, son of Simon II (Jos, Ant, XII, iv, 10), whom he succeeded, and a contemporary of Seleucus IV and Antiochus Epiphanes (2 Mace 3 1; 4 7) and father of Onias IV. He was known for his godliness and zeal for the law, yet was on such friendly terms with the Seleucids that Seleucus IV Philopator defrayed the cost of the "services of the sacrifices." He quarreled with Simon the Benjamite, guardian of the temple, about the market buildings (Gr aedileship). Being unable to get the better of Onias and thirsting for revenge, Simon went to Apollonius, governor of Coele-Syria and Phoenicia, and informed him of the "untold sums of money" lodged in the treasury of the temple. The governor told the king, and Seleucus dispatched his chancellor, Heliodorus, to remove the money. Onias remonstrated in vain, pleading for the "de- posits of widows and orphans." Heliodorus per- sisted in the object of his mission. The high priest and the people were in the greatest distress. But when HeUodorus had already entered the temple, "the Sovereign of spirits, and of all authority caused a great apparition," a horse with a terrible rider accompanied by two strong and beautiful young men who scourged and wounded Heliodorus. At the intercession of Onias, his life was spared. Helio- dorus advised the king to send on the same errand any enemy or conspirator whom he wished punished. Simon then slandered Onias, and the jealousy having caused bloodshed between their followers, Onias decided to repair in person to the king to intercede for his country. Apparently before a decision was given, Seleucus was assassinated and Epiphanes succeeded (175 BC). Jason, the brother of Onias, having offered the new king larger revenue, secured the priesthood, which he held until he himself was similarly supplanted by Menelaus, Simon's brother (2 Mace 4 23; Jos, Ant, XII, v, 1, says Jason's brother). Menelaus, having stolen golden vessels belonging to the temple to meet his promises made to the king, was sharply reproved by Onias. Menelaus took revenge by persuading Andronicus, the king's deputy, to entice Onias by false promises of friendship from his sanctuary at Daphne and treacherously slay him — an act which caused indignation among both the Jews and the Greeks (2 Maco 4 34 ff). Jos {Ant, XII, v, 1) says that "on the death of Onias the high priest, Antiochus gave the high-priesthood to his brother Jesus [Jason]," but the account of 2 Mace given

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      above is the more probable. Some see in Dnl 9 26; 11 22 reference to Onias III (Schiirer, 4th ed, I, 194 ff; III, 144). S. Angus

      ONIONS, un'yunz (D""^??, h'sclllm; Kp6|i(ivov,

      hr6nimuon) : One of the delicacies of Egypt for which the children of Israel pined in the wilderness (Nu 11 5). The onion, allium cepa (N.O. lAliaceae), is known in Arab, as busal and is cultivated all over Syria and Egypt ; it appears to be as much a favor- ite in the Orient today as ever.

      ONLY BEGOTTEN, on'li be-got"n (liovo-ycvVis,

      monogents): Although the Eng. words are found only 6 t in the NT, the Gr word appears 9 t, and often in the LXX. It is used literally of an only child: "the only son of his mother" (Lk 7 12); "an only daughter" (8 42); "mine only child" (9 38); "Isaac .... his only begotten" (He 11 17). In all other places in the NT it refers to Jesus Christ as "the only begotten Son of God" (Jn 1 14.18; 3 16.18: 1 Jn 4 9). In these passages, too, it might be tr<^ as "the only son of God"; for the emphasis seems to be on His uniqueness, rather than on His sonship, though both ideas are certainly present. He is the son of God in a sense in which no others are. "Monogenes describes the absolutely unique relation of the Son to the Father in His Divine nature; prototokos describes the relation of the Risen Christ in His glorified humanity to man" (Westcott on He 1 6). Christ's uniqueness as it appears in the above passages consists of two things : (a) He reveals the Father: "No man hath seen God at any time; the only begotten Son, who is in the bosom of the Father, he hath declared him" (Jn

      I 18). Men therefore behold His glory, "glory as of the only begotten from the Father" (1 14). (b) He is the mediator of salvation: "God hath sent his only begotten Son into the world that we might live through him" (1 Jn 4 9; Jn 3 16); "He that believeth not [on him] hath been judged already" (Jn 3 18). Other elements in His uniqueness may be gathered from other passages, as His sinlessness, His authority to forgive sins. His unbroken com- munion with the Father, and His unique knowledge of Him. To say that it is a uniqueness of nature or essence carries thought no farther, for these terms still need definition, and they can be defined only in terms of His moral consciousness, of His reve- lation of God, and esp. of His intimate union as Son with the Father (see also Begotten; Person OF Christ; Son of God).

      The reading "God only begotten" in Jn 1 18 RVm, though it has strong textual support, is im- probable, and can well be explained as due to orthodox zeal, in opposition to adoptionism. See Grimm-Thayer, Lexicon; Westcott, ad loc.

      T Rees

      ONO, 5'no ("la'lX, 'ono; B, 'Hvav, Ondn, A, 'Clviii, Ono, and other forms): A town mentioned along with Lod as fortified by certain Benjamites (1 Ch 8 12). The Mish CArakhtn, ix.6) says that Joshua fortified it, but there is no such early notice of it in Scripture. It was occupied by Benjamites after the return from exile (Ezr 2 33; Neh 7 37;

      II 35). In one of the villages in the plain of Ono, Sanballat and his friends vainly tried to inveigle Nehemiah into a conference (6 2). It is represented by the modem Kefr 'And, which lies to the N.W. of Lydda. In 1 Esd 5 22, the name appears as "Onus." W. EwiNG

      ONUS, o'nus. See Ono.

      ONYCHA, on'i-ka (n'irnp, sh'helelh; cf Arab.

      'ii\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\^ , suhdlat, "filings," "husks"): "Onycha" is a

      transliteration of the LXX owxo., dnucha, ace. of ovu|, omix, which means "nail," "claw," "hoof," and also "onyx," a precious stone. The forrn "onycha" was perhaps chosen to avoid confusion with "onyx," the stone. The Heb sh'heleth occurs only in Ex 30 34 as an ingredient of the sacred incense. It is supposed to denote the horny operculum found in certain species of marine gasteropod molluscs. ^ The operculum is a disk attached to the upper side of the hinder part of the "foot" of the mollusc. When the animal draws itself into its shell, the hinder part of the foot comes last, and the operculum closes the mouth of the shell. The operculum, which may be horny or stony, is absent in sorne species. The horny opercula when burned emit a pecuhar odor, and are still used in combination with other perfumes by the Arab women of LTpper Egypt and Nubia. (See Sir S. Baker, The Nile Tributaries of Abyssinia, cited by EB, s.v. "Onycha.") Alfred Ely Day

      ONYX, on'iks, o'niks. See Stones, Precious.

      OPEN, o'p'n: In the OT represents chiefly nns , pathah, but also other words, as ^153, galdh, "to uncover"; of the opening of the eyes in vision, etc (thus Balaam, Nu 22 31; 24 4; cf Job 33 16; 36 10; Ps 119 18; Jer 32 11.14). In the NT the usual word is dpotyu, anoigo (of opening of mouth, eyes, heavens, doors, etc). A peculiar word, Tpax^yXifo/xai, trachelizomai (lit. to have the neck bent back, to be laid bare), is used for "laid open" be- fore God in He 4 13.

      OPEN PLACE: (1) The "open place" of Gen 38 14 AV, in which Tamar sat, has come from a misunderstanding of the Heb, the translators having taken b'phethah 'enayim to mean "in an opening pubhcly," instead of "in an opening [i.e. a gatel of Enaim" (cf Prov 1 21 in the Heb). RV has corrected; see Enaim. (2) In 1 K 22 10 II 2 Ch 18 9 RV relates that Ahab and Jehosha- phat sat "each on his throne, arrayed in their robes, in an open place [m "Heb a threshing-floor," AV "a void place"] at the entrance of the gate of Samaria." The Heb here is awkward, and neither the LXX nor the Syr seems to have read the present text in 1 K 22 10, the former having "in arms, at the gate of Samaria," and the latter "in many- colored garments." Consequently various attempts have been made to emend the text, of which the simplest is the omission of b'ghdren, "in an open place." If, however, the text is right — as is not impossible — the open place is a threshing-floor close to the gate. See the commentaries.

      Burton Scott Easton

      OPERATION, op-er-a'shun (n'ffiyU, ma'aseh, "work"; eve'pYeia, energeia, lv4p-yT||jia, energema, "energy"): Twice used in the OT of God's creative work (Ps 28 4.5; Isa 5 12). The Holy Spirit's inworhing and power are manifest in the bestowal of spiritual gifts on individuals and on the church (1 Cor 12 6 AV), and in the resurrection of Jesus Christ, through which energy or operation of God those dead in sins are, through faith, raised to newness of life (Col 2 12 AV).

      OPHEL, o'fel (bs'yn, ha-'ophel [2 Ch 27 3; 33 14; Neh 3 26 f; 11 21; and without article, Isa 32 14 and Mio 4 8; also 2 K 6 24]):

      There has been considerable divergence of opinion

      with regard to the meaning of tliis name. Thus in all

      the references given above with the art.,

      1 Meaning ^^ '^''"^ simply "Ophel," but AV adds

      't -KT „„ ° in m "the towel "; in Isa 32 14, "the hiU"

      01 IMame with m "Ophel," but AV "the forts," m

      "clifts"; Mic 4 8, "the hill," m "Heb

      Ophel,"butAV "the stronghold"; 2 K 5 24, "the hill,"

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      m "Heb Ophel," but AV "the tower," m "secret jjlace." It is true that the other occuri'ences of the word in 1 S 5 9.12; 6 5 f, where it is tr

      Three places are known to have received this

      name: (1) A certain place on the east hill of Jerus,

      S. of the temple; to this all the pas-

      2. Three sages quoted above — except one — Ophels refer. (2) The "Ophel," tr^ "hill,"

      situated apparently in Samaria (cf 2 K 5 3), where Gehazi took his ill-gotten presents from the hands of the servants of Naaman the Syrian. The tr "tower" would suit the sense at least as well. It was some point probably in the wall of Samaria, perhaps the citadel itself. (3) The third reference is not Bib., but on the M S, an inscription of Mesha, king of Moab, contemporary with Omri. He says: "I built KRHH [?_Karhah], the wall of y'dnm, and the wall of 'Ophel and I built its gates and I built its towers." In com- paring the references to (1) and (3), it is evident that if Ophel means a "hill," it certainly was a fortified hill, and it seems highly probable that it meant some "artificial swelling in a fortification, e.g. a bulging or rounded keep or enceinte" (Bur- ney, loc. cit.). Isa 32 14 reads, "The palace shall be forsaken; the populous city shall be deserted; the hill [Ophel] and the watch-tower shall be for dens for ever." Here we have palace, city and watch-tower, all the handiwork of the builder. Does it not seem probable that the Ophel belongs to the same category?

      The situation of the Ophel of Jerus is very defi- nitely described. It was clearly, from the refer- ences (Neh 3 26.27; 2 Ch 27 3; 33

      3. The 14), on the east hill S. of the temple. Ophel of Jos states {BJ, V, iv, 2) that the Jerusalem eastern wall of the city ran from Si- loam "and reaches as far as a certain

      place which they called Ophlas when it was joined to the eastern cloister of the temple." In BJ, V, vi, 1, it states that "John held the temple and the parts thereto adjoining, for a great way, as also 'Ophla,' and the Valley called the 'Valley of the Cedron.' " It is noticeable that this is not identical with the "Acra" and "Lower City" which was held by Simon. There is not the slightest ground for applying the name Ophel, as has been so commonly done, to the whole southeastern hill. In the days of Jos, it was a part of the hill immediately S. of the temple walls, but the OT references suit a locality nearer the middle of the southeastern hill. In the art. ZiON (q.v.) it is pointed out that that name does not occur (except in reference to the Jebusite city) in the works of the Chronicler, but that "theOphel," which occurs almost alone in these works, is appar- ently used for it. Mio 4 8m seems to confirm this view: "O tower of the flock, the Ophel of the daughter of Zion." Here the "tower of the flock" may well refer to the shepherd David's stronghold, and the second name appears to be a synonym for the same place.

      Ophel then was probably the fortified site which in earlier days had been known as "Zion" or "the City of David." King Jotham "built much" "on the wall of Ophel" (2 Ch 27 3). King Manasseh "built an outer wall to the city of David, on the west side of Gihon, in the valley, even to the entrance at the fish gate ; and he compassed Ophel about with it, and raised it up to a very great height" (2 Ch 33 14). It was clearly a fortified place of great importance, and its situation must have been so near that of the ancient "Zion" that

      scarcely any other theory is possible except that it occupied the site of that ancient fortress.

      E. W. G. Masterman OPHIR, o'fSr, o'fir (TiBIS [Gen 10 29], "ISIX [1 K 10 11], I^BX, 'dphlr): The 11th in order of the sons of Joktan (Gen 10 29 = 1 Ch

      1. Scrip- 1 23). There is a clear reference also tural Refer- to a tribe Ophir (Gen 10 30). Ophir ences is the name of a land or city some- where to the S. or S.E. of Pal for which

      Solomon's ships along with Phoen vessels set out from Ezion-geber at the head of the Gulf of Aka- bah, returning with great stores of gold, precious stones and "almug"-wood (1 K 9 28; 10 11; 2 Ch 9 10; IK 22 48; 2 Ch 8 18). We get a fuller list of the wares and also the time taken by the voyage if we assume that the same vessels are referred to in 1 K 10 22, "Once every three years came the navy of Tarshish, bringing gold, and silver, ivory, and apes, and peacocks." The other products ma,y not have been native to the land of Ophir, but it is certain that the gold at least was produced there. This gold was proverbial for its purity, as is witnessed by many references in the OT (Ps 45 9; Job 28 16; Isa 13 12; 1 Ch 29 4), and, in Job 22 24, Ophir is used for fine gold itself. In addition to these notices of Ophir, it is urged that the name occurs also in two passages under the form "Uphaz" (Jer 10 9; Dnl 10 S).

      At all times the geographical position of Ophir

      has been a subject of dispute, the claims of three

      different regions being principally

      2. Geo- advanced, namely (1) India and the graphical Far East, (2) Africa, (3) Arabia. Position (1) India and the Far East. — All the

      wares mentioned are more or less appropriate to India, even including the fuller list of 1 K 10 22. "Almug"-wood is conjectured to be the Indian sandal-wood. Another argument is based on the resemblance between the LXX form of the word (Sopherd) and the Coptic name for India (Sophir). A closer identification is sought with Abhira, a people dwelling at the mouths of the Indus. _ Supara, an ancient city on the west coast of India near the modern Goa, is also suggested. Again, according to Wildman, the name denotes a vague extension eastward, perhaps as far as China.

      (2) Africa. — This country is the greatest gold- producing region of the three. Sofala, a seaport near Mozambique on the east coast of Africa, has been advanced as the site of Ophir, both on lin- guistic grounds and from the nature of its products, for there all the articles of 1 K 10 22 could be procured. But Gesenius shows that Sofala is merely the Arab, form of the Heb sh'phelah. In- terest in this region as the land of Ophir was re- newed, however, by Mauch's discovery at Zim- babye of great ruins and signs of old Phoen civiliza- tion and worked-out gold mines. According to Bruce (I, 440), a voyage from Sofala to Ezion-geber would have occupied quite three years owing to the monsoons.

      (3) Arabia. — The claim of Southeastern Arabia as the land of Ophir has on the whole more to sup- port it than that of India or of Africa. 'The Ophir of Gen 10 29 beyond doubt belonged to this region, and the search for Ophir in more distant lands can be made only on the precarious assumption that the Ophir of K is not the same as the Ophir of Gen. Of the various products mentioned, the only one which from the OT notices can be regarded as clearly native to Ophir is the gold, and according to Pliny and Strabo the region of Southeastern Arabia bordering on the Persian Gulf was a famous gold-producing country. The other wares were not necessarily produced in Ophir, but were prob-

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      ably brought there from more distant lands, and thence conveyed by Solomon's merchantmen to Ezion-geber. If the duration of the voyage (3 years) be used as evidence, it favors this location of Ophir as much as that on the east coast of Africa. It seems therefore the least assailable view that Ophir was a district on the Persian Gulf in South- eastern Arabia and served in old time as an em- porium of trade between the East and West.

      A. S. Fulton OPHNI, of'ni(ij5yn, ha-'ophni; 'A<^v^, Aphnt'): A place in the territory of Benjamin (Josh 18 24). The modern Jifneh, in a fine vale W. of the road to Nahlus and 2| miles N.W. of Bethel, might suit as to position; but the change in the initial letter from ''ain to jim is not easy. This is the Gophna of the rabbis (cf Jos, BJ, III, iii, .5).

      OPHRAH, of'ra (H^^y , 'ophrah; B, 'A4>pd, Aphrd, A, 'Ie<|)paea, lephrathd, etc) :

      (1) A town in the territory allotted to Benjamin named between Parah and Chephar-ammoni (Josh 18 23). It is mentioned again in 1 S 13 17. The Philis who were encamped at Michmash sent out marauding bands, one of which went westward, another eastward, down "the valley of Zeboim toward the wilderness"; the third "turned unto the way that leadeth to Ophrah, unto the land of Shual." This must have been northward, as Saul commanded the passage to the S. Onom places it 5 Rom miles E. of Bethel. A site which comes near to fulfilling these conditions is et-Taiyebeh, which stands on a conical hill some 5 miles N.E. of Beitln. This is possibly identical with "Ephron" (2 Ch 13 19), and "Ephraim" (Jn 11 54).

      (2) A city in the tribal lot of Manasseh W. of Jordan. It is mentioned only in connection ivith Gideon, whose native place it was, and with his son Abimelech (Jgs 6 11, etc). It was, indeed, family property, belonging to Joash the Abiczrite, the father of Gideon. It was apparently not far from the plain of Esdraelon (vs 33 f), so that Gideon and his kinsmen smarted under the near presence of the oppressing Midianites. Manasseh, of course, as bordering on the southern edge of the plain, was in close touch with the invaders. At Ophrah, Gideon reared his altar to Jeh, and made thorough cleansing of the instruments of idolatry. After his great victory, he set up here the golden ephod made from the spoils of the enemy, which proved a snare to himself and to his house (8 27). Here he was finally laid to rest. It was at Ophrah that Abime- lech, aspiring to the kingdom, put to death upon one stone three score and ten of his brethren, rs possible rivals, Jotham alone escaping alive (9 b). Apparently the mother of Abimelech belonged to Shechem; this established a relationship with that town, his connection with which does not therefore mean that Ophrah was near it.

      No quite satisfactory identification has yet been suggested. Conder {FEES, 187G, 197) quotes the Samaritan Chronicle as identifying Ferata, which is 6 miles W. of Nablus, with an ancient Ophra, "and the one that suggests itself as most probably identi- cal is Ophrah of the Abiezerite." But this seems too far to the S.

      (3) A man of the tribe of Judah, son of Me- onothai (1 Ch 4 14). W. Ewing

      OPINION, 6-pin 'yun (?'n, de°', D"'5?'0, s'Hpplni) : "Opinion" occurs only 5 t, thrice in Job (32 6.10. 17) as the tr of def\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ "knowledge," "opinion" (in the address of Elihu), and once of K''ippirn, from ^d'aph, "to divide or branch out," hence division or party, unsettled opinion (in the memorable appeal of Elijah, "How long halt ye between two opinions?"

      1 K 18 21, ARV "How long go ye limping be- tween the two sides?"). In Ecclus 3 24, we have, "For many are deceived by their own vain opinion" {hnpolepsis, "a taking up," "a hasty judgment"), RV "The conceit of many hath led them astray."

      W. L. Walker OPOBALSAMUM, op-o-bal'sa-mum : RVm in Ex 30 34. See Stacte.

      OPPRESSION, o-presh'un: Used in AV to trans- late a variety of Heb words, all of which, however, agree in the general sense of wrong done by violence to others. There are a few cases where the reference is to the oppression of Israel by foreigners, as by their Egyp masters (Ex 3 9; Dt 26 7), or by Syria (2 K 13 4), or by an unmentioned nation (Isa 30 20 AVm). In all these cases the Heb original is f nb , lahas. But in the vast number of cases the reference is to social oppression of one kind or an- other within Israel's own body. It is frequently the theme of psalmist and prophet and wise man. The poor and weak must have suffered greatlj^ at the hands of the stronger and more fortunate. The word lahai;., various forms of the V piP? , 'dshak, and other words are used by the writers as they express their sorrow and indignation over the wrongs of their afflicted brethren. In his own sorrow, Job remembers the suffering of the oppressed (Job 35 9; 36 15); it is a frequent subject of song in the Pss (Ps 12 5; 42 9; 43 2; 44 24; 55 3; 119 134); the preacher observes and reflects upon its prevalence (Eccl 4 1; 5 8; 7 7 AV); the prophets Amos (3 9), Isaiah (5 7; 59 13), Jeremiah (6 6; 22 17) and Ezekiel (22 7.29) thundered against it. It was exercised toward strangers and also toward the Israelites themselves, and was never wholly overcome. In Jas 2 6, "oppress" is the rendering of KaraivvauTtiw^ katadimasleiio, "to exercise harsh control over one," "to use one's power against one." William Joseph McGlothlin

      OR, or: The word is used once for either (1 S 26 lO), and is still in poetic use in this sense; as in, "Without or wave or wind" (Coleridge); "Or the bakke or some bone he breketh in his jouthe" {Piers Plowman [B], VII, 93; cf Merchant of Venice, III, ii, 65). It is also used with "ever" for before (Ps 90 2; Ecclus 18 19), which ARV sub- stitutes in Eccl 12 6 (cf vs 1.2); Cant 6 12; Dnl 6 24.

      ORACLE, or'a-k'l: (1) A Divine utterance de- livered to man, usually in answer to a request for guidance. So in 2 S 16 23 for inT, dabhar ("word," as in RVm). The use in this passage seems to indicate that at an early period oracular utterances were sought from Jeh "by the Israelites, but the practice certainly fell into disuse at the rise of prophecy, and there are no illustrations of the means employed (1 S 14 18.19.36-42, etc, belong rather to Divination [q.v.]). In RVm of such passages as Isa 13 1, "oracle" is used in the titles of certain special prophecies as a substitute for Burden (q.v.) (S?'lBB, massd'), with considerable advantage (esp. in Lam 2 14). (2) In heathen temples "oracle" was used for the chamber in which the utterances were delivered (naturally a most sacred part of the structure). This usage, coupled with a mistake in Heb philology (connecting ~l''3'l , d'hhlr, "hinder part," with 13"! , dihhcr, "speak"), caused EV to give the title "oracle" to the Most Holy Place of the Temple, in 1 K 6 5, etc, foUow- mg the example of Aquila, Symmachus and Vulg. But the title is very unfortunate, as the Most Holy Place had nothing to do with the dehvery of oracles, and RV should have corrected (cf Ps 28 2 m).

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      (3) In the NT EV employs "oracle" as the tr of X6710J', logion, "saying," in four places. In all, Divine utterances are meant, specialized in Acts 7 38 as the Mosaic Law ("living oracles" = "com- mandments enforced by the living God"), in Rom 3 2 as the OT in general, and in He 5 12 as the revelations of Christianity (6 2.3). In 1 Pet 4 11 the meaning is debated, but probably the command is addressed to those favored by a supernatural "gift of speech." Such men must keep their own personality in the background, adding nothing of their own to the inspired message as it comes to them. Burton Scott Easton

      ORACLES, SIBYLLINE, sib'i-lin, -lin. See Apoc- alyptic LiTERATDRE, V.

      ORATOR, or'a-ter, ORATION, 6-ra'shun: The word "orator" occurs twice: (1) As AV rendering of iBnb , lahash; only Isa 3 3, "the eloquent orator," AVm "skilful of speech," where RV rightly sub- stitutes "the skilful enchanter." The word lahash is probably a mimetic word meaning "a hiss," "a whisper," and is used in the sense of "incantatioUj" "charm." Hence n'bhon lahash means "skilful m incantation," "expert in magic." See Divina- tion; Enchantment. (2) As the rendering of ^rjTup, rhetor, the title applied to TertuUus, who appeared as the advocate of the Jewish accusers of Paul before Felix (Acts 24 1). The proceedings, as was generally the case in the provincial Rom courts, would probably be conducted in Lat, and under Rom modes of procedure, in which the parties would not be well versed; hence the need of a pro- fessional advocate. Rhetor is here the equivalent of the older Gr sunegoros, "the prosecuting counsel," as opposed to the sundikos, "the defendant's advo- cate."

      Oration occurs only in Acts 12 21: "Herod .... made an oration unto them" {IS-qixijybpd irpi^ auTois, edemegorei pros autous). The vb. demegoreo, "to speak in an assembly" (from dtmos, "people," agoreuo, "to harangue"), is often found in classical Gr, generally in a bad sense (Lat con- cionari) ; here only in the NT.

      D. Miall Edwards

      ORCHARD, or'cherd: (1) CinS, parde:?, from Old Pers, "a walled-in inclosure"; rapideic-os, parddeisos, a word in classical Gr applied to the garden of Babylon (Diodorus Siculus xi.lO) and to a game park (Xen. Anab. i.2, 7). See Neh 2 8, "forest," m "park"; Cant 4 13, "orchard," m "paradise" (of pomegranates) ; Eccl 2 5, "parks," AV "orchards"; see Paradise. (2) ktjtos, ktpos, "garden" or "orchard": "a white thorn in an orchard" (Bar 6 71).

      ORDAIN, or-dan', ORDINATION, 6r-di-na'- shun (Lat ordinare, "to set in order," "to arrange"; in post-Augustan Lat "to appoint to office"; from ordo, gen. ordinis, "order," "arrangement"): In AV the vb. "to ordain" renders as many as 3.5 different words (11 Heb words in the OT, 21 Gr words in Apoc and the NT, and 3 Lat words in Apoc). This is due to the fact that the Eng. word has many shades of meaning (esp. as used in the time AV was made), of which the following are the chief: (1) To set in order, arrange, prepare:

      "All things that we ordained festival, Turn from their office to black funeral. ' '

      — Shakespeare, Romeo and Juliet, IV, v, 84.

      This meaning is now obsolete. It is found in AV of Ps 132 17; Isa 30 33; He 9 6 (in each of which cases RV or m substitutes "prepare"); 1 Ch 17 9 (RV "appoint";; Ps 7 13 (RV "maketh"); Hab 1 12 (also RV). (2) To establish, institute, bring into

      being: "When first this order [i.e. the Garter] was ordained, my Lord" (Shakespeare). So in IK

      12 32, "Jeroboam ordained a feast in the 8th month" (ver 33); Nu 28 6; Ps 8 2.3; Isa 26 12; 2 Esd 6 49 AV (RV "preserve"); Sir 7 1.5; Gal 3 19. (3) To decree, give orders, prescribe:

      " And doth the power that man adores Ordain their doom ? "

      — Byron.

      So Est 9 27, "The Jews ordained .... that they would keep these two days according to the writing thereof"; 1 Esd 6 34; 2 Esd 7 17; 8 14 AV; Tob 1 6; 8 7 AV (RV "command"); Ad Est 14 9; 1 Mace 4 59; 7 49; Acts 16 4; Rom 7 10 AV; 1 Cor 2 7; 7 17; 9 14; Eph 2 10 AV. (4) To set apart for an office or duty, appoint, destine: "Being ordained his special governor" (Shakespeare). Fre- quent in EV. When AV has "ordain" in this sense, RV generally substitutes "appoint"; e.g. "He [Jesus] appointed [AV "ordained"] twelve, that they might be with him" (Mk 3 14). So 2 Ch 11 15; Jer 1 5; Dnl 2 24; 1 Esd 8 49; 1 Maco 3 55; 10 20; Jn 15 16; Acts 14 23; 1 Tim 2 7; Tit 1 5; He 6 1; 8 3. RV .substitutes "formedst" in Wisd 9 2, "recorded" in Sir 48 10, "become" in Acts 1 22, "written of" (m "set forth") in Jude ver 4, but retains "ordain" in the sense of "appoint," "set apart," in 2 K 23 5; 1 Ch 9 22; 1 Esd 8 23; Ad Est 13 6; Acts 10 42; 13 48; 17 31; Rom

      13 1. (5) To appoint ceremonially to the minis- terial or priestly office, to confer holy orders on. This later technical or ecclesiastical sense is never found in EV. The nearest approach is (4) above, but the idea of formal or ceremonial setting-apart to office (prominent in its modern usage) is never implied in the word.

      Ordination: The act of arranging in regular order, esp. the act of investing with ministerial or sacerdotal rank (ordo), the setting-apart for an office in the Christian ministry. The word does not occur in EV. The NT throws but little light on the origin of the later ecclesiastical rite of ordination. The 12 disciples were not set apart by any formal act on the part of Jesus. In Mk 3 14; Jn 15 16, the AV rendering "ordain" is, in view of its modern usage, misleading; nothing more is implied than an appointment or election. In Jn 20 21-23, we have indeed a symbolic act of consecration ("He breathed on them"), but "the act is described as one and not repeated. The gift was once for all, not to individuals but to the abid- ing body" (Westcott, ad loc). In the Apostolic age there is no trace of the doctrine of an outward rite conferring inward grace, though we have in- stances of the formal appointment or recognition of those who had already given proof of their spiritual qualification. (1) The Seven were chosen by the brethren as men already "full of the Spirit and of wisdom," and were then "appointed" by the Twelve, who prayed and laid their hands upon them (Acts 6 1-6). (2) The call of Barnabas and Saul came direct from God (Acts 13 2, "the work whereunto I have called them"; ver 4, they were "sent forth by the Holy Spirit"). Yet certain prophets and teachers were instructed by the Holy Spirit to "separate" them (i.e. pub- licly) for their work, which they did by fasting and praying and laying on of hands (ver 3). But it was utterly foreign to Paul's point of view to regard the church's act as constituting him an apostle (cf Gal 1 1). (3) Barnabas and Paul are said to have "ordained," RV "appointed" (x^V- Ton-fjcravTes, cheirotontsantes, "elect," "appoint," without indicating the particular mode of appoint- ment), elders or presbyters in every city with prayers and fasting (Acts 14 23). So Titus was instructed by Paul to "appoint elders in every

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      city" in Crete (Tit 1 5). (4) The gift of Timothy for evangelistic work seems to have been formally recognized in two ways: (o) by the laying on of the hands of the presbytery (1 Tim 4 14), (6) by the laying on of the hands of Paul himself (2 Tim 1 6). The words "Lay hands hastily on no man" (1 Tim 5 22) do not refer to an act of ordination, but probably to the restoration of the penitent. The reference in He 6 2 is not exclusively to ordination, but to all occasions of laying on of hands (see Hands, Imposition of). From the few instances mentioned above (the only ones found in the NT), we infer that it was regarded as advisable that persons holding high office in the church should be pubhcly recognized in some way, as by laying on of hands, fasting, and pubho prayer. But no great emphasis was laid on this rite, hence "it can hardly be likely that any essential principle was held to be involved in it" (Hort, The Christian Ecclesia, 216). It was regarded as an outward act of approval, a symbolic offering of intercessory prayer, and an emblem of the solidarity of the Christian community, rather than an indispensable channel of grace for the work of the ministry. (For the later ecclesiastical doctrine and rite see Edwin Hatch's valuable art. on "Ordination" in the Diet. Christian Anliq.) D. Miall Edwards

      ORDER, or'der (^1?', 'arakh, "to arrange"; rdo-o-eiv, tdssein [>diatdssein, taxis, tdgtna]) : "Order" in Bib. phrases may indicate (1) arrangement in rows, (2) sequence in time, (3) classification and organization, (4) likeness or manner, (5) regula- tion, direction or command, or (6) the declaring of a will. In many passages it is difficult if not im- possible to determine from the Eng. text alone in which of these senses the word is used.

      The fundamental idea suggested by the Heb, Gr and Eng. words is that of arrangement in rows. Thus "order" is used in the Bible of arrang- 1. Arrange- ing wood for an altar (Lev 17; IK ment in 18 33; cf Heb Gen 22 9; Isa 30 33);

      Rows of laying out flax-stalks for drying

      (Josh 2 6); of preparing offerings (Lev 1 8.12; cf 6 5; Jgs 6 26); of arranging lamps (Ex 27 21; 39 37; Lev 24 3.4; cf Ps 132 17) ; of placing the shewbread on the table (Ex 40 4.23; Lev 6 12; 24 8; 2 Ch 13 11); of drawing up the battle array (1 Ch 12 38 [Heb 39, 'adhar]); and of arranging weapons in order for battle (Jer 46 3, ARV "prepare"). As a vb. "to order" in the older VSS usually has the obsolete sense "to ar- range" and not the more usual Eng. meanings, "to demand" or "to direct." Thus: "In the tent of meeting shall Aaron order it" (Lev 24 4, ARV "keep in order"); "Order ye the buckler and shield" (Jer 46 3; cf Ps 119 133; Job 23 4, ARV "set in order"; Jth 2 16; Wisd 8 1; IB 1; Ecclus 2 6). The Heb pa'a7n (lit. "hoof-beat," "occurrence," "repetition") in the plural conveys the idea of an architectural plan (Ezk 41 6). An- other word, shdlabh, lit. "to join," in connection with the tabernacle, has in some VSS been tr'' as including the idea of orderly arrangement (Ex 26 17). The word "order" standing by itself may mean orderly or proper arrangement (1 Esd 1 10; Wisd 7 29; 1 Mace 6 40; Col 2 5). Akin to the idea of arranging things in a row is that of arranging words (Job 33 5; 37 19; Ps 5 3), of recounting things in order (Isa 44 7; Lk 1 1 AV [diatassein]; Lk 1 3; Acts 11 4 [kathexis]) , of setting forth a legal case (Job 23 4; 13 18; cf Ps 50 21). From the idea of ranging in order for the purpose of com- parison the Heb 'drakh acquires the meaning "to compare" (Isa 40 18; Ps 89 7). This is clearly the meaning of 'en ^drokh 'elekhd (Ps 40 5 [Heb 6]), where "They cannot be set in order unto thee"

      must be interpreted to mean "There is nothing that can be compared unto thee."

      As the fundamental meaning of 'drakh is arrange- ment in space, that of ^ddhar is order or sequence in time. In later Heb ^edher was used

      2. Sequence in the sense of "program." In Job in Time 10 22 15' .fdhdrim, absence of regular- ity, in the description of the uncertain

      period that follows death probably means "eon- fusion in time." (The LXX [0^7705, pheggos] sug- gests, in the place of s'dhdrmi, a word for "light," possibly (ohdrayitn.) In the NT we find "order" used of time in connection with the resurrection of the dead (1 Cor 15 23 [tagtna]) and of a succession of places visited (Acts 18 23 [kathexes]). The phrase "in order unto" (Ps 119 38) expresses causal sequence and hence purpose.

      The idea of classification is present in the Heb takan, tr"* "set in order," with reference to a collec- tion of proverbs (Eccl 12 9). The

      3. Classi- same stem is used with reference to the flcation and arranging of singers before the altar Organi- (Heb Ecclus 47 9). The classifica- zation tion of priests according to their serv- ice is spoken of as "ordering" (1 Ch

      24 3.19, Heb pakadh). Next to the high priests ranked priests of the second order {mishneh, 2 K 23 4; cf 25 18 || Jer 52 24). The related concept of organization is present where the Heb kUn (lit. "to estabhsh") is tr-^ "order" (Isa 9 7 AV, "to estab- lish" ARV; Ps 119 133; 2 Ch 29 35; cf 1 Mace 16 14). A similar use of the term "order" is found in the NT in connection with the organization of the affairs of .the church (1 Cor 16 1 [diatassein]; Tit 1 5 [epidiorthoo]; 1 Cor 11 34).

      "Order," in the sense of likeness or manner, is used

      in the phrase "after the order of Melchisedek" to

      translate the Heb 'al dibh'rath, or rather

      4. Likeness the archaic form 'al dihh'ralhl (Ps 110 or Manner 4), which in other passages is tr"* "be- cause of" (cf Eccl 3 18; 7 14; 8 2).

      This well-known phrase is rendered in LXX kald tsn tdxin, a tr adopted in He 5 6.10; 6 20; 7 11.17, where the passage from Ps is made the basis of an extended argument, in the course of which "order" is taken in the sense of "likeness" (He 7 16).

      In the sense of regulation, we find "order" as a

      tr of tnishpdt (which is lit. "the ruling of a shophet,"

      whether as a judicial decree or legis-

      5. Regula- lative act) in connection with the con- tion, Direc- duct of priests (1 Ch 6 32 [Heb tion, Com- 17]; 2 Ch 30 16; cf Lk 1 8; 1 mand Esd 1 6), and with reference to the

      Nazirite regulations in the story of Samson (Jgs 13 12, RV "manner"), church serv- ices (1 Cor 14 40) and, in the older Eng. VSS, with reference to other ritual matters (1 Ch 15 13; 23 31; 2 Ch 8 14, ARV "ordinance"). The phrase 'al yadh, fit. "according to the hand of," tr''inEzr 3 10; 1 Ch 25 2b. 3. 6 bis in various ways, means "under the direction of," or "under the order of," as tr"' in the last instance. The modern sense of "command" is suggested here and in several other instances (1 Esd 8 10; 1 Mace 9 55). He "that ordereth his conversation aright" (sdm derekh, Ps 60 23) is probably one who chooses the right path and directs his steps along it. "Who shall order the battle?" (1 K 20 14) is corrected in ARV: "Who shall begin the battle?" (cf 2 Ch 13 3, Heb 'a^ar, lit. "to bind," hence "to join" or "begin"; cf proelium committer e) .

      The phrase "to set one's house in order" (Isa 38 1 li 2 K 20 1; 2 S 17 23), used of Hezekiah and Ahithophel, in contemplation of death, means to give final instructions to one's household or to make one's will. The Heb iawdh used in this phrase is the stem found in the later Heb

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      gawwa'ah, "a verbal will" (Bdbha' Bathrd' 147a, 1516; BDB). Great moral weight was attached

      in Bib. times to the charges laid upon 6. Declar- a household by a deceased father or ing of Last remoter ancestor, not only as to the Will disposition of property but also as to

      personal conduct. (Cf the case of the Rechabites, where the same Heb expression is used, Siwwah ^alenu, Jer 35 6.) Nathan Isaacs

      ORDINANCE, 6r'di-nans: This word generally represents njjn , hukkah, something prescribed, enactment, usually with reference to 1. OT Use matters of ritual. In AV the same word is frequently tr"* by "statute" or "statutes," which is also the rendering of a similar Heb word, viz. pti, hok. RV generally retains "ordinance," but sometimes substitutes "statute" (e.g. Ex 18 20; Ps 99 7). In one instance RV renders "set portion" (Ezk 45 14). The word generally has a religious or ceremonial significance. It is used for instance in connection with the Pass- over (Ex 12 43; Nu 9 14). According to Ex 12 14, the Passover was "an ordinance for ever," i.e. a permanent institution. In the pi. the word is often employed, along with such terms as com- mandments, laws, etc, with reference to the different prescriptions of the Deuteronomic and Priestly codes (Dt 6 1.2; Lev 18 4).

      In 11 passages (Ex 15 25; Josh 24 25; 1 S 30 25; 2 K 17 34.37; 2 Ch 33 8; 35 13; Ps 119 91; Isa 58 2 bis,\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ Ezk 11 20) "ordinance" is the rendering of 13312)0, mishpdt, judgment, decision or sentence by a judge or ruler. In the Book of the Covenant (Ex 20 22—23 33) the term "judg- ments" denotes civil, as contrasted with ritual, enactments. In 2 K 17 34 AV employs "manners" and "ordinances" as renderings of this word. In 3 passages (Lev 18 30;. 22 9; Mai 3 14) "ordi- nance" is the tr of rripTBip, mishmereth, "charge," which RV restores. In one instance (Neh 10 32) ordinance renders HIS^, migwdh, "commandment," while in Ezr 3 10 AV the phrase "after the ordi- nance of David" represents a Heb phrase which lit. means "upon the hands of David," i.e. under the guidance or direction of David.

      In the NT, ' 'ordinance" renders different Gr words, viz. (1) SiKalafw., dikaioma, in Lk 1 6 and He 9 1.10. The word means lit. "anything 2. NT Use declared right"; but in these passages ceremonial and religious regulation; (2) S6yiJ.a, dogma, in Eph 2 15; Col 2 14. In the NT this word always means a decree or edict (Acts 17 7); (3) Ti-apdSoa-is, parddosis, in 1 Cor 11 2 AV, RV substitutes "traditions"; (4) Kriffis, klisis, "setting up," "institution," in 1 Pet 2 13. The term is used exclusively of the action of God. Peter implies that institutions, apparently human, such as the family and the state, are of Divine origin. The same doctrine is found in Rom 13 1.

      T. Lewis

      ORDINANCES OF HEAVEN. See Astron- omy, I, 1.

      ORDINATION, 6r-di-na'shun. Ordination.

      See Ordain,

      OREB, o'reb (niiy , 2"!is>, 'orehh, "raven," esp. "crow"), and ZEEB.ze'eb, zeb (n^?T, z«'e6/t, "wolf") (Jgs 7 25; 8 3; Ps 83 11, and Isa 10 26 [Oreb only]): Two Midianite chieftains captured and be- headed by the Ephraimites, who brought their heads to Gideon.

      As to the meaning of the two names, both words are found in Arabic. Robertson Smith, Kinship,

      etc (190ff, 218 ff), says that the use of the names of

      animals as names of persons is a relic of totemism.

      But Noldeke {ZDMO, XL, 160 ff) and

      1. Meaning others hold that such a use shows a of Names desire that those so named should be

      as disagreeable to their enemies as the plant or animal which the name denoted. Some again (e.g. Stade, Geschichte, 1S9 ff) maintain that the two names here are borrowed from locali- ties and not vice versa, as Jgs 7 25 implies. If so, we must take the names to be originally two places, apparently in Ephraim, for the words "beyond Jordan" in 7 25 contradict 8 4, where it is said that Gideon came to the Jordan and passed over. Moore {Jgs, 214) suggests that the two localities were near the junction with the Jordan of the stream that comes from Wddy Far'ah. The construction of the Heb allows of a tr "the rock [called] Oreb," and "the winepress [called] Zeeb."

      The account of a battle here is corroborated by Isa 10 26, a verse which mentions the "rock of

      Oreb," and suggests that the great

      2. The defeat of the Midianites took place Battle of there (cf Isa 9 4). The passage in Oreb Isa 10 24-26 is prose, however, and

      is said to be late editing (see G. H. Box, Isa, 65). In Ps 83 11 (Heb 12) there is a prayer that God would make the "nobles" among the Psalmist's enemies as Oreb and Zeeb.

      David Francis Roberts OREB: In 2 Esd 2 33 AV for Mt. Hoheb (q.v.; soRV).

      OREN, o'ren Ci^S* , 'oren; 'Apdji, Aram, Alex. Aran) : A son of Jerahmeel, the firstborn of Hezron (1 Ch 2 25).

      ORGAN, or'gan. See Music.

      ORION, 6-rl'on: A brilliant constellation dedi- cated to Nimrod or Merodach. See Astronomy, II, 11.

      ORNAMENT, or'na-ment C"^, 'ddkl, "adorn- ment"): In common with all the Orientals, the Hebrews were very fond of wearing ornaments, and their tendency to extravagance of this kind often met with stem prophetic rebuke (Isa 3 16- 24; Ezk 13 18-20). On this subject, little is said in the NT apart from Jesus' (Lk 7 25; 12 23) and James's (2 2) invectives against meretricious esti- mates of moral character. Yet the employment of attractive attire receives sanction in the Divine example of Ezk 16 10-14.

      Ornaments in general would include finely em- broidered or decorated fabrics, such as the priest's dress or the high-priestly attire, and the richly wrought veil, girdle and turban used by the wealth- ier class. But the term may be limited here to the various rings, bracelets and chains made of precious metals and more or less jeweled (cf Jer 2 32).

      These latter, described in detail under their own titles, may be summarized here as finger-rings, particularly prized as seal-rings (Gen 38 18.25; Jer 22 24); arm-rings or bracelets (Gen 24 22; 2 S 1 10); earrings (Gen 35 4; Ex 32 2); nose- rings (Gen 24 47 ; Ezk 16 12) ; anklets or ankle- chains (Isa 3 16.18); head-bands or fillets or cauls (referred to in Isa 3 18 only), and necklaces or neck-chains (Gen 41 42; Ezk 16 11).

      Figurative: The universal devotion to ornament among the Orientals is the occasion for frequent Bib. allusions to the beauty and splendor of fine jewelry and attire. But everywhere, in Divine injunctions, the emphasis of value is placed upon the beauty of holiness as an inward grace rather than on the attractions of outward ornament (Job

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      40 10; Ps 110 3; Joel 2 13; 1 Tim 2 9.10; 1

      Pet 3 4). In grievous sorrow, all ornament was

      to be laid aside in token of mourning (Ex 33 4-6).

      Leonard W. Doolan

      ORNAN, or'nan (1 Ch 21 15). See Aeaunah.

      ORPAH, or'pa (HS"!!? , ^orpah; for meaning see below) : A Moabitess, wife of Mahlon, son of Elime- lech and Naomi. Unlike her sister Ruth she re- turned to her own people after escorting Naomi on her way to Judah (Ruth 1 4 if). Her name is supposed to be derived from the Heb word for "neck" i'^l^ , 'oreph), and so to mean "stifl-necked" because of her turning back from follomng her mother-in-law; others take it to mean "gazelle."

      ORPHAN, or'fan: This word occurs once only in the OT (Lam 5 3, where it stands for DIH^, yathom, elsewhere rendered "fatherless," and in LXX always ip^pavb^, orphands) ; in the Apoc it occurs 3 t (2 Esd 2 20; Tob 1 8; 2 Mace 8 28). There is no clear case where it means the loss of both parents. The Scriptures devote considerable attention to the widow and orphan, and the idea is that the child is fatherless. It is not found in AV of the NT; but the Gr word orphanos occurs twice, Jn 14 18 (AV "comfortless," RV "desolate," m "orphans") and Jas 1 27 ("fatherless"). See Fatherless. D. Miall Edwards

      ORTHOSIA, 6r-th5-sl'a ('Opeuo-ias, Orthoskis; AV Orthosias): The city to which Tryphon fled when he escaped from Dora, where he was be- sieged by Antiochus Sidetes (1 Mace 15 37). According to Pliny {NH, v. 17) it lay S. of the river Eleutherus, and I^. of the city of Tripohs. The Peutinger Tables place it 12 Rom miles N. of Tripolis and 30 miles S. of Antaradus on the Phoen coast. Porter would place it on the southern bank of Nahr el- B arid.

      OSAIAS, 6-za'yas, 6-sa'yas ('flo-aCas, Osaias; B omits) : In 1 Esd 8 48 a corruption of Jeshaiah (cf Ezr 8 19).

      OSEA, 5-ze'a, 6-se'a: In 2 Esd 13 40 = Hoshea, king of Israel (q.v.).

      OSEAS, 5-ze'as, S-se'as: "Osee" in 2 Esd 1 39; the prophet Hosea.

      OSEE, o'ze, o'se ('no-Tie, Hosee): AV in Rom 9 25; the prophet Hosea (thus RV).

      OSHEA, 5-she'a, o'sh5-a (RV "Hoshca" [Nu

      13 8.16]): The original name of Joshua, the son of Nun, changed by Moses (ver 16) from Hoshea (/ios/!e»V'help") to Joshua (j/'AosAu"', "helpof Jeh"). See Joshua.

      OSNAPPAR, os-nap'ar (Ezr 4 10). Sec Ashur- banipal.

      OSPRAY, os'pra [rfllV^ , ^ozniyah; dXideros, halicU'tos; Lat Pandion halinetus) : A large hawk preferring a diet of fish. The word is found in the list of abominations only. See Lev 11 13; Dt

      14 12. The ospray was quite similar in appearance to some of the smaller eagles, and by some it is thought that the short-toed eagle is intended. But the eagle and the gier-eagle had been specified, and on account of the os])ray plunging inio water for food and having feet bare to the lower leg-joint and plumage of brighter and more distinctive mark- ing, it seems very probable that it was recognized as a distinctive species, and so named separately.

      Moreover, the ospray was not numerous as were other hawks and eagles. It was a bird that lived almost wholly on fish, and these were not plentiful in the waters of Pal. This would tend to make it a marked bird, so no doubt the tr is correct as it stands, as any hawk that lived on fish would have been barred as an article of diet (see Tristram, Nat. Hist of the Bible, 182; also Studers, Birds of North America, p. and pi. 16).

      Gene Stratton-Porter OSSIFRAGE, os'i-fraj (0"1D, percj; -yvxl/, gups; Lat Ossifraga): The great bearded vulture known as the lammer-geier (Lev 11 13; Dt 14 12 AV, RV "gier-eagle"). The Heb name perej means "to break." Lat ossis, "bone," and frangere, "to break," indicate the most noticeable habit of the bird. It is the largest of the vulture family, being 3J ft. in length and 10 in sweep. It has a white head, black beard on the chin, and the part of the eye commonly called the "white" in most animals, which is visible in but few birds, in this family is pronounced and of a deep angry red, thus giving the bird a formidable appearance. The back is grayish black, the feathers finely penciled, the shaft being white, the median line tawny. The under parts are tawny white and the feet and talons powerful. It differs from the vulture in that it is not a consistent carrion feeder, but prefers to take prey of the size captured by some of the largest eagles. It took its name from the fact that after smaller vultures and eagles had stripped a carcase to the last shred of muscle, the lammer- geier then carried the skeleton aloft and dropped it repeatedly until the marrow from the broken bones could be eaten. It is also very fond of tor- toise, the meat of which it secures in the same manner. As this bird frequents Southern Europe, it is thought to be the one that mistook the bald head of Aeschylus, the poet, for a stone and let fall on it the tortoise that caused his death. This bird also attacks living prey of the size of lambs, kids and hares. It is not numerous and does not flock, but pairs live in deep gorges and rocky crevices. It builds an enormous nest, deposits one pinkish or yellowish egg, and the young is black. It requires two years to develop the red eyes, finely penciled plumage and white head of the adult bird. It was included among the abominations because of its diet of carrion. Gene Stratton-Porter

      OSTRACA, os'tra-ka: The word ostracon ("pot- sherd," Heb heres) occurs in Job 2 8 (LXX), khI (Xapev RarpaKov, kai elaben oslrakon, "and he took him a potsherd." Earthen vessels were in universal use in antiquity (they are twice mentioned in the NT: ir/ceuT; darpiKim, skeue ostrdkina [2 Cor 4 7; 2 Tim 2 20]), and the broken fragments of them, which could be picked up almost anywhere, were made to serve various purposes. Upon the smooth- est of these pieces of unglazed pottery the poorest might write in ink his memoranda, receipts, letters or texts.

      A fortunate discovery at Samaria (1910), made among the ruins of Ahab's palace, has brought to light 75 Heb ostraca inscribed with ink, 1. Hebrew m the Phoen character, with accounts Ostraca and memoranda relating to private

      matters and dating probably from the time of Ahab. Their historical contribution, aside from the mention of many names of persons and places, IS slender, but for ancient Heb writing and to a less extent for Heb words and forms they are of value, while the fact that in them we possess documents actually penned in Israel in the 9th cent. BC gives them extraordinary interest. The nature of ostraca tends to their preservation under conditions which would quickly destroy parchment,

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      skin or papyrus, and this discovery in Pal encourages the hope of further and more significant finds. ^ Or ostraca in large quantities have been found in Egypt, preserving documents of many kinds, chiefly

      tax receipts. The texts of some 2,000 2. Greek of these have been published, princi- Ostraca pally by Wilcken {Griechische Ostraka,

      2 vols, 1899), and serve to illustrate in unexpected ways the everyday Gr speech of the

      0^

      '\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\

      ^hf9A^t^

      Ostracou with Lk 22 70 f.

      common people of Egypt through the Ptolemaic, Rom and Byzantine periods. Like the papyri, they help to throw light on NT sjTitax and lexicography, as well as on ancient life in general.

      It is said that Cleanthes the Stoic, being too

      poor to buy papjTus, used to write on ostraca, but

      no remains of classical lit. have been

      3. New found on the ostraca thus far dis- Testament covered. In some instances, however, Ostraca Christian literary texts are preserved

      upon ostraca. Some years ago Bou- riant bought in Upper Egypt 20 ostraca, probably of the 7th cent., inscribed with the Gr text of parts of the Gospels. The ostraca are of diiierent sizes, and preserve among others one long continuous passage (Lk 22 40-71), which runs over 10 of the pieces. The ostraca contain from 2 to 9 verses each, and cover Mt 27 31.32; Mk 5 40.41 (9 3); 9 17.18.22; 15 21; Lk 12 13-16; 22 40-71; Jn 1 1-9; 1 14-17; 18 19-2.5; 19 1.5-17. The texts are in 3 different hands, and attest the interest of the poor in the gospel in the century of the Arab conquest. Another late ostracon has a rough drawing labeled "St. Peter the evangelist," perhaps in allusion to the Gospel of Peter.

      Coptic ostraca, too, are numerous, esp. from the

      Byzantine period, and of even more interest for

      Christian history than the Greek. A

      4. Coptic Sa'idic ostracon preserves the pericope Ostraca on the woman taken in adultery

      (Jn 7 53—8 11), which is otherwise unattested in the Sa'idic NT. A Christian hymn to Mary, akin to the canticles of Luke, and some Christian letters have been found. The work of W E Crum on the Coptic ostraca is of especial importance. See, further, Deissmann, Light from the Ancient East, 1910; Lyon, Harvard Theol. Review, January, 1911. Edgar J. Goodspeed

      OSTRICH, os'trich (HJ^^, ya'anah; o-Tpoueos, sirouthds: Lat Struthio camelus) : The largest bird now living. The Heb words ya'anah, which means -greediness," and hath ha-ya'dnah, "daughter of sreediness," are made to refer to the indiscrimi- nate diet of the ostrich, to which bird they apply;

      and again to the owl, with no applicability. The owl at times has a struggle to swallow whole prey it has taken, but the mere fact that it is a night hunter forever shuts it from the class of greedy and promiscuous feeders. The bodies of owls are proverbially lean like eagles. Neither did the owl frequent several places where older versions of Jer and Isa place it; so the tr" are now correctly ren- dered "ostrich." These birds came into the Bible because of their desert life, the companions they lived among there, and because of their night cries tliat were guttural, terrifying groans, like the roar- ing of lions. The birds were brought into many pictures of desolation, because people dreaded their fearful voices. They homed on the trackless deserts that were dreaded by travelers, and when they came feeding on the fringe of the wilderness, they fell into company with vulture, eagle, lion, jackal and adder, and joined their voices with the night hawks and owls. For these reasons no birds were more suitable for drawing strong comparisons from. They attained a height ranging from 6 to 8 ft., and weighed from 200 to 300 lbs. The head was small with large eyes having powerful 1. Physical vision, and protected by lashes. The Peculiarities neck was long, covered with down, and the windpipe showed, while large bites could be seen to slide down the gullet. The legs were bare, long, and the muscles like steel from the long distances covered in desert travel. The foot was much like the cloven hoof of a beast. The inner toe was 7 in. long, with a clawlike hoof, the outer, smaller with no claw. With its length and strength of leg and the weight of foot it could strike a blow that saved it from attack by beasts smaller than a leopard. The wings were small, the muscles soft and flabby. They would not bear the weight of the bird, but the habit of lifting and beating them proved that this assisted in attaining speed in running (cf Xen. Anab. i.5.2,3). The body was

      Ostriclies.

      covered with soft flexible feathers, the wings and tail growing long plumes, for which the bird has been pursued since the beginning of time. These exquisite feathers were first used to decorate the headdress and shields of desert chieftains, then as decorations for royalty, and later for hat and hair ornaments. The badge of the Prince of Wales is three white ostrich plumes. The females are smaller, the colors gray and white, the males a glossy black, the wing and tail plumes white. The ostrich has three physical peculiarities that stagger scientists. It has eyelashes, developed no doubt to protect the eyes from the dust and sand of desert life. On the wings are two plumeless shafts like large porcupine quills. These may be used in resisting attack. It also has a bladder like a

      Ostrich Owl

      THE INTERNATIONAL STANDARD BIBLE ENCYCLOPAEDIA

      2204

      mammal, that collects uric acid, the rarest organ ever developed in a feathered creature.

      These birds homed on the deserts of Arabia and at the lower end of the great Salt Sea. Here the

      ostrich left her eggs on the earth and 2. Eggs warmed them in the sand. That

      and Care they were not hard baked was duo of Young to the fact that they were covered for

      protection during the day and brooded through the cooler nights. The eggs average 3 lbs. weight. They have been used for food in the haunts of the ostrich since the records of history began, and their stout shells for drinking- vessels. It is the custom of natives on finding a nest to take a long stick and draw out an egg. If incubation has advanced enough to spoil the eggs for use, the nest is carefully covered and left; if fresh, they are eaten, one egg being sufficient for a small family. No doubt these were the eggs to which Job referred as being tasteless without salt (Job 6 6). The number of eggs in the nest was due to the fact that the birds were polygamous, one male leading from 2 to 7 females, all of which deposited their eggs in a common nest. When several females wanted to use the nest at the same time, the first one to reach it deposited her egg in it, and the others on the sand close beside. This accounts for the careless habits of the ostrich as to her young. In this communal nest, containing from 2 to 3 dozen eggs, it is impossible for the mother bird to know which of the young is hers. So all of them united in laying the eggs and allowing the father to look after the nest and the young. The bird first appears among the abominations in Lev 11 16 RV, AV "owl"; Dt 14 16, RV "little owl," AV "owl." This must have referred to the toughness of grown specimens, since there was nothing offensive in the bird's diet to taint its flesh and the young tender ones were delicious meat. In his agony. Job felt so much an outcast that he cried:

      "I am a brother to jackals. And a companion to ostriches'

      (Job 30 29).

      Again he records that the Almighty discoursed to him of the ostrich in the following manner:

      "The wings of the ostrich wave proudly; But are they the pinions and plumage of love ? " etc

      (39 13-18).

      The ostrich history previously given explains all tins passage save the last two verses, the first of

      which is a reference to the fact that 3. OT the Arabs thought the ostrich a stupid

      References bird, because, when it had traveled

      to exhaustion, it hid its head and thought its body safe, and because some of its eggs were found outside the nest. The second was due to a well-known fact that, given a straight course, the ostrich could outrun a horse. The birds could attain and keep up a speed of 60 miles an hour for the greater part of half a day and even longer, hence it was possible to take them only by a system of relay riders (Xen.,op. cit.) When Isaiah predicted the fall of Babylon, he used these words: "But wild beasts of the desert shall lie there; and their houses shall be full of doleful creatures; and ostriches shall dwell there, and wild goats shall dance there" (Isa 13 21). Because this was to be the destruction of a great city, located on the Euphrates River and built by the fertiUty and prosperity of the country surrounding it, and the ruins those of homes, the bird indicated by every natural condition would be the owl. The wild goats clambering over the ruins would be natural companions and the sneaking wolves — but not the big bird of daytime travel, desert habitation, accustomed to constant pursuit for its plumage. Exactly the same argument applies to the next reference by the same writer

      (34 13). "And the wild beasts of the desert shall meet with the wolves, and the wild goat shall cry to his fellow; yea, the night monster shall settle there, and shall find her a place of rest" (34 14). "The beasts of the field shall honor me, the jackals and the ostriches; because I give waters in the wilderness, and rivers in the desert, to give drink to my people, my chosen" (43 20). Here we find the ostrich in its natural location, surrounded by creatures that were its daily companions. The next reference also places the bird at home and in customary company: "Therefore the wild beasts of the desert with the wolves shall dwell there, and the ostriches [AV "owls"] shall dwell therein: and it shall be no more inhabited forever; neither shall it be dwelt in from generation to generation" (Jer 50 39).

      "Even the jackals draw out the breast, they give suck to their young ones: The daughter of my people is become cruel, like the ostriches in the wilderness " (Lam 4 3).

      This reference is made to the supposed cruelty of the ostrich in not raising its young.

      Gene Stratton-Porter OTHNI, oth'nl ("^^ri? ' ''othni, meaning unknown) : A son of Shemaiah, a Korahite Levite (1 Ch 26 7).

      OTHNIEL, oth'ni-el (bxippy, 'othni' el): A hero in Israel, son of Kenaz, Caleb's younger brother. He conquered Kiriath-sepher, later known as Debir, in the territory of Judah in the days of Joshua, and was given the daughter of Caleb, Achsah, to wife as a reward (Josh 15 17 || Jgs 1 13). He later smote Cushan-rishathaim, king of Mesopotamia, whom the children of Israel had served 8 years, and thus not only saved the Israelites, but by reviving national sentiment among them (cf Ant, V, iv, 3), and reestablishing government, became the first of those hero-rulers knovm as " j udges . ' ' The elTects of his victory lasted an entire generation (40 years, Jgs 3 9-11). He had a sou named Hathath (1 Ch 4 13) and probably another named Meonothai (cf recensio Luciana of LXX, ad loc). In the days of David we find a family bearing the name of Othniel, from which came Heldai the Metophathite, captain of the twelfth month (1 Ch 27 15).

      Nathan Isaacs

      OTHONIAS, oth-g-ni'as ('09ov(asj Olhonlas): One of those who had taken "strange wives" (1 Esd 9 28) = "Mattaniah"of Ezr 10 27.

      OUCHES, ouch'ez, -iz (nisaffia, miskb'goth [Ex 28 11.13.14.25; 39 6.13.16.18); ARV "settings," but m Ex 39 13, "inclosings") : The secondary meaning of this now archaic word is the gold or silver setting of a precious stone. In Ex, where it occurs 8 t, it is clear that the gold settings of the engraved stones forming the breast-plate of the high priest are intended; the onyx stones forming the fibula or brooch for holding together the two sides of the breast-plate being said to be "inclosed in ouches [settings] of gold" (Ex 39 6). Not only were these two onyx or beryl stones so set, but the 12 stones forming the front of the breast-plate were "inclosed in gold in their settings" (Ex 28 20). The same word occurs in Ps 45 13, where the king's daughter is said to have her clothing "in- wrought with gold," i.e. embroidered with gold thread or wire. Ex 39 3 tells us how this wire was produced. From this fact it may be inferred that the settings of the breast-plate were not solid pieces of gold, but were formed of woven wire wreathed round the stones, in a sort of filigree. See also Stones, Precious.

      nnTrAox ^n ^ -r.^' ^"'^^^' Caldrcott _iir J *^^' outkast: Represents some form of nn^ , dahah, or n"13 , nadhah, both meaning "thrust

      2205

      THE INTERNATIONAL STANDARD BIBLE ENCYCLOPAEDIA

      Ostrich Owl

      out." In Jer 30 17 "outcast" means "thrust out of society," "degraded person"; elsewhere it means "exile" (Ps 147 2; Isa 16 3 f ; Jer 49 36).

      OUTER, out'er; This adj. is used 12 t by Ezekiel of the outside court of the temple. In Mt we find it 3t (8 12; 22 13; 25 30) in "outer darkness" (t6 tr/ciTos t6 elciTepor, td skotos 16 exoteron), which typifies the utter darkness of the doom of the lost.

      OUTGOING, out'go-ing: In Ps 65 8, "Thou makest the outgoings of the morning and evening to rejoice," the Heb is ^^^TQ, mo;d'. The word (from ya^a\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ "to go forth") refers to the "going forth" of the sun, and so means "east" (as in Ps 75 6). The connection of mo(a' with "evening" is therefore zeugmatic, but the meaning is clear and there are extra-Bib. parallels (cf "the two Orients"). In Josh 17 18, AV uses "outgoings" for the Heb mXSin, toga'oth (also from j/aja'), where the meaning is "extremity" (RV "goings out," as in Nu 34 5, etc). "Outwent" occurs in Mk 6 33. Burton Scott Easton

      OUTLANDISH, out-land'ish (Neh 13 26, AV "Him did outlandish women cause to sin"): "Out- landish" in modern Eng. is colloquial only and with the sense "utterly extraordinary," but AV uses it in the lit. meaning "out of the land," "foreign," ERV "strange women," ARV "foreign women," Heb '''1?5 , nokhrl, "foreign."

      OUTRAGE, out'raj, OUTRAGEOUS, out-ra'jus: The noun (from the Fr. outre+age, "that which goes beyond") only in the heading to Ps 10 AV; the adj. in Prov 27 4, AV and ERV, for riUlS , sheteph, "flood," "Anger is overwhelming" (ARV), is much better.

      OUTROADS, out'rodz (eloSeiiu, exodeuo, "to go forth," "to make a mihtary expedition"; AV and RV in 1 Mace 15 41, "horsemen .... that they might make outroads upon the ways of Judah" ; 1 Esd 4 23, RV "goeth forth to make outroads"): "Outroads" is obsolete, but its opposite, "inroads," is still good Eng.

      OUTWARD, out'werd, MAN (e|a), exo, "out- side," "without," "out of doors"): The body, sub- ject to decay and death, in distinction from the inner man, the imperishable spiritual life which "is renewed day by day" (2 Cor 4 16); also the body as the object of worldly thought and pride in exter- nal dress and adornment (1 Pet 3 3). See Man, Natural; Man, New.

      OVEN, uv"n. See Bread; P'urnace.

      OVERCHARGE, o-ver-charj': Lk 21 34, "lest haply your hearts be overcharged with drunken- ness" (^apivui, barilno, "burden," here with the force "be occupied with"); 2 Cor 2 5, AV "that I may not overcharge you" (iiri^apioi, epibareo, "overload"), RV "that I press not too heavily." See Charges.

      OVERPASS, o-ver-pas' : A special tr of the very common vb. I??', ^abhar, "to pass over," found in EV of Ps 57 1 and Isa 26 20 in the sense "to pass by," and in Jer 6 28 with the meaning "to over- flow."

      OVERPLUS, 6'ver-plus: Lev 25 27, for 3"^, 'ddhaph, "excess."

      OVERSEER, o-ver-se'er, or -ser': One who overlooks, inspects; in the OT from ni3, nagah (2 Ch 2 18; in 2 Ch 34 13 RV changes' to "set forward"), and IpB , pakadh (Gen 39 4..5; 2 Ch 34 12.17; RV has this word for AV "officers" in Gen 41 34, and for "rulers" in 1 Ch 26 32); in the NT once for iTrla-Ko-n-os, episkopos, in Acts 20 28, where RV has "bishops" (m "overseers"; cf 1 Pet 5 2). See Bishop.

      OWL, oul (niy^jn t^^, bath ha-ya'dn&h; Lat Ulula) : The name of every nocturnal bird of prey of the N.O. Slriges. These birds range from the great horned owl of 2 ft. in length, through many subdivisions to the httle screech-owl of 6 in. All are characterized by very large heads, many have

      Owl (Athene meridionalis).

      ear tufts, all have large eyes surrounded by a disk of tiny, stiff, radiating feathers. The remainder of the plumage has no aftershaft. So these birds make the softest flight of any creature traveling on wing. A volume could be written on the eye of the owl, perhaps its most wonderful feature being in the power of the bird to enlarge the iris if it wishes more distinct vision. There is material for another on the prominent and peculiar auditory parts. With almost all owls the feet are so ar- ranged that two toes can be turned forward and two back, thus reinforcing the grip of the bird by an extra toe and giving it unusual strength of foot. All are night-hunters, taking prey to be found at that time, of size according to the strength. The owl was very numerous in the caves, ruined temples and cities, and even in the fertile valleys of Pal. It is given place in the Bible because it was con- sidered unfit for food and because people dreaded the cries of every branch of the numerous family. It appeared often, as most birds, in the early VSS of the Bible; later translators seem to feel that it was used in several places where the ostrich really was intended (see Ostrich). It would appear to a natural historian that the right bird could be se- lected by the location, where the text is confusing. The ostrich had a voice that was even more terri- fying, when raised in the night, than that of the owl. But it was a bird of the desert, of wide range and traveled only by day. This would confine its habitat to the desert and the greenery where it joined fertile land, but would not bring it in very close touch with civilization. The owl is a bird of

      Owl, Great Painfulness

      THE INTERNATIONAL STANDARD BIBLE ENCYCLOPAEDIA

      2206

      ruins, that lay mostly in the heart of rich farming lands, where prosperous cities had been built and then destroyed by enemies. Near these locations the ostrich would be pursued for its plumage, and its nesting conditions did not prevail. The loca- tion was strictly the owl's chosen haunt, and it had the voice to fit all the requirements of the text. In the lists of abominations, the original Heb yanshUph, derived from a root meaning twilight, is tr'' "great owl" (see Lev 11 17 and Dt 14 16). It is prob- able that this was a bird about 2 ft. in length, called the eagle-owl. In the same lists the word kos (wk- TiKdpai, nuktikorax) refers to ruins, and the bird indicated is specified as the "little owl," that is, smaller than the great owl — about the size of our barn owl. This bird is referred to as the "mother of ruins," and the tr' that place it in deserted temples and cities are beyond all doubt correct. Kippoz (ix'i^vos, ech'mos) occurs once (Isa 34 15), and is tr'' "great owl" in former versions; lately (in ARV) it is changed to "dart-snake" (ERV "arrowsnake"). In this same description lilith (ivoKivravpoi, onohentauros) , "a specter of night," was formerly screech-owl, now it reads "night monster," which is more confusing and less sug- gestive. The owls in the lists of abominations (Lev 11 17.18; Dt 14 16) are the little owl, the great owl and the horned owl. The only other owl of all those that produced such impressions of deso- lation in the Books of Isa, Jer, Job and Mic is re- ferred toinPs 102 6:

      " I am like a pelican of the wilderiie-ss ; I am become as an owl of the waste places."

      Here it would appear that the bird habitual to the wilderness and the waste places, that certainly would be desert, would be the ostrich — while in any quotation referring to ruins, the owl would be the bird indicated by natural conditions.

      Gene Stratton-Porter

      OWX, GREAT (Jllljp^ yanshuph; LXX 'ipis, ibis, or ctpis, eibis) : A member of the Pal species of the family Strigidae. The great owl mentioned in the Bible was no doubt their largest specimen of the family, a bird fully 2 ft. in length, full feath- ered, with unusually large head and long ear tufts. It was a formidable and noble-appearing bird, with resounding voice. It was abundant among the ruins of temples, the tombs of Carmel, the caves of Gennesaret, and among the ruined cities of South- ern Judah. It is included in the abomination lists of Lev 11 17 and Dt 14 16. See Owl.

      Gene Stratton-Porter

      OWL, LITTLE (C13, Aio.j; v«KTi,Kdpa|, 7iuk- tikorax; Lat Athene meridionalis) : A night bird

      of prey distinguished by a round head, and extreme- ly large eyes. The little owl is left in RV only in the lists of abominations (see Lev 11 17; Dt 14 16). See Owl.

      OWL, SCREECH. See Night Monster.

      OWNER, on'er. See Ships and Boats, III, 2.

      OX. See Antelope; Cattle; Wild Ox.

      OX, oks ("n^, Ox) : One of the ancestors of Judith (Jth 8 1). The name is not Heb. Perhaps the Itala Ozi and the Syr Uz point to the Heb Vzzi.

      OX-GOAD, oks'god. See Goad.

      OZEM, o'zem (D2S, 'ogem, meaning unknown):

      (1) The 6th sou of David (1 Ch 2 1.5). LXX ("Ao-o/ti, Asom) and yulg suggest that the name should be pointed D2X, 'dgom.

      (2) A "son" of Jerahmeel (1 Ch 2 25).

      OZIAS, 6-zi'as :

      (1) ('Ofe(as, Ozeias, 'Ofi'as, Ozias, B ah): The son of Micah, a Simeonitc, one of the 3 rulers of BethuUa in the days of Judith (Jth 6 15.16; 7 23; 8 9 if; 10 6).

      (2) ('Offias, Ozeias, B and Swete; AV Ezias [1 Esd 8 2], following A, 'Efias, Ezias): An an- cestor of Ezra (1 Esd 8 2; 2 Esd 1 2) = "Uzzi" of Ezr 7 4; 1 Ch 6 51.

      (3) Head of a family of temple-servants who re- turned with Zcrubbabel (1 Esd 5 31) = "Uzza" of Ezr 2 49; Neh 7 51.

      (4) Gr form of Uzziah (q.v.) in Mt 1 8.9 AV. A king of Judah. S. Angus

      OZIEL, o'zi-el ('O^eiTiX, Ozeiel) : An ancestor of Judith (Jth 8 1) ; another form of the OT name "Uzziel."

      OZNI, oz'ni C?!^, 'ozni, "mv hearing," or "my ear"): A "son" of Gad (Nu 26 16) = "Ezbon" of Gen 46 16 (cf 1 Ch 7 7).

      OZNITES, oz'nits (with the art. ■':TXn , ha- 'ozni [collective], "the Oznitcs"): Of the clan of Ozni(Nu 26 16). See Ozni.

      OZORA, 6-zo'ra. See Ezora.



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      What Is A "FREE-CHURCH!" - General Background;

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