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Comprehensive Bible Encyclopedia

All Entries for LETTER "Q"



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      Deuter-canonical Books are included as references, and less often, the Pseudo-pigraphia (extra-biblical New Testament Era writings - such as the Epistle of Barnabas - used for over 300 years by the early Church.

      Though these are 'NOT' Inerrant Scripture, they are very important as geographical and historical references, and helping to understand how particular Hebrew and Greek words were used.

      Since the Deuter-canonical Books were part of the Jewish Bible that Jesus and Paul used, they have great value for understanding the era between the Covenants, and all things Jewish.

      Many will be surprised to know they were in the Geneva Bible of Calvin and Knox - and the Puritan Pilgrims - and included in the King James for over 275 years . . .

      . . . and left out in later versions - ONLY to make the Bible MORE PROFITABLE, by selling at the usual price, while being much smaller to print!

      No wonder Paul said the "love of money is the root of all evil!"

      Further know, that that these books are rejected by most Bible Preachers today, BECAUSE the Jews of Jesus' Day rejected them for the Jewish Canon at the Council of Jamnia after the fall of Jerusalem.

      This seems reasonable enough, and though these Scribes and Lawyers SHOULD have had superior knowledge in ALL THINGS JEWISH . . . in their Jewish wisdom, THEY ALSO REJECTED JESUS AS THE MESSIAH!!!

      TheDeuter-canonical Books are very "Kingdom of God" and "Messianic" Oriented, thus the Jews sis NOT want any writings confirming that Jesus WAS the Jewish Messiah.

      The wise "Students-north-Scholars" will know them, as they provide light on New Testament Scripture that are NOT understood otherwise;

    Quick Example:

    In Luke 3:36 YOUR Bible reads as follows:
        "Which was the son of Cainan, which was the son of Arphaxad, which was the son of Sem (Shem), which was the son of Noe (Noah), which was the son of Lamech;"

      This ancestor of Jesus named "Cainan, son of Arphaxad: where is he in YOUR Bible; (Check Genesis 11:13, and other genealogies).

      This dilemma - which the WORLD calls a great contradiction in the linage of Jesus as the Christ - can ONLY be solved by the Bible Jesus used, which included the Deuter-canonical Books.

      Do you suppose Jesus knew more about the "Correct Books of the Bible than modern "lukewarm" Denominations?


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      Consider the Hebrew Language:

      Hebrew is "The Perfect Language" - in the original form - as the Hebrew Language has evolved from perfection:

        >> God taught, or programmed, Adam and Eve perfect Hebrew;

        >> over a thousand years it eroded into informal Hebrew, as formal British-English eroded into the American dialect;

        >> over hundreds of more years it became a "dead Hebrew", meaning it is no longer spoken by any nation of people;

        >> eventually evolving into into the derivative Aramaic, which was commonly spoken in the days of Jesus;

        >> finally evolving into that "modern Hebrew" spoken in Israel in Post-AD-2000).

      The linguistics of the Hebrew Language as designed and taught by God to Adam and Eve (or perhaps "programmed" - either way does not affect the evidence of the Godhead) gives us massive and mighty "Eternal Evidence", daily clues and reminders of the Existence and Transcendence of the Almighty Godhead:

        >> God the Spirit - who is Spirit; manifest as Spirit of Ghost (that is Presence without corporeal body or manifestation such as Christ after His Resurrection);

        >> God the Father - willing to give His Son to save the World John 3:16-17;

        >> God the Son - willing to give His life to save the World! John 12:47;

      God decided to continually reveal the "THREE-FOLD-NATURE-OF-HIS-GODHEAD" by making EVERY Hebrew "root word" have THREE-CONSONANTS!"

        > NEVER 2 letters;

        > NEVER 4, 5, 6, or more;

        > BUT ALWAYS 3 letters!

        > And ONLY 3 and THREE alone!


      Likewise, the "Language of Life" - called by some "The Protein Language" - also designed and programmed by God to be the language of all living substance from lions to dandelions to from babies to buttercups top butterflies!

      The Protein Language is the language of Genetics, of Cells, of plants and animals and all that exists: the Code of Life;

      The PROTEIN LANGUAGE consists of "CODONS".

      This Language of all Life is also made of THREE LETTER WORDS, and each letter of these TRINITARIAN CODONS, is the life-giving code for an amino acid, creating the genetic structure of all that is LIFE!

      Thus every word that your body parts (cells, organs, glands and tissues, etc.,) write to each other, and every word your body reads in communication from another body part, these are ALL THREE LETTER WORDS!

      All of the intelligence your body has, all it knows and all it communicates - in every bodily function possible - is given in THREE LETTER WORDS!

        > NEVER 2 letters;

        > NEVER 4, 5, 6, or more;

        > ALWAYS 3 letters!

        > ONLY 3 and THREE alone!

      Can we possibly miss this, asks NewtonStein? (Not if we can count as far as 1, 2, 3!!!)

    Even the Word "G-O-D" in English . . . is Three Letters!

      Why is "GOD" in English significant?

      For the simple reason that today, in the POST-AD-2,000 word, very few scores of thousands speak Biblical Hebrew with the THREE-LETTER-ROOT-WORD structure.

      Comparatively, scores of HUNDREDS OF MILLIONS SPEAK English!

        >> ENGLISH, is an Official Language in well over 100 nations of the World!

        >> ENGLISH, is The Major Language of Science, Globally!

        >> ENGLISH, is an Official - and the Major - Language of , the United Nations!

        >> ENGLISH, is The Official Language of The Internet!

        >> ENGLISH, is The Major Language of Serious Publishing - even in Japan and Germany!

        >> ENGLISH, is The Official Language of Global Airlines and Airports!

        >> ENGLISH, is The Official Language of OF the World!

        ** THUS more people will hear the Gospel in ENGLISH than any other Language!

        ** THUS more people will read the Gospel in ENGLISH than any other Language!

        ** THUS more people will own a Bible in ENGLISH than any other Language!

        ** THUS more people will get saved from learning TRUTH in ENGLISH than any other Language!

        FACT! SINCE God knew of the ENGLISH as the Global Language before the Foundation of the World!

        FACT! SINCE God in His Goodness has ALWAYS given Signs to Those Who Believe, from Moses and Israel, to Samson, to The Virgin Birth as a sign (Isa 7:14) to the Swaddling Clothes as a sign, to the Signs of the times in Matthew 24:4-24, Mark 13:5-20 and Luke 17:31-41 and 21:10-25;

        FACT! SINCE God originally made His name a "Three-Letter-Root-Word in Hebrew - "JAH" (Psalm 68:4)

        FACT! ONCE AGAIN God made His Name a THREE LETTER WORD in ENGLISH, the Global Language of the most populated era of Earth!

      So remember this every time "GOD!" is heard, read, said, etc., teach this to others, and help your family and friends see the "SIGNS along the WAY!"

    Seeing God in Linguistics, in General;

      In linguistics, there are many, many more, that PROVE God is the Designer of (a)All language, (b)alphabet, (c)Hebrew, (d) that Hebrew is the parent language of all others, (e)word structure, (f)actual words unique to Hebrew that pertain to God . . .


      . . . BECAUSE they had no God with eternal Attributes!

      Emmanuel is the same word in every language, and no language has a word it can be translated into, because it means GOD DWELLING IN HIS PEOPLE . . . and no people had "this experience apart from the People of the One True GOD JAH, thus "Emmannuel remains the same word in all languages!

      Likewise "Halleluah" - which is a Hebrew compound word "Hallelu-JAH" - and is a Command to "PRAISE JAH!"

      "Amen!" and Hosanna are also neat, unique words and there are literally hundreds more!

      The scoffing world asks: "Where is evidence for God!?" to which we answer:






    All Commentary from INSPIRED-INERRANT View of God's Word!

    Letter "Q"


    Letter "Q"

    QOPH, kof
      (p, k). See Koph.

    QUAIL, kwaal
      A game bird of the family Cotumix, closely related to "partridges" (q.v.). Quail and partridges are near relatives, the partridge a little larger and of brighter color. Quail are hke the gray, brown and tan of earth. Their plumage is cut and penciled by markings, and their flesh juicy and delicate food. Their habits are very similar. They nest on the ground and brood on from 12 to 20 eggs.

      The quail are more friendly birds and Uve in the open, brooding along roads and around fields. They have a longer, fuller wing than the partridge and can make stronger flight. In Pal they were migratory. They are first mentioned in Ex 16 13: "And it came to pass at even, that the quails came up, and covered the camp: and in the morning the dew lay round about the camp."

      This describes a large flock in migration, so that they passed as a cloud. Nu 11:31-33: "And there went forth a wind from Jeh, and brought quails from the sea, and let them fall by the camp, about a day'.s journey on this side, and a day's journey on the other side, round about the camp, and about two cubits above the face of the earth. And the people rose up all that day, and all the night, and all the next day, and gathered the quails: he that gathered least gathered ten homers: and they spread them all abroad for themselves round about the camp"; cf Ps 78 26-30:

      "He caused the east wind to blow in the heavens- And by his power he guided the south wind He rained flesh also upon them as the dust And winged birds as the sand o( the seas: And he let it fall in the midst of their camp Round about their habitations. So they did eat, and were well flUed; And he gave them their own desire."

      Again the birds are mentioned in migration. Those that fell around the camp and the bread that was sent from heaven are described in Ps 105 39-42. Commentators have had trouble with the above references. They cause the natural historian none — they are so in keeping with the location and the laws of Nature. First the Heb s'law means "to be fat." That would be precisely the condition of the quail after a winter of feeding in the S. The time was early spring, our April, and the quail were flocking from Africa and spreading in clouds — even to Europe. They were birds of earth, heavy feed- ers and of plump, full body.

      Migration was such an effort that when forced to cross a large body of water they always waited until the wind blew in the direction of their course, lest they tire and fall. Their average was about 16 birds to each nest. If half a brood escaped, they yet multiplied in such numbers as easily to form clouds in migration.

      Phny writes of their coming into Italy in such numbers, and so exhausted with their long flight, that if they sighted a sailing vessel they settled upon it by hundreds and in such numbers as to sink it. Taking into consideration the diminutive vessels of that age and the myriads of birds, this does not appear incredible. Now compare these facts with the text.

      Israelites were encamped on the Sinai Peninsula. The birds were in migration. The quail followed the Red Sea until they reached the point of the peninsula where they selected the narrowest place, and when the wind was with them they crossed the water. Not far from the shore arose the smoke from the campfires of the Israehtes.

      This bewildered them, and, weary from their jour- ney, they began to settle in confused thousands over and around the camp. Then the Israehtes arose and, with the ever-ready "throw sticks," killed a certain number for every soul of the camp and spread the bodies on the sand to dry,

      just as Herodotus (ii.77) records that the Egyptians always had done (see Rawlinson, Herod, II, for an illustration of catching and drying quail). Nature and natural history can account for this incident, with no need to call in the miraculous.

      Gene Stkatton-Poetek

    QUARREL, kwor'el:
      Originally (1) "a complaint" (cf "querulous"), or (2) "a cause of complaint," and so (3) "a contention." (1) In AV Mk 6 19 (RV "set herself"; the coUoquial "had It in for him" is an exact tr) and Col 3 13 (mom*^, mompht, "complaint"; so RV). (2) In 2 K 5 7 (riDS, 'anah, "be opportune," RVm "an occasion").

      (3) In AV Lev 26 25 (loose tr of DJ33, mkam, "vengeance"; so RV). Cf Sir 31 29"aV (RV "conflict") and Prov 20 3 RV (AV "meddling").

    QUARRIES, kwor'iz;
      [Judges 3:19-26, "graven images"], D"!"!!?}, sh'bharmi [Josh 7 5, "Shebarim," RVm "the quarries"]) :

      P'sillm is elsewhere tr-i "graven images" (Dt 7 5; Ps 78 58; Isa 10 10; Mic 5 13, etc) and is a pi. form of pesel, " graven image " (Ex 20 4, etc), from pdsal, "to carve." It occurs in the story of Ehud and Eglon and refers to images or hewn stones in the vicinity of Gilgal.

      Sh'bharim is pi. of shebher, "breach," "fracture " more often "destruction" (e.g. Prov 16 18), from shabhar. "to break." The form sh'bharim is also found in Job 41 2.5, "consternation," AV "breakings." In Josh 7 5 Shebarim is the point to which the Israelites were chased after their first attack upon Ai. See Shebarim.

      Quarries in Pal are not usually very deep because there is plenty of good stone to be found at the surface. The quarryman seeks a thick stratum of firm hmestone which has a favorable exposure.

      The vertical joint-planes divide the stratum into large blocks which the quarryman dislodges with the aid of crowbars. These great blocks he skil- fully cleaves by inserting several wedges in a line in holes made by a pick, and driving the wedges in with a heavy hammer.

      In these days gunpowder is occasionally used, esp. when there are not favor- able joint-planes producing blocks capable of being moved by the crowbar.

      Another method, which is employed where stones of great size are wanted, is to carve the stones out of the rock by cutting channels around them with the pick.


      In the limestone quarries of Ba'albek and the granite quarries of A^wdn at the first cataract of the Nile, enormous stones may be seen which were abandoned while in process of being removed by this method.

      The channels are wide enough to admit the body of the workman, and the marks of the picks on the sides of the channels are plainly visible. Alfred Ely Day

    QUARTER, kwor'ter:
      Lit., of course, "the fourth part," and so of the four "ends" (n2J3, kacah) in Jer 49 36, and AV of the four "corner's"' (so RV, yuuia, gonia) in Rev 20 8. Hence, "any part" and in this sense used freely for various words by AV. RV has usually dropped "quarter," but unfortunately has retained it in Nu 34 3; Josh IB 5;

      in his cell between two soldiers, "bound with two chains," his left hand chained to one and his right to the other. The other two soldiers of the quater- nion mounted guard before the door, and are spoken of as "the first and the second guard" (ver 10) whom St. Peter and his angel guide had to pass on the way to liberty. The Gr word thus rendered is not found in LXX or anywhere else in the NT.

      T. NicoL

    QUEEN, kwen:
      The Bible applies this term: (1) To the wife of a king ("queen consort") (HSb'O, malkah). In the Book of Est it is the title given to Vashti (1 9) and Esther (2 22) ; cf Cant 6 8 f . Another Heb word for queen consort is n'1'^33, g'hhirah, lit. "mistress" (cf 1 K 11 19, the wife of Pharaoh; 2 K 10 13, "the children of the king and Stone in Quarries at Ba'albek.

      18 14.15, and introduced it in Josh 18 12.14.20 for nXS, pgah, usually rendered "side." The result is very obscure. Elsewhere in RV only in the phrase "from every quarter" (Gen 19 4; Isa 56 11; Mk 1 45). Cf Border; Coast.

      (Kovapros, Kouarlos): A Christian in Corinth who with "Erastus the treasurer of the city" sent greetings to the Christian community in Rome (Rom 16 23). He is known to Paul only as a Christian, "the brother."

      QUATERNION, kwa-tflr'ni-un (TerpaSiov, tetrd- dion): The name given to a company of four soldiers of Herod's army (Acts 12 4). To four such companies St. Peter had been handed over, who would take their turn of acting as guard over the prisoner, each of the four watches of the night according to Rom reckoning, which Herod Agrippa I would follow. In the castle of Antonia St. Peter was thus closely secured, in order that Herod, who had already killed James, the brother of John, with the sword (12 2), might, after the solemnities of the Passover, make sure of his death likewise. On the night before his intended execution he was sleeping

      the children of the queen"). In Neh 2 6 and Ps 45 9 we find the expression bSTlJ , sheghal, which some trace back to '?1^, shdghal, "to ravish," a rather doubtful derivation. Still another term is n'I'C, sardh, lit. "princess" (Isa 49 23). The LXX some- times uses the word fSaa-iXicra-a, basllissa; cf Ps 45 9. (2) To a female ruler or sovereign ("queen regnant"). The only instances are those of the queen (malkah) of Sheba (1 K 10 1-13; cf 2 Ch 9 1-12) and of Candace, the queen (basilissa) of the Ethiopians (Acts 8 27). In Mt 12 42 (cf Lk 11 31) Christ refers to the queen of the south (^atrfXio-o-a p&rov, basllissa ndtou) , meaning, of course, the queen of Sheba. (3) To a heathen deity, □"^IQlBn £lDbl3, m'lekheih ha-shamayim, "the queen' of heaven"' (Jer 7 18; 44 17 ff). See Queen of Heaven.

      (4) Metaphorically, to the city of Babylon (Rome) (Rev 18 7) : an expression denoting sovereign contempt and imaginary dignity and power. William Baur

      QUEEN MOTHER (m/3H, g'bhirah, lit. "mis- tress," then a female ruler, and sometimes simply

      Queen of Heaven Quotations, NT



      the wife of a king ["queen," 1 K 11 19]; in DnI 5 10 the term XHpb'a, malk'lha', "queen," really means the mother of the king) : It stands to reason that among a people whose rulers are polygamists the mother of the new king or chief at once becomes a person of great consequence. The records of the Books of K prove it. The g'bhirah, or queen mother, occupied a position of high social and political im- portance; she took rank almost with the king. When Bath-sheba, the mother of Solomon, desired "to speak unto him for Adonijah," her son "rose up to meet her, and bowed himself unto her, and sat down on his throne, and caused a throne to be set for the king's mother; and she sat on his right hand" (1 K 2 19). And again, in 2 K 24 15, it is expressly stated that Nebuchadnezzar carried away the king's mother into captivity; Jeremiah calls her g'bhirdh (29 2). The king was Jehoiachin (Jeco- niah, Jer 29 2), and his mother's name was Nehushta (2 K 24 8). This was the royal pair whose im- pending doom the prophet was told to forecast (Jer

      13 18). Here again the queen mother is mentioned with the king, thus emphasizing her exalted position. Now we understand why Asa removed Maacah his (grand?) mother from being queen (queen mother), as we are told in 1 K 15 13 (cf 2 Ch 15 16). She had used her powerful influence to further the cause of idolatry. In this connection Athaliah's coup d'etat may be briefly mentioned. After the violent death of her son Ahaziah (2 K 9 27), she usurped the royal power and reigned for some time in her own name (2 K 11 3; cf 2 Ch

      22 12) . This was, of course, a revolutionary under- taking, being a radical departure from the usual traditions.

      And finally, the political importance of the g'- hhlrah is illustrated by the fact that in the Books of K, with two exceptions, the names of the Jewish kings are recorded together with those of their respective mothers; they are as follows: Naamah, the Ammonitess, the mother of Rehoboam (1 K

      14 21; cf ver 31, and 2 Ch 12 13); Maacah, the daughter of Abishalom (1 K 15 2) or Absalom (2 Ch 11 20), the mother of Abijah; Maacah, the daughter of Abishalom, the mother (grandmother?) of Asa (1 K 15 10; cf 2 Ch 15 16); Azubah, the daughter of Shilhi, the mother of Jchoshaphat (1 K 22 42; cf 2 Ch 20 31); Athaliah, the grand- daughter of Omri, the mother of Ahaziah (2 K 8 26; cf 2 Ch 22 2); Zibiah of Beersheba, the mother of Jehoash (2 K 12 1; cf 2 Ch 24 1); Jehoaddin (Jehoaddan, 2 Ch 25 1) of Jerus, the mother of Amaziah (2 K 14 2) ; Jecoliah (Jechi- liah, 2 Ch 26 3) of Jerus, the mother of Azariah (2 K 15 2) or Uzziah (2 K 15 13.30, etc; cf 2 Ch 26 3); Jerusha (Jerushah, 2 Ch 27 1), ^the daughter of Zadok", the mother of Jotham (2 K 15 33); Abi (Abijah, 2 Ch 29 1), the daughter of Zechariah, the mother of Hezekiah (2 K 18 2); Hephzibah, the mother of Manasseh (2 K 21 1); MeshuUemeth, the daughter of Haruz of Jotbah, the mother of Anion (2 K 21 19); Jedidah, the daughter of Adaiah of Bozkath, the mother of Josiah (2 K 22 1); Hamutal, the daughter of Jeremiah of Libnah, the mother of Jehoahaz (2 K

      23 31); Zebidah, the daughter of Pedaiah of Ru- mah, the mother of Jehoiakim (2 K 23 36); Nehushta, the daughter of Elnathan of Jerus, the mother of Jehoiachin (2 K 24 8); Hamutal (Hamital), the daughter of Jeremiah of Libnah, the mother of Zedekiah (2 K 24 18). The exceptions are Jehoram and Ahaz. William Baur

      QUEEN OF HEAVEN (C^'ClSn Tsb}? , m'lckheth ha-shdmayim, although there is another reading, riDSbp, m'le'kheth, "worship" or "goddess"):

      Occurs only in two passages: Jer 7 IS; 44 17- 19.25, where the prophet denounces the wrath of God upon the inhabitants of Judah and Jerus who have given themselves up to the worship of the host of heaven. This is no doubt a part of the astral worship which is found largely developed among the Jews in the later period of their history in Canaan. It is first mentioned in 2 K 17 16 aa practised by the men of the Northern Kingdom when Samaria had fallen and the ten tribes were being carried away into captivity. Moses is rep- resented as warning the Israelites against the wor- ship of the sun and moon and stars and all the host of heaven, practised by the people of Canaan (Dt 4 19; 17 3), and the existence of such worship among the Canaanites and neighboring nations is attested from an early period (cf Job 31 26-28). The worship of the heavenly bodies was widely spread in the East and in Arabia; and the Bab pantheon was full of astral deities, where each divinity corresponded either to an astral phenome- non or to some circumstance or occurrence in Nature which is connected with the course of the stars (Jeremias, The OT in the Light of the Ancient East, I, 100). From the prophets we gather that before the exile the worship of the host of heaven had become established among all classes and in all the towns of Israel (Jer ubi supra; Ezk 8 16). In that worship the queen of heaven had a conspicu- ous place; and if, as seems probable from the cakes which were offered, she is to be identified with the Assyr Ishtar and the Canaanite Astarte, the worship itself was of a grossly immoral and debasing character. That this Ishtar cult was of great antiquity and widely spread in ancient Babylonia may be seen from the symbols of it found in recent excavations (see Nippur, II, 236). How far the astral theorists like Winckler and Jeremias are entitled to link up with this worship the mourning for Josiah, the lamentations over Tammuz, the story of Jephthah's daughter, and even the narrative of the misfortunes and the exaltation of Joseph, is questionable. But that the people of Judah in the daj's before the exile had given themselves over to the worst and vilest forms of heathen worship and incurred the grievous displeasure of Jeh is made clear by the denunciation of the worship of the queen of heaven by Jeremiah. T. NicOL

      QUEEN OF SHEBA, she'ba (1 K 10 1-13; 2 Ch 9 1-12, called in Mt 12 42; Lk 11 31, "the queen of the south" [pao-tXto-cra votov, basilissa

      ?i6tou]) :

      The two OT accounts of the coming of the queen of Sheba (see Sheba) to Solomon differ slightly from one

      another, and, of the two, that in 1 K is the 1 OT older. (1) The words "concerning the

      / . name of Jeh" (1 K 10 1) are wanting

      Accounts in 2 Ch; while LXX in 1 K has "and the

      name of Jeh," apparently a correction of the MT. (2) For 1 K 10 9, "because Jeh loved Israel for ever," 2 Ch 9 8 has "because thy God loved Israel, to establish them for ever " ; LXX in 1 K has "because Jeh loved Israel, to establish it for ever." (3) In the last verse of each account, we find another dilTerenee: 2 Ch 9 12 says that .Solomon gave to the queen all her desire, "besides that wliich she had brought unto the king." i.e. according to some, besides the equivalent of what she had brought to him; 1 K 10 13 m has " besides that which he gave her according to the hand of king Solo- mon," i.e. besides gifts commensurate with his own wealth and power {SBOT), or besides gifts which he gave her qud king.

      The narrative tells of the queen of Sheba, on hearing of Solomon's great wisdom, coming to

      test him with perplexing questions or 2. The riddles (cf Jgs 14 12). She brought

      Narrative presents to the king, and interviewed

      him: "And when the queen of Sheba had seen all the wisdom of Solomon, and the house that he had built" (i.e. the palace, not the temple) as



      Queen of Heaven Quotations, NT

      well as its arrangements, "and his burnt-offering which he offered in the house of Jeh [so read and translate with RVm in 1 K 10 5, and also in 2 Ch 9 4]; there was no more spirit in her": the half of Solomon's wisdom had not been told her. "Happy," she said to him, "are thy wives [so read with LXX, Syr and Old Lat VSS], happy are these thy serv- ants." She then exchanged gifts with him and returned to her own land.

      The narrative is a complement of that in 1 K 3 16-28, where the king's justice is exemplified; here his wisdom.

      The narrative is referred to by Jesus in Mt 12

      42; Lk 11 31, where He refuses to accede to the

      request of the scribes and Pharisees

      3. Em- for a sign from Him. He tells them ployed by that no sign will be given them ex- Jesus cept that of Jonah, whose sign was his

      preaching, one that proved sufficient to the Ninevites; and 'behold something greater than Jonah is here.' The men of Nineveh will be a living condemnation of them "in the judgment" (cf Lk 16 31); and so will the "queen of the south" who came from the ends of the earth after hearing of Solomon's wisdom, 'and behold something greater than Solomon is here.' The only sign to be given is that of the wisdom of Jesus, a wisdom far greater than that of Solomon (see D. Smith, Days of His Flesh, 176 S).

      Eastern lit. has mucli to say about thie queen ol Sheba. The Arabs called her Bilkis. Abyssinian legend de- clares that she came from Ethiopia, her

      4. Eastern name being Makeda, and that she had a t:j.«.„4. son by Solomon. See Delitzsch, Jris, 116- l,Xterature 27; ZDMG. X, 19f; J Pr T. VI, 524 ff

      (1880). Gressraann (in Schri/ten des AT, II , 1 , 20.3) has further references to Wilhelm Hertz , Gesam- melte Abhandlunqen. 190.5, 41.3 fl; Bezold, Kebra Naganl. 190.5, and also ZDMG. 60, 666 ff. For the Mohammedan story, see Koran xxvii, with notes in Sale's tr.

      David Francis Roberts QUENCH, kwench, kwensh: Where the word is used of fire or of thirst it has the usual meaning: "to allay," "to extinguish," "to suppress," "to cool." In the OT it is frequently applied to the affections and passions (see 2 K 22 17; Cant 8 7; Isa 42 3; Jer 4 4; 21 12). Quenching the coal or the lighl; of Israel may mean slaying a dear one or a brilliant leader. In the NT it is also used figuratively, as in Eph 6 16 the shield of faith quenches the fiery darts of the evil one. In Mk 9 48, (rpiwvui^ sbennumi, and its derivative are applied with refer- ence to Gehenna (tr'^ "hell"). The same word is also used of resisting the gifts of the Holy Spirit in 1 Thess 5 19. G. H. Gerberding

      QUESTION, kwes'chun: The noun for in'n, dabhar, "word," in 1 K 10 3 |1 2 Ch 9 2, with "hard question" for HT^n, hidhah, "dark saying," "riddle," in 1 K 10 1 II 2 Ch 9 1. In the NT for ^■fjT-qixa, zetema, the synonym fi7T7)o-is, zetesis (and 1 Tim 1 4, iK^TjTTitTis, ekzitesis), being rendered "questionings" by RV (AV does not distinguish). In Mk 11 29 for Xiyos, liigos, "word" (so RVm). The vb. in the sense "ask a question" in 2 Ch 31 9 for T151"1, darash, and Lk 2 46; 23 9 for iwepwrdt^, eperotdd (cf ARV, ERVm Jn 16 23). Elsewhere the vb. is for (Tv^-qT^w, suzeteo, "dispute" (Mk 1 27, etc; cf Acts 6 9; 9 29). "Called in question," Acts 19 40 AV, represents ^7/caX^w, egkaUo, "call into court," but in 23 6; 24 21, "I am called in question" is for Kplm/xai., krinomai, "I am being judged." Burton Scott Easton

      QUICK, kwik, QUICKEN, kwik"n: Translates in AV four different words: (1) rT^^n, haydh, (2) i^lTl-a, mihyah, (3) PIT, ru'^h, and (4) faw, zdo. Of these words (1) and (4) had simply the sense of

      life, and this idea was in 1611 adequately given by the word "quick," although this sense of the word has long been somewhat obscured. As the tr of rWh (Isa 11 3) "quick" as found in AV signified "acute." In this passage RV substitutes "delight" for "quick understanding." In Lev 13 10.24 RV retains the rendering "quick," although originally the word mihyah must in some way have involved the con- ception of life, which no longer belongs to the Eng. word "quick." It is not clear exactly in what sense the flesh in the sore or scar was thought of as living, esp. as it was plainly regarded as in an unhealthy condition. Possibly the condition under consideration resembled what is sometimes idio- matically styled in Eng. "proud flesh," and was thought of as a peculiar manifestation of life.

      To quicken also means a reviving, a refreshing, an increasing of life (Ps 71 20; 85 6; 119 37.40. 88; Isa 57 10). It often has reference to the resur- rection from the dead (1 Cor 15 36) and is so used in many places in AV. Where it refers to the giving of spiritual life ARV has changed it in every case (Eph 2 1.5; Col 2 13; cf Jn 6 21).

      David Foster Estes

      QUICKSANDS, kwik'sandz. See Syrtis.

      QUIET, kwi'et: Vb. or adj. only in EV, "quiet- ness" being used for the noun. No special Heb or Gr words are represented, but in the OT usually for some form or derivative of t3|5T|J , shdkat, "be undisturbed" (Jgs 18 7; cf Prov 1 33, "INTIJ, sha'ar, "to loll," "be at ease"; Eccl 9 17, VXTi, nakath, "quiet," "be set on"). For "them that are quiet in the land" in Ps 35 20, see Meek; Poor. For "quiet prince" in Jer 51 59, RV substitutes "chief chamberlain," m "quartermaster." "Jacob was a quiet [DP , tdm, "gentle"] man" (Gen 26 27, AV "plain"), 'in the NT, it is the tr of wvxd^a, hesuchdzo, "to refrain from gossip or meddlesome- ness": "that ye study to be quiet" (1 Thess 4 11), and of i^iri/x'os. hesuchios, "gentle": "a meek and quiet spirit" (1 Pet 3 4; cf 1 Tim 2 2).

      M. O. Evans

      QUINTUS MEMMIUS, kwin'tus mem'i-us. See Memmius, Quintus.

      QUIRINIUS, kwi-rin'i-us. See Chronology op THE NT, I, 1, (2); Luke, Gospel of, 5.

      QUIT, kwit: Same derivation as "quiet," so that "to be quit" (Ex 21 19.28; Josh 2 20 AV) is "to be relieved of responsibility," np25, nakah, "^p! , naki, "guiltless" (so RV Josh 2 20). Hence "to quit one's self" means "to be freed by discharging a duty." The phrase in EV, however, is a gloss, for in 1 S 4 9 it is used for iT^n , haydh, "to be," while in 1 Cor 16 13 dpSpi^o/xat, andrizomai, means "to behave like a man."

      QUIVER, kwiv'er (HStpN , 'ashvdh, ^bp , iHl; ap^Tpa, pharelra [Sir 26 12]) : A case or sheath for carrying arrows, a part of the ordinary equip- ment of the warrior, both foot-soldier and charioteer (Job 39 23; Isa 22 6), and also of the huntsman (Gen 27 3). Figuratively of a group in passages where children (Ps 127 5) or prophets of Jeh (Isa 49 2) are spoken of as arrows. Arrows are called b'ne 'ashpdh, "sons of the quiver" (Lam 3 13). By identifying the arrows with the death they pro- duce, the quiver is likened to an open sepulcher (Jer 5 16).

      QUOTATIONS, kwO-ta'shunz, NEW TESTA- MENT:

      I. Introductory

      Limitation of the Discussion



      II. Constructive Principles of NT Quotation

      1. Unity of the Two Dispensations

      2. Biblical Movement Planned from tlie Beginning

      3. The OT Accepted as Authoritative

      4. Issue Involved in Foregoing Principles of Ref- erence

      III. Typical Instances of NT Quotation

      1. Introductory Formulas

      2. Unity of the Two Dispensations

      3. Prevision of Christianity in the OT

      4. Argumentative Quotations

      5. Catena of Passages. Illustrating Principles of Quotation


      Introductory. — There are, all told, approxi- mately 300 direct quotations from the OT in the NT. The presence of so many cita- Limitation tions, each one of which involves an of the interpretation of the passage given a

      Discussion new context in quotation, opens many avenues of discussion and propounds many difficult and far-reaching problems. In every separate instance, in the long list of NT quotations, the principle of accommodation (see Accommodation) in some form is involved, and, consequently, the question of historical and exe- getical accuracy is unavoidably raised. In the present article we shall concentrate attention upon that which is of far greater importance than the question whether the writer is incidentally correct, according to modern scientific principles, in any specific citation. This more important and vital issue we take to be the general, guiding principles adopted by the NT writers in their use of the book of the older covenant. A review of these principles, together with certain outstanding and typical instances in which these principles are used and applied, will form the substance of the discussion.

      //. Constructive Principles of NT Quotation. — In the first place, the NT writers regard the Chris- tian religion as having its roots in the 1. Unity of OT. From the call of Abraham to the the Two founding and expansion of the Chris- Dispensa- tian church the men of the NT recog- tions nize a single organic movement. In

      their use of the ancient oracles in new setting they constantly and confidently rely upon the unity of the two dispensations, that recorded in the OT and that in which they themselves were participants. Such a unity, taking for granted its existence^ would remove to a degree the very dis- tinction implied in the terms Old and New Testa- ments, and would involve a definite and organic relationship of all the books to each other. There are no longer two separate groups of books standing apart from each other and having bonds of union only within the group, but, on the contrary, two related sub-groups outwardly corresponding to con- trasted phases of the historical movement, but in- wardly conformed to the deep-lying principles which make the entire movement one. According to this idea the Book of Gen is as really related to the Gospel of Mt as it is to the Book of Ex. On the surface, and historically speaking, the Book of Gen leads immediately to the Book of Ex, which is its companion volume and complement, but go more deeply into Gen and just as really and just aa di- rectly it leads to Mt, which ia also its fellow and complement. And so throughout. The unifying medium is, of course, the history which is one in that it involves the same organic principles applied to successive areas of human experience. The books of the Bible are, therefore, like any group of books on a common subject, phases of each other, contrasted and yet intimately cognate. In quoting from the OT the NT writers were simply obeying an impulse common to all thoughtful writers and accounting for all quotations, seeking for diversi- fied expression of the same truths.

      The second great constructive principle of NT

      quotation, and manifestly in close harmony with

      the first one, is that the movement

      2. Biblical from Abraham to Christ was not only Movement organically one, but that it was from Planned the beginning planned and prepared from the for. The Bible is one because the Beginning history out of which it grew is one.

      The history is one because God is in the history and God is one. According to the writers of the NT in this history as a whole we have the unfolding of an all-embracing plan of God, stretching out into the remotest future and coming to its culmination in the person and the kingdom of the Messiah. They maintain also that this plan was disclosed in part beforehand, by way of antici- pation and preparation, in order that men might intelligently cooperate with God in the fulfilment of His purpose. This is the idea involved in prophecy and its fulfilment, and in the closely related idea of promise and its reaUzation. One mind, one will, and one central purpose are operating^ throughout the entire history which is, on the Divine side, the fulfilment of a plan complete in thought before it takes shape in events. On the basis of this con- ception, of the foreseen plan of God and its gradual revelation to men through messages of hope and warning set in the key of the great future and pointing the way thither, the greater part of the structure of NT quotation is reared.

      A third principle which reaUy involves a com- bination of the other two and is prominently brought forward in the use of quotation for

      3. The OT purposes of argument is the recog- Accepted as nition and acceptance of the OT as Authorita- authoritative, a real Word of God, in tive form occasional, but essentially appli- cable to all experiences, and hence good

      for all time. It is evident that the belief in the continued authority of the Scripture of the old covenant over the men of the new, rests upon the unity of the two dispensations and the acceptance of the same Divine mind and will as operating through- out aU outward and historical changes. This is admirably expressed by Paul when he speaks of 'the mystery of his will, according to his good pleas- ure which he purposed in him unto an economy of the fulness of the periods, to sum up aU things in Christ' (Eph 1 9.10), and by the author of He when he says: 'God, having of old spoken unto the fathers in the prophets by various portions and in various ways, hath at the end of these days spoken unto us in his Son' (1 1.2).

      The justification of these accepted principles of

      reference on the part of the NT writers hes beyond

      the scope of the present discussion.

      4. Issue In- It is sufficient to emphasize the fact volved in that any detailed discussion of NT Foregoing quotations seriatim is meaningless and Principles futile except upon the basis of an ex- of Ref- plicit and consistent determination erence of these antecedent questions. To the

      present writer the vahdity of these principles is beyond question. The denial of any one of the three involves one in difficulties of inter- pretation, both critical and historical, from which there is no escape. It is to be noted, therefore, that the establishment of the principles, in accord- ance with which the NT ■^\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\Titers quote, carries with it in a general way the justification of their usage.

      ///. Typical Instances of NT Quotation. — With these constructive principles in mind we are pre- pared to pass in review typical instances in which general principles are embodied. At this point we shall be greatly assisted in the analysis and distri- bution of the complex material before us by giving careful heed to the formulas, more or less fixed and



      uniform, by which the writers introduce quotations and indicate their sense of the value and signifi- cance of that which is quoted. While

      1. Intro- these formulas exhibit certain verbal ductory variations, they are practically re- Formulas ducible to three, which correspond

      with substantial accuracy to the three constructive principles already noted: the unity of the OT and NT; the prevision of the NT in the OT; the authority of the OT as the Word of God intended for all time.

      The unity of the two dispensations is asserted in all those passages introduced by a formula, in which

      fulfilment is asserted as a fact, and in

      2. Unity of which the operation of identical prin- the Two ciples in two or more separate events in Dispensa- the field of history is implied. A sug- tions gestive example is in Mt 13 14, where

      Our Lord asserts^ in connection with the parable of the Sower, that m the unbelief of the people of His day "the prophecy of Isaiah" is ful- filled. The prophetic words here quoted (Isa 6 9.10) are not predictive in any immediate sense, but are susceptible of repeated application and realization because of the general principle which they contain. They apply to the prophet's own day; they also apply — and in that sense are ful- filled — to the time of Jesus, and by a legitimate ex- tension of meaning, to stubborn unbelief in any age (cfJn6 45).

      Another passage in which the same formula is used in a very exceptional way clearly sets forth the fundamental principle upon which this usage rests. Jas 2 23 asserts that the justification of Abraham in the offering of Isaac "fulfilled" the passage which affirms that his belief was counted to him for righteousness (Gen 15 6)._ This passage is not predictive in any sense, nor is there in the narrative any hint of a connection between the passage and the episode on Mt. Moriah. This use of the formula of fulfilment by James involves the principle that any event which realizes the mean- ing and truth of a Scriptural statement fulfils it. A vast number of quotations in the NT come under this head. Persons, events, doctrines, illustrate and confirm, or embody and concretely realize, principles which are taught in the OT or implied in its history. We are warned by this passage and many others like it against a too rigid and literal interpretation of any formula implying fulfilment. While it may certainly be intended to imply literal prediction and an equally literal fulfilment, it may, on the contrary, be intended to intimate nothing more than a harmony of principle, fitting the passage to the person or event with which it is connected. In this connection it is to be remembered that a harmony of principle may extend all the way from a comparatively superficial illustrative resemblance to a profound assonance of thought. Not a few OT quotations were made for purposes of illustration and literary embellishment. Herein lies the sig- nificance of Matthew's use (2 17f)of Jer 31 15. _ A glance at this quoted passage indicates that it is a figurative and poetic expression in which Rachel (already for many years in her tomb) is represented as weeping for her exiled children and refusing to be comforted except by their return. There is no strictly predictive element in the passage, save only the promise of return, which is not used by Matthew. Its applicability to the massacre of the children of Bethlehem lies in its poetical appositeness, and there alone. Once again the voice of wailmg motherhood is heard in Israel. The tender and beautiful imagery is applicable in this sense and is used with true insight, but with no intention of justifying a claim of prediction and fulfilment in the literal sense.

      The prevision of events in the life of Jesus and in the history of Christianity is involved in all the quotations in which a necefisary con- 3. Previ- nection between the passage as pre- sion of dictive and the event is asserted, or

      Christianity in which a prophet is said to have been in the OT speaking or writing concerning the event or person in question. An ex- amination of the OT without reference to its use in the NT seems to justify the conclusion that its bearing upon the future may be particularized under four heads, which in turn with sufficient accuracy and exhaustiveness will classify the pertinent NT quotations.

      (1) The prophetic teaching of Israel embodied not only in the messages of the prophets, but also in laws, institutions, and rites, has a twofold dis- pensational application. Reference is made here only to those explicit references to a future era of especial blessing. For example, in Acts 2 17 £f Peter interprets the Pentecostal experience in the terms of prophecy, referring to Joel (2 28 ff) , who promises an outpouring of God's Spirit in a "great and notable day" of the Lord. The promise through Joel is an undeniable prediction (every promise is such), which in a measure would be ful- filled in any exceptional manifestation of God's Spirit among men. The only question which can possibly be raised in connection with Peter's use of this passage is whether the Pentecostal outpour- ing was the climactic realization of the promise: that is, the establishment of the era of blessing foretold by the prophet. Later in the same book (3 20-26) the same apostle sweeps the whole field of prophecy as centering in certain promises fulfilled in Christ and the Christian community.

      He instances two, the prophet like Moses (Dt 18 IS) and the promised inclusive blessing through Abraham (Gen 12 3). He also includes (Acts 3 26) a hint of the Servant passages of Isa. This identification of the NT movement through two specific predictive promises is wholly justified by the prophetic character of Jesus, the range and rich- ness of the blessings brought from Abraham through Him, and by the fact elsewhere emphasized that no other has measured up to the standard of the ideal servant. Negatively, it may be urged that if these promises were not fulfilled in Christ, history affords no possibility of discovering any fulfilment meas- urably adequate, either in the past or future. In He (8 8-12) reference is made to the promise of a new covenant in Jer (31 31 fi') as a justification for believing that the OT dispensation was not com- plete in itself and that in its very constitution it pointed forward to Christianity as its fulfilment. Combining this passage with that quoted above (Acts 2 17 ff) taken from Joel, the strength of the case for this use of the OT is at once seen. Dis- tinctively Jeremiah's "new covenant" was to be inward and gracious rather than outward and legal. The promise through Joel is an awakening of prophecy through the free outpouring of God's Spirit. The distinctive feature of the gospel is its idea of justification by faith, through grace revealed in Christ and imparted by the Holy Spirit given according to promise at Pentecost. The "new covenant" foretold by Jeremiah was estab- lished at Pentecost through the outpouring of the Spirit promised through Joel. To deny this as fulfilment is to nullify the meaning of Christian history and to erase both promises from the page of credible prophecy.

      (2) Contemporary persons or institutions are sometimes interpreted, not in the terms of present actuality, but on the basis of the ideal not revealed or realized until the coming of Christ. One strik- ing example of this method is to be found in the



      so-called "Immanuel passage" (Mt 1 23, quoting Isa 7 14). Undoubtedly the message of the prophet to Ahaz had an immediate and contem- porary significance. But, like many another notable prophetic message, it is set in the key of the Messianic King whose unworthy predecessor Ahaz was. "The Messiah comes, but the wilful- ness of Ahaz has rendered His reign impossible" (G. A. Smith, "Isa," Expositor's Bible, I, 134). In Acts 2 24-36, passages representative of many others quoted, both the resurrection and ascension of Jesus are interpreted in the light of two quotations from the Pss (16 8ff; 110 1) as prede- termined and therefore certain events in the plan and purpose of God. In both instances the argu- ment is that the promises nominally made to David, or claimed by him, were couched in terms too vast to find fulfilment in his own experience, but were spoken of the greater King who was to come and in whose experience alone they were realized. In the former instance, a triumph over death was anticipated with assurance which not the Psahnist but only Christ attained; in the latter a royal ascendancy was promised that only Christ's ascen- sion to the place of power could satisfy. An ex- amination of the passages shows that Peter's inter- pretation is justified not merely by the wording of the promises, which point to a fulness of experience not realized by any OT man, but still more clearly by the descriptive titles which identify the person who is the subject of the experience. In the first instance he is spoken of as Jeh's "Holy One," in the second as "My Lord." The triumph over death which the speaker anticipates is grounded in a unity of purpose and will with God — a holiness which was ideal and still unrealized until Christ came. The logic of the ps is: God's "Holy One" must not see corruption. The logic of history is : Christ is God's Holy One and He did not see corruption. The principle that triumph over death is the logical issue of holiness found its justification and proof not directly in the experience of the singer who first glimpsed it as a truth, but in the career of Christ who first realized it as a fact.

      Note. — The argument here is not affected if one accepts the variant reading "Holy Ones" for the pre- ceding passage.

      The second passage is particularly interesting because Our Lord Himself first pointed out its implications as to the place and work of the Messiah. Such a passage as this entire ps (110) would have been impossible had not the powers and respon- sibilities of the Davidic King been keyed from the beginning at the Messianic level. The logic here is the same as in Ps 16. The Messianic kingdom over all nations awaited the coming of the true Messianic King. The long-delayed triumph fol- lowed hard upon the coming of the long-e.xpected King (cf Ps 2 1.2; Acts 13 32-34).

      The same principle is involved in Our Lord's use of the Servant passage (Isa 61 1 if) in His sermon at Nazareth. Here the issue as to Messianic prophecy is fairly joined at the center. It is central because it occurs in the Lord's own teaching and also because it concerns, not any external or inci- dental happenings in the life of .lesus, but the whole trend and movement of prophetic thought, together with the entire meaning and interpretation of His career.

      Interpreted altogether apart from the NT, the passage has an unmistakable bearing upon the future. As one of the series concerned with the Servant (Isa 42 1 ff), the quoted passage focuses attention upon the mission of Israel to the world, still to be carried out. "Ye are my witnesses, saith Jeh, and my servant whom 1 have chosen" (43 10), "Yet now hear, O Jacob my servant, and Israel,

      whom I have chosen" (44 1). It also involves the entire scope and meaning of the prophetic office through which Jeh's will was made known to Israel and through Israel to the world. Both these con- siderations sweep out into the prophet's future and both point unerringly to Christ as the historical fulfilment of Israel's mission and as the actual reaK- zation of the ideal and ministry of prophethood. The very ambiguity of the reference in this chapter (ch 61), whether to the Servant or to the prophet, and the questions raised as to whether Israel ideal- ized is referred to or some person or personification, serve to make more clear and unmistakable the central fact that only in Christ is the conception embodied in the entire series of passages altogether realized. It thus becomes for sober thought a distinct revelation and portraiture in advance of what Jesus was in His person and work.

      (3) In the course of Israel's training to receive the Messiah, certain external items were given as bearing upon the identification of Him when He should come. We shall instance three items, closely related to each other, and each intensely interesting in itself. These three items are (a) His sonship to David (Acts 2 30.31), (6) His birth from a Virgin (Mt 1 22 f), (c) His birth at Bethlehem (Mt 2 5). Objection is offered at once to the inter- pretation of these OT passages as predictive, and to the alleged fulfilments in the life of Jesus, on the ground mainly that being definite events (cf Mt 2 15) they are not included within the legitimate scope of prediction; and, secondarily, that being items of this external kind it would be an easy matter to invent fulfilments. It may be granted at once that incidents of this kind could be indefinitely mul- tiplied by fabricating coincidences, but the fact remains that, in the absence of any visible check upon invention, very few such instances are alleged by NT writers. Furthermore, there are suggestive variations between the events recorded and the natural interpretations of the OT passages con- nected with them; that is, the fulfilments arrive by such devious routes as to make it difficult to suppose them to be due to the imaginative stimu- lation of the passages. For example, the birth at Bethlehem was brought about by circumstances not at all to the liking of Jewish patriots, and was obscured to contemporaries by the previous and subsequent residence at Nazareth. The kinship of Jesus to the house of David was made adoptive (unless Mary was of that house) by the virgin birth. The interpretation of Isa 7 14 as inti- mating a virgin birth was not compulsory to one familiar with the Heb text of the passage and would have been thought of in that connection only by one assured of the fact. The virgin birth (see Immanuel; Virgin Birth) is not an ety- mological but a providential commentary on Isa 7 14. One other consideration of primary impor- tance remains. In the one point where the identi- fication of Jesus with the Messiah by His foUowera can be tested most severely, they are most com- pletely triumphant. It would be comparatively easy to invent incidents suggested by OT proph- ecies, and to take dignities and titles wholesale from the same source — but given all these, to find one capable of realizing and fulfilling the expecta- tions so aroused is the chief problem. Here fabri- cation is impossible. And here too the NT meets and answers the challenge of truth. In view of these considerations it is safe to assert that even in matters of historical detail the career of Jesus was foreseen and predicted. Such passages belong to the philosophy of preparation as a whole and should be studied in that connection.

      (4) In certain instances the original passage and its reappearance in quotation indicate a process



      which is continuous throughout all history. For example, the use of Zee 13 7 (Mk 14 27) sug- gests a deeper view of the connection between prophecy and history, immediate and more remote, than we are often aware of. On the face of them such passages as those concerning the Smitten Shepherd and the scattered sheep are predictions, and the life of Christ stands as fulfilment. It simply cannot be contended that such passages as these do not find fulfilment and explanation in the career of Jesus as nowhere else in the history. Neverthe- less, the connection is far deeper than mere fore- sight of an isolated event and its occurrence. We may well say that, in a sense, the event is foreseen because it is already a fact. The allegory of the Smitten Shepherd is, as has well been said, "a sum- mary of the history of Israel." But it is more than that. The relationship of God with Israel, which involved a dealing of Divine grace with men, their rejection of it and the consequent vicarious immo- lation of the Divine Friend and Shepherd, which came to its climax in the tragedy of the cross, was established in all essential factors in the early days. Therefore, Christ can say, as the outcome of the profoundest insight into the meaning of history, 'That which concerneth me hath fulfilment' (cf Lk 24 44). He was more deeply concerned in the doings of an earher time than being there foreseen. In a real sense, "the Lamb" was "slain from the foundation of the world" (Rev 13 8). In this alle- gory of the rejected Shepherd and in the successive delineations of the Servant passages, we have the portrait of the Christ as He was — not merely as He was to be. In these quotations deep answers to deep. The only satisfactory interpretation of the tragedy of the cross is that in accordance with principles long operative in human history, "it must needs be." The only satisfactory interpretation of the passages cited is that they disclose the actual operation of the forces which in their culmination issued in the tragedy of the cross. This brings the passages in the original and in quotation into the framework of the same course of events. Peter in his sermon in Solomon's porch thus sums up the whole process: "But the things which God fore- showed by the mouth of all the prophets, that his Christ should suffer, he thus fulfilled" (Acts 3 18).

      The argumentative use of the OT involves exactly the same principles which have been dealt with in the foregoing discussion. These 4. Argu- principles coalesce in the conception of mentative the OT as authoritative. Quotations (1) Throughout the NT, in the teaching of Our Lord Himself and in the apostolic writings, a clear-cut distinction is drawn between the temporary and permanent offices of the OT. It is recognized that in essential principles the OT is for all time, while in its out- ward form and in its actualization of underlying and essential truths it is preliminary and prepara- tory. There are different dispensations, but one economy. Whenever Our Lord uses the OT for purposes of argument (see Mt 4 4.7; 12 17 ff; 19 18 f; Mk 10 19; Lk 19 46) it is on the basis of essential truth which is permanent and unchanging (Mt 5 17-19). On the other hand, He never hesitates to annul that which had a merely tem- porary or preliminary value (Mt 5 21.33.38; cf by way of contrast ver 27). He came not to destroy, but to fulfil, but fulfilment implies a new era — a new and higher stage in the delivery of truth.

      (2) In like manner Paul and the other NT writers argue on the basis of an identity of principle which binds the two eras together. Paul contends for three great principles, the Messiahship of Jesus, justification by faith, the inclusion of the Gentiles in the plan of salvation (the doctrine of election is

      a detail of this last argument; see Rom 9 7.9.12. We shall consider typical examples of Paul's use of the OT in argumentation. Choice has been made of those which have provoked ad- verse criticism. Among these is the use of Gen 13 1.5; 17 8 in Gal 3 16. This is a leading example of Paul's alleged "rabbinical" method: "He saith not, And to seeds, as of many ; but as of one. And to thy seed, which is Christ." The Heb word "seed" as appUed to offspring (^^T, zero-) is singular. This, of course, means that a man's descendants are looked upon as organically one, inasmuch as they continue his hfe. The word would apply to any one of the family, but only by virtue of his belonging to the family. Etymologi- cally Paul's argument would apply to Isaac as well as to Jesus — provided only the promise is looked upon as being fulfilled in him. But the promise which was fulfilled in Isaac, was fulfilled in a larger way in Israel as a whole, and was fulfilled in the largest way of all in Christ. The use of the sing, word indicates that Abraham's children were looked upon as one in him — they are also one in Christ. The true children of Abraham are such in Christ. Historically the argument is fully justified. "The personality of Christ is in some sense coextensive with the fulfilment of the promise to Abraham" (Beet). "Christ istheorganof fulfilment" (Meyer). The classical passage in the discussion of justi- fication based upon an OT quotation is Rom 1 17, quoting Hab 2 4. The quoted passage seems to fail the argument because the literal tr would appear to be that "the righteous shall live by their faithfulness." A deeper view, however, amply justifies the quotation; first, because the stedfast- ness demanded by the prophet is a persistent trust in God in view of the delay of the promised vision; second, the deepest principle common to the OT and NT is that stability of character has its root in trust in Jeh (Isa 28 16; cf 26 1-3). Nothing could be more foreign to the thought of the OT than that a man could be righteous without trust in God.

      One further quotation argmnentatively used by Paul may fitly close this section of our discussion. In Eom 11 26.27 he quotes Isa 59 20.21 as indicating the Di- vine purpose to include the Gentiles within the scope of salvation. This passage is doubly significant because it is attacked by Kuenen {Prophets and Prophecy in Israel) on the ground that it is uncritically taken from the LXX version which in this instance does not cor- rectly represent the Hcb text. It may be remarked that a large percentage of the NT quotations are taken from the LXX. (For estimates of the number see Johnson, Quotations of the NT, ch i.J This prevalent habit is amply justifiable by, and in large consideration of, the fact that the NT was written for the purpose of being read and understood by those to whom the LXX was often the only version available, and the familiarity of that version was ample compensation for any slight loss in verbal accuracy. The only reasonable qualification of this general statement is that we should call in ques- tion any deviation which is depended upon for a point in argument. Kuenen, tlie severest critic of the NT writers in this particular, alleges very few instances, and Professor Johnson has satisfactorily dealt with these in detail (as above). In the case immediately before us the deviations in the version used by Paul do not in the least modify, in the way of strengthening, the reference to the Gentiles (beginning in ver 19 and continuing throughout) which is the point upon which Paul is laying stress. It is not too much to say that Paul's argmnent would be unimpaired had he used the Heb text, upon which our RV rests (cf He 2 6-8). In general, it may be premised that no stringent rule of verbal accuracy should bo considered binding upon writers who address a popular audience beyond that which guards the sub- stantial cogency of their argument. From the fair application of this reasonable rule the NT writers have nothing to fear.

      For the most part the NT writers confine their quo- tations to the OT. In a single instance an extra- canonical saying of Jesus (Acts 20 3.5), and. in at least two instances (Jude vs 9.14), non-canonical books are referred to. In addition to this Paul uses in the letter to Titus (1 12) and in his sermon at Athens (Acts 17 28) lines from native poets to illustrate and enforce his discussion (see Poetry, New Testament). In these latter instances the difference in usage from his ordinary habit of fiuotins authoritative Scripture is suffi- ciently devious. In the case of tlie saying attributed to Christ, it is enougli to say that it is so obviously Christlike that we need not hesitate to accept it as genuine, while in the case of Jude nothing is made to depend upon the quotations except certain accepted Chris- tian trutlis (see Plumnier, Expositor's Bible, "James and Jude," 4.34 f).

      (1) Based on unity of dispensations. — ^It 2 IS: 13 14

      27 9; Mk 7 6; Lk 4 21; 20 17; Jn 4 37; 6 45

      7 38; 12 14 f; Acts 2 31.39; 3 25; 4 25

      5 Pfltpna nf 8 23.32f; 13; 28 26.27; 1 Cor

      0. (-.atenaoi ^^ .^^.. ^^ g g^^; jas 2 23.

      Passages (2) Based on precision. — Mt 1 22; 2

      Illustrating 5.15; 4 14; 8 17; 12 17; 13 35; 26 31; Prinrinlesof Ml*: 14 27; Lk 22 37; Jn 7 38.42; 12

      guotation 20 9; Acts 1 20; 2 2.5-2 25.26; 13 32-34. (3) Based on authority of the OT. — Mt 4 4; 5 38.43;

      19 24.28.36; 3 25; 4 11.

      9 13; 19 4.18; 21 13.10.42; 22; Mk 4 12;

      7 10; 10 19; 11 17; 12 19; Lk 2 22.23; 4 10; 19 46; Acts 15 1017; Rom 1 17; 4 3.7.8; 9 25.20; 10 5.6-

      8 11.13.16; 12 19; 15 21; 1 Cor 1 19 (identity of prin- ciple). 31; 15 45; 2 Cor 4 13; 6 2.16; 8 15; Gal 3; 4 27; Eph 4 8; 6 2; 1 Tim 5 18.

      See also Chronicle.s, Bookb of, 5, 7, 10.

      LiTEHATUBE. — The lit. is voluminous. Beside the standard comms. and diets., the reader will do well to consult C. H. Toy, Quotations in the NT; Franklin Johnson, Quotations of the NT; Cambridge Bib. Essays ("Our Lord's Use of the OT" by McNeile) ; Westcott, Intro to the Study of the NT, Appendix A.

      Louis Matthews Sweet

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        Thank You for your part in the Global Ministry of - as of 1-1-2011 - in nearly 200 nations, approaching 40,000 associated Bible Believing Ministers and over 30,000 Ministries.

        Editor: NewtonStein


      * Cambridge Theological Seminary USA & Global has no connection or relationship to Cambridge University in England, EXCEPT . . . we in the USA are carrying on their "Christian Values of Hundreds of Years" . . . as they have long since become secular humanists, agnostics and atheists: "Anti-Christ" in almost every way and contrary to every Scripture.

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