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Where The Word of God Is: "STILL...INERRANT!"

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Comprehensive Bible Encyclopedia

All Entries for LETTER "U"

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"Welcome to CHRISTIPEDIA™

Understanding Future According to "HIS WORD",
Understanding History Providentially, as "HIS-STORY!"
And Today, From Where We've Been, To Where "HE'S LEADING!"
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FACT: Wikipedia is the "World's Most-Referenced Resource!"
FACT: Wiki Philosophy: ATHEIST, ANTI-CHRISTIAN, ANTI-BIBLE;
FACT: We Recognize Wikipedia's Great Success
HOWEVER, WE URGE YOU NOT TO TRUST THEIR ANTI-CHRISTIAN BIAS!

See WIKIPEDIA Founder Jimmy Wales on CELEBRATED ATHEIST PAGE]
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"CHRISTIPEDIA™ Recommendation!

Use Ameripedia, Conservapedia, Theopedia, Biblipedia, Islamipedia;
Scriptipedia, Judaeopedia, Medipedia, Christipedia, Musicipedia, etc;
For ALL information: A "BIBLICAL WORLDVIEW REALLY MATTERS!"
We plead for support to Biblical Christian Researchers, Scholars;

"CHRISTIPEDIA™" is a “Trademark” Of NewtonStein Academy,
Of Cambridge Theological Seminary™, American Bible Church;
PLEASE DO NOT INFRINGE!


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God's Eternal Guarantee!

"Heaven and Earth Shall Pass Away;
But GOD'S WORDS Shall NOT Pass Away! (Matthew 5:18) "
--Jesus the Messiah, AD-33
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    NewtonStein Statement On Holy Scriptures;

    The ‘Lens’ Through Which All Knowledge Is Understood;

    THE WORD of GOD, AXIOM-1:

    "IF" there exists any such thing as 'The Word of God'; [and ALL evidence proves such does exist:]

    "THEN" by inherent definition - it must be:

      Holy, Inspired, Inerrant, Intrepid, Infallible, Infinitive, Invincible, Indestructible, Inexhaustible, Inalienable, Immutable, Implacable, Impossible-to-Improve: Eternal and Indubitable NEVER FAILING and ALL CONQUERING!

      DEDUCTING from the simple fact - that God equates His Word with Himself:

        "In the Beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God, . . ." John 1:1 (and other Scriptures),
    Thus 'GOD'S WORD' can have no lesser standard than stated above;


    "GOD'S WORD MUST" THEREFORE BE:

      As true in history, archeology, geography, Earth science, medical science, nutrition, gerontology, agriculture, botany, astronomy, physics, chemistry, climatology, government, law, psychology, sociology - and every subject it touches - as in Theology, Divinity and Doctrine:

    And "IF IT BE NOT" - true in all subjects mentioned above; and And "IF IT BE NOT"

      Holy, Inspired, Inerrant, Intrepid, Infallible, Infinitive, Invincible, Indestructible, Inexhaustible, Inalienable, Immutable, Implacable, Impossible-to-Improve: Eternal and Indubitable in EVERY FIELD OF KNOWLEDGE:
    Whatever else it may be, it cannot be ‘The Incomparable Word’ of the Great Creator God!

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        As I UNDERSTAND the BIBLE,

          >> I will NEVER 'GO' against, 'VOTE' against, or 'SPEAK' Against,

          >> The WORD of GOD,

          >> So Help me GOD!

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    Many Fine Bible Scholars seem unaware,
    Of Christ's Great Parable covering the whole Church Age,
    From His Sowing First Seed and His Great End-Time Harvest of Souls!
    To Final Judgment of the Unsaved and their Damnation;
    To Christ’s Presence and Eternal Kingdom!

    (See Greatest Parable on End of Times!)
    Christ’s Greatest Parable on End of Times: Brief Overview

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    Translation Axiom: God's Word! "INSPIRED-INERRANT!"

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    (See Cambridge Comprehensive Concise COMMENTARY)

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    (See Cambridge Comprehensive Bible COMMENTARY)



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    ** Cambridge Bible Commentary Concise, The Whole NEW TESTAMENT

    [1] Cambridge Bible Commentary Concise, HOMEPAGE and INDEX

    [2] Cambridge Bible Commentary Concise, INTRO and PREFACE

    [3] Cambridge Bible Commentary Concise, GENESIS - DEUTERONOMY

    [4] Cambridge Bible Commentary Concise, JOSHUA To ESTHER

    [5] Cambridge Bible Commentary Concise, JOB To SONG of SOLOMON

    [6] Cambridge Bible Commentary Concise, THE PSALMS

    [7] Cambridge Bible Commentary Concise, ISAIAH To JEREMIAH

    [8] Cambridge Bible Commentary Concise, EZEKIEL To MALACHI

    [9] Cambridge Bible Commentary Concise, MATTHEW To ACTS

    [10] Cambridge Bible Commentary Concise, ROMANS To THE-REVELATION

    ** Cambridge Bible Commentary Concise, The Whole OLD TESTAMENT

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    FINAL NOTE;

      Deuter-canonical Books are included as references, and less often, the Pseudo-pigraphia (extra-biblical New Testament Era writings - such as the Epistle of Barnabas - used for over 300 years by the early Church.

      Though these are 'NOT' Inerrant Scripture, they are very important as geographical and historical references, and helping to understand how particular Hebrew and Greek words were used.

      Since the Deuter-canonical Books were part of the Jewish Bible that Jesus and Paul used, they have great value for understanding the era between the Covenants, and all things Jewish.

      Many will be surprised to know they were in the Geneva Bible of Calvin and Knox - and the Puritan Pilgrims - and included in the King James for over 275 years . . .

      . . . and left out in later versions - ONLY to make the Bible MORE PROFITABLE, by selling at the usual price, while being much smaller to print!

      No wonder Paul said the "love of money is the root of all evil!"

      Further know, that that these books are rejected by most Bible Preachers today, BECAUSE the Jews of Jesus' Day rejected them for the Jewish Canon at the Council of Jamnia after the fall of Jerusalem.

      This seems reasonable enough, and though these Scribes and Lawyers SHOULD have had superior knowledge in ALL THINGS JEWISH . . . in their Jewish wisdom, THEY ALSO REJECTED JESUS AS THE MESSIAH!!!

      TheDeuter-canonical Books are very "Kingdom of God" and "Messianic" Oriented, thus the Jews sis NOT want any writings confirming that Jesus WAS the Jewish Messiah.

      The wise "Students-north-Scholars" will know them, as they provide light on New Testament Scripture that are NOT understood otherwise;


    Quick Example:

    In Luke 3:36 YOUR Bible reads as follows:
        "Which was the son of Cainan, which was the son of Arphaxad, which was the son of Sem (Shem), which was the son of Noe (Noah), which was the son of Lamech;"

      This ancestor of Jesus named "Cainan, son of Arphaxad: where is he in YOUR Bible; (Check Genesis 11:13, and other genealogies).

      This dilemma - which the WORLD calls a great contradiction in the linage of Jesus as the Christ - can ONLY be solved by the Bible Jesus used, which included the Deuter-canonical Books.

      Do you suppose Jesus knew more about the "Correct Books of the Bible than modern "lukewarm" Denominations?




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    How To Use This Page
    EFFICIENTLY;


    ** To SEARCH for any word, subject or Scripture on this website, use the GOLD-BOX SITE SEARCH near top of page: over 600,000 pages available from Cambridge Theological Seminary Archives;

    ** To SEARCH for anyword, subject or Scripture on this SINGULAR-WEB-PAGE you are now on, (which may be from 100-3,000 regular notebook sized pages);

      [1] Go to the TOP TOOLBAR of your Monitor and find EDIT

      [3] Click EDIT and menu drops down: "Click FIND

      [3] Type in word, Scripture or whatever you are looking for;

      [4] Then Click "MATCH CASE" if you need it;

      [5] Then Click "NEXT" or "PREVIOUS" to search as much as you desire!




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    HEBREW ROOT WORDS: INTRO;

      Consider the Hebrew Language:

      Hebrew is "The Perfect Language" - in the original form - as the Hebrew Language has evolved from perfection:

        >> God taught, or programmed, Adam and Eve perfect Hebrew;

        >> over a thousand years it eroded into informal Hebrew, as formal British-English eroded into the American dialect;

        >> over hundreds of more years it became a "dead Hebrew", meaning it is no longer spoken by any nation of people;

        >> eventually evolving into into the derivative Aramaic, which was commonly spoken in the days of Jesus;

        >> finally evolving into that "modern Hebrew" spoken in Israel in Post-AD-2000).


      The linguistics of the Hebrew Language as designed and taught by God to Adam and Eve (or perhaps "programmed" - either way does not affect the evidence of the Godhead) gives us massive and mighty "Eternal Evidence", daily clues and reminders of the Existence and Transcendence of the Almighty Godhead:

        >> God the Spirit - who is Spirit; manifest as Spirit of Ghost (that is Presence without corporeal body or manifestation such as Christ after His Resurrection);

        >> God the Father - willing to give His Son to save the World John 3:16-17;

        >> God the Son - willing to give His life to save the World! John 12:47;


      God decided to continually reveal the "THREE-FOLD-NATURE-OF-HIS-GODHEAD" by making EVERY Hebrew "root word" have THREE-CONSONANTS!"

        > NEVER 2 letters;

        > NEVER 4, 5, 6, or more;

        > BUT ALWAYS 3 letters!

        > And ONLY 3 and THREE alone!


    SCIENCE, ROOT WORDS of BIOLOGY:

      Likewise, the "Language of Life" - called by some "The Protein Language" - also designed and programmed by God to be the language of all living substance from lions to dandelions to from babies to buttercups top butterflies!

      The Protein Language is the language of Genetics, of Cells, of plants and animals and all that exists: the Code of Life;

      The PROTEIN LANGUAGE consists of "CODONS".

      This Language of all Life is also made of THREE LETTER WORDS, and each letter of these TRINITARIAN CODONS, is the life-giving code for an amino acid, creating the genetic structure of all that is LIFE!

      Thus every word that your body parts (cells, organs, glands and tissues, etc.,) write to each other, and every word your body reads in communication from another body part, these are ALL THREE LETTER WORDS!

      All of the intelligence your body has, all it knows and all it communicates - in every bodily function possible - is given in THREE LETTER WORDS!

        > NEVER 2 letters;

        > NEVER 4, 5, 6, or more;

        > ALWAYS 3 letters!

        > ONLY 3 and THREE alone!


      Can we possibly miss this, asks NewtonStein? (Not if we can count as far as 1, 2, 3!!!)


    Even the Word "G-O-D" in English . . . is Three Letters!

      Why is "GOD" in English significant?

      For the simple reason that today, in the POST-AD-2,000 word, very few scores of thousands speak Biblical Hebrew with the THREE-LETTER-ROOT-WORD structure.


      Comparatively, scores of HUNDREDS OF MILLIONS SPEAK English!

        >> ENGLISH, is an Official Language in well over 100 nations of the World!

        >> ENGLISH, is The Major Language of Science, Globally!

        >> ENGLISH, is an Official - and the Major - Language of , the United Nations!

        >> ENGLISH, is The Official Language of The Internet!

        >> ENGLISH, is The Major Language of Serious Publishing - even in Japan and Germany!

        >> ENGLISH, is The Official Language of Global Airlines and Airports!

        >> ENGLISH, is The Official Language of OF the World!

        ** THUS more people will hear the Gospel in ENGLISH than any other Language!

        ** THUS more people will read the Gospel in ENGLISH than any other Language!

        ** THUS more people will own a Bible in ENGLISH than any other Language!

        ** THUS more people will get saved from learning TRUTH in ENGLISH than any other Language!

        FACT! SINCE God knew of the ENGLISH as the Global Language before the Foundation of the World!

        FACT! SINCE God in His Goodness has ALWAYS given Signs to Those Who Believe, from Moses and Israel, to Samson, to The Virgin Birth as a sign (Isa 7:14) to the Swaddling Clothes as a sign, to the Signs of the times in Matthew 24:4-24, Mark 13:5-20 and Luke 17:31-41 and 21:10-25;

        FACT! SINCE God originally made His name a "Three-Letter-Root-Word in Hebrew - "JAH" (Psalm 68:4)

        FACT! ONCE AGAIN God made His Name a THREE LETTER WORD in ENGLISH, the Global Language of the most populated era of Earth!

      So remember this every time "GOD!" is heard, read, said, etc., teach this to others, and help your family and friends see the "SIGNS along the WAY!"


    Seeing God in Linguistics, in General;

      In linguistics, there are many, many more, that PROVE God is the Designer of (a)All language, (b)alphabet, (c)Hebrew, (d) that Hebrew is the parent language of all others, (e)word structure, (f)actual words unique to Hebrew that pertain to God . . .

      . . . that NO OTHER LANGUAGE DEVELOPED OR NEEDED . . .

      . . . BECAUSE they had no God with eternal Attributes!


    EXAMPLE: "EMMANUEL!"
      Emmanuel is the same word in every language, and no language has a word it can be translated into, because it means GOD DWELLING IN HIS PEOPLE . . . and no people had "this experience apart from the People of the One True GOD JAH, thus "Emmannuel remains the same word in all languages!

      Likewise "Halleluah" - which is a Hebrew compound word "Hallelu-JAH" - and is a Command to "PRAISE JAH!"


      "Amen!" and Hosanna are also neat, unique words and there are literally hundreds more!


      The scoffing world asks: "Where is evidence for God!?" to which we answer:

      EVERYWHERE!





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    Letter "U"

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    Letter "U"


    THE INTERNATIONAL STANDARD BIBLE ENCYCLOPAEDIA

    UCAL, fi'kal

      [see below]): This name occurs along with that of Ithiel (Prov 30 1), both being taken by older interpreters as those of an- cient sages. Some have suggested (see Toy, Prov, 51<) f) that Teal might be the "Calcol" of 1 K 4 31 (Heb 5 11).

      Ucal was also explained as "I can," i.e. "I can maintain my obedience to God," just as Ithiel was taken to be "signs of God." LXX, Aq, Theodotion do not take the words as proper names, and so BDtt with others point this word as a vb., "[and] I am consumed" P?^ , ivackJiti, for bp^"1 , w r 'ukhdl). The last three words of the verse are then tr (1 "1 have wearied myself, O God, I have wearied myself, O God, and am consumed." See ITHIEL. DAVID FRANCIS ROBERTS

    UEL, u'el
      "will of God"): One of the sons of Bani who had taken foreign wives (E/r 10 34). The name in 1 Esd 9 35 is "Juel" (B, Outl, A, 'loin^A, lontl).

    UKNAZ, nk'naz
      "and Kenaz," probably): Found in AVm of 1 Ch 4 15 for AV "even Kenaz," RV "and Kenaz," whereas LXX omits "and." It is probable that some name has dropped out after Elah. Curtis suggests reading "and these are the sons of Kenaz," i.e. those men- tioned in vs 13 f. See KENAZ.

    ULAI, u'll,
      "river Ulai"; Theod. Dnl 8 2, Ov$aX,()nbdl; LXX and Theod. in ver 10, OvXat, Oulai;

      1. The Lat E nine us): A river which, running through the province of Elam, Its Forms flowed through Shushan or Susa. It was from "between" this river that Daniel (8 16) heard a voice, coming apparently from the waters which flowed between its two banks.

      Not withstanding that the rivers of Elam have often changed their courses, there is but lit tie doubt that the Tlai is the Kerkhah, which,

      2. Present rising in the Pers plain near Xeluivend Names and (there called the Gamas-Ab), is even Course there a great river. Turned by the

      mountains, it runs XV. as far as Bisutun, receiving all the waters of Southern Kurdistan, where, as the Sc'in Mcrrc, it passes through the inaccessible' defiles of Luristan, its course before reaching the Kehir-Kxfi being a suc- cession of rapids. Turned aside by this mountain, it follows for about 95 miles the depression which here exists as far as the foothills of Luristan, reach- ing the Susian plain as a torrent; but it becomes less rapid before losing itself in the marshes of Hauizeh. The course of the stream is said to be still doubtful in places.

      In ancient times it flowed at the foot of the citadel of Susa, but its bed is now about 1 J- miles to the W.

      The date of this change of course

      3. Changed (during which a portion of the ruins of Bed at Susa Susa was carried away) is uncertain,

      but it must have been later than the time of Alexander the Great. The stream's greatest, volume follows the melting of the snows in the mountains, and floods ensue if this coincides with the advent of heavy rain. Most to be dreaded are the rare occasions when it unites with the Ab-e-Diz. The Ulai (Assyr Ulda or Uldia) near Susa is regarded as being shown on the sculptures of the

      Assyr king Ashur-bani-pal (Brit. Mus.,

      4. Assyrian Nineveh Gal.) illustrating his cam- References paign against Te-umrnan. Its rapid

      stream bears away the bodies of men and horses, with chariots, bows and quivers. The

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      Tyre, Ladder of Unchangeable

      bodies which were thrown into the stream hindered its course, and dyed its waters with their blood.

      LITF.RTUHE. See Delegation en I'erne: Memoires, I, Iterhrrrhes Archeologiques, 25 fT.

      T. G. PINCHES

    ULAM, ii'lam
      Tilum, "preceding": (1) A "son" of P(>reslr, a Manassite elan (1 Ch 7 1(5.17). Luc. reads 'HXa/x, Eldm.

      (2; A descendant of Benjamin who had sons, "mighty men of valor" (1 Ch 8 39.10). LXX B has Ai'Xd/ix. A/lain, in ver 39, AiXeLp, Ailcim in ver 40; A, Ovdn, Ouldm, in bolh, and so Luc.

    ULLA, ul'a
      meaning unknown: An Asherite (1 Ch '? 39;.

    UMMAH, nm'a

      (rffi? , *nmnmh; 'A PX 6(3, ,l,rW/>, 'Afijid, ,lwwa): One; of the cities allotted to the tribe of Asher (Josh 19 30;. By a slight emenda- tion of the text, it would read Acco, the name of the place subsequently known as Ptolemais, the modern M/.-Avf. This emendation is generally adopted by scholars, although it is at best a conjecture. No other identification is yet possible.

      UMPIRE, um'pir. See DAYSMAN.

      UNBELIEF, un-be-lef: The word (AV) repre- sents two Gr words, airelOeia., apcitheia, "disobe- dience" (only in Rom 11 30.32; He 4 6.11), and curta-Tia, npistid, ''distrust," the antithesis to "fa.it h" (q.v.). The two words are not only akin etymo- logic-airy but run into one another by mental con- nection, certainly where spiritual relations are con- cerned, as between man and God. For when God has spoken, in precept and yet more in promise, distrust involves, at least potentially, an element of disobedience. His supreme claim is to be tnixti-d to command only what is right, and to promise only what is true. He is infinitely sympathetic in His insight, and infallibly knows where distrust comes only of the dim perceptions and weak mis- givings of our mortal nature, and where, on the other hand, a moral resistance lies at the back of the non-confidence. But the presence of that darker element is always to be suspected, at least, and searched for in serious self-examination.

      We may remark that it is a loss in our language that "unbelief" is the only word we can use as the antithesis to "faith"; for "faith" and "belief" (q.v.) are not exactly synonyms. "Unfaith" would be a welcome word for such use, if it were generally so understood. HANDLEY DUNELM

      UNBELIEVER, un-be-lev'er: _ This word fol- lows closely the lines of "unbelief" (q.v.) in its relation to originals. Once only (Acts 14 2) it rep- resents the participle aireidovvTes, apeithountes, "dis- obeying [ones]." Elsewhere (nine cases) it represents S.TTLO-TOS, djristos, "faithless," "without faith." In six of these passages (all in 1 and 2 Cor) it denotes the unconverted pagan as distinguished from the convert. In the other passages (Lk 12 46; Tit 1 1">; Rev 21 8) the reference is to the unbelief which comes of moral resistance to God.

      UNCERTAIN, un-sur'tin, UNCERTAINTY, un- pur'tin-ti: Adj. &5ij\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\o^ wlclox, 2 Mace 7 34; 1 Cor 14

      UNCHANGEABLE, un-chanj'a-b'l, UNCHANGE- ABLE NESS, un-chanj'a-b'1-nes :

      I. U.VCHANGEABLENESS OF GOD A TRUTH OF NATURAL THEOLOGY

      II. SclilF'TCItAL DOCTKINF, OF TIIK l"N( HAM.

      OF COD

      1. N'ot Lifeless Immobility

      '2. As Contrasted with the Finite

      .'{. Cod's Knowledge, Will and Purpose

      4. In His Relation to the World

      5. His Relations to .Men LITERATURE

      The unchangeableness or immutability of God is that Divine attribute which expresses the truth that in His nature; and perfections, in His knowledge, will and purpose, He always remains the same in the fulness of His infinite and perfect Being; infi- nitely exalted above change, becoming arid develop- ment, which are the specific characteristics of all finite existence. This is one of what theologians have called the incommunicable attributes of God, that is, OIK; of those specific characteristics of the Divine nature which make God to be God in dis- tinction from all that is finite. These attributes have also been called negative; attributes. By calling them negative, however, it is not meant that they express the nature of God in so far as He is unknowable and incomprehensible by the finite mind, while the positive attributes, such as love and righteousness, express God's nature as revealed and known. Both kinds of attributes can be known only in so far as God reveals Himself, and further- more the so-called negative attributes involve a positive idea, while the positive ones in turn imply the negation of all finite limitations. Moreover, since the finite mind cannot comprehend the infinite God, back of all that God has revealed of Himself, back even of His absoluteness, eternity and tin- changeability, lies the fulness of His infinite Being, unsearchable, unknowable, and incomprehensible alike in His nature and attributes (Ps 145 3; 147 5; Job 11 7-9; Isa 40 28).

      It is these incommunicable attributes, including unchangeableness, which make God to be God, and mark the specific difference between Him and all finite existence. Unchangeableness is, therefore, the characteristic of God's entire nature and of all His attributes. It cannot be limited to His ethical nature or to His love, and, while it is true that these incommunicable attributes are revealed with especial richness in God's saving activity, they cannot be limited to marks of God's saving action or purpose. It is true that God is unchangeable in His love and grace and power to save, but that is only because it is the love and grace and power of the absolute 1 , infinite and immutable God.

      /. Unchangeableness of God a Truth of Natu- ral Theology. As the One infinitely perfect and absolute or self-existent Being, God is exalted far above the possibility of change, because He is inde- pendent , self-existent and unlimited by all the causes of change. As uncaused and self-existent, God can- not be changed from without; as infinitely perfect, He cannot suffer change from within; and as eternal and independent of time, which is the "form" of change and mutability, He cannot be subject to any change at all. God's unchangeableness, there- fore, follows from His self-existence and eternity.

      //. Scripture Doctrine of the Unchangeableness of God. The Scripture doctrine of God reaffirms this truth. It conceives of God as a living Person in relation to the world and man, and at the same time as absolutely unlimited by the world and man, and as absolutely unchangeable. The God who has revealed Himself in the OT and the XT is never identified with, or merged in, the processes of Na- ture. He is complete and perfect in Himself, and is not the result of any process of self-realization. He is so great that His relations to the created universe cannot begin to exhaust His Being, and yet He stands in the closest relations to man and the world as Creator, Preserver, Governor, and Saviour.

      Unchangeable Uncleanness

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      3034

      On the one hand, then, the Bible never represents the unchangeableness of Clod as a dead immobility out of all relation to man and the 1. Not world. This tendency of thought,

      Lifeless Im- fearing anthropomorphism, proceeds mobility on the principle that to make any defi- nite predications about God is to limit Him. The logical result of this is to conceive of ( !od as abstract Being or Substance, so that the word '(lod" becomes only a name for the Unknowable. Over against this error, the Scripture represents ( Jod concretely as a Person in relation to the world and man. In the beginning He created the heavens and the earth, and from that time on He is the life of the world, esp. of Israel, His chosen people. To bring out this truth anthropomorphisms are em- ployed, (lod comes and goes, reveals Himself and hides Himself. He repents (Gen 6 (>; 1 S 15 1 1 ; Am 7 3; Joel 2 13); He becomes angry (Nu 11 1; Ps 106 10); and lays aside His anger (Dt 13 17; II os 14 4). He sustains a different relation to the godly and the wicked (Prov 11 20; 12 22 i. In the fulness of time He became incarnate through the Son, and He dwells in His people by His Spirit, their experience of His grace being greater at some times t han at others.

      Hut on the other hand, the Scripture always asserts in unmistakable terms the unchangeableness of God. He is unchangeable in His nature. Al- though the name '/','/ Xlnulthii/, by which He made Himself known in the patriarchal period of revela- tion, denotes esp. (lod's power, this name by no means exhausts t he revelation of God in that period. His unchangeableness is involved in His eternity as made known to Abraham (Gen 21 33). This attribute finds its clearest expression in the name ''Jehovah" as revealed to Moses, 1 he significance of which is unfolded in the passage Ex 3 13-15. God here reveals Himself to His people as "I AM THAT I AM," using the. future tense of the vb. "to be," which, as the context shows, is given as the meaning of the name ''Jehovah." Some recent writers would derive these, words from the Hiphil stem of the vb., and affirm that it signifies that God is the giver of life. The vb., however, is in the Kal stem, the tense denoting the changeless continuity of the life and nature of God. The idea expressed is not merely that of self-existence, but also of unchange- ableness, and this unchangeableness, as the context clearly indicates (esp. ver 15), is here set forth not simply as belonging to the nature of (Jod in Himself, but is brought into closest connection with His covenant, relation to His people, so that the reli- gious value of God's unchangeableness is most clearly implied in this fundamental assertion of the attri- bute. The same idea of God's immutability is reaffirmed in the prophecy of Isaiah. It is con- nected with the name Jeh (Isa 41 4; cf also 48 12), where Jeh affirms that He is the first and, with the last, the same God, thereby asserting not merely His eternity, but also that He is the same in His Divine existence throughout all ages. This attri- bute, moreover, is claimed by Jeh, and set forth as an especial mark of His Godhead in Isa 44 6. The unchangeableness of the Divine nature is also as- serted by the prophet Malachi in a difficult passage (3 6). This is a clear affirmation of the unchange- ableness of God, the only question being whether it is set forth as the ground of Israel's confidence, or in contrast with their fickleness, a question which depends partly on that of the text.

      In the NT the thought of the passage in Ex 3 is reiterated in the Apocalypse where God is described as He who is and was and is to come (Rev 1 4). This is an expansion of the covenant name "Jehovah" in Ex 3 13-15, denoting not merely eternity but also immutability. The phrases "the Alpha and the

      Omega" (Rev 1 S; 21 (i; 22 13); and "the first and the last" (1 17; 22 13); and "the beginning and the end" (21 6; 22 13) bring out the same idea, and are applied to Christ as well as .to God, which is a clear indication of Our Lord's Deity. The a post le Paul likewise asserts the incorrupt ibilit y , eternity and immortality of the Divine nature, all of which ideas imply the unchangeableness of God (Rom 1 23; 1 Tim 1 17; 6 1(5).

      Not only is the unchangeableness of God's nature asserted in Scripture, and placed in relation to His deal- ings with men, hut also it is declared to he

      2. As Con- 'he distinctive characteristic of Clod's

      .1, nature as contrasted with the entire uni- trastea wun V( , rs( , of finit( , )M , inK . While the heavens the Finite and the earth change and are passing away, Clod endures forever and forever tin; same God (Ps 102 2H-2X [Heb 27-2!)]). The applica- tion of the language of this psalm to Christ by the author of the Kp. to the He (1 10-12) involves the unchangp- ableness of Christ, which is again explicitly asserted in this Kp. (13 S), being another clear indication of the way in which the Deity of .Jesus Christ pervades the NT. This idea of Clod's immutability, as contrasted with the mutability of finite existence, which is His creation, is given expression in the XT by the apostle .James. As Creator of the heavenly bodies, God is called the Father of lights. While their lights, however, are intermittent, God's light is subject to neither change nor obscuration (1 17).

      In accordance with this idea of the unchangeableness of Clod's nature, the Scripture, in ascribing life and per- sonality to Him, never regards Clod as subject to any process of becoming or self-realization, and the views which so conceive of Clod are unseriptural whether they proceed upon a Unitarian or a trinitarian basis.

      God is also represented in Scripture as unchange- able in His knowledge, will and purpose. He is not a man that He should repent, (1 S 15

      3. God's 20). His purposes, therefore, are un- Knowledge, changeable (Nu 23 10; Isa 46 11; Prov Will and 19 21); and His decrees are accordingly Purpose likened to "mountains of brass" (Zee;

      6 1). His righteousness is as immut- able as mountains (Ts 36 (i [Heb 7J); and His power also is unchangeable (Isa 26 4). Hence, while the Scripture represents God as sustaining living rela- tions to His creatures, it does not conceive of Him ;;s conditioned or determined in any way by men's acts, in either His knowledge, will, purpose or power. God knows eternally the changing course of events, and He acts differently upon different occasions, but all events, including human actions, are deter- mined by God's unchangeable purpose, so that ( Jod's knowledge and actions are not contingent upon any- thing outside Himself.

      Although, therefore, the idea of God as pure abstract Being, out of all relation to the world, is unscriptural, it is no less true that that conception of God which represents a reaction from this, and which conceives of God anthropomorphically and as conditioned and determined by the world and man, is also quite contradictory to the Scripture conception of God. This latter tendency goes too far in the opposite direction, and falls into the error of conceiving God's knowledge, will, purpose and power too anthropomorphically, and as limited by the free acts of man. While the opposite tendency kept God out of all relation to the world, this one erects God's relation to the world into something which limits Him. This way of conceiving of God, which is the error of Rationalism, Socinianism and Arminianism, is as unscriptural as that which con- ceives of God as abstract Being, unknowable, and entirely out of relation to the world.

      Unchangeable in His nature and attributes, God

      is likewise unchangeable in His relation to the

      world, which relation the Scripture

      4. In His represents as creation and providence, Relation to and not as emanation. Hence while the World everything finite changes, God remains

      ever the same (Ps 102 26-28). Con- sequently the pantheistic idea is also unscriptural,

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      Unchangeable Uncleanness

      which idea, going farther than the anthropomorphic ;uid dualistic conception which places the world over against. Clod, completely merges (iod's Being in the world and its processes of change, affirming that God comes to self-realization in the evolution of the world and man. In its reaction from the denial of Clod's living relation to the world, this view does not stop with limiting (rod by reason of this relation, hut. merges Him completely in the world-development. The Scripture, on the con- trary, always conceives of (lod as immutably free and sovereign in His relation to all the creation.

      In accordance with this idea of the unchange- ahleness of Clod's nature and attributes, the Bible always maintains (Iod's absoluteness and tran- scendence of Nature and her processes in all of the relations which Ho sustains to the finite universe. It, came into being by His creative fiat, not by any process of emanation from His Being. He sustains it in existence, and governs it, not by any process of self-realization in the series of second causes, but, from without, by His sovereign will and power. And lie intrudes into the series of finite causes miraculously, producing events in Nature which are due solely to His power. When for man's sal- vation the Son of (lod became incarnate, it was not by any change of His nature in laying aside some or all of the attributes of Deity, but by assuming a human nature; into personal union with the Divine nature. The Scripture passages which speak of the incarnation of Our Lord clearly indicate that the Son retained 1 1 is full Deity in "becoming flesh" (cf esp. the prologue to John's Gospel and Phil 2 (5-8). Moreover, the OT doctrine of the Spirit of God as the source of life to the world is always at pains to avoid any mingling of the Spirit with the processes of Nature, and the same thing is true of the NT doctrine of the indwelling of the Spirit in the believer, always keeping the Spirit distinct from the spirit of man (Rom 8 1(5).

      Finally, (lod is unchangeable not only in relation to the universe, but in His relations to men and esp.

      Relations Scripture often connects the unchange- to Men ableness of God with His goodness

      (Ps 100 5; Jas 1 17); with His truthfulness and mercy (Ps 100 5; 117 2); and with His covenant promises (Kx 3 13 ff). In connection with His covenant promises, God's un- changeableness gives the idea of His faithfulness which is emphasized in the OT to awaken trust in God (Dt 7 <; Ps 36 5 [Hob G]; Ps 92 2 [Hob 3]; Isa ll 5; Lam 3 23). This idea of God's un- changeableness in His covenant promises or His faithfulness is repeated and emphasized in the NT. His gifts or graces and election are without repent- ance (1 Thess 5 24; Rom 11 29); He is faithful toward men because; unchangeably true; to His own nature (2 Tim 2 13); His faithfulness abides in spite of men's lack of faith (Rom 3 5), and is in many places represented as the basis of our confi- dence in God who is true to His election and gracious promises (1 Cor 1 <); 10 13; 2 Thess 3 3; He 10 23; 11 11; 1 Pet, 4 19; 1 Jn 19). See FAITHFULNESS. It is thus the religious significance and value of God's unchangeableness which is esp. emphasized throughout the Scripture. Because He is unchangeably true to His promises, He is the secure object of religious faith and trust, upon whom alone we can rely in the midst of human change and decay. It is this idea to which expression is given by calling God a rock, the rock of our strength and of our salvation (Dt 32 15; Ps 18 2 [Heb 3]; 42 9 [Ileb 10]; 71 3; Isa 17 10). God is even eternally a rock, the never-failing object of confi- dence and trust (Isa 26 4).

      It appears, therefore, that the Script lire idea of the unchangeableness of God lavs emphasis upon four points. First, it is not lifeless immobility, but the unchangeableness of a living Person. Second, it is, however, a real unchangeableness of God's nature, attributes and purpose. Third, this unchangeableness is set, forth as one of (lie specific characteristics of Deity in distinction from all that is finite'. Fourth, (Iod's unchangeableness is not dealt witli in an abstract or merely theoretic man- ner, but. its religious value is invariably emphasized as constituting God the one true object of religious faith.

      LITERATURE. Resides the: comnis. on appropriate passages, and the discussion of the Divine attributes in the general works on systematic theolo^v, sec Dili- maim, Handbuch drr alttrxt. Th<><,L, 1S95, 215-20, 243- 44; Oehler, Tin-,, 1. ,,f th<- OT, KT. 18s:i, 95, 100; Schultz, Alttcxt. Ttu-l., 1S90, 410; Davidson, The Tkcol. of the OT, 1904, 45-5S, 1(15. Kor a fuller discussion see Char- nock, "The Immutability of (Joel," Workx, vol I, 374- 419; Dorner, (Y/irr die rirlitii/f Faasuna des r I'live'runderlichkeit Ge)ttes his auf Schleiermacher," JDT, II, 440 500; III, " Dog- matisclu: Kmrtcrung eler Le'hre: vem eler Unve'ranele'r- lichkeit Gottes," JDT, III, 579-(i(i(); II. CYe'iner, l>i<- clirixtliche. Lrlire run den Ki,/, 'nxclmfti n (luttr.i, 1S97, pub. in the Britnif/e zur Fordrrumj chrixtliclmr ThvoL, I, 7-111; se'e: pp. 10 IF, ami esp. pp. 102-9.

      CASPAR WISTAU Hone;io

      UNCHASTITY,un-chas'ti-ti. See-CimiKs; Pr\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\-

      ISHMENTS.

      UNCIRCUMCISED, un-sur'kum-slzd, UNCIR- CUMCISION, un-sur-kum-sizh'un: The adj. in the OT is '"IS?, e and the NT the noun is dxpo/Suo-T/a, akrobustia (a physio- logical term, 1 Alae'C 1 15; Acts 11 3, etc), and the adj. dTreptr^ros, apmtmctos (Ad Est 14 15; 1 Mace 1 48; 2 46; Acts 7 51), with the vb. domni, "become uncircumcised" (1 Cor 7 18). The language of 1 Mace 1 15 sug- gests the performance of some surgical operation, but no such operatiem appears to be possible, and "behaved liKe uncircumcised persons" (as in 1 Cor 7 18) is the probable meaning. See CIRCUMCISION. BntTox SCOTT KASTOX

      UNCLE, un'k'l fT" , dodh, "beloved," "uncle," "relation"). See RELATIONSHIPS, FAMILY.

      UNCLEAN, un-klen', SPIRIT. See SPIRIT, Fx- e'LKA.v; DKMON, DK.MOXI.U'.

      UNCLEANNESS, un-klf>n'nes :

      I. TKUMS

      1. In the OT

      2. In the; NT

      3. In LXX

      II. POSSIHLK RELATION- OF ISUAKI.'S LAWS ox I'N-

      e'LEAN N'KSS WITH Till: I.\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\US (IF T \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\HCIO \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\M(IN<; T1IK X A T I ( ) N rt

      III. TEACHIXO AS TO I" NTI.K A \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\KSS

      1. In the OT

      2. Ill the Apoe'

      3. In the> XT LITERATURE

      /. Terms. nS^C^ , tum'iih, " lincleanne'ss," "clefile--

      ment," occurs 26 't (Lev 7 20.21; 14 19; 15 :5.25.2C>.

      30.31, etc), rn? . niddah, "separation."

      1 In the OT "impurity," occurs in Le'v 20 '21; K/r 9

      (Hebrew) 11; /A ' C ^ l ' ^1?' ' l ' rti ' ah - ()(-( ' urs i

      Dt 23 14. -Q 1 ! hi^y. 'crwath dabhdr, "unclean thing" (Dt 24 1), is tH " nne'leanne'ss" in AV. The aelj. J?72t2 , turnc', "elcflleel," " unclean," oe-curs 72 t (e)ve'i- half in Lev), but is nover tH "uncle'anness." but always "unclean." The: vb. S5T2I2 . /'<<"', "te> make 1 " e>r

      Uncleanness Unknown God

      TIIF, INTERNATIONAL STANDARD BIBLE ENCYCLOPAEDIA

      3036

      often. < )llier

      lleb

      f&naph

      The

      tharsiii

      2. I:

      NT

      (!r word for " imeleanness" is a/taflapo-ia, /,<;- which occurs 101 (Ml 23 27; Horn 1 24: 6 lit: 2 Cor 12 21, etc). nxia 1C The adj. a*a0apTos, akdthartos, "unclean." occurs 31 t, 23 t in reference to unclean spirits (Lk once nsing the expression "un- clean demon," 4 .'515), 4 t to ceremonial uncleanness (three by Peter and one by John the revelator). and 4 t to moral uncleanness (three by Paul and one by John the revelator). /con-tit, A-/;5.x, "common," 'unclean." occurs S t in the sense of "unclean" (Mk 7 2.. r >: Acts 10 14.2S; 11 S; Koin 14 14; Kev 21 27). The vb. Kcm-uu) kuinoo, "to defile," occurs 11 t (M t 15 11.1*. 20- Mk 7 1"). etc), nittiW miai/io, "to defile," occurs .-> t (Jn 18 2; Jle 12 !">; J"de ver X) /uoAurco, miiliiiu'i, "to make filthy," occurs 3 t (1 Cor 8 7; Kev 3 4; 14 4). crn-tAmo, s />//, occurs twice (.las 3 <>; .bide ver 23) and

      Akdthiirxiu. "uncleanness," occurs ,"><) t in LXX (in-

      cluding many instances in apocryphal books) (1 and "2

      Esd, Tol), 1 and 2 Mace, etc). Akathar-

      3. In LXX /<>-. "unclean." occurs 1:54 t in LXX (in-

      cluding one example in 1 Mace). A'i'/n-x,

      "unclean." and k<>ino, "to make unclean," occur in

      Est I'rov "Wisd. 1, 2. 3 and 4 Mace). Miaino, "to

      defile. " occurs over 100 t. Moluno, "to make filthy,"

      occurs IS t (both in the OT and in Apoc).

      //. Possible Relation of Israel's Laws on Un- cleanness with Laws of Taboo among the Nations.

      \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\V. R. Smith (Lectures on- (lie Relnjion nf tin 1 Seni- V'/CN, ir>2-r>f>) thinks there is a kinship between Israel's laws of uncleunness and llie lieatheu taboo. Frax.er, in The (loldcii HOIKJ/I, shows numerous examples of the taboo among various tribes and nations wliieh present striking similarity 1o some of Israel's laws on uncleanness. But- does this diminish our respect for the OT laws on uncleanness? Might not Jell use this natural religious perception of men as to an intrinsic distinction between clean and unclean in training Israel to a realization of a higher concep- tion the real difference between sin and holiness, i.e. bet ween moral defilement and moral purifica- tion? The hand of .leh is visible even in the devel- opment of Israel's rudimentary laws on ceremonial uncleanness. They are not explicable on purely naturalistic grounds, but Jeh is training a people to be holy, and so He starts on the lower plane of ceremonial uncleanness and cleanness (see Lev 11 44 us to the purpose of Jeh in establishing these laws respecting clean and unclean animals).

      ///. Teaching as to Uncleanness. Each term above for uncleanness is tised in two senses: (u)_to

      signify ceremonial uncleanness, which 1. In the is the most usual significance of the OT term in the OT; (h) but, in the

      Prophets, to emphasize moral, rather than ceremonial, uncleanness. There are four prin- cipal spheres of uncleanness in the OT:

      (1) Uncleanness in Ific matter of food. The law as to clean and unclean beasts is laid down in Lev 11 1-123. Notice that the law does not extend to vegetable foods, as does a similar law in the Egyp religion. Four kinds of beasts are named as fit for food: (a) among quadrupeds, those that both chew the cud and part the hoof; (b) among fishes, only those having both fins and scales; (c) most birds or fowls, except, in the main, birds of prey and those noted for uncleanness of habits, are permitted; (

      (2) Uncleanness connected with the functions of rc]>ro

      or woman unclean because of the issue, whether normal or abnormal, but the bed on which they lie, or whatever or whoever is touched by them while they are in this state, is unclean. The uncleanness lasts seven days from the cessation of the issue. To become clean men must wash their clothes and bathe their bodies (though this requirement is not made of women), and both men and women must offer through the priest a pair of turtle-doves, or two young pigeons (Lev 15). According to Lev 13, the woman who conceives and bears a child is unclean. This uncleanness lasts seven days if the child born is a male, but 1 t days if the child is a female. However, there is a partial uncleanness of the mother that continues 40 days from the birth of a male, SO days from the birth of a female, at the end of which period she is purified by offering a lamb and a young pigeon (or turtle-dove), or if too poor to offer a lamb she may substitute! one of the birds for the lamb.

      (3) t'ncl/'dtmess connected with leprosy. Accord- ing to Lev 14 and 15, the leper was regarded as under the stroke of (lod, and so was deemed tin- clean. The leper (so adjudged by the priest) must separate himself from others, with torn clothes, di- sheveled hair, and crying with covered lips, "I n- clean! I'nclean! 1 ' That is, he was regarded as a dead man, and therefore unclean and so must live secluded from others. See, further, LKI-KU, LEPROSY.

      (4) Uncleanness associated with death. Accord- ing to Lev 15 24-40, anyone who touched a dead beast, whether unclean or clean, was rendered un- clean. According to Nu 19 11-22, anyone touch- ing the corpse of a human being is unclean. Like- wise, everyone in the tent, or who enters the tent, where lies a dead man, is unclean seven days. Even the open vessels in the tent with a dead person are unclean seven days. Whoever, furthermore, touched a dead man's bone or grave was unclean seven days. Purification, in all these cases of uncleanness as related to death, was secured by sprinkling the ashes of a red heifer with living water upon the unclean person, or object, on the 3d and 7th days. See PUKIFI CATION.

      In Toh 3 7->; 6 13.14; 711; 8 1-3; 1 Mace 1 41-53, and in other books, \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ve find the same laws on un- cleanness recognized by the descendants 9 Tn flip f Abraham. It was regarded as abomi- nable to sacrifice other animals (swine for ApOC instance) than those prescribed by Jeh.

      There is a growing sense in Israel during this period, that all customs and all conduct of the heathen are unclean. Witness the resistance of the loyal Jews to the demands of Antiochus Eplphanes (I Mace 1, 2, 6, 7 1. The sense of ceremonial uncleanness was still a conspicuous element in the religious conscious- ness of the Jews in the inter-Bib, period. But the train- ing of Cod in ceremonial purification and in the moral and spiritual teachings of the prophets had prepared the way for an advance in moral cleanness (both in thought and in practice).

      By the days of Jesus the scribes and rabbis had wrought out a most cumbrous system of ceremonial uncleanness and purification. Nor did 3. In the they claim that all their teachings on NT this subject were found in the OT.

      See TRADITION. This is fitly illus- trated in the NT in the washing of hands. See UNWASHEN. When the Mish (the collection of rabbinic teachings) was produced, the largest book was devoted to the laws of purification, 30 chapters being used to describe the purification of vessels alone.

      See Jn 2 1-11, and note how the Jews had six stone waterpots for purification at the wedding in Cana. See Jn 3 25 as to the controversy on purifica- tion between John's disciples and the Jews. This question of cleanness and uncleanness was a tre- mendous issue with every Jew. lie must keep himself

      3037

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      Uncleanness Unknown God

      ihl

      eous and win

      ceremonially clean if lie would 1>< the approval of ( !od.

      Jesus utterly disregarded for Himself these laws of purification, though lie orders the cleansed leper to return to the priest, and secure his certificate of cleansing. He did not wash His hands before eat- ing, and His disciples followed His example. There- fore t lie Pharisees challenged Him to give tin account of His course and that of His disciples (Mt 15 3-20 =Mk 7 0-23). Jesus then enunciated the great principle that, there is no ceremonial, hut only moral and spiritual, uncleanness. Not what goes into a man from hands that, touch unclean things defiles the man, hut, I he th'ings that come out of his heart, evil thoughts, hatred, adultery, murder, etc, these delile the man.

      Paul likewise regarded nothing as unclean of itself (Rom 14 14.20; Tit 1 IT)), yet no man should violate the scruples of his own conscience or that of his brother (and thus put a stumbling- block in his way ). Love, not ceremonialism is the supreme law of the Christian. Paul, in submitting to the vow of purification in Jcrus, set tin example of this principle (Acts 21 26). See also CRIMES; PUNISHMENTS.

      LiTKUATriti:. "NY. R. Smith, Lectures on the. Religion of tlie. Semite* (esp. pp. l.^-of), oil taboo, and pp. 455, 450, on the uncleanness of sexual intercourse); Frazer, The. (!ul>/!/: NTowack, //,/, Archaeoloyy; Ki-llo^,'. comm. on Lev (Expositor' a Bible); Kalisch, Leviticus; Dillmann- v.vss-'l, Levitirux; Schultz, Dillmann, Smcnd. Marti, Davidson, in their <)T Theologies. ive useful hints on this subject; art. "Casuistry" ( Hebj in EKE, III, is valuable.

      CHARLES B. WILLIAMS UNCLOTHED, un-klothd'. See CLOTHED UPON.

      UNCTION, unk'shun: The AV tr of xp?

      UNDEFILED, un-do-flld': In the OT CP , tarn, "perfect," presents the positive side. Hence Ps 119 1 is tr' 1 in RV: "Blessed are they that are per- fect in the way." In the NT aniavTos, ainmntos, presents t he negative side, "unstained," "unsullied," "without taint." Used to describe the sinlessness of Christ (He 7 2(5), to declare the marriage act free from all guilt, disgrace or shame (He 13 4), to contrast the heavenly inheritance with earthly possessions (1 Pet 1 4).

      UNDERGIRDING, un-der-gurd'ing. See SHIPS AND BOATS, HI, 2.

      UNDERNEATH, un-der-neth' (r.nn , tahath, "the bottom [as depressed]") : "Underneath are the ever- lasting arms" (Dt 33 27). In these words Moses sums up the history of Israel and gives expression to his final thought about life and time and all things visible. Underneath till phenomena and all the chances and changes of life and time there is un- changing law, everlasting principle, an all-enfolding power, an all-embracing love.

      UNDERSETTER, un'der-set-er (SrD , kathcph') : The word, used in 1 K 7 30.34 of supports of the laver, means lit. "shoulder," and is so rendered in RVm. See LAVER.

      UNDERTAKE, un-der-tak': "To take upon one's self," "assume responsibility," and so in Elizabethan Eng. "be surety." In this sense in AV Isa 38 14, "O Lord, .... undertake for me" (yy? , *arabh, RV "be thou my surety"). Perhaps in the same sense in Sir 29 19, although the idea is

      scarcely contained in the (Jr vb. OIWKW, tlifjko, "pur- sue." In the modern sense in 1 Esd 1 2S; 2 Mace 2 20; 8 10; AV 2 27. SeeSrm:; SURETY.

      UNEQUAL, un-e'kwal: E/k 18 2.1.20 for ]2n b , Id' l/iak/Hin, "not weighed," "illogical." "Un- equally" in 2 Cor 6 11, in the phrase "unequally yoked," trepofuytu, hc/erozui/cd, is used of the yoking together of two animals of different kinds (cf LXX of Lev 19 10).

      UNFEIGNED, un-ffmd' (dvuiroKpiTos, nniijtokrflox, "unfeigned," " undisguised " j : The Or word occurs only in the NT (1 Tim 1 5; 2 Tim 1 f>) and is designative of the moral quality of faith as "the mark of transparency and simplicity of .soul (In- most complete and distinct exponent of a man's character the natural hypothesis of a pure and good heart a readiness to believe in goodness" (Martineau, Hours of Thought, First Series, 80 if). Cf 2 Cor 6 G; 1 Pet 1 22;' Jas 3 17.

      UNGODLY, un-god'li (2th , raslu? [Ps 1 1], "wicked, "b?*b3, b'ilya\\\\\\\\d [2 s'22 f>], "worthless"; in the XT do-e|3T|s, (iscbf's | Rom 5 0], e.g. indicating that the persons so called are both irreverent and impious): Trench says that the idea of active; oppo- sition to religion is involved in the word, that it is a deliberate withholding from God of His dues of prayer and of service; a standing, so to speak, in battle array against God and His claims to respect, reverence and obedience. Those whose sins are particularly aggravating and deserving of God's wrath are the "ungodly." And yet it is for such that Jesus Christ died (Rom 5 G).

      WILLIAM EVANS

      UNICORN, u'ni-korn (S^H , r'cm [Xu 23 22; 24 8; Dt 33 17; Job 39 9.10; Ps 22 21; 29 6; 92 10; Lsa 34 7J): "Unicorn" occurs in AV in the passages cited, where II V has "wild-ox" (q.v.).

      UNITY, u'ni-tl: Ps 133 1 for "irP , yr,Jm

      UNKNOWN, un-non', GOD (cryvajcrTos Oeos, dgnostos thcos): In Acts 17 23 (St. Paul's speech in Athens) ARV reads: "I found also an altar with this inscription, To AN UNKNOWN GOD. What therefore ye worship in ignorance, this I set, forth unto you." AV and ERVm translate "to the. Unknown God," owing to the fact that in Gr certain words, of which llu'os is one-, may drop the art . when it is to be understood. In the present case the use of the art. is probably right (cf ver 24). In addi- tion, AV reads "whom" and "him" in place of "what" and "this." The difference here is due to a variation in the Gr MSS, most of which support AV. _ But internal probability is against AV's reading, as it would have been very easy for a scribe to change neuters (referring to the Divine power) into masculines after "God," but not vice versa. Hence modern editors (except von Soden's margin) have adopted the reading in RV.

      St. Paul in Athens, "as he beheld the city full of idols," felt that God was truly unknown there. Hence the altar with the inscription struck him as particularly significant. Some Athenians, at anv rate, felt the religious inadequacy of all known deities and were appealing to the God who they felt must exist, although they knew nothing definite about Him. No better starting-point for an ad- dress could be wished. What the inscription actually _ meant, however, is another question. Nothing is known about it. Altars dedicated "to unknown gods" (in the pi.) seem to have been fairly

      THE INTERNATIONA!, STANDARD BIBLE ENCYCLOPAEDIA

      Unlearned Uriah, Urijah

      common (Jerome on Tit 1 12; Pausanias, i.1.4, Phil-ntcr Vita Apoll., vi.3), and Hhiss (Camm. ad loc.) has even suggested that the words in Acts wore originally in the pi. But, this would spoil the whole point of 'the speech, and the absence of references to i sino-le inscription among thousands thai existed ran cause no surprise. Those inscriptions in the pi seem to have been meant in the sense to the other deities that may exist in addition to those already known," but an inscription in the sing, could not have this meaning. Perhaps a votive inscrip- tion is meant, where the worshipper did not know which god to thank for some benefit received. That a shir on all the other Athenian objects of worship was intended is, however, most improbable, but St. Paul could not of course be expected to know the technical meaning of such inscriptions. See ATHENS. BniTox SCOTT E ASTON

      UNLEARNED, nn-lur'ned: Acts 4 13 for dypd^.- /xaros,

      UNLEAVENED, nn-lcv"nd. See LKAVKX; PASSOVER; SACRIFICE IN" THE OT.

      UNNATURAL VICE, un-nat'n-ral vis. See

      ClUMKS; PUNISHMENTS.

      UNNI, un'I C 1 ?" , *unnl, meaning unknown):

      (1) One of "the twelve brethren" (so Curtis for RV '"brethren of the second degree") appointed as singers (1 Ch 16 1S.20).

      (2) In Xeh 12 9 (K'thlbh 12? , 'wnno)=RV I'XN'O (q.v.).

      UNNO, un'o (137, *unno; LXX omits the name, but in X a later hand has added 'lava, land; the K-re of the MT lias ^ , *unnl, as in 1 Ch 15 IS, whence AV "I'nni"): A Levite who returned with Zeruboabel (Xch 12 0).

      UNPARDONABLE, un-piir'd'n-a-b'l, SIN. See BLASPHEMY.

      UNQUENCHABLE, un-kwench'a-b'l, FIRE (irCp ao-pto-Tos, pur dxhosloN): The phrase occurs in Mt 3 12 and its || Lk 3 17 in the words of the Bap- tist on the Messianic judgment : "The chaff he will burn up with unquenchable fire"; but also on the lips of Christ Himself in Mk 9 43, where the "unquenchable fire" is equated with "Gehenna" (q.v.). The same idea lies in ver 4S,_'The fin; is not quenched" (ou sbennutai), and is implied in the numerous allusions to fire as the instrument of punishment and destruction in the Gospels and other parts of the NT (e.g. "the Gehenna of fire," Mt 5 ''2m, etc; "furnace of fin 1 ," Mt 13 40.42.50; "eter- nal fire " Mt 25 41; cf also 2 Thess 1 8; 2 Pet 3 7- Jude ver 7; Rev 19 20; 20 10.14.15; 21 8). For OT analogies cf Isa 1 31; 34 10; 66 24; Jer 4 4; 720; 1727; 2112; Ezk 20 47.48. The language is obviously highly metaphorical, conveying the idea of an awful and abiding judgment, but is not to be pressed as teaching a destruction in the sense of annihilation of the wicked. An unquenchable fire is not needed for a momentary act of destruc- tion. Even in the view of Rev. Edward White the wicked survive the period of judgment to which these terms relate. See PUNISHMENT, EVERLASTING.

      JAMES ORR

      3038

      UNTEMPERED, nn-tcm'pcrd (bEP , taphcl): Tsed of mortar in E/k 13 10-15; 22 28. Taphf-L probably refers to mortar made with. clay instead of slaked lime. In the interior of Pal and Syria walls are still commonly built of small stones or mud bricks, and t hen smeared over wit h clay mortar. The surface is rubbed smooth and is attractive in appearance. This coating prolongs the life of the wall but requires yearly attention if the wall is to stand.

      Ezekiel uses the practice to typify the work ot false prophets. They build up stories and make them plausible by ati outward semblance! to truth, while, in fact, they are flimsy, unreliable prophecies, resembling the walls described above, which can be broken down by a push or a heavy rain storm.

      JAMES A. PATCH

      UNTOWARD, un-to'erd, un-tord' (o-KoXios, skoliox): Appears only in Acts 2 40, AV 'jSave yourselves from this untoward generation. _ means "perverse," "wilful," "crooked," and is so tr d in RV: "this crooked generation" (apo Its ycm'ds Its skolids taut ex). AV headings to Isa 28 and IIos 6 have 1 "untowardness." This new obso- lete term probably derive>el its orgin from the idea of the; heart that "was not inclineel toward the Di- vine will and teaching. Hence "not-toward," or "untoward."

      UNWALLED, im-weMd'. See VILLAGE; WALL.

      UNWASHEN, un-wosh"n (avurros, dniplos): Occurs only twice in the NT, not at all in the Heb or Gr OT (Mt 15 20 = Mk 7 2). Jesus is here de- nouncing the 1 traditionalism of the scribes anel Phari- sees. 1'ncleanness, to them, was external and purification was ceremonial. Hence the Pharisaic view that the hands became unclean (religiously, not physically), and so before meals must be cleansed (religiously) "by washing, which consisted in two affusions and must extenel up to the wrist, else the hand was still unclean. Jewish tradition traced this custom back to Solomon (see Shabbalh 146, end) but the first unmistakable occurrence of the custom is in the 1 Sib Or (3 591-93), where the hands are said to be 1 washed in connection with prayer and thanksgiving. The schools of Shammai and Hillel though usually d iff (Ting on points of tradition, agn-ed on the washing of hands as necessary for ceremonial purification (having reached this agree- ment, in the early part of Jesus' life). See PURITY; CNCLF.AXNESS.

      LITERATURE. Broaelus, Comm. on Mt (15 2-20); Gould. Swete, comma, on Mk (7 2) ; Ederslu-im ,7 he Life and Times nf Jesua tin- Messiah, II, MM; hchurer, //.//'. div II, vol I, 25 ("Scriblsm ).

      CHARLES B. V* ILLIAMS

      UNWORTHILY, un-wur'thi-li: 1 Ce>r 11 27.29 AV for di/afiws, anaxios. In ver 29, RV, on con- vincing textual evielence, has omitted the word, which is a needless gle>ss (cf RV's tr of the whole verse). In ver 27 ARV has changed "unworthily to "in an unworthy manner," a rather pointless alteration.

      UNWRITTEN, un-rit"n, SAYINGS. See AGRAPHA.

      UPHARSIN, u-far'sin CpP"!?rl , uphar&n). See MENE, MENE, TEKEL, I'PHARSIN.

      UPHAZ, u'faz (TE1S, 'uphaz}: A gold-bearing region, mentioned in' Jer 10 9; Dnl 10 5, other- wise unknown. Perhaps in both passages Ophir, which differs in one consonant only, should be read. In the second passage, instead of "gold of Uphaz, perhaps "gold and fine gold" ('uphaz) should be

      THE INTERNATIONAL STANDARD BIBLE ENCYCLOPAEDIA

      Unlearned Uriah, Urijah

      road. The .Torus Talm states that there were seven kinds of gold, good gold, pure, precious, gold of Uphaz, purified, refined, and red gold of Parvaim (2 Ch 3 (>). That, of I'phaz, which is so called from the place from which it comes, resembles "flashes of fire fed with pitch" (M. Schwab, The Talmud of Jerusalem, V, 207 f).

      THOMAS HUNTICR WKIR

      UPPER CHAMBER, up'er cham'ber, UPPER ROOM (rpb>, \\\\\\\\Wyah [2 K 1 2], etc; dvto^ov, artdycon [Mk 14 15; Lk 22 12], virpujov, hn/>< ronn [Acts 1 13; 9 37.39; 20 8]): In Jgs 3 20 KltV renders ".sum'mer parlor" and in m "Hob 'Upper chamber of cooling.' " This was probably a roof- chamber. The "upper chamber" of Ahaziah in 2 K 1 2 was evidently in the 2d story of the build- ing. On the "upper chambers" of the temple (1 Ch 28 11; 2 Ch 3 9), see TKMPLK. The "large upper room" which was the scene of the Last Supper, with that in Acts 1 13, was also plainly an upper-story chamber. That in Acts 20 8 was in the 3d story (at Miletus, a Gr city). See also HOUSK.

      JAMES ORR

      UR, ur ("!*X, 'ur, "flame"; B, SOvp, Mhur, S, Tipd, Ord): Father of Eliphal, one of David's "mighty men," in 1 Ch 11 35; in the || 2 S 23 31 called "Ahasbai."

      UR OF THE CHALDEES, kal'dez (D'Hlp? TK , 'iir kasdiin ; r] \\\\\\\\<*>p

      The most generally accepted theory at the present time is that l"r is to be identified with the modern M uyhiir (or Mughayyar, "the pitchy") in Southern Babylonia, called Urumma, or I'rima, and later Urii in the inscriptions. This borders on the dis- trict which in the 1st millennium BC was called Chaldaea (Kaldu).

      This, some hold, accords with the view of Eu- polemus, because, Camarina may be from the Arab, name of the moon kumar, which refers perhaps to the fact that the ancient city was dedicated to the worship of the moon-god. Another argument which has been advanced for this identification is that Ilaran, the city to which Terah migrated, was also a center of moonrgod worship. This, however, is precarious, because Urumma or Urima in Abra- ham's day was a Sumerian center, and the seat of Naimar-worship, whereas Haran was Semitic, and was dedicated to Sin. Although these two deities in later centuries were identified with each other, still the argument seems to have little weight, as other deities were also prominently worshipped in those cities, particularly Ilaran, which fact reminds us also that the Talm says Terah worshipped no less than 12 deities.

      It should be stated that there are scholars who hold, with the LXX, that I'r means, not a city, but perhaps a land in which the patriarch pastured his flocks, as for instance 1 , the land of I 'rior I ra (Akkad). The designation "of the Chaldaeans" was in this ease intended to distinguish it from the land where they were not found.

      Still another identification is the town I'm (Mar-tu) near Sippar, a place of prominence in the time of Abraham, but which was lost sight of in sub- sequent periods (of Aniurru, lt>7). This fact would account for the failure to identify the place in the late pre-Christian centuries, when I'rima or I ril still flourished. Western Semites for the name Abrain is not Bab lived in this city in large num- bers in the ago when the patriarch lived. The Bab contract lit. from this, as well as other sites, is full of names from the western Sem lands, Aram and Amurru. This fact makes it reasonable that the site should be found in Babylonia; but, as stated, although the arguments an; by no means weighty, more scholars at the present favor Mnghcir than any other site. A. T. CLAY

      URBANE, ur'ban, -ban'. See UKHAXUS.

      URBANUS, xrr-ba'nus (Ovp|3av6s, Ourbanos; AV Urbane): A common slave name. Clifford says that it is found "as here, in juxtaposition with Am- pliatus, in a list of imperial freedmen, on an in- scription, 115 AD." He was a member of the Christian community at Rome to whom Paul sent greetings. Paul calls him "our fellow-worker in Christ" (Rom 16 9). "The 'our' (as opposed to 'my,' ver 3) seems to suggest that all Christ ian work- ers had a common helper in Urbanus" (Denney).

      URI, u'ri, oo'ri PT p"!$ in 1 K 4 19], 'iirl, "fiery," unless the word be contracted for rT"^, 'urlyah, "Uriah"):

      (1) Son of Hur, and father of Bezalel (Ex 31 2; 35 30; 38 22; 1 Ch 2 20; 2 Ch 1 5).

      (2) Father of Geber, one of Solomon's 12 pro- vision officers (1 K 4 19; LXX B A, 'ASaf, Adai).

      (3) A porter who had married a foreign wife (Ezr 10 24; LXX B X, 'QdoAO, Odouth, A, 'QSovt, Odoue, Luc., Ovplas, Ourias).

      URIAH, u-r!'a, URIJAH, u-ri'ja (n*-fl , 'url- yah, in Jer 26 20 in^X , 'iiriyahu, "flame of Jeh" or "my light is Jeh"; LXX and NT Ovp[]as, Our[e]ias, with variants; AV has Urijah in 2 K 16 10-16; Neh 3 4.21; 8 4; Jer 26 20):

      (1) A Hittite, who had settled in Jerus at the time of David and who had entered David's serv- ice. He had become a worshipper of Jeh (judging from the usual interpretations of his name) ai.d had married a Heb wife, BATH-SHEBA (q.v.). David's sin with this woman occurred while Uriah was en- gaged in warfare, and David had him recalled to Jerus in order to hide what had transpired. Uriah, however, felt himself bound by the consecration of a soldier (of 1 S 21 5; Dt 23 10 f) and refused to do violence to his religion, so that David's ruse was in vain. (The point is missed here by speaking of Uriah's "chivalrous determination," as in HDB, IV, 837.) David, in desperation, wrote Joab in- structions that were virtually a command to have Uriah murdered, and these instructions were duly carried out (2 S 11 2-27). The inclusion of Uriah's name in the list of the "mighty men" in 2 S 23 39 i| 1 Ch 11 41 is proof of his reputation as a soldier, and the name is found also in 2 S 12 910.15; 1 K 15 5; Mt 1 6. On the occurrence in Mt see esp. HcfTern, JBL, XXXI, 61) ff (1912).

      (2) A priest under Ahaz, who carried into effect

      Urias Usury

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      3040

      the Litter's commands to introduce an Assyr altar into the Temple and to use it for the sacrifices (2 K 16 10-1(3; see ALT AH). The same Uriah appears in Is; i 8 2 as one of the two "faithful witnesses" taken by Isaiah in the matter of Maher-shalal-hash-baz. This description lias seemed to many to conflict with Uriah's compliancy in obeying Ahaz, but it must be remembered that (a) "faithful witness" means simply "one whom the people will believe," and (b) the articles in the sanctuary were not held aa immutably sacred in the time of Ahaz as they wen 1 in later days. The omission of Uriah's name from the list in 1 Ch 6 10-14 is probably without significance', as Ch records only nine names from Solomon to the exile, showing that there must be many omissions. The corresponding list in Jos, Ant, X, viii, 0, contains IS names, including Uriah's.

      (3) A son of Shemaiah, of Kiriath-jearim, and a contemporary of Jeremiah, lie was a prophet, and his prophecy agreed with Jeremiah's in all regards. Jehoiakim, roused to anger, arrested him, even at the t rouble, of a pursuit into Egypt, put him to death and desecrated his Ixxly (Jer 26 20-23). The, story is told partly in order to show the greatness of Jeremiah's dangers, partly to bear record of the goodness of AHIKAM (q.v.), Jeremiah's protector.

      (4) A priest, the father of MKUKMOTH (q.v.) (Ezr 8 33; Noli 3 4.21; 1 Esd 8 02 ["Urias," AV "Iri"]).

      (5) One of those on Ezra's right hand at the reading of the Law (Neh 84; 1 Esd 9 43 ["Urias"]). Quite possibly identical with (4) above.

      Briiro.v SCOTT EASTO.V

      URIAS, n-rl'as (OvptCas, Onreins; B 1 ', Ovpia, Ourui, A, OvpC, Ouri; AV Iri):

      (1) The father of Marmoth (1 Esd 8 62) = "Uriah" of Ezr 8 33, and perhaps identical with (2).

      (2) B b A, Oweias, Ourias=one of those who stood on Ezra's right hand as he read the Law (1 Esd 9 43)= "Uriah" of Neh 8 4.

      URIAS (Ovptas, Out-ia*}: AV; Or form of "Uriah" (thus RV). The husband of Bath-sheba (Mt 1 (>).

      URIEL, u'ri-el pJTTX , 'url'el, "flame of El [God]," or "El is my light"):

      (1) A Kohathite, said in 1 Ch 15 5 to be the chief of the sons of Kohath (1 Ch 6 24 [Heb ver 9]; 15 5.11). He corresponds to Zephaniah in the pedigree of lleman in 1 Ch 6 33-3S (Heb 18-23). See Curtis, Cliron., 130f.

      (2) A man of (Jibeah, and father of Micaiah the mother of King Abijah of Judah (2 Ch 13 2).

      (3) The archangel (En 20 2, etc). See next article.

      URIEL (Ot>piT]\\\\\\\\, Oiirif'l, "fire or flame of Clod" or "my light is Clod"): Called only in 2 Esd an "angel," except 2 Esd 4 36 where RV and AV rightly give "Jeremiel the archangel" for AV "Uriel the archangel," but elsewhere known as one of the four chief archangels. He was the angel who in- structed Ezra (2 Esd 4 1; 5 20; 10 28). In En 20 2 Uriel is the angel who is "over the world and Tartarus" (6 fTrl TOV K6cr/j,ov Kal TOV raprdpov, ho cpi toil koymou kill toil tartarou}, and as such is the conductor to Enoch in the world below, the secrets of which he explains. Cf also (C,r) 19 1; 21 5. In the (Lat) "Life of Adam and Eve," 48 (ed W. Meyer in Abhand,

      and knows the secrets of heaven (as in En those of Tartarus), but stands only 8th in rank, whereas in (Gr) En 20 2 ff he is the 1st of the six (or seven) archangels. In Sib Or 2 229 he is intrusted with the judgment of the Titans. Cf Milton, Paradise Lout, III, 090, "regent of the sun, and held the sharpest sighted Spirit of all in heaven."

      (2) "Uriel" AV = RV and AVm "Jeremiel."

      S. ANGUS

      URIJAH. See URIAH, UHIJAH.

      URIM AND THUMMIM, u'rim and thum'im

      (DTGIVn D'H/lSSn, ha-urlm n*ha-tummlm [art. omitted in Ezr 2 63; Neh 7 65],

      1. Defini- perhaps "light and perfection," as in- tion tensive plurals): Articles not specifi- cally described, placed in (next to, or on

      [Ileb 'el; LXX cpi; Sam-Heb V;/[) the high priest's breastplate, called the "breast-plate of decision" (EV "judgment") (Ex 28 30; Lev 8 8). Their possession was one of the greatest distinctions con- ferred upon the priestly family (Dt 33 8; Ecclus 45 10), and seems to have been connected with the function of the priests as the mouthpiece of Jeh, as well as with the ceremonial side of the service (Ex 28 30; cf Arab, ktihln, "soothsayer").

      Through their use, the nature of which is a matter

      of conjecture, the Divine will was sought in national

      crises, and apparently the future fore-

      2. Use in told, guilt or innocence established, the OT and, according to one theory, land

      divided (Jiablta' Bathra' 122a; Sanh. 16a). Thus, Joshua was to stand before Eleazar who was to inquire for him after the judgment (decision) of the Urim (Nu 27 21). It seems that this means was employed by Joshua in the matter of Achan (Josh 7 14.18) and overlooked in the matter of the Gibeonites (9 14). Though not specifically mentioned, the same means is in all probability referred to in the accounts of the Israelites consult- ing Jeh after the death of Joshua in their warfare (Jgs 1_1.2; 20 18.26-28). The Danites in their migration ask counsel of a priest, perhaps in a simi- lar manner (Jgs 18 5.7). It is not impossible that even the prophet Samuel was assisted by the Urim in the selection of a king (1 S 10 20-22). During Saul's war with the Philis, he made inquiry of God with the aid of the priest (1 S 14 36.37)', Ahijah, the son of Ahitub, who at that time wore the ephod (1 S 14 3). Although on two important occasions Jeh refused to answer Saul through the Urim (1 S 14 37; 28 6), it appears (from the LXX version of 1 S 14 41; see below) that he used the Urim and Thummim successfully in ascertaining the cause of the Divine displeasure. The accusation of Doeg and the answer of the high priest (1 S 22 10.13.15) suggest that David began to inquire of Jeh through the priesthood, even while he was an officer of Saul. After the massacre of the priests in Nob, Abiathar fled to the camp of David (ver 20), taking with him the ephod (including apparently the Urim and Thummim, 23 6) which David used frequently during his wanderings (23 2-4.9-12; 30 7.8), and also after the death of Saul (2 S 2 1; 5 19.23; 21 1). After the days of David, prophecy was in the ascendancy, and, accordingly, we find no clear record of the use of the Urim and Thummim in the days of the later kings (cf, however, IIos 3 4; Ecclus 33 3). Still, in post-exilic times we find the difficult question of the ancestral right of cer- tain priests to eat of the most holy things reserved till there would stand up a priest with Urim and with Thummim (Ezr 2 63; Neh 7 65; 1 Esd 5 40; Sotah 48b).

      Though Jos sets the date for the obsolescence of the Urim and Thummim at 200 years before his time, in the days of John Hyrcanus (Ant, III,

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      viii, 9), the Talm reckons the Trim and Thum- inim among the things lacking in the second Temple

      (Sotah 9 10; Ydma' 2lb; Vru Kid 3. Older 656). Both Jos and the Talm identify (Tradition- the Urim and Thtinunim with the al) Views stones of the breastplate. The former

      simply states that the stones shone whenever the sh'khmah was present at a sacrifice or when the army proceeded to battle.

      "God declared beforehand by those twelve stones which the high priest bare on his breast, and which were inserted into his breastplate, when they should be vic- torious in battle; for so great a splendor shone forth from them before the army begun to march, that all the people were sensible of God's being present for their assistance" (Ant, III, viii, 9).

      The Talmudic explanation suggests that by the illumi- nation of certain letters the Divine will was revealed, and that in order to have a complete alphabet in addi- tion to the names of the tribes, the breastplate bore the names of the patriarchs, Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, and the words shibhte y e shurun, A later scholar even sug- gests that the letters moved from their places to form words (Yrnnd" 73

      It is difficult to tell just how much, if anything, of a lingering tradition is reflected in the view that the Trim and Thummim and stones of the breast- plate were identical. In the absence of other an- cient clews, however, it is not safe to reject even the guesses of the Jews of the second temple in favor of our own. We do not even know the mean- ing of the word hoshen, so confidently tr d "pouch" or "receptacle" by opponents of the older view, with- out any basis whatever. On the other hand the theory of identification was widespread. Even Philp leans toward it in his DC Monarchia, although in his Vita Mosis (iii) he seems to have in mind two small symbols representing Light and Truth em- broidered on the cloth of the hoshen or hung round the neck of the high priest, 'similar to the Egyp symbol of justice. Another very old view is that the Trim and Thummim consisted of a writiiv containing the Ineffable Name (Pseudo-Jonathan on Ex 28 20; cf Rashi and Nachmanides ad loc.).

      The view most generally held today is that the Urim and Thummim were two sacred lots, one

      indicating an affirmative or favorable 4. Recent answer, the other a negative or un- (Critical) favorable answer (Michaelis, Ewald, Views Wellhausen, Robertson Smith, Driver,

      G. F. Moore, Kennedy, Muss-Arnolt).' I he chief support of this view is found, not in the MT, but in the reconstruction by Wellhausen and Driver of 1 S 14 41 ff on the basis of LXX: "If this fault be in me or in Jonathan, my son, give I rim [dos delous], and if it be in thy people Israel give Thummim [dos hosiotcta]." The following sen- tence clearly suggests the casting of lots, possiblv lots on which the names of Saul and Jonathan were written, and "Jonathan" was taken. Efforts have been made to support the view that the Trim and Thummim themselves were sacred lots on the basis of analogous customs among other peoples (e.g. pre-Islamic Arabs [Moore in EH] and Babylo- nians [W. Muss-Arnolt in Jew Enc and AJSL July, 1900]). It must be borne in mind, however' that whatever the lot-theory has to recommend it' it is inconsistent not only with the post-Bib tradi- tions, but also with the Bib. data. For those who are not inclined to give much weight to the passages connecting the Urim and Thummim with the high priests apparel (Ex 28 30; Lev 8 8, both "P") there is of course no difficulty in dissociating the two, in spite of the fact that for the use of this

      Drias Usury

      system of divination the one thing necessary in the historical passages on which they rely seems to be the ephod. Still, if we are to think of two lots one called and possibly marked "Trim" and the other "Thummim," it, is difficult, to get any meaning from the statement (1 S 14 37; 28 (i) thai Jeh did not answer Saul on certain occasions, unless indeed we surmise for the occasion the existence of a third nameless blank lot, A more serious difficulty arises from the fact that the answers ascribed to the Trim and Thummim are not always the equivalent of "yes" or "no" (cf Jgs 1 2; 20 IS; 1 S 22 10; 2 S 5 23; 21 1), even if we omit from consideration the instances where an individual is apparently pointed out from all Israel (cf the instances of the detection of Achan and the selection of Saul with that of Jonathan, above).

      If we turn to etymology for assistance, we are not only on uncertain ground, but when Bab and other

      foreign words are brought in to bolster

      up a theory about anything so little mology understood as the Trim and Thummim,

      we are on dangerous ground. Thus Muss-Arnolt is ready with Bab words (urtn, "com- mand," and taimlu, "oracular decision"); others suggest line, the Egyp image of justice; still others connect Urim with 'arar, "to curse," in order to make it an antonym of tumnrim, "fault lessness " It is generally admitted, however, that, as pointed in the AIT, the words mean "light" and "perfection " on the basis of which the Talm (Ydma' 736) as well as most of the Gr VSS tr' 1 them (delosis kai atttheia- photismoi kai teleiotetes) , although Symmachus in one place (Dt 33 S), who is followed by the Vulg connects I'rim with the word Tdrah and under- stands it to mean "doctrine" (telciotes kai didachf) 1 hough loth to add to the already overburdened list of conjectures about these words, it appears to the present writer that if Urim and Thummim are antonyms, and Urim means "light," it is by no means difficult to connect Thummim with darkness inasmuch as there is a host of Heb sterns based oii the root -lm, all indicating concealing, closing up and even darkness (cf Z'JS , C'jn Zm EPS ' nttI3, -jr-J [see Job 40 13], nr.O and even CEP and cognate Arab, words in BDB). This explana- tion would make Urim and Thummim mean "illunii-

      'f/ e( J'' and " dai *" < ( ' f 9 asfcer m Hastings, ERE, IV, 813), and, while fitting well with the ancient theories or traditions, would not be excluded by the recent theory of lots of opposite purport.

      NATHAN ISAACS

      USURY, uzhu-ri: The Heb law concerning ex- action of interest upon loans was very humane.

      Hebrews were to lend to their brethren 1. In the without interest (Ex 22 25- Lev 25 OT 36 f; Dt2319f). This, 'however,

      did not apply to a stranger (Dt 23 20)' Two stems are used in the OT, rendered in AV "usury," in RV better rendered "interest": (1) vb. mp3, nashah (Ex 22 25; Isa 24 2; Jer 15 10), and the noun form, XIB'E , mashsha' (Xeh 5 7.10); (2) a stronger and more picturesque word, -pp: , nashakh, "to bite," "to vex," and so "to lend o'n interest" (Dt 23 19.20); noun form ![T: , m-shi-kh (Ex 22 25; Lev 25 3(5 f ; Pa 16 5; P'rov 28 8- Ezk 18 8.13.17; 22 12). It would be easy to go :rom a fair rate of interest to an unfair rate, as seen in the history of the word "usury," which has come to mean an exorbitant or unlawful interest, Abuses arose during the exile. Nehemiah forced the people after the return to give back exactions of "one hun- dredth," or 1 per cent monthly which they took from their _ brethren (Xeh 5 l()f; cf Ezk 22 12). A good citizen of Zion is one who put not out his

      Uta Uzziah

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      3042

      money 1o usury (Ps 15 5). One who is guilty ol this comes to disaster (Prov 28 S).

      Tlic (lr word is r6/oos, frJAvw, lit. "offspring," inter- est springing out of the principal. Money lenders were numerous among the Jews in 2. In the Christ's day, and, in the parable of the NT Talents, lie represents the lord of the

      unprofitable servant as rebuking the sloth in the words, "I should have received mine own with interest" (Mt 25 27; Lk 19 23 RV). EDWARD BAOBY POLLARD

      UTA, u'ta (Oi>ra.,()ut('t): "The sons of I'ta" re- turned with Zerubbabel (I Esd 5 :)) ; wanting in the Ezr 2 45; Neh 7 IS.

      UTHAI, u'-thi, u'tha-i (T^ , 'uthay, meaning uncertain):

      (1) A descendant of Judah, of the clan of Perez (1 Ch 9 4) = "Athaiah" of Neh 11 4.

      (2) Son of Bigvai (Ezr 8 14); called "Uthi" in 1 Esd 8 40.

      UTHI, u'thl (A, Ov9i, Outhi, B, OVTOV, Ouloii): One of the sons of Bago (Bigvai) who returned at the head of his family with Ezra (1 Esd 8 40) = "I'thai" of K/.r 8 14.

      UTMOST, ut'mdst, UTTERMOST, ut'er-most, SEA. See MEDITERRANEAN SEA.

      UTTERMOST, ul'er-m5st: A pleonastic com- pound of a comparative ("utter"; cf "outer") and a superlative ("most"), in AV used interchange- ably with the ordinary superlative forms "utmost" (cf Mt 12 42; Lk 11 31) and "outmost" (cf Ex 26 4.10). HV adds still another form, "outer- most," in 2 K 7 5.S (AV "uttermost"). RV has made a few changes to secure a more accurate tr (Jer 9 20; Joel 2 20, etc) or to give uniformity (Ex 26 4; Alt 5 20; 12 42, etc), but for the most part has left AV undisturbed.

      uz, uz cpy, x, r" T"3 ' m 'f '' ( '-"'

      "!, Ox, Avo-iTis, A itsitis) :

      (1) In Gen 10 2)5 Uz is the eldest, son of Aram and grandson of Shem, while in 1 Ch 1 17 \\\\'z is

      the son of Shem. LXX inserts a Biblical passage which supplies this lacking

      Data name. As the tables of the nations

      in Gen 10 are chiefly geographical and ethnographical, Uz seems to have been the name of a district or nation colonized by or descended from Semites of the Aramaean tribe or family.

      (2) The son of Nahor by Milcah, and elder brother of Buz (Gen 2 21)". Here the name is doubtless personal and refers to an individual who was head of a clan or tribe kindred to that of Abraham.

      (:$) A son of Dishan, son of Seir the Horite (Gen 36 2S), and personal name of a Horite or perhaps of mixed Horite and Aramaean blood.

      (4) The native land and home of Job (Job 1 1), and so situated as to be in more or less proximity to the tribe of the Temanites (2 11), the Shuhites (2 11), the Naamathites (2 11), the Buzites (32 2), and open to the inroads of the Chaldaeans (1 17), and the Sabaeans (1 15 RV), as well as exposed to the great Arabian Desert (1 19). See next article.

      (5) A kingdom of some importance somewhere in Southern Syria and not far from Judaea, having a number of kings (Jer 25 20).

      (6) A kingdom, doubtless the same as that of Jer 25 20 and inhabited by or in subjection to the Edomites (Lam 4 21), and hence not far from Edom. JAMES JOSIAH REEVE

      UZ ("py , 'vtf; LXX Avo-ifis, Aits-itis; Vulg Auxi- //.s): The home of the patriarch Job (Job 1 1; Jer 25 20, "all the kings of the land of Uz"; Lam 4 21, "(laughter of Edom, that, dwellest in the land of IV). The land of Uz was, no doubt, the pasturing- ground inhabited by one of the tribes of that name, if indeed there; be more than one tribe intended. The following are the determining data occurring in the Book of Job. The country was subject to raids by Chaldaeans and Sabaeans (1 15.17); Job's three friends were a Temanite, a Naamathite and a Shu- hit e (2 11); Elihu was a Bu/.ite (32 2); and Job himself is called one of the children of the East (Ketllte.m). The Chaldaeans (kaxduit, descendants of Chesed, son of Nahor, Gen 22 22) inhabited Meso- potamia; a branch of the Sabaeans also appears to have taken up its abode in Northern Arabia (see SHEBA). Teman (Gen 36 11) is often synonymous with Edom. The meaning of the designation Na- amathite is unknown, but Shuah was a son of Keturah the wife of Abraham (Gen 25 2), and so connected with Nahor. Shuah is identified with Suhu, -mentioned by Tiglath-pileser 1 as lying one day's journey from Carchemish; and a "land of I'zza" is named by Shalmaneser II as being in the same neighborhood. Buz is a brother of Uz ("Huz," Gen 22 21) and son of Nahor. Esar-haddon, in an expedition toward the W., passed through Bazu and Hazu, no doubt the same tribes. Abraham sent his children, other than Isaac (so including Shuah), "eastward to the land of Kcdhetn" (Gen 25 0). These factors point to the land of Uz as lying somewhere to the N.E. of Pal. Tradition supports suh a site. Jos says 'Tz founded Trachonitis and Damascus" (Ant, I, vi, 4). Arabian tradition places the scene of Job's sufferings in the Haunin at Dcir Eiynh (Job's monastery) near Nawa. There is a spring there, which he made to flow by striking the rock with his foot (Koran 38^41), and his tomb. The passage in the Koran is, however, also made to refer to Job's Well (cf JERUSALEM).

      LITERATURE. Talm of Jcru.s- (Fr. tr by M. Schwab. VII 28')) contains a discussion of the date of Job; Le Strange, 'Pal under the Moth-mx, 220-13:?. 427, 515.

      THOMAS HUNTER WEIR

      UZAI, ii'zl, u'za-I pTIS , 'uznij, meaning un- known): Father of Palal (Neh 3 25).

      UZAL, ii'zal ('"pX , 'iizdl): Sixth son of Joktan (Gen 10 27; 1 Ch 1 21). Uzal as the name of a place perhaps occurs in Ezk 27 10. RV reads, " Vedan and Javan traded with yarn for thy wares." Here an obscure verbal form, m e 'uzzal, is taken to mean "something spun," "yarn." But with a very slight change we may read me'uzal=*"irom

      The name is identical with the Arab. *Auzal, the old capital of Yemen, later called $on'a'. San*tf is described as standing high above sea-level m_a fertile land, and traversed by a river bed which in the rainy season becomes a torrent. Under the Himyarite dynasty it succeeded Zafar as the resi- dence of the Tubba's. If it is the same place as the Audzara or Ausara of the classics, it is clear why Arab, geographers dwell upon its great antiquity. The most celebrated feature of the town was Ghuin- dan, an immense palace, the building of which tradi- tion ascribes to Shorahbil, the Oth known king of the Himyarites. According to Ibn Khaldoun this building had four fronts in color red, white, yellow and green respectively. In the midst rose a tower of seven stories, the topmost being entirely of marble (Caussin de Perceval, Essai, II, 75). In the 7th cent. AD the town became the capital of the Zauhte Imams, and the palace was destroyed toward the middle of that century by order of the caliph Oth- man. A. S. FULTON

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      Uta Uzziah

      UZZA, uz'a, UZZAH, uz'a (~T7 , 'uzarl/i [2 S 6 6-8], otherwise XT7 , 'wzzd', meaning uncertain):

      (1) One of those who accompanied the ark on its journey from Kiriath-jearim toward David's cita- del (2 S 6 3-8, "Uzzah" = l Ch 13 7-11, "Uzza"). From the text of 2 S 6 3-8, as generally corrected with the help of LXX, it is supposed that Uzzah walked by the side of the ark while Ahio (or "his brother") went in front of it. The word which describes what happened to the oxen is variously tr' 1 ; RV has "stumbled"; others render it, "They let the oxen slip," "The oxen shook [the ark]." I'zzah, whatever it be that took place, caught hold of the ark; something else happened, and I'zzah died on the spot. If the word tr' 1 "rashness" (RVm) in ver 7 (not "error" as EV) is to be kept in the text Uzzah would be considered guilty of too little rever- ence for the ark; but the words "for [his] rashness" are wanting in LXX B, while 1 Ch 13 10 has "because he put forth his hand to the ark," and further no such Ileb word as we find here is known to us. The older commentators regarded the death as provoked by non-observance of the provisions about the ark as given in t he Pent, but it is generally believed today that these were not known in David's time.

      What is clear is that Uzzah's act led to an acci- dent of some kind, and the event was regarded by David as inauspicious, so that the journey with the ark was discontinued. We know how the OT writers represent events as due to Divine inter- vention where we would perhaps discern natural causers.

      (2) The garden of Uzza (2 K 21 18.26). Manas- seh the king is said (ver 18) to have been "buried in the garden of his own house, in the garden of I'zza"; and Amon (ver 26) "was buried in his sepulchre in the garden of Uzza." It has been suggested that " Uzza" = "Uzziah" (<"^ - 7^ , 'zztya/0 = "Azariah" (cf 2 K 15 1-6). The 'garden of Manasseh would then be identical with that of Uzziah, by whom it was originally laid out. 2 Ch 33 20 does not mention the garden.

      (3) Son of Shimei, a Merarite (1 Ch 6 29 [Heb 14]), RV "Uzzah," AV "Uzza."

      (4) A descendant of Ehud, and head of a Ben- jamite family (1 Ch 8 7, "Uzza"). Hogg, JQR, 102 ff (1893) (see Curtis, Chron., 1-56-59), finds a proper name "Iglaam" in ver 6, and so reads "and Iglaam begat Uzza and Ahishahar."

      (5) Head of a Nethinim family that returned from Babylon (Ezr 2 49) = "Uzza" of Neh 7 51.

      DAVID FRANCIS ROBERTS

      UZZEN-SHEERAH, uz'en-she'd-ra (fnsip ]*$ , 'uzzen shverfih; LXX, instead of a place-name, reads K

      UZZI, uz'i P'y , *uzzi, perhaps "my strength"):

      (1) A descendant of Aaron and high priest, un- known apart from these sources (1 Ch 6 5.6.51 [Heb 5 31.32; 6 36]; Ezr 7 4).

      (2) An eponym of a family of Issachar (1 Ch 7 2.3).

      (3) Head of a Benjamite family (I Ch 7 7), or more probably of a Zebulunite family (see Curtis, Chron., 145-49).

      (4) Father of Elah, a Benjamite (1 Ch 9 8), perhaps the same as (5).

      (5) A son of Bani and overseer of the Levites in Jerus (Neh 11 22).

      (()) Head of the priestly family of Jedaiah (Neh 12 19.42). DAVID FRANCIS ROBERTS

      UZZIA, u-zl'a (X^'T? , *nzzlyd', "my strength is Jeh"; see UZZIAH): An Ashterathite and one of David's mighty men (1 Ch 11 44).

      UZZIAH, u-zl'a, 67>-zl'a fAZARIAH) *uzzlyah [2 K 15 13.30; Hos 1 1; Am 1 1; Zee 14 5], *rP-T2, *uzzi!jahii [2 K 15 32.34; Isa 11; 6 1; Yl; 2 Ch 26 1 fT; 27 2]; also called nTjy, '(tzaryah [2 K 14 21; 15 1.7; 1 Ch 3 12], irVnT?, *dzaryahii [2 K 15 6.S]; 'Aapias, Aztirias, in K, elsewhere; '0ias, OZ'KIS; the sig- nifications of the names are similar, the former meaning "my strength is Jeh"; the latter, "Jeh has helped." It has been thought that the form "Uzziah" may have originated by corruption from the other. The history of tin; reign is given in 2 K 15 1-8 and 2 Ch 26):

      Uzziah or Azariah, son of Amaziah, and llth

      king of Judah, came to the throne at the age of 16.

      The length of his reign is given as 52

      1. Acces- years. The chronological questions sion raised by this statement are consid-

      ered below. His accession may here be provisionally dated in 783 BC. His father Amaziah had met his death by popular violence; (2 K 14 19), but Uzziah seems to have been the free and glad choice of the people (2 Ch 261).

      The unpopularity of his father, owing to a great military disaster, must ever have been present to

      the mind of Uzziah, and early in his

      2. Foreign reign he undertook and successfully Wars carried through an expedition against

      his father's enemies of 20 years before, only extending his operations over a wider area. The Edomit.es, Philis and Arabians were, succes- sively subdued (these being members of a confeder- acy which, in an earlier reign, had raided Jerus and nearly extirpated the royal family, 2 Ch 21 16; 22 1); the port of Eloth, at the head of the Red Sea, was restored to Judah, and the city rebuilt (2 K 14 22; 2 Ch 26 2); the walls of certain hostile towns, Oath, Jabneh and Ashdod, were razed to the ground, and the; inhabitants of Gur-baal and Maan were reduced to subjection (2 Ch 26 6.7). Even the Ammonites, E. of the Jordan, paid tribute to Uzziah, and "his name spread abroad even to the entrance to Egypt; for he waxed exceeding strong" (ver 8).

      Uzziah next turned his attention to securing the defences of his capital and country. The walls of

      Jerus were strengthened by towers

      3. Home built at the corner gate, at the valley Defences gate, and at an angle in the wall (see

      plan of Jerus in the writer's Second Temple in Jerw.s) ; military stations were also formed in Philistia, and in the wilderness of the Negeb, and these were supplied with the necessary cisterns for rain storage (vs 6.10). The little realm had now an extension and prosperity to which it had been a stranger since the days of Solomon.

      These successes came so rapidly that Uzziah had hardly passed his 40th year when a great personal

      calamity overtook him. In the earlier

      4. Uzziah's part of his career Uzziah had enjoyed Leprosy and profited by the counsels of Zech- and Re- ariah, a man "who had understanding tirement in the vision of God" (2 Ch 26 5),

      and during the lifetime of this godly monitor "he set himself to seek God." Now it happened to him as with his grandfather Jehoash, who, so long as his preserver Jehoiada lived, acted

      Uzziel

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      admirably, but, when he died, behaved like an ingrate, and slew his son (2 K 12 2; 2 Ch 24 2. 22). So now that Zechariah was gone, I'zziah's heart was lifted up in pride, and he trespassed against .Jeh. In the great kingdoms of the East, the kings had been in the habit of exercising priestly as well as royal functions. Elated with his prosperity, Uzziah determined to exercise what he may have thought was his royal prerogative in burning in- cense on the golden altar of the temple. Azariah the high priest, with SO others, offered stout remon- strance; but the king was only wroth, and pressed forward with a censer in his hand, to offer the in- cense. Ere, however, he 1 could scatter the incense on the coals, and while yet in anger, the white spots of leprosy showed themselves upon his forehead. Smitten in conscience, and thrust forth by the priests, he hastened away, and was a leper ever after (2 Ch 26 Ki-21).

      I'zziah's public: life was now ended. In his (Mi- forced privacy, he may still have occupied himself with his cattle and agricultural operations, "for he loved husbandry'' (2 Ch 26 10); but his work in the government was over. Both K and Ch state in nearly identical words: "Jotham the king's son was over the household, judging the people of the land" (2 K 15 5; 2 Ch 26 21). Works of the same kind as those undertaken by I'zziah, viz. building military stations in the hills and forests of Judah, repairing the walls of city and temple, etc, are attributed to Jotham (2 Ch 27 3 ff ) ; the truth being that Jotham continued and completed the enterprises his father had undertaken.

      The chronology of the reign of U/.ziah presents pe- culiar difficulties, sonic of which, probably, cannot be satisfactorily solved. Reckoning upward 5. Chro- from the fall of Samaria in 721 J5C'. the

      n'rvlr-CTT, nt I5il) - (lilta Would Suggest 7f)9 aS tllO first

      noiogy V( , ap <)f ,j () ,|iain. If. as is now generally

      Reign conceded, .Jotham's regnal years are

      reckoned from the commencement of his regency, when his father had been stricken with leprosy, and if, as synchronisms seem to indicate. Uzziah was about 40 years of age at this time, we are brought for the year of l"x/iah's accession to 7s:j. His death, 52 years later, would occur in 731. (On the other hand, it is known that Isaiah, whose; call was in the year of Uz- ziah's death, Tsa 6 1, was already exercising his min- istry in the reign of .lotham, Isa 1 1.) Another note of time is furnished by the statement that the earliest utterance of Amos the prophet was "two years before

      the earthquake" (Am 1 1). This earthquake, we are told by Zechariah, was "in the days of Uzziah, king of Judah" (Zee 14 5). Jos likewise embodies a tradition that the earthquake occurred at the moment of the king's entry into the temple (Anl, IX, x, 4). Indubi- tably the name of Uzziah was associated in the popular mind with this earthquake. If the prophecy of Amos was uttered a year or two before Jeroboam's death, and this is placed in 750 BO. we are brought near to the date already given for Uzziah's leprosy (Jeroboam's date is put lower by others).

      In 2 K 15 I'zziah is referred to as giving data for the accessions of the northern kings (ver X, Zechariah; ver 13, Shallum; ver 17, Menahem; ver 23, Pekahiah; ver 27, Pekahj, but it is difficult to fit these synchronisms into any scheme of chro- nology, if taken as regnal years. I'zziah is men- tioned as the father of Jotham in 2 K 15 32.34; 2 Ch 27 2, and as the grandfather of Ahaz in Isa 7 1. He was living when Isaiah began his ministry (Isa 1 1; 6 1); when Hosea prophesied (Hos 1 1); and is the king in whose reign the afore-mentioned earthquake took place (Zee 14 f>). His name occurs in the royal genealogies in 1 Ch 3 11 and Mt 1 8.9. The place of his entombment, owing to his having been a leper, was not in the sepulchers of the kings, but "in the garden of Fzza" (2 K 21 26; cf 2 Ch 26 23). Isaiah is stated to have written a life of I'zziah (2 Ch 26 22). W. SHAW CALDECOTT

      UZZIEL, u-zi'el, uz'i-el, do'zi-el (S^P"? , *uzz?el, "El [Clod] is my strength"):

      (1) A "son" of Kohath (Ex 6 IS. 22; Lev 10 4; Xu 3 10.30; 1 Ch 6 2.1S [Heb 5 2S; 6 3]; 15 10; 23 12.20; 24 24), called in Lev 10 4 "uncle of Aaron." The family is called Uzzielites C'bsjP-tS'n , htfuzzl'cll [coll.l) in Nu 3 27; 1 Ch 26 23.

      (2) A Simeonite captain (1 Ch 4 42).

      (3) Head of a Benjamite (or according to Curtis a Zebulunite) family (1 Ch 7 7).

      (4) A Hemanite musician (1 Ch 25 4); LXX B has ' \\\\\\\\fafia-/i\\\\\\\\, Azarael ="Azarel," the name given in ver IS. See AZARKL.

      (f>) A Levite "son" of Jeduthun (2 Ch 29 14).

      (6) A goldsmith who joined in repairing the wall of Jerus (Xeh 3 X).

      (7) The reading of LXX ('OflTjX, Ozitl) for Jahaziel in 1 Ch 23 19. See JAHAZIEL, (3).

      DAVID FRANCIS ROBERTS



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      SCRIPTURE: (1) Of sin, because they believe not on me; ... (2) Of righteousness, because I go to my Father; ...(3) Of judgment, because the 'Prince of this World' IS JUDGED![A] John 16:8-10

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        ULTIMATELY, WHO, ACHIEVES THEIR STATED GOALS? GOD or Satan?

        If you believe

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