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Comprehensive Bible Encyclopedia

All Entries for LETTER "W"



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    "IF" there exists any such thing as 'The Word of God'; [and ALL evidence proves such does exist:]

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    LETTER "W"

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    ** Cambridge Bible Commentary Concise, The Whole NEW TESTAMENT

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    ** Cambridge Bible Commentary Concise, The Whole OLD TESTAMENT



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      Deuter-canonical Books are included as references, and less often, the Pseudo-pigraphia (extra-biblical New Testament Era writings - such as the Epistle of Barnabas - used for over 300 years by the early Church.

      Though these are 'NOT' Inerrant Scripture, they are very important as geographical and historical references, and helping to understand how particular Hebrew and Greek words were used.

      Since the Deuter-canonical Books were part of the Jewish Bible that Jesus and Paul used, they have great value for understanding the era between the Covenants, and all things Jewish.

      Many will be surprised to know they were in the Geneva Bible of Calvin and Knox - and the Puritan Pilgrims - and included in the King James for over 275 years . . .

      . . . and left out in later versions - ONLY to make the Bible MORE PROFITABLE, by selling at the usual price, while being much smaller to print!

      No wonder Paul said the "love of money is the root of all evil!"

      Further know, that that these books are rejected by most Bible Preachers today, BECAUSE the Jews of Jesus' Day rejected them for the Jewish Canon at the Council of Jamnia after the fall of Jerusalem.

      This seems reasonable enough, and though these Scribes and Lawyers SHOULD have had superior knowledge in ALL THINGS JEWISH . . . in their Jewish wisdom, THEY ALSO REJECTED JESUS AS THE MESSIAH!!!

      TheDeuter-canonical Books are very "Kingdom of God" and "Messianic" Oriented, thus the Jews sis NOT want any writings confirming that Jesus WAS the Jewish Messiah.

      The wise "Students-north-Scholars" will know them, as they provide light on New Testament Scripture that are NOT understood otherwise;

    Quick Example:

    In Luke 3:36 YOUR Bible reads as follows:
        "Which was the son of Cainan, which was the son of Arphaxad, which was the son of Sem (Shem), which was the son of Noe (Noah), which was the son of Lamech;"

      This ancestor of Jesus named "Cainan, son of Arphaxad: where is he in YOUR Bible; (Check Genesis 11:13, and other genealogies).

      This dilemma - which the WORLD calls a great contradiction in the linage of Jesus as the Christ - can ONLY be solved by the Bible Jesus used, which included the Deuter-canonical Books.

      Do you suppose Jesus knew more about the "Correct Books of the Bible than modern "lukewarm" Denominations?


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      Consider the Hebrew Language:

      Hebrew is "The Perfect Language" - in the original form - as the Hebrew Language has evolved from perfection:

        >> God taught, or programmed, Adam and Eve perfect Hebrew;

        >> over a thousand years it eroded into informal Hebrew, as formal British-English eroded into the American dialect;

        >> over hundreds of more years it became a "dead Hebrew", meaning it is no longer spoken by any nation of people;

        >> eventually evolving into into the derivative Aramaic, which was commonly spoken in the days of Jesus;

        >> finally evolving into that "modern Hebrew" spoken in Israel in Post-AD-2000).

      The linguistics of the Hebrew Language as designed and taught by God to Adam and Eve (or perhaps "programmed" - either way does not affect the evidence of the Godhead) gives us massive and mighty "Eternal Evidence", daily clues and reminders of the Existence and Transcendence of the Almighty Godhead:

        >> God the Spirit - who is Spirit; manifest as Spirit of Ghost (that is Presence without corporeal body or manifestation such as Christ after His Resurrection);

        >> God the Father - willing to give His Son to save the World John 3:16-17;

        >> God the Son - willing to give His life to save the World! John 12:47;

      God decided to continually reveal the "THREE-FOLD-NATURE-OF-HIS-GODHEAD" by making EVERY Hebrew "root word" have THREE-CONSONANTS!"

        > NEVER 2 letters;

        > NEVER 4, 5, 6, or more;

        > BUT ALWAYS 3 letters!

        > And ONLY 3 and THREE alone!


      Likewise, the "Language of Life" - called by some "The Protein Language" - also designed and programmed by God to be the language of all living substance from lions to dandelions to from babies to buttercups top butterflies!

      The Protein Language is the language of Genetics, of Cells, of plants and animals and all that exists: the Code of Life;

      The PROTEIN LANGUAGE consists of "CODONS".

      This Language of all Life is also made of THREE LETTER WORDS, and each letter of these TRINITARIAN CODONS, is the life-giving code for an amino acid, creating the genetic structure of all that is LIFE!

      Thus every word that your body parts (cells, organs, glands and tissues, etc.,) write to each other, and every word your body reads in communication from another body part, these are ALL THREE LETTER WORDS!

      All of the intelligence your body has, all it knows and all it communicates - in every bodily function possible - is given in THREE LETTER WORDS!

        > NEVER 2 letters;

        > NEVER 4, 5, 6, or more;

        > ALWAYS 3 letters!

        > ONLY 3 and THREE alone!

      Can we possibly miss this, asks NewtonStein? (Not if we can count as far as 1, 2, 3!!!)

    Even the Word "G-O-D" in English . . . is Three Letters!

      Why is "GOD" in English significant?

      For the simple reason that today, in the POST-AD-2,000 word, very few scores of thousands speak Biblical Hebrew with the THREE-LETTER-ROOT-WORD structure.

      Comparatively, scores of HUNDREDS OF MILLIONS SPEAK English!

        >> ENGLISH, is an Official Language in well over 100 nations of the World!

        >> ENGLISH, is The Major Language of Science, Globally!

        >> ENGLISH, is an Official - and the Major - Language of , the United Nations!

        >> ENGLISH, is The Official Language of The Internet!

        >> ENGLISH, is The Major Language of Serious Publishing - even in Japan and Germany!

        >> ENGLISH, is The Official Language of Global Airlines and Airports!

        >> ENGLISH, is The Official Language of OF the World!

        ** THUS more people will hear the Gospel in ENGLISH than any other Language!

        ** THUS more people will read the Gospel in ENGLISH than any other Language!

        ** THUS more people will own a Bible in ENGLISH than any other Language!

        ** THUS more people will get saved from learning TRUTH in ENGLISH than any other Language!

        FACT! SINCE God knew of the ENGLISH as the Global Language before the Foundation of the World!

        FACT! SINCE God in His Goodness has ALWAYS given Signs to Those Who Believe, from Moses and Israel, to Samson, to The Virgin Birth as a sign (Isa 7:14) to the Swaddling Clothes as a sign, to the Signs of the times in Matthew 24:4-24, Mark 13:5-20 and Luke 17:31-41 and 21:10-25;

        FACT! SINCE God originally made His name a "Three-Letter-Root-Word in Hebrew - "JAH" (Psalm 68:4)

        FACT! ONCE AGAIN God made His Name a THREE LETTER WORD in ENGLISH, the Global Language of the most populated era of Earth!

      So remember this every time "GOD!" is heard, read, said, etc., teach this to others, and help your family and friends see the "SIGNS along the WAY!"

    Seeing God in Linguistics, in General;

      In linguistics, there are many, many more, that PROVE God is the Designer of (a)All language, (b)alphabet, (c)Hebrew, (d) that Hebrew is the parent language of all others, (e)word structure, (f)actual words unique to Hebrew that pertain to God . . .


      . . . BECAUSE they had no God with eternal Attributes!

      Emmanuel is the same word in every language, and no language has a word it can be translated into, because it means GOD DWELLING IN HIS PEOPLE . . . and no people had "this experience apart from the People of the One True GOD JAH, thus "Emmannuel remains the same word in all languages!

      Likewise "Halleluah" - which is a Hebrew compound word "Hallelu-JAH" - and is a Command to "PRAISE JAH!"

      "Amen!" and Hosanna are also neat, unique words and there are literally hundreds more!

      The scoffing world asks: "Where is evidence for God!?" to which we answer:






    All Commentary from INSPIRED-INERRANT View of God's Word!

    Letter "W"


    Letter "W"

    WAFER, wa'fer.
      See; BREAD.

    WAGES, wil'joz,
      means "gratis," without cost or any advantage, for nought, e>r in vain; wage's in the sense; of reasonable; return.

      JeMvmiah prememuoe'S woe; upon him who "usoth his neighbor's service? without wages, and giveth him not his hire" (Je'r 22 13; the only place whore the word is useel).

      (2) Mtinkd- ri'lh means "reward" or ''wages." Laban said to Jae-ob: "Shouldest thou therefore serve me for nought? tell me, what shall thy wage's be?" (Gen 29 lo). Jace>b said, concerning Laban, speaking te) Rachel and Leah: "Your father hath deceived me, and changed my wage's ten times" (lien 31 7; e'f ver 41).

      (3) I >e 'itl!dh generally means "work," "labor," "reward," "wage's." The old Levitical Law was insistent on honesty in wage's and on prompt- ness in payments: "The wage's of a hired servant shall not abide with thce all night until the morn- ing" (Lev 19 13).

      (4) Jdixlakkcr means "earning," "hire," "re'warel," "wages," from root sdkfiar, mean- ing "to'hire," and has in it the idea of temporary purchase: "lie that oarneth wage's oarnefh wages to put it into a bag with hexes' ' (Hag 1 6).

      (5) Xdkhar means "payment of contract," in the mate- rial way e>f salary, maintenance, fare, and so com- pensation, rewarel, price, benefit, wages seemingly wages received after an understanding as to time, manneT and amount e>f payment. Laban (employ- er) said to Jace)b (employee): "Appoint me thy wages, and I will give; it" (Gen 30 28);

      "If he said thus, The speckled shall be thy wages" (Gen 31 8); Pharaoh's daughter said to Moses' mother: "Take this child away, and nurse it fe>r me, and 1 will give thee thy wages" (Ex 2 0); Nebuchadrezzar ami his army served against Tyre, "yet had he no wages, ne>r his army" (Ezk 29 18), and the prey of Egypt "shall be the; wages fe>r his army" (ver 10);

      swift anel sure judgment is preelicteel against "those that oppress the hireling in his wages, the wielow, anel the fatherless" (Mai 3 5).

      (6) Misthos means either in a literal e>r figurative se-nse "pay for serv- ie-e," either primitive; or beneficial, anel so reward, hire, wage's. In .In 4 30 Jesus said, "He that reap- eth recoiveth wages, and gathoroth fruit unto life eternal."

      2 Pet 2 15 has changed "wage's" (AY) to "hire>," reading "who loveel the hire e)f wrong- doing."

      (7) Opsonion, meaning primarily "rations fe>r soldiers" (opsoti, being the weml fe>r cooked meat) and so "pay" e>r stipend, provision wages. In Lk 3 14 John said to the soldiers, "Be content with

      your wages"; "The; wage's of sin is death" (Rom 6 23); Paul said: "I robbed other churches, taking wages e>f them" (2 Cor 11 8); the same; word in 1 Cor 9 7 is tr d "charges."

      The Bible re'fers to WARPS actual atul wages figurative. Of actual wages there arc three kinds: (1) money wages, (2) provision (usually food) wages, and (3) what' may ho called "exchange" wages, wages in kind, sometimes "human-kind," e.g. Jace>b's wages from Laban. Often laborers anel soldiers received be>th money anel "keep" wage's. The laborer in XT times received about 15 cents per day (the, "shilling" of Mt 20 2), besides in somo cases his provisions. The; old Law required daily pay- ment, honesty in dealing, also sufficient food for the laborer.

      It is practically impossible to test "Bible" wages by any e>f the theories of modern economists. In this con- nection, however, mere mention of the six prhieipal theories may be of interest. Concisely put they are: (1) wage-fund, (2) standard-of-living, (3) German-social- istic, (4) production, (.">) lle-nry (ieorge's, anel ((>) the laborer's-value theories. The; incidents in the OT of Jacob anel in the NT of Mt 20 both show that the laborer was at the caprice of the employer. Therefore we may designate the Bible law of wages as the "ein- plejyer's theory."


    WAGON, WAGGON, wag'un.
      See CART.

    WAIL, will, WAILING, wal'ing.
      See BUKIAL, III, 2; IV, 4, 5, 6.

    WAIT, wilt:
      The word is usexl in the OT both as

      a substantive and as a vb. In the NT it appears

      as a vb. only. nn , 'ercbh, S^XE ,

      1. The Sub- ma'ardbh, mean a concealeel hiding- stantive place fe>r purposes of sudden attack,

      an ambuscade. (1) "Lie in wait": "Abimelech rose up .... from lying in wait" (Jgs 9 35 AV); "When they .... abide in the covert to lie in wait" (Job 38 40). (2) "Lay wait": "They compassed him in, and laid wait for him" (Jgs_16 2).

      (1) rnitJ , sharath, "to serve," "to minister," to act in the capacity e>f servant e>r attendant : "Those

      waited on the king" (2 Ch 17 19).

      2. The Verb I'sed esp. in this sense with regard

      to the ceremonial service of the host: "They shall go in to wait upon the servie;e in the work of the; tent of mooting" (Xu 8 24; cf ver 25); "The Levites wait upem their business" (2 Ch 13 10 AV). "Wait, at" oe-curs in the same sense in the XT: "They which wait at [RV "wait upon"] the altar," etc (1 Cor 9 13 AV). (2) The simple vb. is use-el to describe the longsuffering anel patience' of God tenvard His wilful people: "And the'refore' will Jeh wait, that he may be gracious unto you" (Isa 30 IS); "When the longsuffering of God waited in the days of Noah" (&irei<8tx.onai,

      Walk Wanderings



      apckdechomai. 1 Pet 3 20). (3) The most impor- tant and frequent use of the word "wait," however, is to define the attitude of a soul God-ward. It implies the listening ear, a heart responsive to the wooing of (lod, a concentration of the spiritual faculties upon heavenly things, the patience of faith, "the earnest expectation of the creation" (Rom 8 10). It describes an eager anticipation and yearning for the revelation of truth and love as it is in the Father. Thus: "My soul, wait, llioii .... for (!od only" (Ps 62 f>) ; "Our soul hath waited for Jell" (Ps 33 20); "-Mine eyes fail while 1 wait for my Clod" (Ps 69 3); "Wait for Jeh, and lie will save tliee" (Prov 20 22).

      Also the NT thus: "Waiting for our adoption, to wit, the redemption of our body" (Rom 8 23); "For we through the Spirit by faith wait for the hope of right- eousness" (tial 5 ">) From various references in the NT there seems to have been in the days of Jesus a sect in whose name the word "wait" played an important part Of the aged Simeon, who met Mary and Joseph when they brought the infant Jesus to the temple, it is said that he was "waiting for [RV "looking for"] the consolation of Israel" i Uv 2 -'">>. that is, he was looking for the fulfilment of the Messianic promise. Again, after Our Lord's crucifixion, when Joseph of Arimathaea begged for the, body of Jesus, we are told that he was one of those that "waited for tho kingdom of (iod" (-p.xy- ^ X o,,,u, prosdfchomai, Mk 15 43 AY; Lk 23 - r ,l AY). It is thought by some authorities that this implies their having belonged to tho sect of the Kssenes. Epiphanius associates the sect- with one which he names "Gortheni," whoso title is derived from a, word which means "to ex pec I."


    WALK, wok
      Aside from its frequent occurrence in the usual sense, the word "walk" is used figuratively of conduct and of spiritual states. (1) Observance of laws or cus- toms: "Thou teaches) all the Jews who are among the Gentiles to forsake Moses, telling them not to circumcise; their children, neither to walk after the customs" (Acts 21 21). (2) Of the spiritual life: "If we walk in the light, as he is in the light" (1 Jn 1 7) ; "That like, as Christ was raised from the dead through the glory of the Father, so we also might walk in newness of life" (Rom 6 4); "Walk by the Spirit, and ye shall not fulfil the lust of the flesh" (Gal 5 10); "For we walk by faith, not by sight" (2 Cor 5 7). RUSSKLL BK.NJAMIN MILLER

    WALL, wol.

    WALLET, wol'et,
      -it. See Snm>.

    WANDERING, won'der-ing, STARS.
      See ASTRONOMY.

    WANDERINGS, won'der-ingz, OF ISRAEL:


      1. The Wilderness

      2. Four Separate Regions Included

      3. "The Sandy Tract"

      4. Description of the Arabah

      5. Physical Condition of the Wilderness

      6. Difficulties Regarding the Numbers of Israel and Account of Tabernacle

      7. Difficulty as to Number of Wagons

      8. Fauna of the Desert

      0. Characteristic Names of the Districts II. FIKST JOURNEY

      1. Mode of Traveling

      2. The Route: the First Camp

      3. Waters of Marah

      4. Camp by the Red Sea

      5. The Route to Sinai III. SECOND JOURNEY

      1. The Stay at Sinai

      2. Sito of Kadesh-barnea

      3. The Route: Hazeroth to Moseroth

      4. The Camps between Hazeroth and Moseroth IV. THE THIRTY-EIGHT YEARS

      1. The History

      2. The Camps Visited


      1. The Route

      2. Tho Five Stations to the Border of Moab

      3. From lyim to Arnon

      4. The Message to Sihon

      5. From the Arnon to Shittim

      6. Review

      /. Conditions. A consideration of the geography and natural features of the desert between Egypt

      and Edom, in which the Hebrews are 1. The said to have wandered for 40 years,

      Wilderness has a very important bearing on the

      question of (lie genuineness of the Pent narrative 1 . This wilderness forms a wedge between the (Julfs of Suez and *Akabah, tapering

      Wilderness of Judaea.

      S. to the granite mountains near Sinai. It has a base 17") miles long E. and W. on the X., and the distance N. and S. is 250 miles. The area is thus over 20,000 square miles, or double the size of the Promised Land JO. and \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\V. of Jordan. On the X. of this desert lie the plains of Gaza and (ierar, and the \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\~ajhfbh or "dry region" (the south; see Xu 13 17 RV), including the plateau and low hills round Beersheba.

      There are four separate regions included in the area, the largest part (Li, 000 square miles) being

      a plateau which on the S. rises .'5,000 2. Four to 4,000 ft. above the sea, and shelves Separate gently toward the Phili plains. It Regions is drained into the broad Wddy el- Included Mm/?, named from c/-'.lm/j ("the

      booth"\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ a station on the Mediter- ranean coast S. of Gaza, where this valley enters the sea. In this direction several prominent mountains occur (Ji-bel Ydck, J . HUM, and ./. Ikhrimm), while further E. near the site of the Western Ka- desh there is a step on the plateau culminating on the S. in Jchcl i'1-Mnkhrah; but none of these ranges appears to be more than about 4,000 ft. above the sea. The plateau is known as Badiet ct-Tih ("the pathless waste"), and though some Aral) geographers of the Middle Ages speak of it as the desert "of the wandering of the Beni Isnul," they refer to the whole region as far as *Akabah, and not to the plateau alone. The elevation on the S. forms a very steep ascent or "wall" (see SHUR), bending round on the W. and E., and rising above the shore plains near Suez and the ' Arabah near Edom. Xear the center of the plateau is the small fort of Nakhl ("the palms"), where water is found; but, as a whole, the Tih is waterless, having very few springs, the most important being those near the western Kadesh ('A in. Kadis); for Rehoboth belongs to the region of the Ncghcbh rather than to the Tih. In winter, when very heavy rains occur, the valleys are often flooded suddenly by a seil, or "torrent," which is sometimes 10 ft. deep for a few hours. Such a scil has been known to sweep away trees, flocks, and human beings; yet, in consequence of the hard rocky surface, the flood rushes away to

      306, r




      the sea anel soem becomes a mere rivulet. When- soft se>il is found, in the- valleys, grass will greiw and afford pasture, but even early in spring the Arabs begin to suffer from want eif water, which only re-- rnains in pits anel in water holes among reicks. They have then much difficulty in watering their goats and sheep.

      Below the Tih escarpment on the S. is another

      regiein called Dcbbct er-ramleh ("'the sandy tract"),

      which is only 20 miles acmss at its

      3. "The widest; and to the- W. are; the; sanely Sandy plains, with limestone foothills, Tract" stretching K. of the Bitter Lakes and

      e>f the; (iulf eif Sue/. The third re-gion consists e>f the granite chain (see SINAI) which rises to X, ")")() ft. above the; sea, and some 0,000 ft. above; its valleys, near Jcbii MUKU. Paris of this re-giem are- better watereel than is any part eif the; Tih, and the main route; from Kgypt to Edom has consequently always run through it.

      The fourth regiein is that of the 'Aralxili, e>r broad

      valley (.10 miles wiele') between the Gulf of 'Aknhnh and

      the Dead Sea. It has a watershed some

      4. Descrip- ~00 ft. high above 1 the Gulf (S. of the +;'n nf +Via ne'ighbeirhooel e>f Pe'trai; anel N. e>f this

      shed the water flows to the Deael Sea 1,292 Arabah ft, below the- Mediterranean. The total

      length eif this valle-y is 120 mile's, the; watershed being (near the Eelomite; chain) about 45 miles X. of ' .1 kulxih. The- heael of the Gulf was once farther X.; anel, near 'Ain (Ih ml/tin (probably Ezion- geber) anel 'Ain et-Talmh (probably Jotbath), there is a mud Hat which becomes a lake; in winte-r about 20 miles from the sea. Lower elown at 'Ain <-d Drffiyeh there is anothe'r such Hat, the; head being 10 miles freim ' Akn- bah. The; whole regiein is much better watered than either eif the three preceding districts, having springs at the feieit eif the mountains em either side; and the ' Arahah is thus the best pastoral country within the limits described. It now supports a nomad population of about 2.000 or 3,000 souls (ffaiwatAt and ' Alawin Arabs), while the; re-giem round Sinai has some 2,000 souls (TowArah Arabs): the whole eif the Tih has prob- ably not meire than ">,000 inhabitants; for the stronger tribes (' A:A :imch anel Tini/nn) live chiefly be-twe-en Gaza anel Be-ersheba. These Arabs have; goats, she-ep and camels, but cattle are; only found near Beersheba. The flocks are watered daily as in Pal geiierally and are; sometimes drive-n 20 miles in winter to find pasture and water. The; wate-r is also brought on donke'ys and camels te> the camps, anel carried in goatskin bags on a journey through waterless districts. See also AHAHAH.

      There is no reason to think that the conditions

      at the time of the Exodus differed materially fremi

      those eif the present time. The Arabs

      5. Physical have cut elown a geiod many acacia Condition trees feir firewood in recent, times, but of the the population is teie> small materially Wilderness to affect the vegetation. The annual

      rainfall e>xcept in years of drought is from 10 to 20 in., anel snow falls in winter on the Tih, anel whitens Sinai anel the Edomite mountains feir many days. The acacia, tamarisk anel palm grow in the valleys. At Wdr/y Feiran there are said to be .5,000 date palms, anel they occur also in the ''Arabah anel the Edomite gorges, while the white broom (1 K 19 o, AV "juniper") grows on the Tih plateau. This Tih plateau is the bed of an ancient ocean which once surmuneled the granite memntains of Sinai. It was upheaved probably in the Miocene age, lemg befe>re man appeared em earth. The sur- face formation (Hull, Memoir on the Geology and Geography of Arabia- PC Irac-a, ete% 1X86) consists of Cretaceous limestones eif the Eoce-ne and Chalk ages, beneath which lies the Nubian sanelstone of the Greensand period, which is also visible all along the route from Sinai to *Akabah, anel em the east siele of the Deael Se-a, anel even at the; feieit of the (lileael plateau. These beds are all visible in the Tih escarp- ment ; and N. of Sinai there are yet oleler formations of limestone, anel the "desert sandstone" eif the Car- boniferous pcrioel. Since the conditions of natural water-supply depend entirely em ge-eileigical forma- tion and on rainfall, neither of which can be re-

      garded as having changed since the time of Moses, the scientific conclusion is that the desert thus de- scribed represents that of his age. This, as we shall see, affects our conclusion as to the route; followed by Israel from Egypt to the \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\rahnh; for, on the direct route from Sue/ to Nnkhl (about 70 miles), there; is no water for the main part of the; way, so it has to be; carried on camels; while, E. eif Nakhl, in a elistance; of SO mile's, there; is only one' known supply in a well (Kir fl/i- Thcined) a few mile's S. of the; road. This route was thus practically impassable fe>r the' Hebrews anel their beasts, whereas the Sinai route was passable. Thus when Wellhatisen (///'.^ of Israel anil, Judah, 313) spe'aks eif Israel as going straight, te> Kaelesh, and neit making a "eligressiem te> Sinai," he; seems not, to have; cemsielere-d the- topography as described by many mexleni travelers. For not only was the- wlmle object eif the-ir journey first to visit, (he; "Memnt of C,e>d," but it also lav em the meist practicable route to Kadesh.

      it is true that there are' certain difTle-uIties as regards both the numbers of Israel and the> account of I lie taber- nacle-. The- first of these objections has 6 Diffi- been Considered elsewhere; (sec; EXOIM-I

      The; detaileel account of the tabernacle; (Ex 25-28; 36-39) belongs to a part of the- Pent which many critical writers as- sign to a late;r date; than that of the eilel narrative and laws (Ex 1-24). The- description may se-em more appli- cable to the semi-permanent structure that existed at Shiloh and N"e>b, than te> the; original "tent of meeting" in the desert. On the either hand, living so long in civi- lized Egypt, the lie-brews no doubt had among them skilled artificers like; Bezalel. The Egyptians use-el acacia wood for furniture; and though the; 'desert acacia eloes not gre>w to the size; which would furnish planks 1 i cubits broad, it may be that these were made up bv joiner's we>rk sue'h as the ancients were able to execute. There was plenty of gold in Kgypt and Asia, but mine near Sinai. It is suggested, however, that the ornaments e)f which the Hebrews spoile-el the Egyptians were pre- sented, like the stuffs (Ex 36 0) wrought for the cur- tains just as the Arabs weave stuffs for their tents - and they might have served to spread a thin layer of golel over acacia beiarels, anel on the acacia altar.' It is more difficult to understand (em our present information) where silve-r enough for the; bases (Ex 26 25) would be- femnd. Copper (27 4) presents less difficulty, since there were ce>ppcr mines in Wddy Xu*b ne-ar Serdhit d KhAilim. The women gave gold ea'rrings to Aaron (32 3) for the Golden Calf, but this may have been a small obje-ct. Eusebius (Onnm), referring te> Di/ahab, "the place of gold" (Dt 1 1), now Dhahab ("gold") on the; west shore of the Gulf e>f ' Akabah, E. of Sinai, me'ti- tions the copper mines of Punon, and themght that veins of gold plight also have existed in the mountains of Edom in old time's. A little golel is also found in Midian. We know that the Egyptians anel Assyrians carried arks anel portable altars with their armies, and a great leather tent e>f Queen Habasu actually exists. Thothmes III, before the Exodus, speaks of "seven tent poles covered with plates of gold freim the tent of the hostile king" which he took as spoil at Megiddo. The art of engraving ge-ms was also already ancient in the time of Moses. See NUMBERS, BOOK OF.

      Another elifficulty is to understand how six e>x

      wagons (Xu 7 3) sufficeel to carry all the heavy

      planks and curtains, and vessels of the

      7. Difficulty tabernacle; and though the use of e>x as to Num- carts, and of four-wheeled wagons ber of alsei, is knenvn to have been ancient Wagons in Asia, t he-re- are points on even the

      easiest route which it would seem im- possible for wagons to pass, esp. on the rough roael through Edom and Moab. On the other hand, we know that an Egyp Mohar eliel drive his chariot over the mountains in Pal in the reign of Rameses II, though it was finally broken near Joppa.

      Whatever bethought as to these questions, 1 he-re are indications in other passages of actual acquaint- ance with the desert fauna. Although

      8. Fauna of the- manna, as describeel (Ex 16 31), the Desert is saiel ne>t to resemble the- swe-et gum

      which exudes from the twigs of t he- tamarisk (to which it has been compared by some'), which melts in the- sun, and is regareled as a delicacy by the Arabs, yet the quail (Ex 16 13; Nu 11




      31) still migrate from the sea northward across the desert in spring, flying low by night. The birds noticed (Lev 11; Dt 14) include as Canon Tris- tram remarked species found on the seashores and in the wilderness, such as the cormorant, pelican and gull; the ostrich (in the desert E. of Moab); the stork, the crane and the heron which migrate from Africa to the Jordan valley. It is notable that, excepting the heron (Assyr an pain), the Hob names are not those used by later Assyrians. The mammals include the boar which loves the marshes, and the hyrax (AV "coney") which still exists near Sinai and in the desert of Judah, with the desert hare. It is remarkable that in Dt (14 5), besides the ibex and the bubak, two species are added (the fallow deer, Heb '"/////, AV "hart," and the roe- buck, Heb yahinur, Arab. y

      The various districts in the desert receive char- acteristic; names in the account of the Exodus.

      Thus Shur is the coast region under the 9. Charao "wall" of the Till, and Sin (Ex 17 1; teristic Nu 33 1 1) was the "glaring" desert

      Names of (see SINAI) of white chalk, \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\V. of Sinai. the Districts Paran is noticed 10 t, as a desert and

      mountain region (Dt 33 2; Hab 3 3) between Sinai and Kadesh. The name .seems to survive in Wadi/ Fciran W. of Sinai. It means some kind of "burrows," whether referring to mines, caves or water pits, according to the usual explanation; but in Arab, the root also means "hot," which is perhaps more likely. The term seems to be of very wide extension, and to refer to the Tih generally (den 21 21); for David (1 S 25 1) in Paran was not far from Maon and Carmel S. of Hebron, and the same general application (1 K 11 IS) is suggested in another passage. Finally the desert of Zin (

      //. First Journey. Israel left Egypt in the early part of April (after the 14th of Abibj and reached

      Sinai about the 14th or 19th of the 1. Mode of 3d month (Ex 19 1), or at the end of Traveling May. They thus took two months to

      accomplish a journey of about 117 miles; but from the first camp after crossing the Red Sea to that in the plain before the Mount ten marches are mentioned, giving intervals of less than 12 miles between each camp. Thus they evidently remained in camp for at least 50 days of the time, probably at the better supplied springs, including that of "the starting-point, and those at Elim and Rephidim, in order to rest their flocks. The camps were probably not all crowded round one spring, but spread over a distance of some miles. The Arabs indeed do not camp or keep their flocks close to the waters, probably in order not to defile them, but send the women with donkeys to fetch water, and drive the sheep and goats to the spring or well in the cool of the afternoon. Thus we read that Amalek "smote the hindmost" (Dt 25 18), which may either mean the stragglers unable to

      keep up when "weary," or perhaps those in the camp most in the rear.

      The route of Israel has been very carefully de- scribed by Robinson (BR, 183S, I, 60-172; II, 95- 195), and his account is mainly follow-

      2. The ed in this and the next sections. We Route: the may place the firs! camp (see EXODUS), First Camp between the springs which supply

      Suez (*Ain AY;// a and 'Ayytin Mtisa), which are about 4 miles apart . The first of these is scooped out among the sand hillocks, and bubbles up in a basin some ft . dee]). The water is brack- ish, but supplies as many as 200 camel loads at once for Sue/,. At *Ai/ytin M'uwi ("the springs of Moses") there are seven springs, some being small and scooped in the sand. A few palms occur near the water (which is also brackish), and a lit tie barley is grown, while in recent times gardens of pome- granates have been cultivated (A. E. Haynes, Man-Hunting in the Desert, 1S94, 100), which, with the palms, give a grateful shade.

      From this base Israel marched "three days in the wilderness" of Shur, "and found no water" (Ex 15

      22). They no doubt carried it with

      3. The them, and may have sent back camels Waters of to fetch it. Even when they reached Marah the waters of Marah ("the bitter")

      they found them undrinkuble till sweetened. The site of Marah seems clearly to have been at Mm IJdirdrah ("the white chalk spring"), named from the chalky mound beside it. This is 30 miles from ^Ayyun Muxa, giving an aver- age daily march of 12 miles. There is no water on the route, though some might have been fetched from *Ain Aha Jtrad in Wddy Sudr, and from the small spring of A hit tfnn'cinth near the sea. Burck- hardt thought, that the water was sweetened from the berries of the GharJfad shrub (which have an acid juice) on the thorny bushes near the spring. This red berry ripens, however, in June. There is no doubt, on the other hand, that the best treat- ment for brack water is the addition of an acid taste. The Arabs consider the waters of this spring to be the most bitter in the country near.

      From Marah, the next march led to Elim ("the palms")> where were "twelve springs [not "wells"]

      of water and seventy palms." The

      4. The site seems clearly to have been in Camp by Wadij (Hiannulil, where a brook is the Red Sea found fed by springs of better water

      than that of Marah. The distance is only about miles, or an easy march, and palm t rees exist near the waters. Israel then entered the desert of Sin, stretching from Elim to Sinai, reaching a camp "by the Red Sea" (Nu 33 10) just a month after leaving Egypt (Ex 16 1). The probable site is near the mouth of Wddy et-Taiyibeh ("the goodly valley"), which is some 10 or 12 miles from the springs of GharnndiL The foothills here project close to the coast, and N. of the valley is Jcbd IJnmn/ani Far' a un ("the mountain of Pharaoh's hot bath"), named from hot sulphur springs. The water in Wady ct-Taiyibch is said to be better than that of Marah, and this is the main Arab watering- place after passing GharnndiL A small pond is here described by Burckhardt at el-Murkhat, in the sand- stone rock near the foot of the mountains, but the water is bitter and full of weeds, moss and mud. The site is close to a broad shore plain stretching S. Here two roads diverge toward Sinai, which lies about 65 miles to the S.E., and in this interval (Nu 33 11-15) five stations are named, giving a daily march of 13 miles. The Hebrews probably took the lower and easier road, esp. as it avoided the Egyp mines of Wddy el-M



      not certain -there may have been n detachment of bowmen guarding the mines.

      None of the five camps on this section of the route is certainly known. Dophkah apparently means "overdriving" of flocks, and Alush 5. The (according to the rabbis) ''crowding,"

      Route to thus indicating the difficulties of the Sinai march. Rephidim ("refreshments")

      contrasts with these names and indi- cates a better camp. The site, ever since the 4th cent. AD, has always been shown in \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\Vady Fi'irdn (Eusebius, Onoin, .s.v. "Rephidim") an oasis of date palms with a running stream. The distance from Sinai is about IS miles, or 14 from the western end of the broad plain cr-Rnhah in which Israel camped in sight of Horeb; and the latter name (Ex 17 0) included the Desert of Sinai even as far W. as Rephidim. Here the rod of Moses, smiting the rock, revealed to the Hebrews an abundant supply, just as they despaired of water. Here apparently they could rest in comfort for some three weeks before the final march to the plain ' 'before the mount" (Ex 19 1.2), which they readied two months after leaving Egypt. Here Amalek coming down probably from the mines attacked them in the rear. Meanwhile there was ample time for the news of their journey to reach Midian, and for the family of Moses (Ex 18 1-5) to reach Sinai. On one of the low hills near Wndy Feirdtt, Moses watched the doubtful fight and built his stone altar. A steep pass separates the oasis from the Rdhah plain, and baggage camels usually round it on the N. by Wddy esh-Sheikh, which may have been the actual route. The Rephidim oasis has a fertile alluvial soil, and the spot was chosen by Christian hermits perhaps as early as the 3d cent. AD.

      ///. The Second Journey. Israel remained at Mt. Sinai for 10 months, leaving it after the Pass- over of the "second year" (Nu 9 1-3),

      1. The and apparently soon after the feast, Stay at since, when they again witnessed the Sinai spring migration of the quail (11 31)

      "from the sea" as they had done in the preceding year (Ex 16 13) farther W. they were already about 20 miles on their road, at Kib- roth-hattaavah, or "the graves of lust." _

      (1) In order to follow their journey it is necessary to fix the site of Kadesh-barnea to which they were

      going, and there has been a good deal

      2. Site of of confusion as to this city since, in Kadesh- 1844, Rev. John Rowlands 'discovered barnea the site of the western Kadesh, at l Ain

      Kadis in the northern part of the Tih. Robinson pointed out (BR, II, 194, n. 3) that this site could not possibly be right for Kadesh-barnea; and, though it was accepted by Professor Palmer, who visited the vicinity in January, 1870, and has been advocated by Henry Clay Trumbull (Kadesh- barnea, 1884), the identification makes hopeless chaos of the OT topography. The site of 'Ain Kadis is no doubt that of the Kadesh of Hagar (see SHUR), and a tradition of her presence survives among the Arabs, probably derived from one of the early hermits, since a small hermitage was found by Palmer in the vicinity (Survey of Western Pal, Special Papers, 1881, 19). But this spring is not said to have been at the "city" of Kadesh-barnea, which is clearly placed at the southeast corner of the land of Israel (Josh 15 3), while, in the same chapter (ver 23), another site called Kedesh is mentioned, with Adadah (*Ada'deh 7 miles S.E. of Arad) and Hazor (at Jebel Hadireh] ; this Kedesh may very well have been at the western Kadesh.

      (2) Kadesh-barnea is noticed in 10 passages of the OT, and in 16 other verses is called Kadesh only. The name probably means "the holy place of the desert of wandering," and as we shall see the

      wanderings of Israel were confined to the *Arabah. The; place is described as "a city in the uttermost .... border" of Edom (Nu 20 16), Edom being the "red land" of Mt. Seir, so called from its red sandstones, as contrasted with the while Tih. lime- stone. It is also very clearlv placed (Nu 34 3.4) S. of the Dead Sea (cf Josh 15 3), while Ezekiel also (47 19) gives it as the southeastern limit of the land, opposed to Tamar (Tarn rah near Oa/.a) as the southeastern border town. A constant tradition, among Jews and Christ ians alike, idenf ifies Kadesh- barnea with Petra, and this as early as the time of Jos, who says that Aaron died on a mountain near Petra (Ant, IV, iv, 7), and that the old name of Petra was Arekem (vii, 1). The Tg of Onkelos (on Nu 34 4) renders Kadesh-barnea by "Rekem of the (i'aia," and this narn(- meaning many- colored" was due to the many-colored rocks near Petra, while the g'aia or "outcry" is probably that of Israel at Meribah-kadesh (Nu 27 14), and may have some connection with the name of the village d-Jii, at Petra, which is now called Wddy Musa ("the valley of Moses") by the Arabs, who have a tradition that the gorge leading to Petra was cloven by the rod of Moses when he struck the rock at the "waters of strife" (Nu 27 14), forming the present stream which represents that of "Meribah of Ka- desh." Eusebius also (Onom s.v. "Barne") con- nects Kadesh with Petra, and this traditional site so fully answers the requirements of the journey in question that it may be accepted as one of the best- fixed points on the route, esp. as the position of Hazeroth agrees with this conclusion. Hazeroth (Nu 11 35; 12 16; 33 17; Dt 1 1) means "in- closures," and the name survives at *Ain Hadrah ("spring of the inclosure") about 30 miles N.E. of Mt. Sinai on the way to the 'Arabah. It was the 3d camp from Sinai, the 1st being Taberah (Nu 11 3) and the 2d Kibroth-hattaavah (11 35), giving a daily march of 10 miles. See KADKSH-BARXEA.

      \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\fter passing Hazeroth (12 16; 13 3) the journey appears to have been leisurely, and Israel probably camped for some time in the best pastures of the M rnhnh. For the spies wen; sent from Paran near Hazeroth to explore the route to Kadwh, and to examine the "south country" through which Israel hoped to enter Pal (13 17.21). They explored this district (13 21; 32 8) from "the wilderness of Zin," or otherwise "from Kadesh-barnea," on the E., to Rehob probably Rehoboth (now er-Ruheibeh) on the W.; and having been absent 40 days (13 25) after visiting Hebron (ver 22) they returned by the direct route leading S. of Arad (Tell 'Ar&d) to Petra, which road is called (21 1) the " way of the spies." On their return, in the season of " first-ripe grapes " (13 20), they found Israel at Kadesh (13 26). No place N. of Hebron is mentioned in the account of their explorations, and it is difficult to suppose that, in 40 days, they could have reached the Syrian city of Hamath, which is some 350 miles N. of Petra, and have returned thence. Tho definition of Rehob (men- tioned before Hebron) as being 'on the coming to Hamath' (13 21) is best explained as a scribe's error, due to an indistinct MS, the original reading being h&ldyeth (jnSbrt). and referring to tho classical Elusa (now Khalnxah)' which lies 10 miles N. of Rehoboth on the main road to Beersheba and Hebron. Israel left Sinai in the spring, after the Passover, and was near Hazeroth in tho time of the qtiail migration. Hazeroth possesses the only perennial supply of water in the region, and from its vicinity the spies set forth in August.

      Most of the sites along this route are unknown, and their position can only be gathered from the meaning of the names; but the 6th station from Hazeroth was at Mt. Shepher (Nu 33 23), and may have left its name corrupted into Tell el- *Asfar (or Vls/ar), the Heb meaning "the shining hill," and the Arab, either the same or else "the yellow." This site is 60 miles from Hazeroth, giving a daily march of 10 miles. As regards the

      3. The




      4. The






      Wanderings War, Warfare



      other stations, Rithmah means "broomy," referring

      to the white desert broom; Rimmon-perez was a "cloven height," :uul Libnah a "white" chalky place; Rissah means "dewy," and Kehelathah, "gathering." From Alt. Shepher the distance to the vicinity of Mt. I lor is about 55 miles, and seven stations an 1 named, giving an average march of 8 miles. The names are Haradah (Nu 33 24), "fearful," referring to a mountain; Makheloth, "gatherings"; Tahath probably "below" mark- ing the descent into the *Arabah; Terah, "delay," referring to rest in the better pastures; Mithkah, "sweetness" of pasture or of water; Hashmonah, "fatness"; and Moseroth, probably meaning ''the boundaries," near Alt. llor. These names, though now lost, agree well with a journey through a rugged region of white limestone and yellow sandstone, followed by a descent into the pastoral valley of the \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\rabah. The distances also are all probable for flocks.

      IV. The Thirty-eight Years.- From the time

      of their first arrival at Kadesh-barnea, in t he aut iiinn

      of the 2d year, to the day that the

      1. The Hebrews crossed the brook Zered in History Aloab on their final march, is said to

      have been a period of 38 years (Dt. 2 14), during which the first generation died out, and a strong race of desert warriors succeeded it. During this period Israel lived in the nomadic state, like modern Arabs who change camp accord- ing to the season within well-defined limits, visiting the higher pastures in summer, and wintering in the lower lands. On their first arrival near Kadesh- barnea, they were 1 discouraged by the report of the spies, and rebelled; but. when they were ordered to turn S. ''by the way of the Red Sea" or (Julf of *Ak(iba1i; they made an unsuccessful attempt to enter Pal by the way of the spies (Nu 14 25-45). They were discomfited by Amalekites at Hormah ("cutting off"), which place is otherwise called Zephath (Jgs 1 17). Here also they were again defeated by the king of Arad (\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\u 21 1.3) in the early autumn of the 40th year of wandering. This site may well be placed at. the ascent now called Nukb I'x-Sufiili ("the pass of Zephath"), which pre- serves the Ileb name, 45 miles N.W. of Alt. llor, on the main road from Hebron to Petra. The route is well watered, and *Ain Yemen is a spring at the foot of this ascent leading to the higher ter- race of the 77/i. Arad lies N. of the road, and its Can. king no doubt marched S. some 40 miles, j to defend the top of the ascent down which the Amalekites had driven the first generation of Hebrews, who returned to the Kadesh-barnea camp.

      We are not left without any notice of the stations which Israel visited, and no doubt revisited an- nually, during the 38 years of nomadic

      2. The life. We have in fact three; passages Camps which appear to define the limits of Visited their wanderings. (1) In the first of

      these (Nu 33 31-30) we find that they left Moseroth, near Alt. llor, the site of which latter has always been shown since- the time of Jos at least at the remarkable mountain W. of Petra., now called Jcbii Ildrun ("Aaron's Moun- tain"); thence they proceeded to the wells of the Bene-jaakan, to Hor-haggidgad, and to Jotbathah. Hor-haggidgad (or (Judgodah, Dt 10 7) signifies apparently the "hill of thunder," and the word is not in any way connected with the name of Wadtj Ghadaghid ("the valley of failing waters"), apply- ing to a ravine W. of the *Arabah; for the Heb and Arab, words have not a letter in common. The site of Jotbathah, which was in "a land of brooks of waters" (Dt 10 7), is, on the other hand, pretty clearly to be fixed at 'Am et-Tdbah ("the good

      spring"), 2S miles N. of 'Akabali, and about 40 along tin; road from Alt. Hor. This .spring, near a palm grove, feeds the winter lake of el-Tubali io its W. inthe*Arafoah. The next station was Abronah ("the crossing";, and if this refers to crossing the *Arabah to tin; western slopes, we; are naturally brought on the return journey to Ezion-geber, at l Ain-ghudian (the usual identification), which springs from the western slopes of the Tih on the side of the lake opposite to Jotbathah. Thence the migrants gradually returned to Kadesh.

      (2) The second passage; (Dt 10 0.7) is one of many geographical notes added to the narrative of the wanderings, and gives the names in a differ- ent order Wells of the Bene-jaakan, Aloserah, Gudgodah, and Jotbathah but this has little im- portance, as the camps, during 38 years, would often be at these springs.

      (3) The third passage is in the preface to Dt (1 1.2), which ("numerates the various places where Moses spoke to Israel at various times after leaving Sinai. These include the region E. of Jordan, the wilderness, the *Ar

      V. The Final Journey. In the 1st month of the 40th year (Nu 20 1) Israel was at Kadesh in the

      desert of Zin, where Aliriam was buried. 1. The They were troubled once more by

      Route want of water, till Moses smote the

      rock of Meribah ("strife"). They were commanded to keep peace with their relatives of Edom and Aloab, whose lands were not attacked by the Hebrews till the time of Saul, and of David and his successors. They camped on the border of Kadesh, desiring to reach the main road to Aloab through the city; and, when this was refused by the king of Edom, they withdrew a few miles W. to Mt. Hor. Here Aaron was buried, and was mourned for 30 days (Nu 20 29), after which the 2d attempt to reach Hebron by the main road (21 1) was also repulsed. Since, on this occasion, Israel remained "many days" in Kadesh (Dt 1 46) and left it less than 38 years after they first reached it in autumn, it would seem that they may have started in August, and have taken about a month to reach the brook Zered; but only five stations are noticed (Nu 21 10-12; 33 41-44) on the way. They are not said in any passage to have gone to Elath, but they turned "from mount Hor by the way to the Red Sea, to compass the land of Edom" (Nu 21 4), or, as otherwise stated (Dt 2 8), they went "from the way of the Arabah" on the road which led "from Elath and from Ezion-geber"; and thus, starting on the "way to the Red Sea," they "compassed mount Seir many days," turning "northward" by the "way of the wilderness of



      Wanderings War, Warfare

      Moab" (Dt 2 1.8) after passing through the coast of Eclom (2 4).

      If the list of flvu stations is complete, we may suppose that they left the ' Arabah road not many miles S. of Petra, striking 10. by an existing road 9 The T?I'UA leading to MA' an. and thus gaining the *! T. e high plateau above Petra to the E., and

      stations to reaching the present Udj route. This the Border view is confirmed by the notice of Punon r>f Mnah as tll( ' L>(1 (l;ull l>. if wo accept the statement

      of Kusebius (Ou,, m , s.v. "Plnnon"); for he appears to have known it as an Edomite village N. of Petra, in the desert, whore convicts were employed digging copper. The name, however, has not been recovered. The preceding camp at Zalmonah sug- gests some "gloomy" valley leading up to the Edomite plateau. N. of Punon, the ad camp was at Oboth ("water bags"), and the 4th was at lyim or lye-abarim ("the ruins" or "the ruins of the crossings"), the site of which is pretty certainly at ' Aimt-k, a few miles N. of Tophel. The total distance thus seems to have boon about 00 miles for four inarches, or 15 miles a day. lyim was "in the border of Moab" (Xu 33 44) and in the desert facing Moab, in the East (21 llj.

      Here therefore Israel left Edom; and between lyim

      and the river Arnon, in a distance of about .'32 miles,

      only one station is mentioned, being at

      3. From the valley of Zered (21 12; Dt 2 lyim to 13.14). This has usually been placed Arnon at \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\'ddij cl-IJcxy ("the pebbly valley"),

      which flows into the Dead Sea, having its head near lyim; but this is evidently too far S., and it is no doubt, the great gorge at Kcrnk that is intended, having its head close to the II aj road, half- way from lyim to Arnon, giving a daily march of 16 miles. The traditional identification of the Arnon with Waily Mojib is rendered certain by the posi- tions of Diban (Dhiban) and Aroer ('Ar'azV) close by. It was the border of the Amorites, who had driven thje Moabites S. of this river (Nu 21 13; Dt 2 30), depriving them of their best lands which stretched to Heshbon, These Amorites were apparently recent intruders who, with the Hittites (see II IT- TITKS), had invaded Damascus and Bashan from North Syria, and who no doubt had thus brought the fame of Balaam from Pethor (Nu 22 ,5), on the Euphrates near Carchemish.

      The Hebrews were now a strong people fit for war, and Moses sent messengers from the "wilder- ness of Kedemoth" (Dt 2 20) to

      4. The Sihon in Heshbon, demanding a peace- Message ful passage through his lands, such as to Sihon had been accomplished through Edom

      and Moab. Kedemoth ("the Eastern Lands") was evidently the desert of Moab.

      It was objected, by Oolenso, to the narrative of the Pent that, since Israel only reached the brook Zered in autumn of the 40th year, only six months are left for the conquest of North Moab, Gilead and Bashan. But it must be remembered that the Hebrews left all their impedimenta in the "plains of Moab" (Xu 22 1) oppo- site Jericho at Shittim, so that the advance of their army in Gilead and Bashan was unimpeded. The Assyrians in later times, covered in a season much longer distances than are attributed to Heb conquerors, and the six months leave quite enough time for the two missions sent from Moab (Xu 22 5-36) to fetch Balaam. See NUMBERS BOOK OF.

      (1) It is notable that, for the march from the

      Arnon to Shittim, we have two lists of stations.

      That which is said to have been written

      5. From down by Moses himself (Nu 33 45- the Arnon 49) mentions only four stations in a to Shittim distance of about 25 miles namely

      Dibon-gad, Almon-diblathaim, Nebo and the plains of Moab, where the camps were placed at various waters from Beth-jeshimoth (K-AcimeJi) on the northeastern shore of the Dead Sea to Abel- shittim ("the Meadow of Acacias"), now called the Ghor es-Seiseb&n, or "Valley of Acacias." In this area of 50 square miles there were four running streams,^ besides springs, and excellent pasture for flocks. This therefore was the headquarters of the nation during the Amor it c war.

      (2) In the 2d list (\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\u 21 1 :i 20) we read of a still more gradual and cautious advance in the Amorite lands and tins may represent the inarch of the main bodv fol- lowing the men of war. Leaving the Arnon, they reached "a well" (Beer), probably near Dibon, this being one of those shallow water pits which the Arabs still scoop out in the valleys when the water runs below the surface. Between Arnon and Pisgah (or N'eboj no less than five stations are noticed in about 20 miles namely Beer, Mattanah ("the gift";, Nahaliel r'tho valley of tiod"), Bamoth (or Bamoth-Baal [Nu 22 -11 j "the monuments of Baal"), and Pisgah (J,-t,rl N,bn). Of these only the last is certainly known, but the central station at Nahaliel may be placed at the great gorge of the Zcrka Mft din, the road from Dibon to Nebo crossing its head near Beth-moon. There was plenty of water in this vicinity. The last stage of Israel's march thus seems to represent a program of onlv about 4 miles a das- covered by the more rapid advance of the fighting men; and no doubt the women, children and Hocks were not allowed to proceed at all until, at least, Sihon had been driven from Heshbon (Nu 21 21-25J.

      We have thus considered every march made by the Hebrews, from Egypt to Shittim, by the light of actual knowledge of their route. 6. Review We have found no case in which the stations are too far apart for the pas- sage of their beasts, and no discrepancies between any of the accounts when carefully considered. If, as some critical writers think, the story of the spies and the list of camps said to have been written down by Moses are to be attributed to a Heb priest writing in Babylonia, we cannot but wonder how he came to be so accurately informed as to the topography of the wilderness, its various regions, its water-supply and its natural products. It does not seem_ necessary to suppose a "double source," because, in the spring of two successive years, the manna is noticed, and Israel is recorded as having eaten the quail flying (as now) by night to the Jordan valley from Africa. The march was not continuous, and plenty of time is left, by the re- corded dates, for the resting of the flocks at such waters as those of Elim, Rephidim and Hazeroth. The wanderings of the 38 years represent a nomadic life in the best pastures of the region, in and near the 'Arabah. Here the new race grew up hardy as the Arabs of today. When they left Egypt the Pharaoh still had a firm hold on the "way of the Philistines," and the Canaanites owned his sway. But 40 years later Egypt was defeated by the Amor- ites, and the forces of the Pharaoh were withdrawn from Jerus after suffering defeat in Bashan (see Am Tab, no. (54, Brit. Mus., where no less than nine known places near Ashteroth and Edrei are noticed) ; general chaos then resulted in Southern Pal, when the *Abiri (or Hebrews) appeared from Seir, and "destroyed all the rulers" (see EXODUS). This, then, was the historic opportunity for the defeat of the Amorites, and for Joshua's conquest of the Promised Land. C. R. COXDKR

      WAR, wor, WARFARE, wor'far milhdmdh, '"C " t tBj|5, '/(.s7/e m., "men of war," "soldiers"; ir6\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\p.os, pdlemos, iroXefieiv, palcnicin, -Oai, stratetiesthai, o-Tpand, strut id);

      1. Religions Significance 7. Defeat and Victory

      2. Preliminaries 8. Spoils and Trophies :i. Operations of War 9. Treaties of Peace

      4. Strategy 10. War in the NT

      5. Important Requisites LITERATURE G. Characteristics

      From an early period of Heb history war had a religious significance;. The Hebrews were t he people

      of Jeh, and they were reminded in their 1. Religious wars by the priest or priests who ac- Significance companied their armies that Jeh was

      with them to fight their battles (Dt 20 1-4). It was customary to open a campaign, or to enter an engagement, with sacrificial rites (1ST 8-10; 13 9). Hence, in the Prophets, to "prepare" war is to carry out the initiatory religious

      War, Warfare



      rites and therefore 1<> ''sanctify" war (Jer 6 4; 22 7; 51 27.2S; Mir 3 f>; Joel 3 '.); RVm in each rase); ami Isaiah even speaks of .Jeh mustering His host and summoning to battle His "consecrated ones" (Is;i 13 3), the warriors consecrated by the sacrifices offered before the war actually opened. The religious character attaching 1> war explains ilso the taboo which \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ve find associated with it (1)1 20 7; 23 10; 2 S 11 11).

      (1) Religious preliminaries. It was in keeping with this that the oracle should be consulted before

      u campaign, or an engagement (Jgs 2. Pre- 20 ISff; 1 S 14 157; 23 2; 28 <>; liminaries 30 S). The ark of Cod was believed

      to be possessed of special virtue hi assuring victory, and, because it was identified in the eyes of the Israelites with the presence of Jeh, it was taken into battle- (1 S 4 3). The people learned, however, by experience to put their trust in Jeh Himself and not in any outward token of His presence". At the battle of Ebene/.er the ark was taken into the light with disastrous results to Israel (1 S 4 -4-ffj. On the other hand at the battle of Michmash, the sacred ephod at Saul's request accompanied the Israelites into the field, and there was a great discomfit lire of the Pliilis (1 S 14 IS). In the later history prophets were appealed to for guidance before a campaign (1 K 22 ">; 2 K 3 11), although fanatical members of the order sometimes gave fatal advice, as to Ahab at Ramoth-gilcad, and probably to Josiah at Megiddo. I'pon occasion the king addressed the host before engaging the enemy (2 Ch 20 20-22, where Jehoshuphat also had singers to go before; the army into battle); and Judas Maccabaeus did so, with prayer to Cod, on various occasions (1 Mace 3 oS; 4 30; 5 32).

      (2) Military preliminaries The rail to arms was given bv sound of trumpet throughout the land (.Jgs 3 27; 6 34; 1 S 13 3; 2 S 15 10; 20 1; cf Nu 10 2). It was the part of the priests to sound an alarm with the trumpets (2 Ch 13 12-16; cf 1 Mare 4 -10; 16 S), and the trumpets were to be blown in time of battle to keep Cod in remembrance of Israel that they might gain the victory. In the Prophets, we find the commencement of war de- scribed as the drawing of the sword from its sheath (Ezk 21 3 IT), and the uncovering of the shield (Isa 22 (i). Graphic pictures of the mobilizing of forces, both for invasion and for defence, are found in Isa (22 (>-S) and Nah (3 2) and other Prophets. It was in the springtime that campaigns were_ usually opened or resumed after a cessation of hostilities in winter (2 S 11 1 ; 1 K 20 22.211).

      Of the actual disposition of troops in battle then- are no full accounts till the Maccabean time, but an examination of the Bib. battlefields by modern travelers with knowledge of military history has yielded valuable results in showing the position of the combatants and the progress of the fight (an excellent example in Dr. William Miller's L('ff, HGfT, ir>OfT, where the battles of Michmash, Elah and Cilboa are de-scribed with plans). With the Israelites the order of battle was simple. The force was drawn up, either in-line, e>r in three divisions, a center and two wings. _The>re was a rearguard (called in AV "rereward," in R\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\ "rearward") to give> protection on the ninrrh or to bring in stragglers (Jgs 7 10; 1 S 11 11; 2 S 18 2 1 Mace 5 33; cf also Nu 10 2:>; Josh 6 9; 1 S 29 2; Isa 58 S). The signal for the charge and the retreat was given by sound of trumpet. There was a battle-cry to inspire courage and to impart confidence (Jgs 7 20; Am 1 14, etc). The issue of the battle depended upon the personal courage and endurance of the combatants, fighting man against man, but there were occasions when the

      3. Opera- tions of War

      ecision was le-ft, to single combat, as at the battle ,f Elah between the" giant Coliath and the- stri])ling David (1 S 17). The combat at Oibe-on between the men of Benjamin, twelve in number, followers of Ish-bosheth, and twelve" of the servants of David, in which each slew his man and all fell together by mutual slaughter, was the- preluele to "a very sore battle" in which Abne-r and the- men of Israel were beaten before the servants of David (2 S 2 1G)._

      To the" minor operations of war belong the- raid, ,-uch as the" Philis made into the" Valley of He-phaim (1 Ch 14 <)), the- foray, the object of which was pluneler (2 S 3 22), the- foraging to secure" supplies (2 S 23 11 mi, and the movements of bands who captureel defenceless inhabitants and sold them as slave>s (2 K 5 2).

      Of strategical movements in war there was the

      ambush with liers-in-wait resorted to by Joshua at

      Ai (Josh 8 3t'f); the" feint, resetted

      4. Strategy to bv the- Israelites against the- tribe

      of Benjamin (Jgs 20 20 IT) ; the flank movement, adopt eel by David in the Valley of Rephaim to rout the Philis (2 S 5 22 f); and the surprise, inflict e-el successfully at the Waters of Me-rom upon the Canaanite-s under Jabin by Joshua (Josh 11 1 f). Of all these the story of Judas Mac- cabaeus, the" great, military leade-r of the Jewish nation, furnishes illustrations (1 Mace 4 5 and else- where-).

      Among the requisites for the proper conduct of

      war the most important was the- camp (mnh&neh).

      Of the- exact configuration of the camp

      5. Impor- of the: Israelites, it is not possible to tant Requi- speak with certainty. The camp of sites Israel in the: wilelerness seems to have

      been quadrilateral, although some- have supposed it to be: round or triangular (Nu 2 1 f'f). The camp in the wilelerness was furnished with

      Roman Standards or Banners.

      From (1, 2l . IU.JK- i:), 4). Arrh of Titus C,) .

      ensigns and standards the family ensign (T>th), and a standard (tlc



      occupied with a sie'ge (2 K 7 7), ;il( hough at, (he siege of Kabbah we read of booths for (he purpose- (2 S 11 11). Pickets were sel te> watch thecani|), and (he watch was changed three t inies in (he course of (he night (Jgs 7 19; 1 Mace 12 27). It was usual to leave a guard in charge of (he camp when (he force went into action or went off upon a raid (1 S 25 13; 30 10). Careful prescriptions \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\verc laid down for the preservation of (he purity of the camp, "for Jeh thy C!o

      Garrisons (mn^dhli) were placed in occupation of fortresses and strategical centers (2 Cli 17 2). No doubt the caves in the hillsides and rocky fast- nesses of the land, as at Michmash, would serve for their reception (1 .S 13). The garrisons, how- ever, which are expressly mentioned, were for the most part military posts for the occupation of a subject country Philis in Israelitish territory (1 S 13 2.']; 14 1.11), and Israelites in Syrian and Edom- ite territory (2 S 8 6.14).

      Among the characteristic notes of war, the tu- mult and the shouting were often noticed by the sacred historians (1 8 4 0; 14 19;

      6. Char- 2 K 7 0). In the figurative language acteristics of the prophets the (errors and horrors

      and devastation of war are set forth in lurid colors. "The snorting of his horses is heard from Dan,'' is Jeremiah's description of an invad- ing army, "at the sound of the neighing of his strong ones the whole land trembleth" (Jer 8 10). 'The crack of the whip and the noise of the rumbling wheel and the galloping horse, and the jolting chariot and the rearing horsemen; and the Hash of the sword and the; glitter of the spear, and the mul- titude of slain; and a mass of dead bodies and no end to the carcases' (Nah 3 2-4: J. M. P. Smith's tr in ICC). Because of the devastation of terri- tory and the slaughter of men which it entails, the sword is named with famine and "noisome beasts" (ARV has "evil beasts") and "pestilence" as one of (lod's "four sore judgments" (Ezk 14 21 AV). By a familiar figure "'the sword" is often taken for all the operations of war, because it is char- acteristic of it to devour and to destroy (2 S 2 26; Jer 2 30).

      While the treatment of the vanquished in the

      wars of Israel never reached the pitch of savagery

      common in Assyr warfare, there are

      7. Defeat not wanting examples of excessive and Victory severity, such as David's treatment

      of his Moabite prisoners (2 S 8 2) and of the Ammonites captured at Kabbah (2 S 12 31), and Menahem's barbarous treatment of Tiphsah (2 K 15 10; cf Nu 31 17; Josh 6 21). That it was common for the Philis (o mutilate; and abuse their prisoners is shown by Saul's determi- nation not to fall into their hands (1 S 31 4). On that occasion (he Philis not only stripped the slain, but cut off Saul's head and fixed his bodv to the wall of Bethshan (1 S 31 9.10). It was usual to carry off prisoners and sell them as slaves (2 K 5 2; 1 Mace 3 41). The conquerors were wont to deport the population of the subjugated country (2 K 17 0), to carry off treasure; and impose tribute (2 K 16 8), and even to take the gods into cap- tivity (Isa 46 1). On the other hand, the victors were hailed with acclamations and songs of rejoicing (I S 18 0), and victory was celebrated with public thanksgivings (Ex 15 I; Jgs 5 1; 1 Mace 4 24).

      The spoils of war, spoken of as booty also armor, clothing, jewelry, money, captives and ani- mals falling to the victors, were; divided equally between those who had taken part in the battle and those who had been left behind in camp (Nu 31 27; Josh 22 8; 1 S 30 24 f). A proportion

      of the spoils was reserved for the Levites, and "a

      tribute unto the Lord" was also levied before

      distribution was made of the collected

      8. Spoils booty (Nu 31 28.30). To the Lord, and in (he Israelitish interpretation of war, Trophies the spoils truly belong, and we see this

      exemplified at the capture of Jericho when the silver and the gold and the vessels of brass were put into the treasury of the house of the Lord (Josh 6 24). ruder (he monarchy, part of the spoils fell to the king who might in (urn dedicate it to (he Lord or use it for the purposes of war (2 K 14 14; 1 Ch 18 7.11). The armor of (he conquered was sometimes dedicated as a trophy of victory and placed in the temple of (he heathen or preserved near the ark of Cod (1 S 21 9; 31 9).

      As the blast of the war-horn summoned (o war,

      so it intimated (he cessation of hostilities (2 S 2

      28); and as to draw the sword was

      9. Treaties the token of the entrance upon a cam- of Peace paign, so to return it to its sheath, ot- to put it. up into the scabbard, was

      emblematic of the establishment of peace; (Je>r 47 6). As ambassadors were sent (o summon 1o war (Jer 49 14), or to dissuade from war (2 Ch 35 21), so ambassadors were employed to negotiate peace (Isa 33 7). Treaties of peace were made on occa- sion between combatants, as between Ahab and Ben-hadad II after the defeat of the latter and his fortunate ese-ape from the hands of Ahab with his life; (1 K 20 30.31). By the appeal of Ben-hadad's representative to Ahab's clemency his life was spared, and in return therefor he granted (o Ahab the right to have bazaars for trade in Damascus as his father had had in Samaria (1 K 20 34). Al- liances, offensive and defensive, were common, as Ahab and Jehoshaphat against Syria (1 K 22 2 ff), Jehoram and Jehoshaphat and the king of Edom against Moab (2 K 3 7 ff), and the kings of (he West, including Ahab and Hadadezer of Damascus, to resist Shalmaneser II of Assyria, who routed the allies at (he battle of Karkar'in 854 BC. It is among the wonderful works of Jeh that lie makes war to ce>ase (o (he end of the earth, (hat He breaks the bow, and cuts the spear in sunder, and "burneth the chariots in the fire" (Ps 46 9). And prophe(ic pictures of the peace of the latter days include the breaking of "the bow and the sword and the; battle out of the land" (IIe>s 2 18), the be-ating of "swe>rds into plowshares, ami .... spears into pruning- hoe>ks" (Isa 2 4; Mic 4 3).

      Among the signs of the last days given by Our

      Lord are "wars and rumors e>f wars" (Mt 24 0'

      Mk 13 7; Lk 21 9; 21 24). Jesus

      10. War in accepts war as part of the pre'sent the NT world-order, anel draws from it an im- pressive illustration of the exacting

      conditions of Christian discipleship (Lk 14 31 ff). He foresees henv Je'rus is to be encompassed with armies anel ele-voted te> the; bittere-st extre>mi(ies of war (Lk 19 41 ff). lie' eionceives Himse-lf e-ome 1 , not to send peace; on earth, but a sworel (Mt 10 34); and declares that the;y who take the sworel shall pe-rish by the sweml (Mt 26 52). The apostle's trae-e 1 war (o the selfishness and greenl of men (Jas 4 Iff); the-y see, spe>aking figuratively, in fle'shly lusts enemies which war against the soul (1 Pet 2 11); they finel in war apt figure's e>f the spiritual struggle and Divine preite-ction and ultimate victe>ry of the Christian (Remi 7 23; 8 37; 2 Ce>r 10 35' 1 Tim 1 18; He 13 13; 1 Pet 1 5), and of the triumphs of Christ Himself (2 Cor 2 14; Col 2 15; Eph 2 10.17). St. Paul maele the acquaintance' of the barrae-ks, both at Jems and at Cae'saiva (Acts 21 34.37; 23 35); and at Ke>me his bonds became familiar to the me'inbe'rs of the- Praetorian guard who were from time (o time' eletailed to have

      War, Man of Wasp



      him in keeping (Phil 1 13). It is under t lie figures of battle ;ind war that St. John in the Apocalypse conceives the age-long conflict between righteousness and sin, Christ and Satan, and the final triumph of the Lamb, who is King of kings, and Lord of lords (Rev 16 14-10; 17 14; 19 14). For other refer- ences see AKMY, 9; PR.ETORIAN GUARD; THKATY.

      LITKU VTI-KK. BonzinKor, art. " Kriegswesen " in Her/of,', KK 3 , XI; Xowack, Hebr&ische Archaeologie, 72; Browne, llt'b Antiquities, 44-47.

      T. NlCOL

      WAR, MAN OF (n'Cnb'G TlTX , 'Ish miUiamah}:

      "Jehovah is a man of war: Jehovah is his name" (Ex 15 3).

      In early Israel the character of Jeh as the war-God forms a prominent feature in the conception of God (Nu 10 35; 21 14; Josh 5 13; 10 11; Jgs 6 4.13. 202331, etc). See GOD, NAMES OF, III, 8; LORD OF HOSTS; and HIM, V, 635 ff.

      WARD, word: "Ward" and "guard" are two different spellings of the same word, and in conse- quence no clear line can be drawn between them. EV, however, has used "guard" only in the sense of "a special body of soldiers" (Gen 37 36, etc), while "ward" is used, not only in this sense (Jer 37 13; contrast 39 9), but also 'in a variety of others. So a "ward" may mean "any body of men on special duty," as 1 Ch 9 23; AV 1 Ch 26 Hi; Neh 12 24 25 (RV "watch"), or the duty itself, as Isa 21 cS; 1 Ch 12 29 AV (RV "allegiance"); 25 8; 26 12 (RV "office," in "ward"); Neh 12 45; 13 30 (RV "charge"). Or "ward" may mean "guarded place," always in the phrase "put in ward." RV has kept this phrase throughout (Gen 40 3, etc), changing it only in Ezk 19 9, where "cage" better carries out the figure of the context.

      The distinction of the older Eng. between "watch" and "ward," as applying respectively to the night and to the day seems unknown in KV. Of Isa 21 8.

      The affix "-\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\vard," demoting direction and still used in such forms as "toward," "northward," etc, had a much wider range in Bib. Eng. So "to God- ward" (Ex 18 19; 2 Cor 3 4; 1 Thess 1 S) ; "to thee-ward" (1 S 19 4); "to us-ward" (Ps 40 5; Eph 1 19; 2 Pet 3 9 AV); "to you-ward" (2 Cor 1 12; 13 3; Eph 3 2; 2 Pet 3 9 KV); and in MX 37 9, AV "even to the mercy seatward" (RV "toward the mercy-seat").


      WARES, warz (nnp T2 , tnakkdhdh, "ID^2 , mckhcr, "O^P, mimkdr, n3?:3 , kin'ah,


      WARES, warz (nnp T2 , tnakkdhdh, "ID^2 , mckhcr, "O^P, mimkdr, n3?:3 , kin'ah,

      , *izzabhon, "*?$ , k e ll): (1) mdkkdhdh, some- thing received or purchased (Neh 10 31); (2) mckhcr, "price" or "pay," value, merchandise (Neh 13 10); (3) 'ininikdr, a "selling," the thing sold (Neh 13 20); (t) kin'ali, a "package," hence wares (Jer 10 17); (;')) nid'aseh, "transaction," activity, property, pos- session, work, occupation, thing made, deed, business (Ezk 27 10. IS); (6) 'mob/ion, "selling," trade, rev- enue, mart, letting go for a price (Ezk 27 33); (7) k e ll, a "prepared" something, as an implement, tool, weapon, utensil, armor, furniture, sack, vessel, hence wares (Jon 1 5) . In most cases the real sense is merchandise (see MERCHANDISE). "That which did not a little amuse the Merchandizes [in Vanity- Fair] was, that these Pilgrims set very light by all their Wares; they cared not so much as to look upon them" (Bunyan, The Pilgrim's Progress).


      WARP, worp (Tip, sh'thi [Lev 13 48-59]): The long threads fixed 'into the loom to form the basis of the web, and into which the woof is wrought from the shuttle. The warp and the woof lying at

      right angles to one another have in their II eb form (sh r thl w'^erehh) given to modern Jewish speech a secret expression to designate the cross. See WEAVING.

      WARS, worz, OF JEHOVAH (THE LORD), BOOK OF THE. See BIBLE, IV, 1, (1), (b).

      WASH, wosh, WASHING, wosh'ing: The two usual Heb words for "wash" are frn , rahnq , and 023 , kdbhas, the former being normally used of persons or of sacrificial animals (Gen 18 4, etc, often tr d "bathe"; Lev 15 5, etc), and the latter of things (Gen 49 11, etc), the exceptions to this distinction being few (for rdhac, 1 K 22 3Sm; for kabhas, Ps 51 2.7; Jer 2 22; 4 14). Much less common are JTH , du a h (2 Ch 4 0; Isa 4 4; Ezk 40 38) and " ,'JTS , slidtaph (1 K 22 38; Job 14 19; Ezk 16 9), tr' 1 ' "rinse" in Lev 6 28; 15 11.12. In Neh 4 23 AV has "washing" and 11 V "water" for mayitn, but the text is hopelessly obscure (cf RVrn). In the Apoc ami NT the range of terms is wider. Most common is viirro), niplo (Mt 6 17, etc), with aponipto in Mt 27 24. Of the other terms, Xotfw, loud (Sus vs 15.17; Jn 13 10, etc), with apoloud (Acts 22 10; 1 Cor 6 11) and the noun loiilron (Sir 34 256; Eph 5 20; Tit 3 5), usually has a sacral significance. On jScwrrffw, Ixiptizo (Sir 34 2nd: Mk 7 4; Lk 11 38), with the noun baj>- (ismoa (Mk 7 4 [text?]; lie 9 10), see BAPTISM. In Lk 5 2; Rev 7 14; 22 14 RV occurs TrXiW, pli'tnd, while Jth 10 3 has Trepi/cXyfw, pcrikhho. Virtually, as far as meaning is concerned, all these words are interchangeable. Of the figurative uses of washing, the most common and obvious is that of cleansing from sin (Ps 51 2; Isa 1 10, etc), but, with an entirely different figure, "to wash in" may signify "to enjoy in plenty" (Gen 49 11; Job 29 0; the meaning in Cant 5 12 is uncertain). Washing of the hands, in token of innocence, is found in Dt 21 0; Mt 27 24.

      The "washing balls" of Sus vcr 17 (ff^y^a, smtyma, a very rare word) were of soap. See SOAP. BURTON SCOTT EASTON

      WASHING OF FEET: The OT references (Gen 18 4; 19 2; 24 32; 43 24; Jgs 19 21; 1 S 25 41; 2 S 11 8; Cant 5 3; Ps 58 10) show that the washing of the feet was the first act on entering the tent or house after a journey. The Orientals wore only sandals, and this washing was refreshing as well as cleanly. In the case of ordinary people, the host furnished the water, and the guests washed their own feet, but in the richer houses, the washing was done by a slave. It was looked upon as the lowliest of all services (1 S 25 41). Jesus pointedly contrasts Simon's neglect of even giving Him water for 1 1 is feet with the woman's washing His feet with tears and wiping them with her hair (Lk 7 44). On the last evening of His life, Jesus washed the disciples' feet (Jn 13 1-10). Their pride, height- ened by the anticipations of place in the Messianic kingdom whose crisis they immediately expected, prevented their doing this service for each other. Possibly the same pride had expressed itself on this same evening in a controversy about places at table. Jesus, conscious of His Divine dignity and against Peter's protest, performed for them this lowliest service. His act of humility actually cleansed their hearts of selfish ambition, killed their pride, and t aught them the lesson of love. Sec also Expos T, XI, 530 f.

      Was it meant to be a perpetual ordinance? Jn 13 15, with its "as" and the present tense of the vb. "do," gives it a priori probability. It has been so understood by the Mennonites and the Dunkards. Bernard of Clairvaux advocated making it a sacra-


      incut. The Pope, (lie C/;ir, :mr received it as a sacra- ment or an ordinance. F. L. ANDERSON


      Feet -washing is always practised in connection with the Agape and Eucharist. This entire service is usually called "Love Feast." These 1. Practice Love Feasts are always held in the evening (in conformity to the time of Jesus' Last Supper). Preparatory services on se>lf- examination are held either at a previous se>rvie-e or at the opening of the Love Feast. Each church or congregation is supposed to he>ld one or two Love Fe'asts annually. Xo specified time of the year is set for these services. Before the supper is eniten all the communicants wash one another's feet; the brethren by themselves, and likewise the sisters by themselves.

      (\\) The mode. In earlier years the "Double Mode" was practised, where one person would wash the feet of several persons and another would follow after and wipe; them. At present the "Single Mode" is almost universal, wherein e-ach com- municant washes and wipes the feet of another. Hence each one washes and wipes the feet of an- other, and in turn has this same service performed to himself.

      (2) The salutation. Feet-washing is also accom- panied with the "Holy Kiss." As soon as one has finished washing and wiping the feet of another, he takes him by the hand and greets him with the "holy kiss," usually with an appropriate beneelic- tion as: "God bless you," or "May the Lord bless us."

      There are three texts in the NT referring to feet- washing (Lk 7 3G-o(); Jn 13 1-17; 1 Tim 5 10). (1) Jesus washing the disciples' feet 2. Scriptur- (Jn 13 1-17). "At supper time" (Selv- al Basis for vov yevo^vov, deipnou genoinenou) Jesus Feet- arose, laid aside His garments (i^dna,

      Washing himdtia "outer garments"), girded Himself with a towel, poured wate>r into a basin, and began to wash and wipe the feet of the disciples.

      (2) Peter's objection. "Simon Peter .... saith unto him, Lord, dost thou wash my feet [reafter. Peter saith unto him, Thou shalt never wash my fe>et." Where- upon Jesus said: "If 1 wash thee not, thou hast no part with me."

      (3) Jesus explains. Peter now goes to the other extreme and desires complete washing. Jesus answers "He that is bathed [AeXoi>^os, leloumenos, from Aorfw, loud, "to bathe the entire body"] need- eth not save to wash [viirreiv, uiptein "to wasli a part of the boely"] his feet." Jesus was not insti- tuting a new symbol to take the place of baptism, to cleanse the e>ntire person, but clearly distin- guishes between the bathing (loud) of the entire be>dy and the partial cleansing needed after the bath (baptism or immersion).

      War, Man of Wasp

      ri (4) The camnimui. "If I then, the Lord and the Teacher, have washed your feet, ye also ought to wash one another's feet'' (ver 14, u i-^as o^ei'Xere d\\\\ri\\ui> vlwreiv TOI)S Trooa?, L;,/, fn/ini/s o/ilirilrle allelon niptein tons -podas), "I have given you an example [sign, symbol, u-n-6deijfj.a, hiom\\, that ye also should do as 1 have done to you" (ver loj. " "If ye know these things, happy [or "blessed" RV, p.a. K d- ptoi, makdrioi] are ye if ye do them" (tav iroiiJTe avrd, ca/i polete tu/td). No language is clearer, and no command of Jesus is stronger t han t his. Further- more, no symbol is accompanied with a greater promise. Note also, "If I wash thee not, thou hast no part with me."

      _ (1) Neoativebj. (a) It cannot he explained as neces- sity or custom, i.e. that the dust must he washed from the feet of the disciples hefore proceeding 3 The witl * tni ' sl 'PPcr. It was so cold that

      -.Jf Peter had to warm himself, and this is

      meaning sufficient evidence! that they wore shoes of the instead of sandals at this time. Further-

      Svmbol more, Peter did not understand the action

      J of Jesus, hence it could not have heen cus-

      tomary. Most of all, Jesus was not scrupulous about keeping the customs or practices of the Jews; cf Jesus' breaking of the Jewish Sahhath (Mk 2 23-26); the Jewish fasts (Mk 2 1S-22); the Jewish cleansings (Mk 7 1-20). (b) It was not customary for the host to wash the feet of the guests. Peter objected and Jesus told him distinctly that he could not under- stand at the time (apri, drti), but would afterward Oxera Taura, meld tauta). The symbol had a deeper mean- ing.

      (2) Positively. (a) Feet-washing symbolizes humility and service. The apostles had heen quarreling as to who would he greatest in t he kingdom w Inch they thought Jesus was about to set up (Lk 22 24-30). Most authori- ties agree that this quarrel took place before the supper Peter's Question, "Dost thou wash my feet"" shows clearly that his objection lay principally in this, that Jesus, the Lord arid Master, should perform such a humble service. But Jesus was trying all the time to teach His disciples that true greatness in His kingdom is humility and service. "I am in the midst of you as he that serveth" (Lk 22 27; cf Mt 5 5; 23 11 12) Humility and service are fundamental virtue's in the Christian life. To wash the feet of another symbolizes these virtues in the same way that the Eucharist sym- bolizes other Christian virtues, (b) Cleansing: Jesus clearly distinguished between the first cleansing which cleanses the whole person, and the washing of a part of the body. Baptism is the new birth, which means a complete cleansing. But after baptism we still commit sins, and need the partial cleansing as symbolized by feet- washing. Cf Bernard of Clairvaux: "Feet-washing is a cleansing of those daily offences which seem inevitable for those who walk in the dust of the world" (,-w pedes [abluti sunt] qui sunt animae affectiones, duin in hac pul- vere gradimur, ex toto mundi csse non possunt).

      Feet-washing is practised by the Church of the Brethren for the following reasons: (1) Jesus washed

      His disciples' feet and said, "I have 4. Practised given you an example, that ye also by the should do as I have done to you" (Jn

      Church 1315). (2) Jesus said, "Ye also ought

      of the ["are bound," opheilete] to wash one

      Brethren another's feet" (ver 14). (3) "If 1 wash

      thee not, thou hast no part with me" (ver 8). (4) "If ye know these things, blesse>d are ye if ye elo them" (ver 17). (.5) Feet-washing symbolizes humility and service, which are funda- mental virtues. (6) Feet-washing symbe>lizes cleans- ing from the sins committed after baptism.

      LITERATURE. For the Church of the Brethren: O. F. Yoder, God's Means of Grace; K. II . Miller, The Doctrine of the Brethren Defended; tracts issued by the Brethren Publishing House, Klgin, 111. For history of feet- washing, see ERE, V; A>- Srh-JIcrz Knc of Ki'liaioux Knowledge, IV, 4; Smith and Cheetham, Dirt, of Christian, Antiquities, arts. "Baptism," "Maundy Thursday." DANIEL WEBSTER Knrrz

      WASHPOT, wosh'pot (prn TV?, sir rahac, "vessel for washing") : Only Ps 60 8=108' 9, "Moab is my washpot"; i.e. "Moab is my chattel, to be treated contemptuously," as the vessel in which the conqueror's feet are washed.

      WASP, wosp. Sec HDRNET.

      Watch Way



      WATCH, woeh (rrVfS, 'axJinmrah, '(ixlimfirclh; <}>vA.aKT|, phulaM) : A division of the night . The night was originally divided into three watches (.Jgs 7 19), but later into four, as we find in the NT (Mt 14 25; Mk 6 4S). We do not know the limits of the watches in the first division, hut the middle watch probably began two hours before midnight and ended two hours after. The fourfold division was according to the Horn system, each of which \\vas a fourth part of the night. See TIME.

      "Watch" is also the guard placed on watch (I'ETp'C, wishmur, Neh 4 9; KovarwSia, koustodia, from Lai custodia, Mt 27 (KM; 28 11). It some- times refers to the act of watching, as in 2 Is. 11 0.7 (n'ySO'Q , miahmeretti)', Lk 2 S (/>tnd

      "Watch" is also used figuratively, as in Ps 141 3 for rcNtrainl: "Set a watch, () .Jeh, before my mouth

      -JTJTS, shomrah). See WARD. II. POUTER

      WATCHER, woch'er (Aram. T>r , '7r, "wakeful one"): In Nebuchadnezzar's dream (Did 4 13.17. 23 [MT 10.14.20]) a messenger who with "a holy one" descended from heaven, they having joint authority to issue decrees. In the apocryphal lit- erature "the doctrine of the "watchers" is much elaborated. In Jub they_are regarded as angels sent to instruct mankind' in righteousness. In En they sometimes appear as archangels and at other times as fallen angels. In the latter condition only we find them in the Book of Adam and Eve. The place of descent was according to En 6 the sum- mit of Mt, Hermon. W. M. CHRISTIE

      WATCHMAN, woch'man^ (~Z"S , fdphch, "IttTT , shomcr, HElp? , W'sappch, "U^ , ?/oc). Cant 33; 57 introduces another class, "the watchmen that go about the city," and thus, it would seem, points to some system of municipal police. The distinction in meaning between the various words is clear, ^oplich having the idea of "out looker" and ?/ofcr that of "careful watcher" (being applied even to besiegers from outside: Jer 4 It), "watchers"), while xtulmcr also embraces tin- idea of "defending" or "guarding." In Isa 21 m e vii>i)<'h is to be taken generally m the sense of "watch." In Sir 37 14

      WATCH-TOWER, woch'tou-er ("SEE , mi^pch [Isa 21 8; 2 Ch 20 24]; 'H? , bahint [Isa 32 14 11V]): In Isa 2 10 the words x-'khiyulh ha-hemdah have puzzled the translators. AY gives "pleasant pictures," RV "pleasant imagery," while R\\ m has "pleasant watchtowers." C.uthe in Kautzsch's Bible translates Scliaustucke, which pract ically agrees with RV. See MIZPEII; TOWER.

      WATER, wo'ter (D'l'Q , mayim; vScop, hudor):

      (1) The (Jr philosophers believed water to be the original substance and that all things were made from it. The Koran states, "From water we have made all things." In the story of the creation (On 1 2) water plays an elemental part,

      (2) Because of the scarcity of water in Pal it is esp. appreciated by the people there. They love to go and sit by a stream of running water. Men long for a taste of the water of their native village (1 Ch 11 17). A town or village is known through- out the country for the quality of its water, which is described by many adjectives, such as "light, "heavy," etc.

      (3) The rainfall is the only source of supply of water for Pal. The moisture is carried up from tin

      sea in clouds and falls on the hills as rain or snow. This supplies the springs and fountains. The rivers in; mostly small and have little or no water in summer. For the most part springs supply the; villages, but in case this is not sufficient, cisterns are used. Most of the rain falls on the western slopes of the mountains, and most of the springs are found there. The limestone in many places does not hold the water, so wells are not very com- mon, though there are many references to them in the Bible.

      (4) Cisterns arc usually on the surface of the ground and vary greatly in size. Jerus has always had to depend for the most part on water stored in t his way. and carried to the city in aqueducts. A large number of cisterns have been found and partially explored under the temple-area itself The water stored in the cisterns is surface water, and is a great menace to the health of the people. During the long, dry summer the water gets less and less, and becomes so stagnant and filthy that it is not fit to drink. In a few instances the cisterns or pools are sufficiently large to supply water for limited irrigation. See CISTERN.

      (5) During the summer when there is no rain, vegetation is greatly helped by the heavy dews. A considerable amount of irrigation is carried on in the country where there is sufficient water in the fountains and springs for the purpose. There was doubtless much more of it in the Rom period. Most of the fruit trees require water during the summer.

      (CO Many particular wells or pools are mentioned in the Bible, as: Beersheba (den 21 19), Isaac's well (C.en 24 11), Jacob's well (.In 4 0), Pool of Siloam ('.In 9 7), "waters of Nephtoah" (Josh 15 9).

      (7) Washing with water held a considerable place in the Jewish temple-ceremony (Lev 11 32; 16 4; 17 15; 22 0; Nu 19 7; Ex 30 IS; 40 7). Sac- rifices were washed (Ex 29 4; Lev 1 9; 6 2S;

      14 5).

      (S) The lack of water caused great, suffering (Ex

      15 22; Dt 8 15; 2 K 3 9; Ps 63 1; Prov 9 17; Ezk 411; Lain 5 4). See also FOUNTAIN; PIT; POOL; Si'iUNci; WELL. ALFRED II. JOY




      WATERCOURSE, wo'ter-kdrs: (1) p^ES , Tiplrik (Kzk 6 3; 31 12; 32 (5; 34 13; 35 S; 36

      4.(ij; AV "river," elsewhere "stream," "channel," or "brook." (2) .VxE, iM-lcgh (Prov 21 1). "The king's heart is in the hand of Jeh as the water- courses," AV "rivers," elsewhere "streams" or "rivers." (3) blP , yabhal, D" 1 ^ ^^., yibh'lnj mnyim, "watercourses" (EV) (Isa 44 4); in Isa 30 25, EV Iras "streams of water"; cf ^^ , yubhid, "rivers" (Jer 17 8); '21" 1 , yubhal, "Jubal" (C.en

      4 21); b3^.S ,'?;/

      (4) nbyi/1, f-'dlah, "channel," AV "watercourse" (Job 38' 25); elsewhere "conduit," "the conduit of the upper pool" (2 K 18 17; Isa 7 3; 36 2).

      (5) "OSS, innor, "watercourse," AV "gutter" (2 S



      WATERFALL, wo'ter-fol ("V13? , <;innor; only in ARV [Ps 42 7]):

      "Deep calleth unto deep at the

      noise of thy waterfalls; All thy waves and thy billows are gone over me."

      AV and ERA' have "waterspouts," ERVm "cata- racts." The etvmology of the word is uncertain.




      It occurs also in 2 S 5 S, tr' 1 "watercourse," AV ':?, yin froth, "spouts" (Zee 4

      "gutter. 1


      "dragons," ERVm "se>a-monslers" or "water- spouts."

      "Praise Jeh from the earth. Ye sea-monsters, and all deeps."

      WATERPOT, vvo'ter-pot (iSpta, hudria; cf fi8 P , Soo DRAGON; SEA-MONSTER; WATKKKAU,

      In'ulor, "water"): An earthen vessel, or jar, for carrying or holding water (in 1AX for "3, kadh,

      Eastern Watcrpots.

      "jar," or "pitcher"). It was usually carried^ by women upon the head, or upon the shoulder (Jn 4 28).

      Pots of larger size>, holding eighteen or twenty gal- lons apiece, were used by the Jews for purposes of ceremonial purification (Jn 2 G).

      WATERS, weVterx (E"!"? , mayim, pi. of *^12 , may, "water"; in the NT vSwp, Mdor, "water"; KivSvvois iroTafiwv, ki)iiH [tulntnuii [2 Cor 11 2(')J, A\\ "perils of waters," is in liV "perils of rivers"): In the_NT there is frequent reference to the water of baptism. Pilate washes his hands with water to signify his guiltlessness. Jesus tells the Sam woman of the living water. The Lamb shall guide the redeemed unto fountains of waters of life.

      The uses of iiutyim are well classified in BDB, esp. the figurative references, as follows: a symbol of distress, "when thou passes! through the waters" (Isa 43 2); of force, "like the breach of waters" (2 S 5 20); of that which is overwhelming, "a tem- pest of mighty waters overflowing" (Isa 28 2); of fear, "The hearts of the people .... became as water" (Josh 7 5>; of transit oriness, "Thou shalt remember it MS waters that are passed away" (Job 11 16); of refreshment, "'as streams of water in a dry place" (Isa 32 2); of peace, "He leadeth me beside still waters" (Ps 23 2); of legitimate pleas- ures, "waters out of thine own cistern" (Prov 5 ].")); of illegitimate pleasures, "Stolen waters are sweet" (Prov 9 17); of that which is poured out abundantly, blood (Ps 79 3), wrath (Hos 5 10), justice (Am 5 24), groanings (Job 3 24).




      WATERSPOUT, wo'ter-spout: (1) "113$, ginnor (Ps 42 7), ARV "waterfalls," AV and ERV "watei spouts," ERVin "cataracts." (2) "pan , tannl (Ps 148 7), ARV "sea-monsters," AV

      ALFRED EL WAVE OFFERING, wav of'er-ing. Se

      KICK IX THF ()T.

      WAW, waw (T): The sixth letter of alphabet; transliterated in this Encyclo (or (') It- came also to be used for the n For name, etc, see ALIMIAHKT.

      v DAY SACHI-

      nly in a simile 1 4). But

      ater- in and ERV

      WAX, waks: .

      (1) Noun (3"~ , ildnnijln: I'sed

      of melting (Ps 22 14; 68 2; 97 5; Mic see WRITING.

      (2) A now archaic vb., me>aning "to ,,

      freely in EY as a tr of various terms in dr and Heb. The>' past participle in AY and ERY is "waxen," exce>pt in Cen 18 12. The're; (and throughout in ARV) tin: form is "waxed."

      WAY, wil (rn'S , 'onih. Sn~$ , 'orlja, "~lX , Yrrf, ST3, bo, tp~ , dcrt-kh, TC" 1 '" , JiCd'ikhak, ~^^')2 , ma l yalah, IPr: , nullnbh; 686s, lux/ox, v&pobos, pdro- Jos,iropa, por('La,Tf>6iros, lro[>ox; "highway, '2C i j in e sill(ih x-ixC'G , maslul; 6ie6Soi rciv oSwv, dicxodoi ton htxloti): The; list just e-ile'd contains only a por- tion of the words tr d "way" or "highway" jn AV. Most etf the>m have the primary meaning of "road." "customary path." "course' of travel" (Cen 3 24; Ex 23 21);" Xu 20 17, etc). By a very easy and natural figure "way" is applied to the course' of human e-ondue-t, the manner of life which one lives (Ex 18 20; 32 8; Nu 22 32; 1 S 8 3; 1 K 13 33, etc; Acts 14 16; 1 Cor 4 17; Jas 5 20). "The way of an eagle; .... of a serpent .... of a ship .... and of a man" (Prov 30 19) agree in that they leave no trace' behinel the'in (e-f ^ isel 5 10.11). In some e-ases the language may be such as to leave it indeterminate whe-lher the wav or course of conduct is good or bad (Dt 28 29; 1 S 18 14; 2 Ch 27 7; Job 13 lf>; Prov 36; 66; Jas

      1 8), though in most case-s the Bible writers attach to every act an ethical evaluation. Sometimes this way of condue-t is e>f puivly human choie-e, withemt reference; to either God or good (Jgs 2 19; Je>b 22 15- 34 21; Ps 119 9; Prov 12 ir>; 16 2). Such a course is evil (2 Ch 7 14; Ps 1 6; 119 101.104. 128; Prov 1 19, etc) and will obtain such punish- ment as its lack of merit warrants (1 K 8 32.39;

      2 Ch 6 23; Job 30 12; 34 11; Jer 17 10; Ezk 739; He>s 12 2). At the opposite; extreme from this is the good way (Ps 1 6; Prov 8 20; 12 28; 15 10; Isa 26 7), which is that course of conduct enjoined by Ge>d and exe-mplified in His pcrfee-t conduct (den 6 12; 18 19; Dt 8 6; 26 17; 1 K 2 3; Job 23 11; Ps 51 13, etc). These two ways briefly but graphically elescribe'd by the Lord (Mt 7 13.14"; e'f Lk 13 24) became the subjee-t of extended catechetical instruct iem in the e'arly church. Se>e- the Ep. e>f Barnabas, xviii, anel the Did., i.l. Frequently the way in this metaphorical sense; is characterized by that quality which is its outstanding feature, e.g. mention is maele of the way of life (Prov 15 24; Jer 21 8; Acts 2 28); of truth (Ps 119 30; 2 Pet 2 2); of peace (Isa 59 8; Lk 1 79; Rom 3 17); e>f just ice- (Prov 17 23; Did 4 37); of righteousness (Mt 21 32; 2 Pet 2 21); e)f salvation (Acts 16 17); of lying (Ps 119 29), and of eleath (Jer 21 8). Fre- que'iitlv dod's purpose or His customary ae-tion is described as His way (Ps 103 7; Isa 26 8; Mt 22 16; Acts 13 10). Since all of God's plans and pur-

      Way, Covered Weaving



      posos lend 1<\\v;inl man's salvation, His provisions to this end are frequently spoken of as His Way, and inasmuch as all of the Divine plans center in Christ He is preeminently the Way (Jn 14 6). Out of this fact grew the title, "The Way," one of the earliest names applied to Christianity (Acts 9 2; 18 25.26; 19 9.23; 22 4; 24 22).

      The word highway is used to denote a prominent road, such a one for example as was anciently main- tained for royal travel and by r:>yal authority. It is always used in the literal sense except in Prov 15 19; 16 17, where it is a course of conduct. See also PATH, PATHWAY. W. C. Moiwo


      WAY, LITTLE (rH33 , kiMirah, "length," "a measure"): A technical measure of distance in the Hel>; but it must be considered undefined (('.en 35 16; 48 7 AV, ERV "some way," ARV "some dis- tance"; 2 K 5 19, ERV "some way," ARVin "some distance"). The Heb term kibhrdh is also found in Phoen inscriptions as a measure of dis- tance.

      WAYFARING, wa'far-ing, MAN: The tr in Jgs 19 17; 2 S 12 1; ,Jer 9 2; 14 S of HPS? , 'drc"h, the participle of 'amh, "to journey." In Isa 33 S of *dl>lit~r 'nnili, "one passing on a path," and in Isa 35 X of holekh dcrckli, "one walking on a road." "Traveler" is the meaning in all cases.

      WAYMARK, wa'mark ("1^ , flyun): In Jer 31 21, "Set thee up waymarks," explained by the parallel, "Make thee guide-posts" (AV "Make thee high heaps"). A sign or guiding mark on the high- way.

      WEALTH, with, WEALTHY, wel'thi ("Jin, hon, ^"?n, hai/il, C^CZ'T , iL'khdKlin; exnropia, cuporia, "to ]>ossess riches," "to be in a position of ease" [Jer 49 311): The possession of wealth is not regarded as sinful, but, on the contrary, was looked upon as a sign of the blessing of God (Eccl 6 19; 6 2). The doctrine of "blessed arc the poor, and cursed are the rich" finds no countenance in the Scriptures, for Lk 6 20.24 refers to concrete conditions (disciples and persecutors; note the "ye"). God is the maker of rich and poor alike (Prov 22 2). But while it is not sinful to be rich it is very dangerous, and cer- tainly perilous to one's salvation (Mt 19 23). Of this fact the rich young ruler is a striking example; (Lk 18 22.23). It is because of the danger of losing the soul through the possession of wealth that so many exhortations are found in the Scriptures aimed esp. at those who have an abundance of this world's goods (I Tim 6 17; Jas 1 10.11; 5 l,ctc). Certain parables are esp. worthy of note in this same connection, e.g. the Rich Fool (Lk 12 16-21), the Rich Man and Lazarus if such can be called a parable (Lk 16 19-31). That it is not impossible for men of wealth to be saved, however, is apparent from the narratives, in the Gospels, of such rich men as Nicodemus, and Joseph of Arimathaea (Jn 19 3S.39; Mt 27 57-60), and Zacchaeus (Lk 19 1-10). It may fairly be inferred from the Gospel records that James and John, who were disciples of Our Lord, were men of considerable means (Mk 1 19. 20; Jn 19 27).

      Wealth may be the result of industry (Prov 10 4), or the result of the special blessing of God (2 Ch 1 11.12). We are warned to be careful lest at any time we should say "My power and the might of my hand hath gotten me this wealth. But thou shalt remember Jeh thy God, for it is he that giveth thee power to get wealth" (Dt 8 17. IS).

      Those possessing wealth are liable to certain kinds of sins against which they are frequently warned, e.g., high- mindedness (1 Tim 6 1<); oppression of the poor (Jas 2 (i); selfishness (Lk 12 and 16); dishonesty (Lk 19 1-10); self-conceit (Prov 28 11); self-trust (Prov 18 11).

      It is of interest to note that in the five places in the NT in which the word "lucre" as applying to wealth is used, it is prefaced by the word "filthy" (1 Tim 3 -i [AV].8; Tit 1 7.11; 1 Pet 5 2) , and that In four of these tive places it refers to the income of ministers of the gospel, as though they were particularly susceptible of being led away by the influences and power of money, and so needed special warning.

      The Scriptures are not without instruction as to how we may use our wealth wisely and as well- pleasing to God. The parable of the Unjust Steward (Lk 16) exhorts us to "make .... friends by means of the mammon of unrighteousness," by which is meant that we should use the wealth which God has committed to us as stewards in order that we may win friends (souls) with it for Him and His kingdom, just as the unfaithful steward used the goods with which his master had intrusted him to make friends for himself. The parable of Dives and Lazarus gives us t he sad picture of a selfish rich man who had abused his trust, who had failed to make friends with his money, and who, in the other world, would have given anything just for such a friend (Lk 16 19-31). See also RICHES. WILLIAM EVANS

      WEAN, wen: "To wean" in EV is always the tr of b'ES , (/dinal, but gamal has a much wider force than merely "to wean," signifying "to deal fully with," as in Ps 13 6, etc. Hence, as applied to a child, (jdwnl covers the whole period of nursing and care until the weaning is complete (1 K 11 20). This period in ancient Israel extended to about 3 years, and when it was finished the child was mature enough to be intrusted to strangers (1 S 1 24). And, as the completion of the period marked the end of the most critical stage of the child's life, it was celebrated with a feast (Gen 21 8), a custom still observed in the Orient. The weaned child, no longer fretting for the breast and satisfied with its mother's affection, is used in Ps 131 2 as a figure for Israel's contentment with God's care, despite the smallness of earthly possessions. In Isa 28 9 there is an ironical question, 'Is God to teach you knowledge as if you were children? You should have learned His will long ago!'


      WEAPONS, wep'unz. See AH.MOH.

      WEASEL, weYI ("^H , JwJctlh; cf Arab, khulil, "mole-rat"): (1) Hdledh is found only in Lev 11 29, where it stands first in the list of eight unclean "creeping things that creep upon the earth." AV and RV agree in rendering Iwlcdh by "weasel," and LXX has ya^rj, gale, "weasel" or "marten." According to Gesenius, the Vulg, Tg and Talm support the same rendering. In spite of this array of aut horit ies, it is worth while to consider the claims of the mole-rat, tipulax ty/thlux, Arab, khnld. This is a very common rodent, similar in appearance and habits to the mole, which docs not exist in Pal. The fact that it burrows may be considered against it, in view of the words, "t hat creepeth upon the earth." The term "creeping thing" is, however, very appli- cable to it, and the objection seems like a quibble, esp. in view of the fact that there is no category of subterranean animals. See MOLE. (2) The weasel, Mustcla vulyaris, has a wide range in Asia, Europe, and North America. It is from 8 to 10 in. long, including the short tail. It is brown above and white below. In the northern part of its range, its whole fur, except the tail, is white in winter. It is active and fearless, and preys upon all sorts of small mammals, birds and insects. See LI/AKD.




      Way, Covered Weaving

      WEATHER, weth'er pHT , zdhabh [Jol) 37 22], DT 1 , ydm [Prov 25 20], tr d "day"; tvSCa, cudla, "clour sky," \\ti\\i

      Jesus rebukes the Pharisees for their lack of spiritual foresight when they took such interest in natural foresight. He said, "When it is evening, ye say, It will be fair weather: for the heaven is red. And in the morning, It will be foul weather to-day : for the heaven is red and lowering" (Mt 16 2.3). The, general conditions of the weather in the differ- ent seasons are less variable in Pal than in colder countries, but the precise weather for a given day is very hard to predict on account of the proximity of the mountains, the desert and the sea.


      WEAVING, we'ving: Although weaving was one of the most important and best developed of the crafts of Bible times, yet we have but few Bib. references to enlighten us as to the processes used in those early days. A knowledge of the technique of weaving is necessary, however, if we are to under- stand some of the Bib. incidents. The principle of weaving in all ages is illustrated by the process of darning. The hole to be darned is laid over with parallel threads which correspond to the "warp" nr.lp. sli e t/n) of a woven fabric. Then, by means of a darning needle which takes the place of the shuttle in the loom, other threads are interlaced back and forth at right angles to the first set of strands. This second set corresponds to the woof Q"}", *erebh) or weft of woven cloth. The result is a web of threads across the hole. If the warp threads, instead of being attached to the edges of a fabric, are fastened to two beams (see Fig. 1)

      FIG. 1.

      which can be stretched either on a frame or on the ground, and the woof is interlaced exactly as in darning, the result will be a web of cloth. The process is then called weaving CHS, 'aragfi), and the apparatus a loom. The most up-to-date loom (if our modern mills differs from the above only in the devices for accelerating the process. The first of these improvements dates back some 5,000 years to the early FJgyptians, who discovered what is technically known as shedding, i.e. dividing the warp into two sets of threads, every other thread being lifted so that the woof can run between, as is shown in the diagram of the Arab. loom.

      Figs. 1 and 2 show the working of the looms still commonly used among the Bedouins. For the sake of

      .._.*..n v/in. ), held apart by tile stakes (/,) driven into the ground In Fig. 1 thi! even strands are, shown running through loops of string attached to the rod (/-), and thence under the beam (

      FIG. 2.

      even threads are raised above the odd, thus forming a shed through which the weft can be passed. The sepa- rating of odds and evens is assisted by a flat hoard (A i of wedge-shaped cross-section, which is turned at right angles to the odds. After the shuttle has been passed across, this same stick is used to beat up the weft.

      In Fig. 2 the second position of the threads is shown: (c) is removed from the stones or loops, and allowed to lie loosely on the warp; (d) is pulled forward toward the weaver and raised on the stones in the position previously occupied by (c). The flat spreader is passed through the new shed in which the odds are now above and the evens below. The weft is run through and is beaten into place with the thin edge of (//). The shuttle (s) commonly used is a straight tree branch on which the thread is loosely wound "kite-string" fashion.

      The loom used by Delilah was no doubt like the one described above (Jgs 16 13.14). It would have been an easy matter for her to run in Sam- son's locks as strands of the weft while he lay sleep- ing on the ground near the loom at a position cor- responding to (<]}. The passage might be trans- posed thus: "And he said unto her, If thou weavest the seven locks of my head into the web. And she passed in his locks and beat them up with the bat- ten [~r?, yathedh] [see h, Fig. 1], and said unto him, The Philistines are upon thoe, Samson. And he awakened out of his sleep and as he jumped up he pulled away the pins of the loom" (/>, Fig. 1).

      The counterpart of the Bedouin loom is shown on the ancient tombs at Beni Hasan (see EB, 5279, or Wilkinson, I, 317). As Dr. Kennedy points out, the artist of that ancient picture has unwittingly reversed the order of the beams. The shedding beam, of the two, should be nearer the weaver. At what period the crude shedding device described above was replaced by a double set of loops worked by pedals is unknown. Some writers believe that the Jews were acquainted with it. The "flying shuttle" of the modern loom is probably a compara- tively recent invention.

      The products of the Bedouin looms are coarse in texture. Such passages as Ex 35 35; Isa 19 9, and examples of ancient weaving, lead us to believe that in Bible times contemporaneous with the primitive loom were more highly developed ma- chines, just as in the cities of Egypt and Pal today, alongside of the crude Bedouin loom, arc; found the more intricate hand looms on which are produced the most delicate fabrics possible to the weaver's irt. Examples of cloth comparing favorably with Kir best grades of muslin have been found among the Egyp mummy wrappings.

      Two other forms of looms have been used for weaving, n both of which the warp is upright. In one type the strands of the warp, singly or in bundles, are suspended rom a beam and held taut by numerous small weights

      Weaving Weights



      made of stones or pottery. Dr. Bliss found at Trl 0 or more to- gether individual examples of which showed marks where cords had been attached to them. These he assumed were weavers' weights (see .1 Mound of Mann Cities). In this form the weaving was necessarily from top to bottom.

      The second type of upright loom is still used in some parts of Syria, esp. for weaving coarse goat's hair cloth. In this form t he warp is attached to the lower beam and passes vertically upward over another beam and thence to a wall where it is gathered in a rope and tied to a peg, or it is held taut by heavy stone weights. The manipu- lation is much the same as in the primitive loom, ex- cept that the weft is beaten up with an iron comb. '\\ he web is wound up on the lower beam as it is woven (cf Jsa 38 1-2).

      In all these kinds of weaving the Syrian weavers of today are very skilful. If a cylindrical web is referred to in Jn 19 23, then Jesus' tunic must have been woven with two sets of warp threads on an upright loom so arranged that the weft could be passed first through one shed and then around to the other side and back through the shed of the second set.

      Goliath's spear was compared in thickness to that of the weaver's beam, i.e. 2 in. to 2', in. in diameter (1 S 17 7; 2 S 21 10; 1 Ch 11 23; 20 5) (see d, Fig. 1).

      In Job 7 0, if "shuttle" is the right rendering

      Patterns are woven into the web (1) by making the warp threads of different colors, (2) by alter- nating colors in the weft, (3) by a combination of (1) and (2); this produces checked work CT5' ,

      FK;. 4. Showing Tpright Loom.

      <,>, Ex 28 39 RV); (4) by running special weft threads through only a portion of the warp. This requires mut'h skill and is probably the kind of weaving referred to in Ex 26 Iff; Ezk 16 13; 27 16; (o) when metals are to be woven, they are rolled thin, cut into narrow strips, wound in spirals about threads of cotton or linen (cf Ex 28 off; 39 3ff).

      for rnS , 'crcf/h, the reference is to the rapidity with winch the thread of the shuttle is used up, as the second part of the verse indicates.

      For a very full discussion of the terms employed sec A. K. S. Kennedy in EB, IV, 527(> 90.



      WEDGE, wej, OF GOLD (irtt ptii' 1 ; , lashon zahdbh. lit. "tongue of gold"): A piece of gold in (In- form of a wedge found by Achan in the _sack of Jericho. It was in one of the forms in which gold was used for money and was probably stamped or marked to indicate- its weight, which was 50 shekels, i.e. one mdncJi, according to the Ileb standard, or nearly two pounds troy. Its value would be 102 10s., "or Soil). See MONEY; POUND. A wedge, or rather, oblong rectangular strip of gold, of similar weight has been found in the excavations of Gezer (Macalister, Bible, Hide-Lif/hts, 121). Along with metal rings they were doubtless used as an early form of currency. In Isa 13 12 AV, kcthem, "pure gold" (so RV), is tr d us "golden wedge" on insuffi- cient grounds. H. PORTER

      WEEDS, wed/ (?1D . suph, "a weed" [Jon 2 , r >]). See FLAG; COCKLE; RED SEA.

      WEEK, wok (y^V, sh*l>hu a \\ from 7^ , sfu-bhu*, seven"; o-apparov-Ta, sdbbaton-ta, "from sabbath



      Weaving Weights

      to sabbath"): The seven-day division of time com- mon to the Hebrews and Babylonians (Gen 29 27. 2S; Lk 18 12). See ASTRONOMY ; TIME. "Week" is used in the apocalyptic writings of Daniel for an unknown, prophetic; period (Did 9 24-27). For the names of the days sec ASTROLOGY, 12.


      WEIGHT, wat (Measure of quantity) (^ niixfibnl, ^p^K, mMikol [Kzk 4 10], from . slifikdl., "to weigh," I^X , 'cbhcn, "a stone," used for weighing in the balance): Weights were commonly

      Hron/,e and Stone Weights Used in Nineveh.

      of stone or bronze (or of lead, Zee 5 7.8). Thev were of various forms, such as the lion-shaped weights of Babylonia and Assyria, or in the form of birds and other animals. The Heb and Phoen weights, when made of stone, were barrel- or spindle- shaped, but in bronze they were often cubical or octagonal or with numerous faces (see illustration under WEIGHTS AND MEASURES). Hemispherical or dome-shaped stone weights have been found in Pal (P/iYAS, 1002, ]>. 344; 1903, p. 117; 1904, p. 209).

      Figurative: The phrase "without weight (2 K 25 16) signifies a quantity too great to be estimated. "Weight of glory" (2 Cor 4 17, Papos, bdros) has a similar meaning, but with a spiritual reference "Weighty," "weightier" (Mt 23 23; 2 Cor 10 10. fSapfo, bar us, (Japurepos, bariUeros}, signify what is important. The Gr 67*05, oykos (He 12 1), is used in the sense of burden, hindrance, as is also the Heb netcl (Prov 27 3). H. PORTER

      WEIGHTS, wats, AND MEASURES: The sys- tem of weights and measures in use among the Hebrews was derived from Babylonia and Egypt, esp. from the former. The influence of these countries upon Pal has long been recognized, but archaeological investigations in recent years have shown that the civilization of Babylonia impressed itself upon Syria and Pal more profoundly in early times than did that of Egypt. The evidence of this

      LlNKAK M

      Finger or digit (72^S<5 , Vr/O

      Hand-breadth or palm (J1EI3 . (> />/m/u

      Span (7HT , z>'.r<'ih) T

      Cubit (H72X . 'nmmah)

      Reed (nip . kdnnh)

      Sabbath day's journey (o-a/S/Sarou 666?, sabbdtou hodos)

      has been most clearly shown by the discovery of the Am Tab, which reveal the fact that the official correspondence between the Egyp kings and their vassals in these; lands was carried on in the language of Babylonia long after its political influence had been supplanted by that of Egypt. It is natural, then, that we should look to Babylonia for the origin of such important elements of civilization as a system of weights and measures.

      It was finite natural that men should have found a standard for linear measures in the parts of (In- human body, and we find the cubit, Linear originally the length of the forearm, Measures taken as the standard, and the span, the palm and the digit, or finger- breadth, associated with it in linear measurement. They do not seem to have employed the foot, though it is represented in the two-thirds of the cubit, which was used by the Babylonians in the manu- facture of building-brick.

      This system, though adequate enough for man in tin; earliest, times, was not so for an advanced stage of civilization, such as the Babylonians reached before the days of Abraham, and we find that thev had introduced a far more accurate and scientific system (see Cntrr). They seem to have employed, however, two cubits, of different lengths, one for commercial purposes and one for building. We have no undoubted examples of either, but judging by the dimensions of their square building-bricks, which are regarded as being two-thirds of a cubit on a sule,_we judge the latter to have been of about 19 or 20 in. Now we learn from investigations in Egypt that a similar cubit was employed there, being of from 20.6 to 20.77 in., and it can hardly be doubted that the Hebrews were familiar with this cubit, but that in more common use was certainly shorter. We have no certain means of determining the length of the ordinary cubit among tin 1 Hebrews, but there an; two ways by which we may approxi- mate its value. The Siloam Inscription states that the tunnel in which it was found was 1,200 cubits lorig^ The actual length has been found to be about 1,707 ft., which would give a cubit of about 17.1 in. (see PEF8, 1902, 179). Of course the given length may be a round number, but it gives a close approximation.

      Again, the Mish states that the height of a man is 4 cubits, which we may thus regard as the average stature of a Jew in former times. By reference to Jewish tombs we find that they wen; of a length to give a cubit of .something over 17 in., supposing the stature to be as above, which approximates very closely to the cubit of the Siloam tunnel. The con- sensus of opinion at the present day inclines toward a cubit of 17.6 in. for commercial purposes and one of about 20 in. for building. This custom of having two standards is illustrated by the practice in Syria today, where the builder's measure, or dm', is about 2 in. longer than the commercial.

      Of multiples of the cubit we have the measuring- reed of 6 long cubits, which consisted of a cubit ami a hand-breadth each (Ezk 40 5), or about 10 ft. Another measure was the Sabbath day's journey, which was reckoned at 2,000 cubits, or about 1,000 yds. Tin; measuring-line was used also, but whether it had a fixed length we do not know. See SAHHATH DAY'S JOURNEY; MEASURING LINE. The following is the table of linear measures:

      i digits

      3 palms

      '2 spans

      (i cubits, (> palms.

      ..2,000 "..

      .about J in.

      3 in.

      9 in.


      10 ft.

      " 3,000 ft.

      Weights Well


      In the XT \\v(> h;ivo the fathom (opyvid, onjuid), ahoul 6 ft., and the furlong (crrdStoi', stddion], 600 Gr ft. or 606 f Eng. ft., which is somewhat, less than one-eighth of a mile. The mile (fj.i\\iov, milion) was 5.000 Rom ft., or 4,S54 Eng. ft., somewhat less than the Eng. mile.

      Regarding the absolute value of the measures of capacity among the Hebrews there is rather more uncertainty than there is concerning 2. Meas- those of length and weight, since no ures of examples of the former have comedown

      Capacity tons; hut their relative value is known. Sir Charles Warren considers them to have been derived from the measures of length by cubing the cubit and its divisions, as also in the case of weight. \\\\ e learn from Ezk (45 11) that the Ixitfi and c/>fink were equivalent, and he (War- ren) estimates the rapacity of these as that of ;,',, of the cubit cubed, or about 2,333.3 cubic in., which would correspond to about 9 gallons Eng. measure. Assuming this as the standard, we get the following tables for liquid and dry measure:

      the talent, but the Hebrews reckoned only 50 shekels to the maneh, as appears from Ex 38 2f).26, where it is stated that the amount of silver collected from 603,550 males was 100 talents and 1,775 shekels, and, as each contributed a half-shekel, the whole amount must have been 301,775. Deducting the 1,775 shekels mentioned besides the 100 talents, we have 300,000 or 3,000 to the talent, and, as there were GO mdnetis in the talent, there were 50 shekels to each indn<'h. When the Hebrews adopted this system we do not know, but it was in vogue at a very early date.

      The shekel was divided into gcrnliK, 20 to a shekel (Ex 30 13). The gcmh (rn3 , gcrd/i) is supposed to be some kind of seed, perhaps a bean or some such plant. The shekel of which it formed a part was probably the royal or commercial shekel of 1(50 grains, derived from Babylon. But. the Hebrews certainly had another shekel, called the Phoen from its being the standard of the Phoen traders. This would be natural on account of the close connection of the two peoples ever since the days of David and


      1 I OK (V- . /"

      4 logs, l kab Qp. kiih/i. 2 K 6 25) .

      12 " :< kahs, 1 bin Cp , Ai, Ex 30 24)

      72 " IS ' (i bins, 1 hath (r,3 , '"<"'. 1<: ^ k 45 10)

      720 " iso " (it) " 10 baths, 1 homer or k

      mer, *,3, fcor, Ezk 45 14)...

      approximately 1 pint " 2 (|ts.

      " 1 J gals.

      " 9 "

      " 00

      DitY MKASCKK

      1 IOK

      4 logs, 1 kah 7! " 1 omrl

      ; . '--mi r, Kx 16 Hi)

      24 (') kahs, 3J oiners. 1 si-ali ('nXC *'"<''' * K i8 :{2 )

      72 ' IS ' 10 " :5 scahs, lepliali (HEX. 'cphtih, K\\ 16 3(i)

      3(i() ' '.)() ' .">() " 1.") 5 cphahs, 1 letlicch (?|P5 . l<'th< 'kh, IIos 32)..

      720 " ISO " 100 " 30 " 10 " 2 lethcchs. f homer or kor (Kzk 45 14)

      approximately 1 pint

      2 ((ts.

      3 qts., l! pts. 1 J pecks

      5 hu., 2} pecks 1 1 hu., 1 peck

      S''d/i and lit/nlcfi, in the above, occur in the II eb text, but only in the margin of the Eng. It will be noticed that the prevailing element in these tables is t he duodecimal which corresponds to the sexagesi- mal of the Bab system, but it will be seen that in the case of weights there was a tendency on the part of the Hebrews to employ the decimal system, making the main /i 50 shekels instead of (50, and 1 he talent 3,000 instead of 3, (500, of the Bab, so here we see the same tendency in making the *oincr the tenth of the Tp/id/i and the 'cphdh the tenth of the homer or kr>r.

      Weights were probably based by the ancients upon grains of wheat or barley, but the Egyptians and Babylonians early adopted a more 3. Weights scientific method. Sir Charles War- ren thinks that they took the cubes of the measures of length and ascertained how many grains of barley corresponded to the quantity of water these cubes would contain. Thus he infers that the Egyptians fixed the weight of a cubic inch of rain water at 220 grains, and the Babylonians at 222;-;. Taking the cubic palm at 25.928 cubic in., the weight of that quantity of water would be 5,7(50 ancient grains. The talent he regards as the weight of 2/3 of a cubit cubed, which would be equal to 101.6 cubic palms, but assumes that for conveni- ence it was taken at 100, the weight being 57(5,000 grains, deriving from this the mdnch (1/60 of the talent) of 9,600 grains, and a shekel (1/50 of the mdnch) 192 grains. But we have evidence that the II eb shekel differed from this and that they used different shekels at different periods. The shekel derived from Babylonia had a double standard: the light of 160 grains, or 1/3600 of the talent; and the heavy of just double this, of 320 grains. The former seems to have been used before the captivity and the latter after. The Bab system was sexagesimal, i.e. 60 shekels went to the mdn<:h and 60 mdnehs to

      Solomon, but we have certain evidence of it from the extant examples of the monetary shekels of the Jews, which are of this standard, or very nearly so, allowing some loss from abrasion. The Phoen shekel was about 224 grains, varying somewhat in different localities, and the Jewish shekels now in existence vary from 212 to 220 grains. They were coined after the captivity (see COINS), but whether this standard was in use before we have no means of knowing.

      Examples of ancient weights have been discovered iu Pal by archaeological research during recent years, among them one from Samaria, obtained by Dr. Chaplin, bearing the inscription, in Heb, rcbha* iicqeph (D2Z 372^). This is interpreted, by the help of the cognate Arab., as meaning "quarter-half," i.e. of a shekel. The -actual weight is 39.2 grains, which, allowing a slight loss, would correspond quite closely to a quarter-shekel of the light Bab standard of 160 grains, or the quarter of the half of the double standard. Another specimen discovered at Tell Zakariych weighs 154 grains, which would seem t o belong to the same standard. The weight s, of which illustrations are given in the table, are all in the collection of the Syrian Protestant College, at Beirut, and were obtained from Pal and Phoenicia and are of the Phoen standard, which was the com- mon commercial standard of Pal. The largest, of the spindle or barrel type (Fig. 1), weighs 1,350 grains, or 87.46 grams, evidently intended for a 6- shekel weight, and the smaller ones of the same type are fractions of the Phoen shekel. Figs. 2 and 3 are of the same standard, one a shekel and the other a two-shekel weight. They each have 12 faces, and the smaller has a lion stamped on each face save one, reminding us of the lion-weights discovered in Assyria and Babylonia. The spindle weights are of black stone, the others of bronze.



      Weights Well


      derail. (Kx 30 1:5, 7113. II trait) about ] 1 grains

      licka (half-shekel, Kx 38 20, yp.2 . >>''ka) . . IL'1.' ^"lins

      N/M A.V/ Opt 1 , .-/< - 2L> t or 225 grains

      Man =50 'shekels (i)ouiul, 1 K 10 17, HI'S, maneli) 1 I .200

      Talent =(50 ma >ie Its or :5,000 shekels (Ex 38 '25, 122 , kikkar) . . ..." (172,000


      Tho above is the Phoen standard. In the Bab the shekel would be !(>() or 320 grains; the mdnch ,S,0()() or 1(5,000, and the talent 480,000 or 960,000 grains, according as it was of the light or heavy standard. H. POKTKK

      WELL: (1)1X3, b e 'cr; cf Arab, Jo, bi'r, "well"

      or "cistern"; usually artificial: "And Isaac's serv- ants digged in the valley, and found there a well of springing [in "living"] water" ((Jen 26 I'.)); some- times covered: "Jacob .... rolled the stone from the well's mouth" (Gen 29 10). B e 'cr may also be a pit: "The vale of Siddim was full of slime pits" (Gen 14 10); "the pit of destruction" (Ps 65 23). (2) "113, bar, usually "pit": "Let us slay him, and cast him into one of the pits" (Gen 37 20); maybe "well" : "drew water out of the well of Beth-lehcm" (2 S 23 1(5).

      (3) 71-777??, pc/jt', usually "running water," "fount," or "source": "Doth the fountain send forth from the same opening sweet water and bitter?" (.las 3 11); may be "well"; cf "Jacob's well" (.In 4 (5). (4) 0p&xp, phrettr, usually "pit": "the pit of the abyss" (Rev 91); but "well"; cf "Jacob's well" (Jn 4 11.12): "Which of you shall have an ass or an ox fallen into a well" (AV "pit") (Lk 14 ">). (.">) Kp-qvq, krPne, "wells" (Sir 48 17), Lat fons, "spring" (2 Esd 2 32).

      (6) I* 1 ?, *ayin; cf Arab. ,-v^C- , *ain, "fountain,"

      "spring": "the fountain [10 V] which is in Jezreel" (1 S 29 1); "In Eliin were twelve springs [AV "foun- tains"] of water" (Nu 33 9); "She [Rebckah] went down to the fountain" (AV "well") (Gen 24 1(5); "the jackal's well" (ERV "the dragon's well," AV "the dragon well") (Neh 2 13). (7) "^"C , mifyait, same root as (0); "the fountain [AV "well"] of the waters of Nephtoah" (Josh 18 lo); "Passing through the valley of Weeping [AV "Haca"! they make it a place of springs" (AV "well") (Ps 84 (ij; "Ye shall

      draw water out of the wells of salvation" (Isa 12 3). (S) npp , mdkdr, usually figurative: "Withtheeis the fountain of life" (Ps 36 9); "The mouth of the righteous is a fountain [AV "well"] of life" (Prov 10 11); "make her [Babylon's] fountain [AV "spring"] dry" (Jer 51 3(5); "a corrupted spring" (Prov 25 2(5). (9) 5'3'e , ' wabbil"*, V 2?5? , nabha*,

      "to flow," "spring," "bubble up"; cf Arab. xi , nab*, AxX> , manba*, c -yo , yanbu*, "fountain":

      "or the pitcher is broken at the fountain" (Eccl 12 (')); "the thirsty ground springs of water" (Isa 35 7).

      (10) JWk732 , woftt', "spring," V^^f > y~ l ^ ( ~ l \\ "' KO out," "the dry land springs of water" (Isa 41 IS); "a dry land into watersprings" (Ps 107 3f)) ; "the upper spring of the waters of Gihon" (2 Ch 32 30).

      (11) :fn , -ncbhckh, root uncertain, reading doubt- ful; only in Job 38 1(5, "Hast thou entered into the springs of the sea?" (12) DinP , fhom, "deep," "abyss"; cf Gen 1 2; tr d "springs," AV "depths" (Dt 8 7). (13) 53, (/<>!, V bb3, r/dlal, "to roll"; cf Gilgal (Josh 5 9); "a spring shut up" (Cant 4 12). (14) n^3, (jiillah, "bowl," "basin," "JXH.!," same root: "Give me also springs of water. And he gave her the upper springs and the nether springs"

      (Josh 15 19); cf Arab. xJj , kullat, pronounced gul- lat, "a marble," "a cannon-ball."

      As is clear from references cited above, wells and springs were not sharply distinguished in name, though b r 'cr, and phrear are used mainly of wells, and \\iyin., ma^tjun, wooa' ', mabbu a * and (poetically) mdkdr are chiefly used of fountains. The Arab. bi'r, the equivalent of the Heb b e 'er, usually denotes a cistern for rain-water, though it may be qualified as l>i'rj

      Well, Jacob's Wickedness



      or natural fountain is called in Arab. Yrm or nab* (cf Hob *ayin and mabbu *). These Arab, and Hob words for "well'' and "spring" figure largely in place-names, modern and ancient : Beer (Nu 21 16); Beer-elim (Isa 15 8), etc; *Ain (a) on the north- east, boundary of Pal (Nu 34 11), (h) in the S. of Judah, perhaps =En-rimmon (Josh 15 32); Enaiiu (C,en 38 It); Enani (Josh 15 34), etc. Modern Arab, names with V;/ are very numerous, e.g. *Ain- ul-fatthkhah, *Airi-ul-hajlch, ''Ain-karim, etc. See CISTERN; Fe>rvr.\\ix; PIT; POOL.


      WELLSPRING, wel'spring ("lip's, makor): Usually "spring" or ''fountain" (figuratively), tr' 1 "wellspring" only in two passage's: "Understand- ing is a wcllspring of life unto him that hath it" (Prov 16 22 ! ; "The wellspring of wisdom is as a flowing brook" (Prov 18 4). See Burroughs, Pe- pucton, p. 35; \\\\ELL.

      WEN: OnlyinLev 22 22, "maimed." or "having a wen [rn "sores"], or scurvy." for ^1 , yabbdl, "running," hence "a suppurating sore" (cf RVm). A "wen" is a non-inflamed indolent tumor, and so "wen" is about as far as possible from the meaning of the Hob.

      WENCH, wench, wensh (JinBtJ , shiphhuh): The word "wench" is found only in 2 S 17 17 AV, where RV lias "maid-servant." The Ileb word Khi/thhuh hero used is a common t erm for maid-servant , female slave. AV used the word "wench" to convey the meaning maid-servant, which was a common use of the word at that time, but it is now practically obsolete.

      WEST: (1) Usually 0? , yum, "sea," because the Mediterranean lies to the \\Y. of Pal; not usually in figurative expressions; but cf Hos 11 10. (2)

      Often 3"}Ip2 , ma*ardbh; cf Arab. i^_jyi-, gharb,

      and LjvAX! , maghrib, "west,"


      maghrib-ush-shems, or simply



      "sunset." (3) OTSfn Slip , m'blio' Jui-shi-mcsh, "entrance of the sun," X"12p , mdh/iu', \\ S*3 , bo, "to come in." (Just as HPT 1 ?? , mizrdh, is the rising of the sun, or east, so S13'C , tndbho' [or 2"iri2 , ma*drabh], is the setting of the sun, or west : "From the rising of the sun \\mizrah- shemesh] unto the going down [mdblio] tliereof" [Ps 50 1; cf 113 3; Mai 1 11].) (4) dvff/j.ri, dnxitiT, from 8vw, duo, "to enter," "sink," "set." The (!r usage is || to the Ileb just cited: "Many shall come from the east [anatolt, "rising"] and the west" (dustnc, "setting") (Mt. 8 11).

      The chief figurative use of the word "west" is in combination with "east" to denote great or infinite distance, as:

      "As far as the cast is from the west, So far hath he removed our transgressions from us" (Ps 103 12;.


      WHALE, hwfd: (1) KTJTOS, ksttm (Sir 43 25 [RV "sea-monster"]; Three ver 57 [RV "whale"]; Mt, 12 40 [RV "whale," m "sea-monster"; AV "whale" throughout]). (2) "p?!? , tannin (Cien 1 21; Job 7 12), "sea-monster," AV "whale." (3) C^P , tunnim (Ezk 32 2), "monster," ERV "dragon," AV "whale," AVm "dragon."

      It will be seen from the above references that the word "whale" does not occur in RV except in Three ver 57 and Mt 12 40. Ketus, the original word in these passages, is, according to Liddell and Scott, used by Aristotle; for "whale," Aristotle using also the adj. /c^rwSTjj, ketodcs, "cetacean"; Homer and Herodotus used kctos for any large fish or sea-mon- ster or for a seal. It is used in Euripides of the monster to which Andromeda was exposed. In the Heb, in the Book of Jon, we find ddgh or day hah, the ordinary word for "fish": "Arid Jeh prepared a great fish to swallow up Jonah" (Jon 1 17). Whales are found in the Mediterranean and are sometimes cast up on the shore of Pal, but it is not likely that the ancient (Ireeks or Hebrews were very familiar with them, and it is by no means certain that a whale is referred to. either in the original Jonah story or in the NT reference to it. If any particular animal is meant, it is more likely a shark. Sharks are much more familiar objects in the Mediterranean than whales, and some of them are of large size. See FISH.

      In (Jen 1 21, "And God created the great sea- monsters" (AV "whales"), and Job 7 12,

      "Am I a sea. or a sea-monster [AV "whale"], That thou suttest a watch over me ?"

      the Ileb has tannin, which word occurs 14 t in the OT and in ARV is 1r d "monster," "sea-monster," or "serpent ," and, exceptionally, in Lam 4 3, "jackals." AV renders in several passages "dragon" (cf Ezk 29 3 ERV).

      Tannim in Ezk 29 3 and 32 2 is believed to stand for tannin. ARV has "monster," ERV "dragon," AV "whale," AVm "dragon," in 32 2, and "dragon" in 29 3. Tannim occurs in 11 other passages, where it is considered to be the pi. of tann, and in RV is tr' 1 "jackals," in AV "dragons" (Job 30 29; Ps 44 10; Isa 13 22; 34 13; 35 7; 43 20; Jer 9 11; 10 22; 14 G; 49 33; 51 37). In Mai 1 3 we find the fern. pi. tannoth. See DRAGON; JACKAL. ALFRED ELY DAY

      WHEAT, hwet ([1] Hlpn , hilU'ih, the specific word for \\\\heat [Clen 30 14; Ex 34 22, etc], with irvp6s, liros [Jth 3 3; Sir 39 26]; [2] "O , bur, or "13 , bar [Jer 23 28; Joel 2 24; Am 5 11; 8 6]; in other passages tr d "grain" or "corn"; [3] irUt, Haifa anel (!aza. The "wheat harvest" was in olelen times one e>f the regular divi- sions of the year (Ex 34 22; Jgs 15 1 ; 1 S 12 17); it fe>lle>ws the barley harvest (Ex 9 31.32), occurring in April, May or June, aerording te> the altitude. E. W. (i. MASTERMAX

      WHEEL, hwel: (1) "EHX , 'dpi/an, is the usual word (Kx 14 25, etc). In Prov 20 26; Isa 28 27 the rollers of a threshing wagon are meant (see AGRICTLTUKE). (2) b353 , galgal, "reeling thing," generally in the sense of "wheel" (Isa 5 28, etc.), butRV'in Ezk 10 2.0.13 has "whirling wheels," an advantageous change. The "wheel .... broken at the cistern" in Ee-cl 12 6 is the windlass for elrawing the water, and by the figure the break- elown of the olel man's breathing apparatus is prob- ably meant. In Ps 83 13, AV has "wheel," but this tr (that of LXX) is quite impe>ssible; RV "whirling dust" (sucked up by a miniature whirl- wind) is perhaps right, but the tr 8 proposed are end- less. (3) ^fc}, gilgal, Isa 28 2$, the roller of a threshing wagon. (4) D^3S5 , 'obhnayim, Jer 18 3.



      See POTTKH. (a) C7E , pa*am, Jgs 6 28, lit. "stop" (so RVm), and the sound of horses' hoofsis intended. ((>) rpoxfa, trocltus, Sir 33 5; Jas 3 6 (AV "course"). In (he former passage, "The heart of a fool is as a cart -wheel," the changeableness of a light disposition is satirized. In Jas (he figure i.s of a wheel in rota- tion, so that a flame starting at any point is quickly communicated to the whole. Just so an apparently insignificant sin of the tongue produces an incalcula- bly destructive effect.

      The phrase "wheel of nature" (Tpo^b? TT)T yefeVewv, trocli6s tfs ge/tfaeos) is used here for "the world in prog- ress." It is not a very natural figure and has ^iven riso to much discussion. AV accents iruclios ("course") instead of trocltus ("wheel"), but the lan^ua^e through- out is metaphorical and "course" is not a sufficiently metaphorical word. The tr "birth" for i/i:nrxrox (so It V in), i.e. "a wheel set in motion by birth." is out of the question, as the argument turns on results wider than any individual's existence. "Wheel of nature" is cer- tainly right. But a comparison of life to a wheel in some sense or other (chiefly that of "Fortune's wheel") is common enough in ('. r and Lat writers, and, indeed, the exact combination troclmx i/enexf-ox is found in at least- one (Orphic) writer (full references in the conims. of Mayor and W. Bauer). It would seem, then, that St. James had hoard the. phrase, and lie used it as a striking figure, with entire indifference to any technical signili- eanoe it might have. This supposition is preferable to that of an awkward tr from the Aramaic-. See, COURSE. BUHTOX SCOTT EASTOX

      WHELP, hwelp ("V13 , gur, or T13 , gur; either absol. [K'/.k 19 2.3.5; Nah 2 12]; or const r. with 'uryelt, "lion" [On 49 9; Dt 33 22; Jer 51 38; Nah 2 11]; also&r3^ "^ , b'nelaMn', lit. "sons of a lioness," tr d "the whelps of the lioness" [Job 4 11]. In Job 28 8, AV has "lion's whelps" for fntJ ^, b c ne shdhug, which HV renders "proud beasts," in "sons of pride." In Lam 4 3, gur is used of the young of tannin, RV "jackals," AV "sea-monsters," AVm "sea-calves"; it may possibly mean "wolves"; O-KVJAVOS, akiimnos, the technical word for "lion's whelp" [1 Mace 3 41): These references are all figurative: "Judah is a lion's whelp" (Gen 49 9); "Dan is a lion's whelp" (Dt 33 22); it is said of the Babylonians, "They shall roar together like young lions; they shall growl as lions' whelps" (Jer 51 3S); of the Assyrians, "Where is the den of the lions, and the feeding-place of the young lions, where the lion and the lioness walked, the lion's whelp, and none made them afraid? The lion did tear in pieces enough for his whelps, and strangled for his lionesses, and rilled his eaves with prey, and his dens with ravin" (Nah 2 11.12). In Ezk 19 2-9, the princes of Israel are compared to lions' whelps. See DRAGOX; LION.


      WHIRLWIND, hwurl'wind (HBIO , silphah [Prov 1 27; 10 25; Isa 5 2S; 17 13; 66 15; Hos 8 7; Am 1 14; Nah 1 3], "I??, s

      Storms usually come from the S.W. "Out of the .... south cometh the storm" (Job 37 9); yet in Ezekiel's vision he saw a whirlwind coming out of the north (1 4), Elijah "went up by a whirl- wind into heaven" (2 K 2 11). The whirlwind

      Well, Jacob's Wickedness

      indicates (he power and might of Jeh: "Jeh hath his way in the whirlwind and in (he storm" (Nah

      I 3); He "answered Job out of (he whirlwind" (Job 38 1).

      Most of the Scriptural uses are figurative; of destruction: "He will take (hem away with a whirl- wind" (I's 58 9; I'rov 1 27; 10 25; Ilos 13 3; Did

      II 40; Am 1 14; Hab 3 14; Zee 7 Mj; of quick- ness: "wheels as a whirlwind" (Isa 5 2S; 66 15; Jer 4 13); of the anger of (lod: "A whirlwind of (he Lord is gone forth in fury" (Jer 23 19 AV); of punishment, to (he wicked: "A continuing whirlwind . . . . shall fall .... on the wicked" (Jer 30 23 AV). ALFRED II. JOY

      WHITE, hwlt, See COLORS.


      WHITEWASH, hwlt'wosh: ARVm gives "white- wash" for "untempered mortar" in E/k 13 10 and 22 28. 'Her prophets have daubed for (hem,' i.e. seconded them, "with whitewash," (hus giving "a slight wall" (13 10 in) a specious appearance of strength. See MORTAR; UNTEMPERED.

      WHOLE, hoi, WHOLESOME, hdl'sum: "Whole," originally "hale" (a word still in poetic use), had at first the meaning now expressed by its derivative; "healthy." In (his sense "whole" is fairly common (Job 5 IS, etc) in EV, although much more common in the NT than in the ()T. From this meaning "healthy," the transi(ion to the modern force "complete," "perfect," "entire" (Ex 12 (>, etc) was not unnatural, and it is in this later sense alone that the advb. "wholly" (Lev 6 22, etc) is used. "Wholesome," however, is derived from the earlier meaning of "whole." It occurs in Prov 15 4, AV, ERV, "a wholesome tongue" (XST , ro/;//o', "heal," RVm "the healing of the tongue," AHV "a gentle tongue"), and in 1 Tim 6 3, AV "wholesome words" (vyiaivai, hugiaino, "be healthy," RVm "healthful," RV "sound").



      WICKEDNESS, wik'ed-ncs: The state of being wicked; a mental disregard for justice, righteousness,

      truth, honor, virtue; evil in thought 1. In and life; depravity; sinfulness; crim-

      the OT inality. See SIN. Many words are

      rendered "wickedness." There are many synonyms for wickedness in Eng. and also in the Heb. Pride and vanity lead to it: "All the proud, and all that work wickedness [fiyTjn ,ritsh*ah] shall be stubble" (Mai 4 1). Akin to this is the word "Jiy , { dwen, "iniquity," "vanity" : "She eateth, and wipeth her mouth, and saith, I have done no wickedness" (Prov 30 20). Then we have the word rVin , hawivah, meaning "mischief," "calamity," coming from inward intent upon evil: "Lo, this is the man that made not Clod his strength, but trusted in the abundance of his riches, and strengthened himself in his wickedness" (Ps 52 7); i"TET , ziinmah, "wickedness" in thought, carnality or lust harbored: "And if a man take a wife and her mother, it is wickedness" (Lev 20 14); n^? , \\iwlah, "per- verseness," "Neither shall the children of wickedness afflict them any more, as at the first" (2 S 7 10). The word for evil (3^ , ?'') is many times employed to represent wickedness: "Remember all their wickedness" (Hos 7 2). Wickedness like all forms and thoughts of wrong, kept warm, in mind, seems to be a thing of growth; it begins with a thought,

      Widow Wind



      then ;i deed, (lien :i character, and finally a, destiny. Even in (liis life men increase in wickedness till they have lost all desire for that, which is good in (he sight of God and good men; (he men in (lie vision of Isaiah seem to be in a condition beyond which (he human heart cannot go: "Woe unto (hem that call evil good, and good evil; that put darkness for light, and light for darkness" (Isa 6 20). Shades of thought are added by such words as ?"1 , ro a \\ "evil," "badness": "Give them according (o (heir work, and according to the wickedness of their doings" (Ps 28 4). And yth , resha\\ or ""1 , ris/i'ah, also gives (he common thought of wrong, wickedness. The prophets were strong in denun- ciations of all iniquity, perverseness, and in announ- cing the curse of God which would cer(ainly follow. Wickedness, malignity, evil in thought and pur- pose is presented by the word irovr/pia, poncria: "But Jesus perceived their wickedness, 2. In and said, Why make ye trial of me, ye

      the NT hypocrites?" (Mt 22 18), Jesus points oiit the origin of all wrong: "For from within, out of the heart of men, evil thoughts pro- ceed .... wickednesses, deceit, lasciviousness .... all these evil things proceed from within, and defile the man" (Mk 7 21-23). See Imitation, of Christ, xiii, 5. DAVID ROBERTS DUNGAN

      WIDOW, wid'd (ni'CxX , 'almdndh; \\-f\\pa, In (he OT widows are considered to be under the special care of Jeh (Ps 68 o; 146 9; Prov 16 25). Sympathetic regard for them comes to be viewed as a mark of true religion (Job 31 1G; Jas 1 27). Dt is rich in counsel in (heir behalf (24 17, etc).

      The word is first mentioned in (he NT in Acts 6 1: "There arose a murmuring of the Grecian Jews against the Hebrews, because (heir widows were neglected in the daily ministration." Paul charges that (hey be particularly cared for, esp. (hose that are "widows indeed," i.e. poor, without sup- port and old (1 Tim 5 2-16). Some try to find proof in this passage of that ecclesiastical order of widows mentioned in post-apostolic writings. See LITERATURE, SUB-APOSTOLICJ WOMAN, IV, f>.

      GKO. B. EAGER



      WILD BEAST, wild best: (1) PT , zlz, only with ">"ip , sddhay, "field," in the expression, "niT P7, z!-? sddhay, tr d "wild beasts of (he field" (Ps 60 11; 80 13); cf Tg to Ps 80 13, XPT , zlzd', "worm" (BDB);

      Arab. -A, ziz, "worm." (2) 0"")? , giylm (Isa

      13 21; 34 14; Jer 50 30). (3) 2"*X , 'iyim (Isa 13 21; 34 14; Jer 50 39). (4) n n , hay, "living thing," often tr d "wild beast" in EV (1 S 17 4(>, etc), (o) In Apoc (Ad Est 16 24, etc) and the NT (Mk 1 13), 6-nplov, thcrion. (G) Acts 10 12 AV; 11 G, Terpd-n-odov, tetrdpodon, RV "four-footed beast."

      (1), (2) and (3) are of doubtful etymology, but the context makes it clear in each case that wild beasts of some sort are meant. The Tg zlzd', "worm," is possible in Ps 80 13, (hough not prob- able in view of the |! "boar": "The boar out of the wood doth ravage it, and the wild beasts of the field feed on it," i.e. on the vine (figurative) brought out of Egypt. In Ps 50 11, however, such an interpretation is out of the question. All the references from ver 8 to ver 13 are to large animals, bullocks, goats, cattle and birds. Vulg and LXX

      have in 80 13 "'wild beast" and in 50 1 1 "beauty of the field" (ti-0!

      Qlylm, doubtfully referred to flydh, "drought," occurs in prophecies of the desolation of Babylon in Isa 13 21 ("wild beas(s of the desert") and Jer 60 39, of Edom in Isa 34 14, of Assyria in Isa 23

      13 ("them that dwell in the wilderness"). It is associated in these passages with names of wild beasts and birds, some of them of very doubtful meaning, such as lannlm, 'ohlm, 'iyim, $ *lrlm, b e nothya l &ndh. Wild beasts of some sort are clearly meant, though the kind can only be conjectured. The word occurs in Ps 74 14 ("the people inhabit- ing the wilderness"), where it is possible to under- stand "beasts" instead of "people." It occurs also in Ps 72 9 ("they that dwell in the wilderness"), where it seems necessary to understand "men." If (he reading stands, it is not easy to reconcile this passage with the others.

      'Iyim occurs in Isa 13 21 and 34 14 and in Jer 60 39, three of the passages cited for qiylm. AV referring to 'I, "island," renders "wild beasts of the islands" (Isa 13 22). RV has "wolves,"

      in "howling creatures"; cf Arab. c .

      o ^J

      howl," and -! ^wjj , ibn-amC, or tf , "jackal." See JACKAL. ALFRED ELY DAY

      WILD-OX (EX"), r r 'c>n~): The word "unicorn" occurs in AV in N'U 23 22; 24 X; Dt 33 17; Job 39 9.10; Ps 22 21; 29 G; 92 10; Isa 34 7 (AVm "rhinoceros"). RV has everywhere "wild-ox" (m "ox-antelope," Nu 23 22). LXX has /J.ov6/

      As stated in the ar(s. on ANTELOPE and CATTLE, r e 'em and t c 'o (Dt 14 5; Isa 51 20) may both be the Arabian oryx (Oryx bcatrix), of which the com- mon vernacular name means "wild-ox." It may be presumed that "ox-antelope" of Nu 23 22 RVm is meant to indicate this animal, which is swift and fierce, and has a pair of very long, sharp and nearly straight horns. The writer feels, however, that more consideration should be given to (he viewjof Tristram (Natural History of the Bible) that r e 'em is the urns or aurochs, the primitive Bos taurus, which seems to be depicted in Assyr monuments and referred to as remit (1U)B). The etymology of r e 'cm is uncertain, but the word may be from a root signifying "to rise" or "to be high." At any rate, there is no etymological warrant for the as- sumption that it was a one-horned creature. The

      Arab. *JN , raim, is used of a light-colored gazelle.

      The great strength and fierceness implied in most of the references suit the wild-ox better than the oryx. On the other hand, Edom (Isa 34 7) was adjacent to the present home of the oryx, while there is no reason to suppose that the wild-ox came nearer than Northern Assyria. There is possibly a reference to the long horns of the oryx in "But my horn hast thou exalted like (he horn of (he wild-ox" (Ps 92 10). For t e 'o, LXX has 6pv, orux, in Dt

      14 5 (but



      Widow Wind

      only antelope that, could possibly bo meant, it and the gazelle (fbln), already mentioned in Dt 14 5, being the only antelopes known to occur in Pal and Arabia. In Isa 34 7 it seems to be implied that the r e 'em might be used in sacrifice.

      Figurative: The wild-ox is used as a symbol of the strength of Israel: "lie hath as it were the strength of the wild-ox" (Xu 23 22; 24 S). In the bless- ing of the children of Israel by Moses it is said of Joseph:

      " And liis horns are the horns of the wild-ox: "With them he shall push the peoples all of them, even the ends of the earth " (l)t 33 17).

      The Psalmist (29 5.0) in describing the power of Jeh says:

      "Yea, Joh breakoth in pieces the cedars of Lebanon. He imiketh them also to skip like a calf; Lebanon and Sirion like a young wild-ox."

      Again, in praise for Jeh's goodness (92 10): "But my horn hast thou exalted like the horn of the wild- ox."

      In Job 39 9-12 the subduing and training of the wild-ox are cited among the things beyond man's power and understanding. See ANTELOPE; CATTLE.




      WILL, VOLITION, vO-lish'un (POX, 'abhdh, "P^"; , rdfoti; Oe'Xco, t field, |3ov\\o(Aai, boulomai, 6t\\T]pa., theleitiu): "Will" as noun and vb., trans and in- trans, carries in it the idea of "wish," "purpose," "volition." "Will" is also used as an auxiliary of the future tense of other words, but the independent vb. is frequent, and it is often important to distin- guish between it and the mere auxiliary, esp. in the NT.

      In the OT the word chiefly rendered "to will" is 'dbhdli, "to breathe after," "to long for." With the exception of Job 39 9; Isa 1 19, it is accompanied by a negation, and is used of both man and God. Several other words are employed, but only sparsely. "Will" as noun is the tr chiefly of rafon, "good-will," "wilfulness" (Gen 49 6), with emphasis on the vol- untariness of action (Lev 1 3; 19 5; 22 19.29, etc); also of nephexh, and a few other words. In the NT "will" is chiefly the tr of thclo and boulomai, the difference between the two being that thclo expresses an active choice or purpose, boulomai, "passive inclination or willingness, or the inward predisposition from which the active choice pro- ceeds" (cf Mk 15 9.12 with ver 15). "Will," noun, is thdema. With the exception of a few pas- sages, it is used of the will of God (over all, Mt 18 14"; in all things to be done, Mt 6 10; 26 42 |l , etc; ordering all things, Eph 1 11, etc); human will, however, may oppose itself to the will of God (Lk 23 25; Jn 1 13; Rom 7 IS; here the capacity to will is distinguished from the power to do, etc). Boulema is properly counsel or purpose. W r hile it is possible to oppose the will of God, His counsel or purpose cannot be frustrated (Acts 2 23; 4 28; Rom 9 19; Eph 1 11; He 6 17); it may, how- ever, be resisted for a time (Lk 7 30).

      In Apoc, for "will" we have thelcma (1 Esd 9 9 [of God]; Keclus 43 16; 1 Mace 3 60; Kcclus 8 15, "his own will"); boule (Wisd 9 115, KV "counsel); boulemu (2 Mace 15 5, "wicked will," KV "cruel purpose"); "wilful" (Kcclus 30 X) is proalfs, RV "headstrong"; "willing" (Wisd 14 1!)), boulomai, KV "wishing"; thtld (Ecclus 6 35); "wilt" (Wisd 12 18), thclo, KV " hast the will " (cf 2 Mace 7 10).

      RV has many changes, several of them of note as bringing out the distinction between the auxiliary and the independent vb. Thus, Mt 11 27, "witi-

      eth to"; Jn 7 17, "if anv man \\\\illeili to do his will"; 1 Tim 6 9, ARV "they that are minded to be rich," ERV "desire," etc.

      The words employed and passages cited show clearly that man is always regarded as a respon- sible being, free to will in harmony with the Divine,' will or contrary to it. This is further shown by t In- various words denoting refusal. "Ye will not come to me, that ye may have life" (Jn 6 40;. So with respect to temptation. We may even choose and act deliberately in opposition to the will of God. Yet God's counsel, His will in its completeness, ever prevails, and man, in resisting it, deprives himself of the good it seeks to confer upon him.

      In modern psychology the tendency is to make will primary and distinctive of personality.

      W. L. WALKER

      WILL-WORSHIP: In Col 2 23, "a show of wisdom in will-worship," for tOeXoOprjaxia, <'tft<'li>- threskia, a word found nowhere else but formed exactly like "will-worship": worship originating in the human will as opposed to the Divine, arbitrary religious acts, worthless despite their difficulty of performance.

      WILLOW TREE, wil'd-tre (HEM? , c

      Comparison with the Arab. oL^iA^ , w//.sv7/, "the willow," makes it very probable that the tr of Ezk 17 5 is correct.

      WILLOWS, wil'dz (2' l 3n?, \\mlbhwi; Ma, itea [Lev 23 40; Job 40 22;' Ps 137 2; Isa 15 7; 44 4]): In all references this tree is mentioned as beside running water. They may all refer to the willow, two varieties of which, ~ tialix fragiliti and S. alba, occur commonly in Pal, or to the closelv allied Populus eupkratiis (also X.O. Salicaceae), which is even more plentiful, esp. on the Jordan and its tributaries. The Brook of the Willows (Isa 16 7) must have been some stream running from Moab to the Jordan or Dead Sea. Popular fancy has associated the willows of Ps 137 2 with the so-called "weeping willow" (Salix bubi/loniai), but though this tree is found today in Pal, it is an intro- duction from Japan and cannot have existed "by the waters of Babylon" at the time of the captivity. E. W. G. MASTERMAN

      WILLOWS, THE BROOK OF THE: Evidently mentioned as the boundary of Moab (Isa 15 7) and generally identified with the brook Zercd. See BROOK; ZERED.

      WIMPLE, wim'p'l: RV substitutes "shawls" for AV "wimples" in Isa 3 22. The precise article of dress intended is unknown. See DRESS.

      WIND, wind (H^l , ru a h; avefxos, dncmos): Un-

      equal distribution of heat in the atmosphere causes

      currents of air or wind. The heated

      1. Causes air rises and the air from around rushes

      in. The direction from which a cur- rent comes determines its name, as west wind coming from the W. but blowing toward the E. When two currents of air of different directions meet, a spiral motion sometimes results. See WHIRL- WIND.

      In Pal the west, wind is the most common. It comes from the sea and carries the moisture which

      condenses to form clouds, as it is turned

      2. West upward by the mountains, to the cooler Wind layers of the atmosphere. If the tem-

      perature reached is cool enough the cloud condenses and rain falls. Elijah looked toward the \\V. for the "small cloud," and soon "the heavens grew black with clouds and wind" (1 K 18 44 f). "When ye see a cloud rising in the west,


      Wine, Wine Press



      straightway ye say, There comet h a shower; and so it eometh to pass" (Lk 12 54).

      The south wind is frequent in Pal. If it is slightly

      S.W., it may bring rain, but if it is due S. or S.E.,

      there is no rain. It is n warm wind

      3. South bringing good weather. "When ye Wind see a south wind blowing, ye say,

      There will be a scorching heat; and it, eometh to pass" (Lk 12 55). In the cooler months it is a gentle, balmy wind, so that the "earth is still by reason of the south wind" (Job 37 17; of Cant 4 16).

      The north wind is usually a strong, continuous wind blowing clown from the northern hills, and

      while it is cool it. always "drives away

      4. North rain," as correctly stated in Prov 25 Wind 23 AV; yet it is a disagreeable wind,

      and often causes headache and fever.

      The east wind or sirocco (from Arab, shark =

      "east") is the "scorching wind" (Jas 1 11) from

      the desert. It is a hot, gusty wind

      5. East laden with sand and dust and occurs Wind most, frequently in May and October.

      The temperature in a given place often rises 15 or 20 degree's within a few hours, bringing the thermometer to the highest readings of the year. It is customary for the people to close up the houses tightly to kee'p out the dust and heat. The heat and dryness wither all vegetation (f!en 41 6). Happily the wind seldom lasts for more than three davs at a time. It is the destructive "wind of the wilderness" (Job 1 19; Jer 411; 13 24) : _ "Joh caused the sea to go back by a strong east wind all the night" (Ex 14 21) for the children of Israel to pass; the "rough blast in the day of the east wind" (Isa 27 S). The strength of the wind makes it dangerous for ships at sea: "With the east wind thou breakest the ships of Tarshish" (Ps 48 7). Euraquilo or Euroclydon (Acts 27 14 AV), which caused Paul's shipwreck, was an E.N.E. wind, which was e-q>. dangerous in that, region.

      The wind is directly of great, use to the farmer

      in Pal in winnowing the grain after it is threshed

      by treading out (Ps 14; 35 5; Isa

      6. Practical 17 13). It was used as a sign of the Use weather (Eccl 11 4). It was a neces- sity for traveling on the sea in ancient

      times (Acts 28 "13; Jas 3 4), but too strong a wind

      caused shipwreck (Jon 14; Mt 8 24; Lk 8 23).

      The Scriptural references to wind show many

      illustrative and figurative uses: (1) Power of God

      (1 K 19 11; Job 27 21 ; 38 24; Ps 107

      7. Scripture 25; 135 7; 147 IS; 148 8; Prov 30 4; References Jer 10 13; Hos 4 19; Lk 8 2. r >): "He

      caused the east wind to blow in the heavens; and by his power he guided the south wind" (Ps 78 2(1). (2) Scattering and destruction: "A stormy wind shall rend it" (Ezk 13 11; cf 5 2; 12 14; 17 21; Hos 4 19; 8 7; Jer 49 36; Alt 7 25). (3) Uncertainty: "tossed to and fro and carried about with every wind of doctrine" (Eph 4 14; cf Prov 27 16; Eccl 1 6; Jn 3 8; Jas 1 6) (4) Various directions: "toward the four winds of heaven" (Dnl 11 4; cf 8 8; Zee 2 6; Mt 24 31; Mk 13 27). (5) Brevity: "a wind that passeth away" (Ps 78 39; cf 1 4; 35 5; 103 16). (6) Nothingness: "Molten images are wind" (Isa 41 29; cf Jer 5 13). ALFRED H. JOY

      WINDOW, win'do. See HOUSE, II, 1, (9).


      WINE, win, WINE PRESS, win'pres: /. Terms. (1) "p.., y"!fin, apparently from a non-Sem root allied to Or (w)oinos, Lat vinum, etc.

      This is the usual word for "wine" and is found 141 t in MT. (2) "TCH , hctner, perhaps "foam- ing" (Dt, 32' U'and MT Isa 27 2 [but 1. Wine see ERVm]) ; Aram. "V2H ; hamar (Ezr 6 9; 722; Dnl 5 (3) TJJTT 1 !? , tlroxh. Properly this is the fresh grape juice (called also rniB'O , mishrch, Nu 6 3), even when still in the grape (Isa 65 8). But unfer- mented grape juice is a very difficult thing to keep without the aid of modern antiseptic precautions, and its preservation in the warm and_ not over- cleanly conditions of ancient Pal was impossible. Consequently, tirosh came to mean wine that was not fully aged (although with full intoxicating properties [Jgs 9 13; Hos 4 11; cf Acts 2 13]) or wine when considered specifically as the product of grapes (Dt 12 17; 18 4, etc). LXX always (except Isa 65 8; Hos 4 11) translates by oinos and the Tgs by hamar. AV has "wine" 26 t, "new wine" 11 t, "sweet wine" in Mic 6 15; RV "vint- age" in Nu 18 12; Mic 6 15 (with the same change in Neh 10 37.39 RVm; Isa 62 8 ERVm). Otherwise ERV has left AV unchanged, while ARV uses "new wine" throughout. (4) Two apparently poetic words are C^C7 , 'a.s-7.s (RV "sweet wine," Isa 49 26; Am 9 13; Joel 1 5; 3 IS, "juice"; Cant 8 2), and MO , sobhc' ("wine," Isa 1 22; drink," Hos 4 18' [m "carouse"]; Nah 1 10). (5) For spiced wine three words occur: 7fD^3 , >,,,wkh, Ps 75 8 (EV "mixture"); tfy^S , mim- $akh, Prov 23 30 ("mixed wine"); Isa 65 11 (RV "mingled wine"); STO , mczcgh, Cant 7 2 (RV "mingled wine"); cf 'also Hp/in "^ , yaijin Itd- rckah, Cant 8 2 ("spiced wine"). (6) D^pC^S , >nam c thal'klm, lit. "sweet," Neh 8 10.

      (7) "OJ, shuklmr (22 t), tH "strong drink" in EV. Sfce&Aar appears to mean "intoxicating drink" of any s;>rt and in Nu 28 7 is certainly simply "wine" (cf also its use in parallelism to "wine" in Isa 5 11.22, etc). In certain passages (Lev 10 !>; Nu G X; 181 !", etc) however, it is distinguished from "wine, and tne meaning is not quite certain. But it would seem to mean "drink not made from grapes." Of such only pomegranate wine is named in the Bible (Cant 8 2), but a variety of such preparations (made from apples, quinces, dates, barley, etc) were known to the ancients and must have been used in Pal also. The tr "strong drink" is unfortunate, for it suggests "distilled liquor, "brandy," which is hardly in point. See DUINK, STUONG.

      (8) In the Apoc and NT "wine" represents olcos, o'moN, with certain compounds, except in Acts 2 13, where the C!r is y\\evKos, yluukos, "sweet," EV "new wine."


      (1) Properly speaking, the actual wine press was called na, ydth (Jgs 6 11, etc), and the receiving

      vat ("fat") 3JT, yckcbh (Nu 18 27, 2. Wine etc), but the names were interchange- Press able to some degree (Isa 16 10; Job

      24 11; cf Isa 5 2, RV text and m) and either could be used for the whole apparatus (see GATH and cf Jgs 7 25; Zee 14 10). In Isa 63 3 the Heb has rTttS , purah, "winetrough," a word found also in Hag 2 16 where it seems to be a gloss (so, apparently, ARV).

      (2) In the Apoc (Sir 33 16) and in the NT (Mt 21 33; Rev 14 19.20 [bis]; 19 15) "winepress" is \\riv6s, lends; in Mk 12 1 viro\\^viov, hupolenion, by which only the receiving vat seems to be meant (RV "a pit for a winepress").

      //. Wine -Making. For the care of the vine, ita distribution, different varieties, etc, see VINE. The ripening of the grapes took place as early as June in the Jordan valley, but on the coast not until August, while in the hills it was delayed until September. In whatever month, however, the




      Wine, Wine Press

      coming of the vintage was ihc signal for the vil- lagers to leave their homes in a body and to encamp in booths erected in the vineyards,

      1. The so that the work might, be carried on Vintage without interruption (see TABER- NACLES, FEAST OF). It was the great

      holiday season of the year and the joy of the vintage was proverbial (Isa 16 10; Jer 25 30; 48 33; of Jgs 9 27), and fragments of vintage songs seem to be preserved in Isa 27 2; 65

      Many of the ancient wine presses remain to the

      present day. Ordinarily they consisted of two

      rectangular or circular excavations,

      2. Wine hewn (Isa 5 2) in the solid rock to a Presses depth of 2 or 3 feet. "Where possible

      one was always higher than the other and they were connected by a pipe or channel. Their size, of course, varied greatly, but the upper

      Largo Foot Press (Egyptian).

      vat was always wider and shallower than the lower and was the press proper, into which the grapes were thrown, to be crushed by the feet of the tread- ers (Isa 63 1-3, etc). The juice flowed down through the pipe into the lower vat, from which it was removed into jars (Hag 2 1(1) or where it was allowed to remain during the first fermentation.

      Many modifications of this form of the press are found. "Where there was no rock close to the sur- face, the vats we're dug in the earth and lined with stonework or cement, covered with pitch. Or the pressvat might be built up out of any material (wood was much used in Egypt), and from it the juice could be conducted into a sunken receptacle or into jars. Not infrequently a third (rarely a fourth) vat might be added between the other two, in which a partial settling and straining could take place. Wooden beams are often used either to finish the pressing or to perform the whole operation, and holes into which the ends of these beams fitted can still be seen. A square of wood attached to the beam bore down on the pile of grapes, while the free end of the beam was heavily weighted. In the simpler presses the final result was obtained by piling stones on the mass that remained after the treaders had finished their work.

      It is a general principle of wine-making (cf OIL) that "the less the pressure the better the product"; therefore the liquid that flowed at the 3. Grading beginning of the process, esp. that pro- duced by the mere weight of the grapes themselves when piled in heaps, was carefully kept separate from that which was obtained only under heavy pressure. A still lower grade was made by adding water to the final refuse and allowing the mixture to ferment. Possibly this last con- coction is sometimes meant by the word "vinegar" (homes).

      ' In the climate of Pal fermentation begins almost immediately, frequently on the same day for juice pressed out in the morning, but never later than the next day. At first a slight foam appears on

      the surface of the liquid, and from that moment,

      according to .Jewish tradition, it is liable to the

      wino-t it lie (Mu'<~iN<~mt/> 1 7). The ac-

      4. Fermen- 1 ion rapidly becomes more violent , and tation while it is in progress the liquid must be

      kept in jars or in a vat, for it would burst even the newest and strongest of wine-skins (Job 32 19). Within about a week this violent fermentation subsides, and the wine is transferred to other jars or strong wine-skins (Mk 2 22 and 's), in which it undergoes the secondary fermen- tation. At the bottom of the receptacles collects the heavier matter or "lees" (""""l^'iT , xli'inanni, Ps 75 8 ["dregs"]; .Jer 48 11; Zeph'l 12; in Jsa 26 (> the word is used for the wine as well,), from which the "wines on the lees" gather strength and flavor. At the end of 40 days it, was regarded as properly "wine" and could be offered as a drink offering CEdhuyyoth 6 1). The practice after this point seems to have varied, 710 doubt depending on the sort of wine that was being made. Certain kinds were left undisturbed to age "on their lees" and were thought to be all the better for so doing, but before they were used it was necessary to strain them very carefully. So Isa 25 G, 'A feast of wine aged on the lees, thoroughly strained.' But usually leaving the wine in the fermentation vessels inter- fered with its improvement or caused it, to degen- erate. So at the end of 40 days it was drawn off into other jars (for storage, 1 Ch 27 27, etc) or wine-skins (for transportation, Josh 9 4, etc). So Jer 48 11: 'Moab has been undisturbed from his youth, and he has rested on his lees and has not been emptied from vessel to vessel There- fore his flavor remains unchanged for "becomes insipid"] and his scent is unimproved [or "lacks freshness"]'; cf Zeph 1 12.

      Jars were tightly sealed with caps covered with

      pitch. The very close sealing needed to preserve

      sparkling wines, however, was un-

      5. Storage known to the Hebrews, and in conse-

      quence (and for other reasons) such

      wines were not used. Hence in Ps 75 8, "The wine foamcth," the allusion must be to very new wine whose fermentation had not yet subsided, if, indeed, the tr is not wrong (RVm "The wine is red"). The superiority of old wine to new was acknowledged by the Hebrews, in common with the rest of the world (Sir 9 10; Lk 5 39), but in the wines of Pal acetous fermentation, changing the wine into vinegar, was likely to occur at any time. Three years was about the longest time for which such wines could be kept, and "old wine" meant only wines that had been stored for a year or more (Bab. ttuth. 6 3). See also CRAFTS, II, 19. ///. Use of Wine. In OT times wine was drunk undiluted, and wine mixed with water was thought

      to be ruined (Isa 1 22). The "mixed" 1. Mixed or "mingled wines" (see I, 1, (5), above) Wine were prepared with aromatic herbs

      of various sorts and some of these com- pounds, used throughout the ancient world, were highly intoxicating (Isa 6 22). Wine mixed with myrrh was stupefying and an anaesthetic (Mk 15 23). At a later period, however, the Cir use of diluted wines had attained such sway that the writer of 2 Mace speaks (15 39) of undiluted wine as "distasteful" (polcmion). This dilution is so normal in the following centuries that the Mish can take it for granted and, indeed, It. Eliezer even forbade saying the table-blessing over undiluted wine (Ii''rdkhOth 7 />). The proportion of water was large, only one-third or one-fourth of the total mixture being wine (Nul/lah 2 7; l )l 'mhltn 1086).

      NOTE. The wino of the Last Supper, accordingly, may bo described in modern terms as a sweet, red, fer- mented wine, rather highly diluted. As it was no doubt

      Winebibber Wisdom



      the ordinary wine of commerce, tlr.-ro is no reason to suppose that it was particularly " pure."

      Throughout ihe OT, wine is regarded as a neces- sity of life and in no way as a more luxury. It was a necessary part of even the sim- 2. Wine- plost meal ((Jon 14 IS; Jgs 19 19; Drinking 1 S 16 20; Isa 55 1, etc), was an indispensable provision for a fortress (2 Ch 11 11), and was drunk by all classes and all ages, oven by the very young (Lam 2 12; Zee, 9 17). "Wine" is bracketed with "grain" as a basic staple ((Jon 27 2S, etc), and the failure of the wine- crop or its destruction by foreigners was a terrible calamity (Dt 28 30.39; Isa 62 S; 65 21; Mic 6 15; Zeph 1 13, etc). On the other hand, abundance of wine was a special token of God's blessing (Gen 27 2S; Dt 7 13; Am 9 14, etc), and extraordinary abundance would be a token of the Messianic age (Am 9 13; Joel 3 IS; Zee, 9 17). A moderate "glad- dening of the heart" through wine was not looked upon as at all reprehensible (2 S 13 2S; Est 1 10; Ps 104 lo; Eccl 9 7; 10 19; Zee 9 !.">; 10 7), and while Jgs 9 13 represented a mere verbal remnant of a long-obsolete concept, yet the idea contained in the verse was not thought shocking. "Drink offer- ings," indeed, were of course a part of the proscribed ritual (Lev 23 13, etc; see SACRIFICE), and a store of wine was kept in 1 he t omplo (tabernacle) to insure their performance (1 Ch 9 29). Even in later and much more moderate times, Sir writes the laudation of wine in 31 27, and the writer of 2 Mace (see above) objects as strongly to pure water as he does to pure wine. Christ adapted Himself to Jo\\\\ ish customs (Mt 11 19 I Lk 7 34; Lk 22 18), and ex- ogetos usually suppose that the celebrated verse 1 Tim 6 23 is meant as a safeguard against as -otic (gnostic?) dualism, as well as to give medical advice.

      On the temporal conditioning of the Bib. cus- toms, the uncompromising opposition of the Bible to excess, and the non-applicability of the ancient attitude to the totally different modern conditions, see DitrNKKNNKss.

      The figurative uses of wine are very numerous, but are for the most part fairly obvious. Those offering difficulty have been discussed in the course of the article. For wine in its commercial aspect see THADK. BIKTOX SCOTT EASTON

      WINEBIBBER, wm'bib-er: In Prov 23 20, ]^_ S5b, Kdhhc yayin; in Mt 11 19 = Lk 7 34, oiVoTrirTjs, oino/x'ttrH, of habitual wine-drinkers. The accusat ion was falsely brought against Jesus of being "a gluttonous man and a winobibber," because, unlike .John, He ate and drank with others.

      WINEFAT, win 'fat, WINE PRESS, wln'pres, WINEVAT, wln'vat. See CRAFTS, II, 19; VINK; WINK.

      WINE-SKINS (man, hcmcth [Gen 21 14m], "S?:, n'ddh [Jgs 4 19, "bottle"], bi: , ncbltcl, bn: , ru>1>hd [1 S 10 3m], 31S , 'dbh [Job 32 19]; do-Kos, r/.sV;<'>.s[Mt 9 17; Mk 2 22; Lk 5 37; cf do-Ko-jrvTivi!, askoputinv, Jth 10 5, 11 V "leathern _ bottle"]): These words are all used to designate skins for the containing of liquids, nchhd, however, being the most common in the case of wine. The Israelite, like the modern Arab and Syrian, used mainly the skin of the goat and the sheep, but the skins of the ox and the camel have also been put to this purpose. The skin is removed from the animal by drawing it over the body from the neck downward, half the skin on each of the limbs being also retained. It is then tanned, the hair cut close, turned inside out, and has all the openings save one closed with cords, when it is ready for use. The reference to "a wine-

      skin in the smoke" in Ps 119 S3 is generally ex- plained on the supposition of its being hung there for mellowing purposes, but this can scarcely be accepted, for wine is never left for any length of time in the ski a on account of its imparting a dis- agreeable flavor to the contents. The explanation of the NT passages is that the new wine, still liable to continue fermenting to a small extent at least, was put into new, still expansible skins, a condition that had ceased in the older ones. See WINK.


      WINGS, wingz (EI2 , kandph; irrtpv^, ptcritx): Bib. references to the wings of birds are common, esp. in Pss, many of them exquisitely poetical. Often the wings of an eagle are mentioned because they are from 7 to 9 ft. in swoop, of untiring flight, and have strength to carry heavy burdens: so they became the symbol of strength and endurance. Ancient monuments and obelisks are covered with the heads of bulls, lions, different animals, and men oven, to which the wings of an eagle wore added to symbolize strength. Sometimes the wings of a stork are used to portray strong flight, as in the vision of Zechariah: "Then lifted I up mine eyes, and saw, and, behold, there came forth two women, and the wind was in their wings; now they had wings like the wings of a stork; and they lifted up the ephah between earth and heaven" (5 9). The wings of a dove symbolized love. ^ ings in the abstract typified shelter, strength or speed, as a rule, while in some instances their use was ingenious and extremely poetical, as when Job records that the Almighty used wings to indicate migration: "And stretcheth her wings toward the south" (39 20). In Ps 17 8 there is a wonderful poetical imagery in the plea, "Hide me under the shadow of thy wings." In Ps 18 10 there is a reference to "the wings of the wind." And in 55 6 the Psalmist cries, "Oh that I had wings like a dove!" The brightness and peace of prosperous times are beau- tifully described in Ps 68 13, 'the wings of a dove covered with silver, and her pinions with pale green gold.' The first rays of dawn are compared to "the wings of the morning" (139 9). Solomon was thinking of the swift ness of wings when ho said, "For riches certainly make themselves wings, like an eagle that flieth toward heaven" (Prov 23 .5). So also was Isaiah in 40 31, "They that wait for Job shall renew their strength; th:-y shall mount up with wings as eagles; they shall run, and not be weary; they shall walk, and not faint." In Mai 4 2 AV, there is a beautiful reference, "But unto you that fear my name shall the Sun of right- eousness arise with healing in his wings." KV changes "his" to "its." Wings as an emblem of love were used by Jesus in the cry, "O Jerusalem .... how often would I have gathered thy children .... as a hen gathereth her chickens under her wings" (Mt 23 37). GENE STRATTON-POKTER

      WINK, wink ("fl , rdzam, lit. "to roll the eyes") : The act or habit of winking was evidently considered to be evil both in its motives and in its results. The idea of its facetiousness, prevalent in our day, is nowhere apparent in the Scriptures. It is men- tioned frequently, but is always associated with sin. in the OT esp. 'in the sense of conceit, pride, and rebellion against God: "Why doth thine_ heart carry thee away? and what do thy eyes wink at, that thou turnest thy spirit against God" (Job 15 12.13 AV). So also Ps 35 19: "Neither let them wink with the eye that hate me without a cause." "A naughty person, a wicked man, walketh with a froward mouth. He winketh with his eyes," etc (Prov 6 12.13AV). "He that winketh with the



      Winebibber Wisdom

      eve cause! h sorrow" (10 K)J. See Walk inson, Edu- cation, of t/ic Heart, "I'll hies of ( lest urc," 194 IT.

      In (h(! NT the word is used to express the long- suffering patience iind forgiveness of (!od toward erring Isniel: "And Ihe limes of (his ignorance (lod winked at" (Acts 17 30 AV, v-n-fpeldov, hupen-idon, "overlooked," ;uid so tr a in RV; ef Wisd 11 23; Ecclus 30 11). The use of "winked" in this con- nection would in our day, of course, be considered in had taste, if not actually irreverent, but it- is an excellent example of the colloquialism of AV.

      Ait-rum W.YLWYX EVAXS

      WINNOWING, win'o-ing. See Acauci i;n iu;; FAN; THHKSHI.M;.

      WINTER, win'ter (3^H , hon'/rii, from CHH , hdrnjik, "to inundate," "overflow"): The I'ainy season, also the autumn harvest season ((Jen 8 22; Ps 74 17; Zee 14 X). It is also the time of cold (Jer 36 22; Am 3 !'>). The vb. "to winter" occurs in Isa 18 (i. ft' thaw O^lp) has the same meaning as horcph (Cant 2 1 1). -^ei^v, chcimon, corresponds to hdrcph as the rainy season, and the vb. Trapaxet- judfu, pamrhi'iindzo, signifies "to pass the winter" (Acts 27 12), the noun from which is -n-apaxei^acrla paracheimasia (ib). See SKASONS.

      WINTER-HOUSE (rnhrrr* 1 ? , btth lm-horeph [Jer 36 22; Am 3 !">]): See under SUMMEII- iiorsi:. The "winter-house" in Jer is that of King Jehoiakim; mention is made of the fin; burning in the brazier.

      WISDOM, wi/'dum:

      1. Linguist ie

      2. History

      :5. Religious Basis

      4. Ideals

      5, Teaching of Christ

      (>. Kernainder of the XT

      (1) James

      (2) Paul 7. Hypostasls LITERATURE

      In RV the noun "wisdom" and its corresponding adj. and vb. ("be wise," "act wisely," etc) represent

      a variety of Heb words : "p2, , bin 1. Lin- (~P5 , Vinah, and in ERV ni^tf ,

      guistic fbhundJi), 52T1J , sdkhal (bwTZJ , sckhel,

      bptp, sekhel), V? , Icbh (and in ERV Sib , ldbh(il)}i)',r?VKF\\ , tushlydh (and in ERV C7S , i f 'c///\\ rTO"]y , W//m/i, np.S , pikkc' l h. None of these, however, is of very frequent occurrence and by far the most common group is the vb. DSH , hale ham, with the adj. CDH , hdkhdm, and the nouns "VG2n , hokhtndh, FiTCSn , hokhmoth, with something over 300 occurrences in the OT (of which rather more than half are in Job, Prov, and Eccl). Hokhmdh, accordingly, may be treated as the Heb equivalent for the Eng. "wisdom," but none the less the two words do not quite correspond. For hokhmah may be used of simple technical skill (Ex 28 3; 35 2f>, etc; cf Wisd 14 2; Sir 38 31; note that the EV gives a false impression in such passages), of military ability (Isa 10 13), of the intelligence of the lower animals (Prov 30 24), of shrewdness applied to vicious (2 S 13 3) or cruel (1 K 2 9 Heb) ends, etc. Obviously no one Eng. word will cover all these different uses, but the general meaning is clear enough "the art of reaching one's end by the use of the right means" (Smend). Predominantly < he "wisdom" thought of is t hat which comes through experience, and the "wise man" is at his best in old age (Job 12 12; 15 10; Prov 16 31; Sir 6 34; 8 9; 25 3-G, etc; contrast Job 32 9; Eccl 4 13; Wisd 4 9; Sir 25 2). And in religion the "wise man" is he who gives to the things of Cod the same acuteness that other men give to worldly affairs (Lk 16 8). He is distinguished from the prophets as not having personal inspiration, from the priestly school as not

      living primary stress on the cult us, ;md from the scribes as not devoted simply to the studv of the sacred writings. But, in the word by itself, a "wise man" need not in any way be a religious man.

      In the RV Apoe and NT the words "wisdom." "wise," "act wisely," etc, are always ti M of <7i>knx, or ./.p hi , is in almost every ease t he original word, t he sole exception in the XT being JJt 1 17 (/>po'ij<7i<;, jiltni- nt'siii). See also PRUDENCE.

      (1) In the prophetic, period, indeed, "wise" gen- erally has an irreligious connotation. Israel was

      fully sensible; that her culture was 2. History beneath) hat of the surrounding nations,

      but thought, of this as the reverse of a defect. Intellectual power without moral control was the very fruit of the forbidden tree (den 3 f)), and "wisdom" was essentially a heathen quality (Isa 10 13; 19 12; 47 10; K/k 28 3 :>; Zee 9 2; specifically Edomite in Jer 49 7; Ob ver X; con- trast Bar 3 22.23) that deserved only denunciation (Isa 5 21; 29 14; Jer 4 22; 9 23; 18 IS, etc). Certainly at this time Israel was endeavoring to acquire a culture of her own, and there is no reason to question that Solomon had given it a powerful stimulus (1 K 4 29-34). But the times were too distracted and the moral problems too imperative to allow the more spiritually-minded any oppor- tunity to cultivate secular learning, so that "wis- dom" in Israel took on t IK; unpleasant connotation of the quality of the shrewd court counselors, with their half-heathen advice (Isa 28 14-22, etc). And the associations of the word with true religion are very few (Dt 4 6; Jer 8 8), while Dt 32 0; Jer 4 22; 8 9 have a satirical sound 'what men call "wisdom" is really folly!' So, no matter how much material may have gathered during this period (see PKOVKRHS), it is to the post-exilic com- munity that we are to look for the formation of a body of Wisdom literature really associated with Israel's religion.

      (2) The factors that produced it were partly the same as those that produced scribism (see SCHIBIO). Life in Pal was lived only on the sufferance of for- eigners and must have been dreary in the extreme. Under the firm hand of Persia there were no political questions, and in later times the nation was too weak to play any part in the conflicts between An- tioch and Alexandria. Prophecy had about dis- appeared, fulfilment of the Messianic hope seemed too far off to affect thought deeply, and the condi- tions were not yet ripe that produced the later flame of apocalyptic enthusiasm. Nor were there vital religious problems within the nation, now that the fight against idolatry had been won and the ritual reforms established. Artistic pursuits were forbidden (cf esp. Wisd 15 4-0), and the Jewish temperament was not of a kind that could produce a speculative philosophy (note the sharp polemic against metaphysics, etc, in Sir 3 21-24). It was in this period, to be sure, that Jewish commercial genius began to assert itself, but there was no sat- isfaction in this for the more spiritually-minded (Sir 26 29). So, on the one hand, men were thrown back on the records of the past (scribism), while on the other the problems of religion and life were studied through sharp observation of Nature and of mankind. And the recorded results of the latter method form the Wisdom literature.

      (3) In this are included Job, Prov, and Eccl, with certain Pss (notably 19, 37, 104, 107, 147, 148); in the Apoe must be added Sir and Wisd, with part of Bar; while of the other writings of the period parts of Philo, 4 Mace, and the Ahikar legend belong here also. How far foreign influence was at work it is hard to say. Egypt had a Wisdom literature of her own (see EGYPT) that must have been known to




      sonic degree in Pal, while Babylonia and Persia could not, have been entirely without effect but no specific dependence can be shown in any of these cases. For (1 recce the case is clearer, and Gr in- fluence is obvious in Wisd, despite the, particularistic smugness of the author. But there was vitality enough in Judaism to explain the whole movement without recourse to outside influences, and, in any case, it is most arbitrary and untrue to attribute all the Wisdom speculation to Gr forces (as, e.g., does Siegfried, IIDIi).

      The following characteristics are typical of the group: (1) The premises are universal. The writers draw from life wherever found, ad- 3. Religious mitt ing that in some things Israel may Basis learn from other nations. The Prov-

      erbs of Lemuel are referred explicitly to a non-Jewish author (Prov 31 1 RVm), and Sir recommends foreign travel to his students (34 10.11; 39 4). Indeed, all the princes of the earth rule through wisdom (Prov 8 10; cf Eccl 9 15). And (-ven some real knowledge of God can be obtained bv all men through the study of natural phenomena (Ps 19 1; Sir 16 2917 14; 42 1543 33; Wisd 13 2.9; ef Rom 1 20).

      (2) But some of the writers dissent here (Job 28 28; 11 7; Eccl 2 11 ; 8 10.17; 11 5; Wisd 9 13[?]). And in any case this wisdom needs God's explicit grace for its cultivation (Sir 51 13-22; Wisd 77;

      8 21), and when man trusts simply to his own attain- ments he is bound to go wrong (Prov 3 5-7; 19 21; 21 30; 28 11; Sir 3 24; 5 2.3; 6 2; 10 12; Bar 3 15-28). True wisdom must center about God (Prov 15 33; 19 20 f), starting from Him (Prov 1 7;

      9 10; Ps 111 10; Sir 21 1 1 ; Job 28 28) and ending in Him (Prov 2'5); cf esp. the beautiful passage Sir 1 14-20. But, the religious attitude is far from being the whole of Wisdom. The course is very difficult (Prov 2 4 f; 4 7; Sir 4 17; 14 22.23; Wisd 1 5; 17 1); continual attention must be given every department of life, and man is never done learning (Prov 9 9; Sir 6 IS; Eccl 4 13).

      (3) The -attitude toward the written Law varies. In Eccl Job and Prov it is hardly mentioned (Prov 28 7-9| '.'I; 29 is[ ?]). Wisd, as a special pamphlet against idolatry, has little occasion for specific reference, but its high esti- mate of the Law is clear enough (2 12-15; 18 '.>). Sir, esp can find no terms high enough for the praise of the Law (esp. chs 24, 86; cf9 15; 21 LI, etc), and he identifies the Law with Wisdom (24 2:5-25) and claims the prophets as Wisdom teachers (44 3.4). Yet this perverse identi- fication betrays the fact that Sir's Interest is not derived from a real study of the haw; the Wisdom that was so precious to him muxt be in the sacred books! Cf Bar 4 1 (rather more sincere).

      (4) The attitude toward the temple-worship is much the same. The rites are approved (Prov 3 '.; Sir 35 4-s- 38 11; Sir seems to have an especial interest in the priesthood, 7 2.)-:i:i; 50 5-21), but the writers clearly have no theory of sacrifice that they can utilize for prac- tical purposes. And for sacrifice (and even prayer, Prov 28 '.)) as a substitute for righteousness no condem- nation is too strong (Prov 7 14; 15 S; 20 25; 21 3.27; Sir 34 1S-26; 35 1-3.12; Eccl 5 1).

      (5) An outlook on life beyond the grave is notably absent in the Wisdom literature. Wisd is the only exception (3 1, etc), but Gr influence in Wisd is perfectly certain. In Job there are expressions of confidence (14 13-15; 19 25-29), but these do not determine the main argument of the book. Prov does not raise the question, while Eccl and Sir categorically deny immortality (Eccl 9 2-10; Sir 14 16; 17 27.28; 30 4; note that RV in Sir 7 17; 48 11 is based on a glossed text; cf the Heb). Even the Messianic hope of the nation is in the back- ground in Prov (2 21.22 [?]), and it is altogether absent in Job and Eccl. To Sir (35 19; 36 11-14; 47 22) and Wisd (3 8; 5 16-23) it is important, however, but not even these works have anything to say of a personal Messiah (Sir 47 22 [ ?]) .

      (6) That in all the literature the individual is

      the center of interest need not be said. But, this individualism, when combined with the weak es- chatology, brought dire confusion into the doctrine of retribution (see Six). Sir stands squarely by the old doctrine of retribution in this life: if at no other time, a man's sins will be punished on his deathbed (1 13; 11 26). Neither Job nor Eccl, however, are content with this solution. The latter leaves the problem entirely unsolved (8 14, etc), while the former commends it to God's unsearchable ways.

      The basis of the Wisdom method may be de- scribed then as that of a "natural" religion respect- ing revelation, but not making much 4. Ideals use of it. So the ideal is a man who believes in God and who endeavors to live according to a prudence taught by observation of this world's laws, with due respect, however, to Israel's traditional observances.

      (1) From many standpoints the resulting char- acter is worthy of admiration. The man was in- telligent, earnest, and hard-working (Prov has a particular contempt for the "sluggard"; and cf Eccl 9 10). Lying and injustice are denounced on almost every page of the literature, and unceasing emphasis is la'id on the necessity for benevolence (Ps 37 21; 112 5.9; Job 22 7; 31 16-20; Prov 3 27.2S; 14 31; 21 13; 22 9; Eccl 11 1; Sir 4 1- 6; 7 34.35; 29 11-13; 40 24, etc). All of the writers feel that life is worth the living at their most pessimistic moment s the writers of Job and Eccl find attraction in the contemplation of the world. In Prov and Sir the outlook is even buoyant, Sir in especial being far from indifferent to the good things of life (30 23-25; 31 27; cf Eccl 2 24 and contrast Wisd 2 6-9).

      (2) The faults of the Wisdom ideal are the faults of the postulates. The man is always self-conscious and self-centered. All intense enthusiasms are repressed, as likely to prove entangling (Eccl 7 16. 17 is the most extreme case), and the individual is always calculating (Sir 38 17), even among his friends (Sir 6 13; Prov 25 17) and in his family (Sir 33 19-23). Benevolence itself is to be exer- cised circumspectly (Prov 6 1-5; 20 16; Sir 12 5-7; 29 IS), and Sir, in particular, is very far from feeling an obligation to love all men (25 7; 27 24; 30 6; 50 25.26). So "right" and "wrong" become confused with "advantage" and "disadvantage." Not only is adultery wrong (Prov 2 17; Sir 23 23), but the injured husband is a dangerous enemy (Prov 5 9-11.14; 6 34.35; Sir 23 21). As a re- sult the ''moral perspective" is affected. With some of the finest moral observations in Prov and Sir are combined instructions as to table manners (Prov 23 1-3; Sir 31 12-18) and merely humorous observations (Prov 20 14), while such passages as Prov 22 22-28 and Sir 41 17-24 contain extraor- dinary conglomerations of disparate motives.

      (3) "So hope of earthly recompense becomes a very explicit motive (Prov 3 10; 11 25, etc; Wisd 7 8-12 is the best statement on the other side). Even though riches are nothing in themselves (Prov 10 2; 11 28; 23 4.5; 28 11; Eccl 5 13; Sir 11 19; 31 5-7; all the literature denounces the unrighteous rich), yet Wisdom is to be desired as bringing not, onlv righteousness but riches also (Prov 8 21; 11 25; 13 18; Sir 4 15; 20 27.28; Wisd 6 21). This same desire for advantage gives an unpleasant turn to many of the precepts which otherwise would touch the highest point; perhaps Prov 24 17.18 is the most extreme case: "Rejoice not when thine enemy falleth, .... lest Jeh . . . . turn away his wrath from him" (!)

      (4) But probably the most serious fault was that the Wisdom method tended to produce a religious aristocracy (Sir 6 22, etc). It was not enough that

      30!) 1



      the heart, tind will should be right, for a long course of almost technical training was needed (the "house of instruction" in Sir 61 23 is probably the school; cf I'rov 9 4). The uninstructed or "simple" (Prov 1 22, etc) wore grouped quite simply with the "sinners"; knowledge; was virtue and ignorance was vice. Doubtless Wisdom cried in the streets (Prov 1 20.21; 8 1-13; 9 1-0, almost certainly a refer- ence to the canvassing efforts of the teachers for pupils), but only men of ability and leisure could obey the call to learn. And despite all that is said in praise of manual labor (Prov 12 11; 24 27; 28 10; Sir 7 l.~>; 38 31.32.34), Sirach is merely frank when he says explicitly (38 25-34) that Wisdom cannot be for artisans (a carpenter as Messiah evi- dently would have been unthinkable to Sir; Mk 6 3). Scribism was at work along the same lines of development, and the final union of the Wisdom method with the scribal produced a class who called the common people accursed (.In 7 49).

      The statement of (lie methods and ideals of the

      Wisdom school is also virtually a statement of Our

      Lord's attitude toward it and an cx-

      5. Teaching planation of why much of His teaching of Christ took the form it, did. As to the uni- versality of the premises He was at

      one with the Wisdom writers, one great reason for the universality of the appeal of His teaching. Almost everything in the life of the time, from the lily of the field to the king on his throne, contributed its quota to His illustrations. And from the Wis- dom method also the form of His teaching the con- cise, antithetical saying that sticks in the memory was derived to some degree. (Of all the sayings of Christ, perhaps Lk 14 S-10 a quotation of Prov 25 0.7 comes nearest to the pure Wisdom type.) In common with the Wisdom writers, also, is the cheerful outlook, despite the continual pros- pect of the Passion, and we must never forget that all morbid asceticism was entirely foreign to Him (Lk 7 34 j| Alt 11 19). With the self-con- scious, calculat ing product of the Wisdom method, however, He had no patience. Give freely, give as the Father giveth, without regard to self, in no way seeking a reward, is the burden of His teaching, and such a passage as Lk 6 27-38 seems to have been aimed at the head of such writers as Sir. The attack on the religious aristocracy is too familiar to need recapitulation. Men by continual exercise of worldly prudence could make themselves as impervious to His teaching as by obstinate ad- herence to a scribal tradition, while His message was for all men on the sole basis of a desire for righteous- ness on their part. This was the true Wisdom, fully justified of her children (Lk 7 35; cf Mt 11 19), while, as touching the other "Wisdom," Christ could give thanks that Clod had seen fit to hide His mysteries from the wise and prudent and reveal them unto "babes" (Lk 10 21 Mt 11 25).

      (1) The remainder of the NT, despite many occurrences of the words "wise," "wisdom," etc,

      contains very little that is really rele-

      6. Re- vant to the technical sense of the words, mainder The one not able except ion is Jas, which of the NT has even been classed as "Wisdom

      literature," and with some justice. For Jas has the same appeal to observation of Nature (1 11; 3 3-0.11.12; 5 7, etc), the same observation of human life (2; 4 13, etc), the same antithetical form, and even the same technical use of the word "wisdom" (1 5; 3 15- 17). The fiery moral zeal, however, is far above that of the other Wisdom books, even above that of Job.

      (2) St. Paul, on the other hand, belongs to an entirely different class, that of intense religious experience, seeking its premises in revelation. So the Wisdom method is foreign to him and the

      absence of Nature illustrations from his pages is notorious (even Rom 11 17 is an artificially con- structed figure). Only one passage calls for special comment. The "wisdom" against which he inveighs in 1 Cor 1-3 is not Jewish but Gr speculation in philosophy, with studied elegance in rhetoric. Still, Jewish or Gr, the moral difficulty was t he same. God's message; was obscured t hrough an overvaluation of human attainments, and so St. Paid's use of such OT passages as Isa 29 14; Job 6 13; Ps 94 11 (in 1 Cor 1 19; 3 19.20) is en- tirely just. Against this "wisdom" St. Paul sets the doctrine of the Cross, something that outraged every human system but which, all the more, taught man his entire dependence on God.

      (3) Yet St. Paul had a "wisdom" of his own (1 Cor 2 0), that he taught to Christians of mature moral (not 'intellectual: 3 1-3) progress. Some commentators would treat this wisdom as doctrinal and find it in (say) Rom; more probably it is to be connected with the mystical experiences of the Christian whose; life has become fully controlled by the Spirit (1 Cor 2 10-13). For religious progress is always accompanied by a higher insight that, can never be described satisfactorily to persons without the same experience (2 14).

      (1) One characteristic of the Wisdom writers that proved of immense significance for later (esp.

      Christian) theology was a love of rhe- 7. Hypos- torical personification of Wisdom (Prov tasis 1 20-33; 8 1 -9 0; Sir 4 11-19; 6 23-

      31; 14 2015 10; 24; 51 13-21; \\Yisd 6 129 18; Bar 3 29-32). Such personifications in themselves are not, of course, remarkable (cf e.g. the treatment of "love" in 1 Cor 13), but the studied, somewhat artificial style of the Wisdom writers carries out the personification with a curious elaboration of details: Wisdom builds her house, marries her disciple, mingles wine, etc. The most famous passage is Prov 8 22-31, however. The Wisdom that is so useful to man was created before man, before, indeed, the creation of the world. When the world was formed she was in her childhood, and while God formed the world she engaged in childish play, under His shelter and to His delight. So ver 30 should be rendered, as the context makes clear that 'mwn should be pointed 'amun, "sheltered," and not 'amon, "as a master- work man." And "Wisdom" is a quality of man (8 31-30), not a quality of God.

      (2) Indeed, "Wisdom" is an attribute rarely predi- cated of (rod in the OT (1 K 3 2S; Isa 10 13; 31 2; Jcr 10 12; 51 15; cf Dnl 5 11), even in the Wisdom writers (Job 5 12 flf; 9 4; Ps 104 24; Prov 3 19). Partly this reticence seems to be duo to a feeling that Clod's knowledge is hardly to be compared in kind to mail's, partly to the fact that to the earlier writers " Wis- dom" had a profane sound. Later works, however, have less hesitation in this regard (e.g., Sir 42 21; Bar 3 32, the MT pointing and LXX of Prov 8 30), so that the personifications became personifications of a quality of Cod. The result was one of the factors that operated to produce the doctrine of the " Word " as it appeared in the Palestinian form (see LOGOS).

      (3) In the Apoc, however, the most advanced step is taken in Wisd. Wisdom is the only-begotten of God (7 22), the effulgence of eternal light (7 26; cf He 1 3). living with Clod (8 3) and sharing ( '.') His throne (9 4). She is tin; origin (or "mother") of all creatures (7 12; cf 8 6), continually active in penetrating (7 24) .ordering (8 1), and renewing (7 27) all things, while carrying inspiration to all holy souls (7 23), esp. to Israel (10 17. IS). Here there is no doubt that the personification has ceased to be rhetorical and has become real. Wis- dom is thought of as a heavenly being, not so distinctively personal, perhaps, as an angel, but none the less far more than a mere rhetorical term; i.e. she is a "hypos- tasis."

      (4) Most of Wisd's description is simply an expansion of earlier Palestinian concepts, but it is evident that other influence has been at work also and that that in- fluence was (/><

      Wisdom Lit. Wisd of Solomon



      and Gr thought- was still further elaborated by Philo and still further confused. For Philo endeavored to operate with the Wisdom doctrine in its Palestinian form, the Wisdom doctrine into which Wisd had already in- fused some Logos doctrine, and the Logos doctrine by itself, without thoroughly understanding the discordant character of his terms. The result is one, of the most obscure passages in Philo's system. Sometimes, as in DC Fui/. !()'., ch xx, "Wisdom is the mother of the Logos, as God is its Father (cf Cherub., 49, 50, ch xiv), while, again, the relation can toe inverted almost in the same context- and the Logos appears as the source of Wisdom (I) FH-I. !)7. ch xviii). See Locos.

      (5) Philo's influence was incalculable, and Wisdom, as a heavenly power, plays an almost incredible role in the gnostic speculations of the 2d and 3d cents., the gnostic work 1'ixtis Sophia probatoly attaining the climax of unreality. The orthodox Fathers, however, naturally sought Wisdom within the Trinity, and Irenaeus made an identification with the Holy Spirit (iy. 20,:}). Ter- tullian, on the other hand, identified Wisdom with the Son (probably following earlier precedent ) in Atlr. I'rni., 7, and this identification attained general acceptation. So Prov 8 22-30 became a lums classicus in the Christ - ological controversies (an elatoorate exposition in Atha- nasius, Orut. ii. 1(1-22), and persisted as a dogmatic proof-text until a very modern period.

      LiTKiiATriiK. The OT Theologies, particularly those of Stnend, cd 2 (1S99), and Bertliolet (1911). For the intermediate, period, G.I V, III, ed 4 (1909), and l?oussct, Dir H-lii/ion des Judentums, ed 2 (190(1). Special works: Toy, "Wisdom Literature," Eli, IV (UK):};; Meinhold, Die. Weinlieit Israel* (190S); Friedliinder. drieehisehe. I'liiloanphic i in A 'I' (1904. to toe used cautiously). On Philo, cf esp. Drummond, I'ln'lo Jtulaaix, II, 201-1:} (isss). See also the arts, on the various books and cf LOGOS; Pin 1,0 JUD.EUS.


      WISDOM LITERATURE, lit/er-a-tflr. See pre- ceding urticle.

      WISDOM OF GOD (o-oefrCa, sophist): Lk 11 49 reads: "Therefore also said the wisdom of God, I will send unto them prophets and apostles; and some of them they shall kill and persecute." The patristic and many later commentators, on the basis of the parallel in Mt 23 34, took "wisdom of Clod" here to be a self-designation of Christ an interpretation, however, that is obviously impossible. Somewhat, similar is the view (Meyer) that treats the words as a Lukan designation of Christ, with the assumption that, Luke here reintroduces Christ as the speaker in order to give solemnity to the judgment pronounced. But this is incredibly awkward and has no parallel in the Lukan use for even more solemn passages. Much simpler is the interpretation (Hofmann, 15. Weiss, Plummer) that regards Christ as announcing here a decree formed by (lod in the past. But it is the behavior of the present generation that- is in point (cf Lk 13 8.9; 20 13; altogether different is Lk 10 21). And the circumstantial wording of what follows is in- appropriate for such a decree, is without parallel in Christ's teaching, and implies rather a written source. In the OT, however, no passage exists that resembles this (Prov 1 20-31 [so Godet] is quite out of the question). So many exegetes (Holtz- mann, J. Weiss, Loisy, Harnack) find here a quota- tion from some lost source that Our Lord approved and that was familiar to His hearers. This is cer- tainly the most natural explanation. Nor can it be said to be impossible that Christ recognized genuine prophetic inspiration in some writing that was meant to have transitory value only and not to be preserved for future generations. Perhaps this bore the title "Wisdom of Clod" or represented "Wisdom" as speaking, as in Prov 1 22-33.





      1. The Wisdom Section

      2. The Historical Section IV. LITERARY FORM




      X. XI.



      1. Theology

      2. Anthropology

      3. Deontology

      4. Haraartiology , r >. Soteriology

      (i. Eschatology AIM



      1. Literary

      2. Historical

      '.'>. Philosophical ORIGINAL LANGUAGE



      1. Latin

      2. Syriac LITERATURE

      /. Name. -In the (Ir MSS (H A X, etc) the book is called "The Wisdom of Solomon" (2o

      Influenced by the Gr thought and style of the book, Jerome came to the conclusion that Solomon was not its author and he accordingly altered its title to "Tin; Hook of Wisdom" (Liber sapientiae), and it is this desig- nation that the book bears in the Vulg and the VSS made from it, though in the Protestant tr (Ger., Kng., Welsh, etc) the title "The Wisdom of Solomon" is con- tinued, as these follow the (ir \'S and not the Lat. Luther's title is "The Wisdom of Solomon to Tyrants" (Die Salomos an die Ti/rannen). Epiphanius and Athanasius quote the book under the name "All- Virtuous Wisdom" (Ilarapero? icx/Ha, PandretfiH Sophia), a title by which Prov and Sir are also known in tho writ- ings of some of tho Fathers.

      //. Canonicity. In the MSS and edd of the Gr Bible and in the Vulg, EV, etc, Wisd follows Prov, Keel and Cant, and is followed by Sir. Some of the Fathers, believing the, book to be by Solomon, thought it Divinely inspired and therefore canoni- cal; so Hippolytus, Cyprian, Ambrose, etc. Other Fathers, though denying the Solomonian author- ship of the book, yet accorded it canonical rank; so Origen, Eusebius, Augustine, etc. On the other hand then; were some in the early church who re- fused to acknowledge the book as in any way authoritative in matters of doctrine. The Council of Trent included it with the rest of the Protestant Apoc (except 1 and 2 Esd and Pr Man) in the Canon, so that the Romanist Bible includes, but the Protestant Bible excludes, it.

      ///. Contents. The book is made up of two main parts so different as to suggest difference of author- ship. (1) The wisdom section (1 111 4): In this part the writer describes and commends Wisdom, warning his readers against neglecting it. (2) The historical section (11 519 22).

      (1) Righteousness (i.e. Wisdom in operation) leads to immortality, unrighteousness to death (ch 1).

      (2) Contrasted fortunes of the wise (righteous) and unwise (ungodly) (2 16 21). (a) Sensual pleas- ures issue in death while God intended all men to live spiritually (ch 2); (6) the lot of the wise (righteous) is a happy one. Their sufferings are



      Wisdom Lit. Wisd of Solomon

      disciplinary ;iml remedial; they shall live forever and reign hereafter over the nations (Gentiles) (3 1 -<)); 00 hut the lot, of the wicked 1. The and of their children is a miserable

      Wisdom one; t he wise (righteous) shall be happy Section, though childless (3 10-19); (d) virtu- 1:1 11:4 ous childlessness secures immortality before guilty parenthood (4 1-6); 00 though the wise (righteous) die early, yet they have rest in their death, and accomplish their life mission in the allot ted time (cf Enoch) (4 7-14); (/) the un- godly (unwise) shall come to a wretched end: then they shall see and envy the prosperity of the right- eous. Though they shall pass tracelessly away, the righteous shall rejoice in a life that is endless (4 If) 5 23); (c/) kings ought therefore to rule accord- ing to Wisdom and thus attain to immortality (6 1-21).

      (3) Wisdom. Speaking in the name of Solomon, the writer praises Wisdom and commends it to kings ("judges" = "rulers" in 6 1, is but a synonym) (6 1 11 4). (d) All men come into the world with the same universal need of Wisdom which leads to true kingship and immortality (6 1-25); (/>) I (Solomon) sought Wisdom as the main tiling and in obtaining it had along with it every good thing, in- cluding knowledge of every kind (7 1 8 21); (r) the prayer which Solomon offered for Wisdom (9 1-18); O/) how Wisdom defended the heroes of Heb history, from the first man, Adam, to the Israel- ites at the Red Sea and in the wilderness (10 1

      11 4).

      In this second part of the book Solomon 110 longer speaks in the lirst person (as in chs 6-9). nor is Wisdom once mentioned or for certain referred to, though most writers see in this part the attempt of the author of 1 1 11 4 to exemplify in concrete instances the work- m f that Wisdom of which in the first part he describes the nature and issues.

      ( i:) Contrasted treatment by God (not Wisdom) of the Israelites and their foes (11 5 12). By what things their foes were punished they were benefited (11 5). (a) The Egyptians (11 5

      12 2): Water a boon to Israel, a bane to Egypt (11 fi- ll). The Egyptians punished by the, animals they wor- shipped (11 15-20), though there was a relenting on God s part that sinners might repent (11 21 12 2). (b) The Oanaanites (12 3-27): The abominations of the worship and tho Divine punishment with the lessons this last teaches.

      (2) Idolatry described and condemned (chs 13-15). These chapters form a unity in themselves, a digression from the historical survey closed with 12 27 and con- tinued in 16 1 19- The digression may of course be due to the allusion in 11 5 12 to the sins of the Egyp- tians and Canaanites. Kinds of idolatry: (a) Nature- worship (fire, wind, air, water, heavenly bodies), due often to sincere desire to find out God (13 1-9); (6) worship of idols in animal form, a much grosser sin (13 10-19) ; (c) God's indignation against all forms of idolatry (14 1-11); (d) origin of image-worship (14 15-21); the father mourning for his deceased son makes an image of him and then worships it (14 15); rulers are often flattered and then deified (14 16 f) ; artists often make images so attractive as to tempt men to regard them as gods (14 18-21); (c) immoral results of idolatry: "The worship of idols .... a beginning and cause and end of every evil" (ver 27) (14 22-31); (/) Israel was free from idolatry and in consequence enjoyed the Divine favor (15 1-5); (a) the folly of idolatry: the image man made less capable than man its maker and worshipper; the Egyptians tho worst offenders (15 6-19).

      (3) In five different respects the fortunes of Egypt and Israel in the past are contrasted, Nature using similar means to punish the Egyptians and to reward the Israel- ites (16 19 22), viz. in respect of the following: (a) animals, quail (vs 1-4) and fiery serpents (vs 5-14) (16 1-14); (b) fire and water, heat and cold (16 15-29); (r) light and darkness (17 118 4); (d) death (18 5-25); (e) passage of the Red Sea (19 1-22).

      IV. Literary Form. There is not so much mani- fest poetry in this book as in Sir, though there is a large amount of genuine poetry characterized by parallelism, but not by meter in the ordinary sense of the term. In parts of the book, which must be pronounced prose, parallelism is nevertheless often found (see 10 1 ff). There are far fewer epigram-

      n Tha . . Historical

      Section 11 ,- _ -in. 11. L\\3.

      matic sentences in Wisd than in Sir, but on the other hand there; is a far greater number of other rhetorical devices, assonances (1 10; 4 2; 6 15; 7 13), alliterations (2 23; 6 12. IS; 611; 12 15), antitheses (13 ISf), etc. See for details iS'/jfWa.r'.s Apnc (Farrar), I, 404 if.

      V. Unity and Integrity. Nearly all writers on the book believe it to be one homogeneous whole, the work of one mind. They point for proof to the fact that the whole book is a consistent whole; di- rected against the two evils, apostasy and idolatry; that the language is from beginning to end uniform, such as one writer would be likely to employ.

      For a statement, of contrary views and a reply to them see the Co mm. of Grimm, pp. 9-15. Until about the middle of the 18th cent, no doubt had been expressed as regards the unity of the book. (1; Houhigant (Notae critical' in universos XT lihrux. Mil, 1U9) divided tin; book into two parts: chs 1-9 written by Solomon in Heb, chs 10-19 composed in Gr at a later time, perhaps by tin; tr into Gr of chs 1-9. Against the Solomonian author- ship see VIII, below, and against a Heb original sec X, below. Doederlein adopted Houbigant's division of the book, denying, however, the Solomonian authorship. (2) Eiehhorn (Einleitung in das AT, 142 ff) divided the book also into two parts: chs 1-11 and ll 2 19 He held that the whole was composed in Gr by two different writers or by the same writer at different times. (3; Nachtigal (Das Buch der Wcixheit, 1799) went much farther, holding that the; book is nothing more than an anthology, but he has had no followers in this. (4) BretschEeider (I)c lib. Sni>., ls()4) ascribes the book to three principal authors and to a final editor. 1 6 8 was composed in Heb in the time of Antiochus Epiphanes (d. 104 B( v ) by a Palestinian Jew, though it is an excerpt from a larger work; 6 9 10 is the work of an Alexan- drian Jew, a contemporary of Our Lord; eh 11 was in- serted by the final editor as seemingly necessary to con- nect parts 2 and 3; chs 12-19 were' written about the same time by a Jewish partisan of slender education and narrow sympathies.

      Summary. -Perhaps, on the whole, the argu- ments in favor of the unity of the book outweigh those against it. But the evidence is by no means decisive. The Wisdom section (1 1 11 4) is a much finer bit of writing than the rest of the book, and it bears the general characteristics of the Wisdom literature. Yet even within this larger unity chs 6-9 stand out from the rest, since only in them is Solomon made to speak in the first person (cf Eccl 1 12 ff); but these four chapters agree with the rest of the Wisdom section in other respects. Within the historical section (11 5 19 22) chs 13-15 stand together as if a separate treatise on idolatry (see III, above), though if originally independent an editor has logically joined ch 15 to ch 12; cf "for" (ydp, gar), "etc" (13 1). Indeed the book in its present form is made at least externally one, though it is not absolutely certain whether or not this external unity is due to editorial revision. Some scholars have maintained that the book as it stands is a torso (so Eiehhorn, etc). Calmet infers this from the fact that the historical sketch closes with the entrance of the Israelites into Canaan. Others say that the writer's .sketch was cut short by some unforeseen event (Grot ins, Eiehhorn), or that the remainder of the once complete work has been lost in transmission (Heydenreich) . But on the other hand it must be remembered that the writer's record is limited by his purpose, and that the history of the Egyptians supplies an admirable and adequate illustration of the wickedness and calamitous results of unfaithfulness to God and His law.

      VI. Teaching. In the treatment of this section it is assumed with some hesitation that the book is throughout the work of one man. The following is a brief statement of the teaching of this book con- cerning theology, anthropology, deontology, ha- martiology, soteriology, and eschatology.

      Theology in the strict sense, i.e. the doctrine about God: God is incomparably powerful (11 21 f), omni- present (1 7; 12 1) and all-loving (11 24). He made the world out of formless matter (11 17, the



      doctrine of the Alexandrian Judaism). He did not create the \\vorll out of nothing as the OT (Gen 1

      1 IT) and even Sir teach (see SIUACH, 1. Theol- BOOK OF, IV, 1). The author's highest ogy conception of creation is the conversion

      of chaos into cosmos. It is the order and beauty of the universe that amaze the writer, not the stupendous power required to make such a universe out of nothing (11 20; 13 3). Though God is said to be just (12 15), kind (1 13; 11 17-20; 12 13-10; 15 1; 16 7), and is even addressed as Father (14 3), yet He; is in a unique sense the Favorer and Protector of Israel (16 2; 18 8; 19 22j; yet according to 12 2-20 even the calamities He heaps up upon the foes of Israel were designed to lead them to repentance (12 2-20), though in ctis 11 f we are clearly taught that while the suffer- ings of the Israelites were remedial, those of their enemies wen; purely penal. The concept ion of God. in Wisd agrees on t lie whole with that of Alexandrian .Judaism (c 100 BC,>; i.e. it lays principal stress on His transcendence, His infinite aloofness from man and the material world. We have therefore in this book the beginning of t he doctrine of intermediaries which issued in PhilVs I'oiwrx, the media through which the Absolute One comes into definite relation with men.

      (1) Spirit of the. Lord. In Wisd as in the later books of the OT (exilic and post-exilic), the expres- sion ''the Spirit of the Lord" denotes the person of God. What God does is done by the Spirit. Thus it is His Spirit that fills and sustains the world, that observes all human actions (1 7f), that is present everywhere (12 1). Wisdom does not hypost at i/e "the Spirit of the Lord," making it an intermediary between God and His creatures, but the way is prepared for tliis step.

      (2) Wiwlom. Much that is said of the Spirit of the Lord in this book is said of Wisdom, but much more, and there is a much closer approach to hypostatization in the case of Wisdom. At the creation of the world Wisdom was with God (cf Prov 8 22-31), sat by His throne, knew His thoughts and was His associate (8 3; 9 4.1)), made all things, taught Solomon the Wisdom for which he prayed (7 22); all powerful, seeing all things (7 23),' pervading all things (7 24), an effluence of the glory of the Almighty (7 25); she teaches sobriety, understanding, righteousness and courage (8 7, the four cardinal virtues of the Stoic plii- losophy). For detailed account of tJie conception of Wisdom in this book see WISDOM.

      (3) The Lor/08. In Philo the Logos is the inter- mediary power next to Deity, but in Wisd the term keeps to the OT sense, "word," that by which God addresses men. It never means more, though some hold (Gfrorer, Philo, etc, I, 225 ff) that in Wisd 9 If; 12 9; 16 12; 18 22, Logos has the technical sense which it bears in Philo; but a careful exam- ination of the passages shows that nothing more than ''word" is meant (see Locos). The only other superhuman beings mentioned in the book are the gods of the Gentiles which are distinctly de- clared to be nonentities, the product of man's folly (14 13 f), and the devil who is, however, but once referred to as identical with the serpent of Gen 3. The book does not once speak of a Canon of Scrip- ture or of any Divine revelation to man in written form, though it often quotes from the Pent and occasionally from Isa and Pss, never, however, naming them. Wisd is thus much more universal- istic and in harmony with Wisdom literature than Sir, which identifies Wisd with the Law and the Prophets and has other distinctly Jewish features.

      In its psychology Wisd follows the dichotomy of Platonism. Man has but two parts, soul and bodv (1 4; 8 19 f; 9 15), the word soul tyvxt, psuche)

      including the reason (vovs, nous) and the spirit (irvfv/j.a., pneumn). Wisd 15 1 1 is the only passage which seems to teach the doctrine of 2. Anthro- the trichotomy of man, but in reality pology it does nothing of t he kind, for the par-

      allelism shows that by "soul" and "spirit" the same thing is meant. Philo teaches the same doctrine (see Drurnmond, Philo, etc, 1, 310 ff). Man's soul is breathed into the body (15 11; cf Gen 2 7) and taken back again by God (15 8). TJie writer adopts the Platonic theory of the pre- cxistence of souls (8 20; cf 15 8.11.16), which in- volves the belief in a kind of predestination, for the previous doings of the soul determine the kind of body into which it enters. Solomon's soul, being good, entered an undefiled body (8 20). R. II. Charles (Eschatology, etc, 254 f) is hardly correct when he says that according to Wisd (1 4; 9 15, etc) matter is inherently sinful. This doctrine was definitely taught by Philo, who accepted Heraclitus' epigram, criD^a, soina scma, "The bodv is a tomb." So it is said (12 10; 13 1) that man is by nature evil, his wickedness being inborn. But if he sins it is his own affair, for he is free (1 1(5; 5 6.13). The writer borrows two words from Gr poetry and philosophy which appear to involve a negation of human freedom, viz. dvdjKt], andgkc, "necessity," and SIKT], dike, "justice," "avenging justice." The first blinds the eyes of the ungodly (17 17), but tJie blindness is judicial, the result of a course of evil (see 19 1-5). The second term is used in Gr philosophy in the sense of nemesis, and it has that sense in Wisd 1 8, etc. But throughout tliis boolc it is assumed that punishment for sin is deserved, since man is free. The author of Wisd believes in a twofold division into good (wise) and bad (ungodly), and, unlike tJie writers of tlie later parts of the OT, he holds it possible for a person to pass from one class into another. But does not God, according to parts of Wisd, as of the OT, appear to show undue favoritism to Israel and neglect of other people? Thus Israel is "God's Son" (18 13), His children (sons, 12 19.21; 16 10.20), His sons and daughters (9 7). They are His holy and elect ones (3 9; 4 15; and esp. 10 17; 18 1.5). But the Israelites were treated as they were, not because they were Israelites, but because tliey were morally J>etter than the nations around (see Drummond, op. cit., II, 207 ff).

      Under the term "deontology" hero, religious and ethi- cal practice is included. (1) As might ho expected in a

      Wisdom hook, little, importance is attached 3 Deon- to tne Law of Moses and its requirements.

      Though historical allusions are made to tology the offering of sacrifices, the singing of

      psalms and the taking upon themselves of the obligation of the covenant of the Law (18 9); though, moreover, reference is made to the offering of incense hy Aaron (18 21), and Solomon is made to utter the words "temple," "altar," "tabernacle" (9 8), yet in other respects nothing is said of the temple and its feasts, of the priesthood, of sacrifice, or of the laws of clean and unclean. Yet the duty of worshipping the one true God and Him only and the evil results of wor- shipping idols are strongly and constantly insisted upon, esp. in the second or historical part of the hook (11 5 to end). (2) The cardinal virtues inculcated are those of the Stoic philosophy, viz. prudence (a-uxfrpoa-vvri, xiii>lim- stine), common-sense (^poi^o-is, phroncsin), justice (Smruo- o-ui'T), dikaiosune) and courage (av&pfia, andrela), showing that the writer was influenced hy the philosophy of the C! reeks.

      As a historical fact, the writer adopts the account in Gen 3 of the entrance of sin into the world. "By

      the envy of the devil death [i.e. as the 4. Hamar- connection proves, spiritual death] tiology entered into the world" (2 24). In

      14 27, however, sin is made to have its root in idolatry, meaning perhaps that all sin consists in not giving proper heed to the one true God, and that the moral monstrosities of his time were outgrowths of idolatrous worship. The free-



      doin of the will is taught explicitly or implicitly throughout the book (see above VI, 2).

      The book is silent as to a Messiah who shall

      deliver His people. It is Wisdom that saves man:

      "Because of her I shall have innnor-

      5. Soteri- tality" (8 13); immortality lies in ology kinship to Wisdom (8 17); all who give

      heed to the commands of Wisdom have t he assurance of incorruption, and incorrupt ion brings men near to God (6 18 f). The knowledge of Ciod's power is the root of immortality (15 2).

      The doctrine of individual immort ality is explicit ly

      taught in this book. Man ( = all men) was created

      for incorruption (2 23; 6 19; 12 1).

      6. Escha- The righteous have the full hope of tology immortality (3 4) and shall live for- ever (5 1.1). When the wicked die they

      have no hope (3 18), since they suffer for their sins in t his present world as well as in that which is to come (3 10. IS). The doctrine of a resurrection of the body is not taught. If the author accepted Philo's doctrine of the inherent sinfulness of matter (see above VI, 2), as R. II. Charles holds, he could not believe in a bodily resurrection. After death there is to be a day of decision (6idyv

      VII. Aim. The writer's purpose appears to have been to recommend to his fellow-countrymen in Alexandria the claims of religion under the names of Wisdom, Righteousness, etc, and to warn them against falling into the idolatry of the Egyptians. In addition to glorifying Wisdom, he gives an ironi- cal account of the rise of idolatry, and he uses strong language in pointing out the disastrous con- sequences in this world and the next of a life away from the true God (see above, III). The book is ostensibly addressed to rulers, but they are men- tioned only in 6 1-11.20-25, and the appeal of the book is to men as such. In addressing rulers the aut hor uses a rhetorical device. It might be argued that if rulers with their superior advantages need such exhortations and warnings, how much more ordinary men!

      Plumptre (Ecclesiastes, 70) and Siegfried (HDB, IV, 928) contend that the Solomon of this book is made to answer the Solomon of Eccl. But the author does not show any acquaintance with Eccl, and it is hardly likely that this last book was known at the time in Alexandria, for though composed about 200 BC, it was not put into Gr for a long time afterward. Besides, there is nothing about idol- atry in Eccl. The conclusion reached in the genu- ine parts of this last book is a counsel of despair: "All is vanity." A reply to that book would seek to show that life is worth living for the sake of the present and the future. The Book of Wisd denoun- ces idolatry in the most scathing language: how can this and the like be a polemic against Eccl?

      VIII. Author. The author was an Alexandrian Jew, well read in the LXX whose phrases he often uses, fairly acquainted with Gr philosophy as taught at Alexandria and also with physical science as known at the lime (see 7 17-20; 8 8). He was beyond all doubt a Jew, for the views he advocates are those of an enlightened but strong Judaism; his interests are even narrowly Jewish (note the

      fiercely anti-gentile sentiments of 11 10-13.17-23), and his style is largely tinged by the vocabulary and the phraseology of the Gr VS of the I lob Scriptures. That lie was an Alexandrian or at least an Egyp Jew is equally probable. No Palestinian could have written the language of this work with its rhetorical devices (see above, IV), or have dis- played the acquaintance which the book reveals with Gr philosophy as modified by Jewish-Alexan- drian thought.

      Other views. Those include: (1) that Solomon is the author: see above, II. No modern scholar takes this view seriously, though singularly enough it has been revived by IX S. Margoliouth; C2) that Zerubbabel is the author (J. M. Faber); (:$) that the author was one of the translators of the, LXX; (4) that the author be- longed to the, Therapetitae : so (Jfrorer (rhilo, II, 2(>r>) Dahne (rhilo, II, 270); cf Jost ((!cxc.hi,-kte ) that lien Sira is the author (Augustine); (0) that Apollos is the author: SO Noack (Der L'rmirtina des ChrisUn- tltJiin*, I, 222); Plumptre (Expos, I, 329 it, 409 if); see summary of grounds in Speaker's Apuc (Farrar), 1, 41:5 If; but the author must have been a Jew and he wrote too early to allow of this hypothesis; (7) that Philo is the author: thus Jerome writes (J'racf. in lib. >bW.): Nonnulli scriptorum hunc esse Judaci Philnnis aflirmant. This view was supported by Luther and other scholars; cf the Muratorian Fragment (in Zahn's text) in XI, below. But the teaching of this book repre- sents an earlier stage of Alexandrian Jewish specula- tion than that found in Philo's works, and the allegorical method of interpretation so rampant in the latter is almost wholly absent from Wisd. (8) It has been held by some (Kirschbaum, Weisse, etc) that whoever the author was he must have been a Christian, but the whole, trend arid spirit of the book prove the contrary.

      IX. Date. The book was probably composed about 120-100 BC. The evidence is literary, his- torical and philosophical,

      The book must have been written after the LXX

      VS of the Pent and Isa had been made, since the

      author has evidently used this VS of

      1. Literary both books and perhaps of the Pss as

      well (cf 3 1 and Ps 31 f>[6]; and also 15 15 f and Ps 115 4-7 [ = Ps 135 15-18]). Now we know from Sir (Prol.) that the LXX of the Pent, the Prophets and of at least a port ion of the Writings (Ilagiographa) was completed by 132 BC, when the younger Siracide finished his tr of Sir (see SIHACH, BOOK OF, VIII). It may therefore be inferred that Wisd was written after 132 BC. Moreover, in 4 1 the author shows an acquaintance with Sir 16 1-4 in Gr, for the pseudo-Solomon does not seem to have known Heb, or he would somet imcs at least have quoted from the Heb text. This confirms the con- clusion drawn from the use of the LXX that this book is at least as late as, say, 130 BC, and almost certainly later. The book was composed earlier than any of the NT writings, or some of the latter would have been quoted or referred to. Moreover, it may be assumed that the Gr Canon was com- plete in the time of Our Lord, and thus included Wisd as well as the rest of the OT Apoc. But sec International Journal of Apocrypha, October, 1913, p. 77, art. by the present writer. It must have taken a long time after writing for the book to gain the respect which secured its canonization. A date 100 BC agrees with all the facts.

      Wisd 3 1; 5 1; 6 5-9 imply that at the time of

      writing the Jews addressed were suffering under the

      lash of persecution, and we have the

      2. His- resulting feeling of animosity against torical the Egyptians, the persecuting power,

      expressed in 11 10-19. Now we know that the early Ptolemies treated the Jews with con- sideration, and Ptolemy VII (Physcon, 145-117 BC)

      Wisd of Solomon Witch, Witchcraft



      was Iho first to adopt ;i contrary policy toward the , lews of Egypt, owing to the support they had given to Cleopatra. Jos (CAp, II, />) gives an account of the vengeance which this king wreaked upon the Jews of Alexandria at this time. Nevertheless, the literary manner and the restrained spirit with which these matters are referred to show that the writer is describing a state of things which belongs to the past, though to a recent past. A date about 100 BC would admirably suit, the situation of the author at t he t hue of composit ion.

      The teaching of the book (see above, VI) belongs to that stage in UK; development of Alexandrian

      Judaism which existed about 100 BC. 3. Philo- We have not in this book the allegori- sophical nation characteristic of Philo (b. 20

      BC, d. -JO AD), nor had his Logos- doctrine as yet become a part of the creed of Alex- andrian Jews.

      X. Original Language. Scholars are practically agreed that the book was composed in Cr. I). S. Margoliouth attempted to prove a lleb original (.//iMX, 1SOO, 2t>3-<>7; see reply by Freudenthal, JQIf, III, 722-f>3), but the evidence he offers has convinced nobody.

      (1) The Or of Wisd is free, spontaneous and idiomatic. Tin- re, are a few Hebraisms, but only such as character- ize 1 1 el (Jr in general; Wisd is very different in this from Sir which abounds with Hebraisms, due no doubt to tr from a Heb original. (2) The rhetorical devices so com- mon in the dr of the book can be due only to the original text; they could hardly occur in such profusion in a tr. In addition to those mentioned above in IV, note the (ir rhetorical figures chiasmus (1 1 4 S; 3 15) and xoriti-s (6 7 -20). (3) The tr of Sir Into Hob before the discovery of the Heb fragments had been often attempted and found comparatively easy; but it is very ditlicult to put Wisd into lleb because the style is so thoroughly (I reek. (4) No trace of a Heb original has thus far been found. What Nachmanides saw was not the original Heb, but a tr in Heb from the original text. Jerome (I'rmf. in Hi/. Snl.) says that though he had himself seen .Sir in Heb, a Heb text of Wisd was not to be found.

      XI. Use of Wisd by Christian Writers. It has been thought that the following parts of the XT have been influenced by Wisd: Lk 2 7 (cf Wisd 7 4); Lk 12 20 (cf Wisd 15 S);' l>k 9 31 (cf Wisd 3 2); Lk 19 44 (cf Wisd 3 7i. The " Logos "-doctrine of John (see Jn 1 1, etc) has certainly a connection with the doctrine of Wisdom in Wisd (see (iregg, Comm.,livft). (irafe (Theoloyisrhc Abhandlungen, Freiburg in B., 1892) endeavors to prove; that Paul made large use of Wisd (see also Sanday and Headlam, l!oians. 51 f, 267-C>9) ; but this has been denied; seefurthcr Deane (Comm., 15tf). The book was certainly known to (lenient of Home. Tatian. Ireiiaeus, Tertulliaii, dement of Alexandria and 1 fippolyt us. The Muratorian Fragment states the work to have been "composed by the friends of Solomon in his honor" (11. 69-71). /aim (Gcsch. Kan., II, 101, following a suggestion of Tregelles) prefers to read "composed by Philo in Solomon's honor" an easy change in the dr (pliilonox for phi/nn). Origen (Con. ("<(.. v.2.ti calls it "the work entitled Wisdom of Solomon," so intimating doubt as to the authorship.

      XII. Text and Versions. The text in B, pointed

      with collations in Swete's OT in Cr, is on the whole (lie best, though both i? and C (which is incomplete) have good texts, A being fairly trustworthy. The text is found also in fair preservation in many cursives.

      The Vulg is identical with, but has slight vari- ations from, the Old Lat. Lagarde (Mittheilungen. 243-SC)) gives the Lat VS of Sir and

      1. Latin }\\ 'isd found in Cod. Amiaut. This last

      is a literal rendering from the Greek. The Syr (Posh) VS found in the London Poly- glot and in Lagarde (Lib. Apoc Si/r) was made immediately from the Cr, but appar-

      2. Syriac ently from the text in A, or in one

      like it.

      LITERATURE. Besides the works cited in the course of the foregoing article and the general works (comnis., etc) on the Apoc mentioned under APOCRYPHA (q.v.). the following are to be noted:

      (1) Conims.: Bauermeister, Comm. in Sap. Sol. libr., 1828; (frimm, Kmm. iibt-r das Buck tier Wcishcit, 1857, also his excellent Comm. in the Kurzi/cj 'assies exeaetisches Handbuch, series 1800; J. II. Schmid, Das Buck der

      Weisheit: I'ehrrsetzt untl crkliirt, 1857; frutberlet, Das Buck der Weisheit, 1874; W. .1. Deane, The Book of Wisd, dr Vulg and AV with "Comm." (1881, full and fairly scholarly); Speaker's Apoc (Farrar) is interesting and often helpful; Siegfried's "Intro" and "Comm." in Kautzsch's Die Apoc is slight, but also often helpful; The Wind of Solomon by J. A. E. dregg (RV with "Intro" and "Comm.," Cambridge Bible) is brief and popular, but trustworthy; A. T. S. Goodrick, The. Book of Wisdom. 1913 (admirable); S. Holmes (in the Oxford Apoc, with Intro and Comm.).

      (2) Of the diet, arts., that in ER (by C. H. Toy) is perhaps the best; that in II DB (Siegfried) is fair but de- fective.

      (3) In addition to the works by Gfrorer and Diihno discussing the philosophy of the; book, the following works may be mentioned: Bruch, Weisheits-Lehre der Hebraer, 1S51 (322-78); Zeller, Die Philosophic der (iriechen (1881), III, pt. 2, 271-74, 4th ed, 272-9(5; Kiibel, " Die ethischen drundanschauungen der Weisheit Salomos," in Theologische Studien untl Kritiken, 1865. 690-722; Menzel, Der f/rierhisrhe Einjluss auf Prediger und Weisheit Salomos, 1889, 39-70; Hois, Exsai sur lea orif/ines de la philosophic judeo-alexandrine, 1890, 211 309, 337-412. The work by Drummond, often quoted, has been carefully done and is interestingly written (1'hilo Judaciis, 1888, 2 vols; see I, 177-229).

      For detailed bibliography see Sehurer, CJV*. 1909, III. 508 ff ; IMP, 188(5, II, 3, pp. 236 f, is necessarily very defective.


      WISE-MEN, wlz'men: In addition to the uses of "wise" specified in the art. WISDOM, the adj. is employed occasionally as the technical description of men who are adepts in magic, divination, etc (e.g. in Gen 41 S; Ex 7 11; Est 1 13; Dnl 2 27; 6 15). Naturally, however, in the ancient world the boundary between genuine knowledge and as- trology, etc, was exceedingly vague, and it was never denied that real knowledge could be gained along lines that we know to be futile. So the initia- tion of Moses into all the wisdom of the Egyptians (Acts 7 22) or of Daniel into all the learning of the Chaldaeans (Dnl 1 4) met with no disapproval. These great men could be trusted to avoid the moral and religious pitfalls of such pursuits. For the ordinary Israelites, however, the uncompromising prohibition of idolatry closed the door definitely to all studies of this kind. See ASTKOLOCY; DIVI- NATION, etc. And for the Wise-men of Mt 2 see MAGI. BURTON SCOTT EASTON

      WISH, wish: The word appears both as a sub- stantive and as a vb. in the OT, having a variety of meanings: (1) The subst., HE , pch, means "mouth" and also "speech." In this form it occurs in Job 33 6m: "Behold, I am according to thy wish in Clod's stead." Elihu here refers to Job's expressed desire for an umpire (9 33), and one who would maintain his right with Cod (16 21). (2) The verb: (a) y EH , hdplicg, "willing," or "desirous" (Ps 40 14 AV); (6) bXtt, sha'al, "to ask," "petition," "sup- plicate" (Job 31 30 AV); (c) another variation of meaning is found in Ps 73 7 where r>' 1 ?t?'5? , maxklth, "to imagine," is tr d "wish": "They have more than heart could wish"; (d) eijxo^ai., euchomai, "to soli- cit," "to implore" (Rom 9 3).


      WIST, wist, WITTY, wit'i, WOT, wot: The vb. "to wit" in AV is interchangeable with "to know," and is conjugated with a present "wot," and a past "wist." This inflection is derived from more com- plicated forms in the older Eng., and in post-Eliza- bethan times has become quite obsolete. (But cf the roots in "wisdom," "witness.") "Wit," then, is simply "knowledge," and "witty" is "having knowledge," although the noun and the adj. have become narrowly specialized in modern Eng. (cf the similar evolution of "knowing," in its use as an adj.). Even in Elizabethan Eng., however, the indicative of "to wit" was becoming displaced by



      Wisd of Solomon Witch, Witchcraft

      "know," :m

      The noun "wit" is found in Ps 107 27, "at their wits' [AV "wit's"] end," for iDCpn , hokhmah, "wis- dom," "technical skill"; cf RVm "All their wisdom is swallowed up." The meaning is "their skilled seamanship cannot cope with the danger" (the phrase is very commonly misapplied). "Wit" occurs also 1 Esd 4 26 (Sidvoia, didnoia, "mind"); 2 Esd 5 9 (.svm-us, here "intelligence"); Sir 31 20 (^X 7 ?) pxiichP, "soul," with the force of "reason").

      Witty is found in AV, RVm Prov 8 12, "witty invent ions" (iTQT"}p , m r zimmah, "discretion" [so RV] ; if "and" is not read in this verse, translate "dis- crete knowledge"). In Jth 11 23 occurs "witty in thy words" (dyaOds, agal/ios, "good," here prob- ably ="thou hast spoken sound sense"). Wisd 8 19 AV has "a witty child," RV "a child of parts," m "goodly" (fvtpvr;s, cuphues, "well grown," "of a good disposition," "clever"). "Wittingly" occurs in Gen 48 14 ('*rC, sakhal, "act intelligently").


      WITCH, wich, WITCHCRAFT, wich'kraft:

      1. The Words. Their Meaning and Use

      2. Biblical t'sago

      :5. Common Elements in Witchcraft and Ancient Ori- ental Manic'

      4. Kise, Spread and Persecution of Witchcraft LITERATURE

      The word "witch" seems to denote etymologically "one that knows." It is historically both mascu- line and feminine; indeed the AS

      1. Meaning form wicca, to which the Eng. word is and Use of to be traced, is masc. alone. "Wiz- the Words ard" is given as masc. for witch, but

      it has in reality no connection with it. Wright (English Dialect Diet., VII, 521) says he never heard an uneducated person speak of wizard. When this word is used by the people it denotes, he says, a pen-son who undoes the work of a witch. Shakespeare often uses "witch" of a male (cf Cym- bclinc, I, 0, 1. 16G: "He is .... a witch"). In Wyclif's tr of Acts 8 9 Simon Magus is called "a witch" ("wicche"). Since the 13th cent, the word "witch" has come more and more to denote a woman who has formed a compact with the devil or with evil spirits, by whose aid she is able to cause all sorts of injury to living beings and to things. The term "witchcraft" means in modern Eng. the arts and practices of such women.

      Since the ideas we attach to "witch" and "witch- craft" were unknown in Bible times, the words have

      no right place in our Eng. Bible, and

      2. Biblical this has been recognized to some ex- Usage tent but not completely by the Re- visers of 1SS4. The word "witch"

      occurs twice in AV, viz. (I) in Ex 22 IS, "Thou shalt not suffer a witch [RV "a sorceress"] to live"; (2) in Dt 18 10, "or a witch" (RV "or a sorcerer"). The Heb word is in both cases the participle of the vb. (5193, kishsheph), denoting "to practice the

      magical art." See MAGIT, V, 2. In the first pas- sage, however, the fern, ending (-ah) is attached, but this ending denotes also one of a class and (on the contrary) a collection of units; see Kautzsch, Ileb Gram., 122, , t.

      The phrase " the, witch of Endor" occurs frequently in literature, and esp. in common parlance, but it is not found in the Eng. Bible. The expression has come from the heading and summary of the AV, both often so misleading. In 1 s 28, where alone the; character is spoken of, EV translates the Heb 'fxltrth tin'alnth '<~>hhby "a woman that hath a familiar spirit." A literal render- ing would bo "a woman who is mistress of an 'filihor ghost," i.e. ono abk: to compel the departed spirit to return and to answer certain questions. This woman was therefore a necromancer, a species of diviner (seo DIVINATION, IV; ENDOR, WITCH OF; FAMILIAR SPIRIT). and not what the term "witch" imports.

      The word "witchcraft" occurs thrice in AV. In 1 S 15 23, "the sin of witchcraft" should be as in RVm, "the sin of divination," the latter rep- resenting the Ileb word CCJ5 , kcscm, generally tr d "divination"; see DIVINATION, VII, 1.

      The phrase "used witchcraft" (of Manasseh,2 Ch 33 16) is properly rendered in RV "practised sor- cery," the Heb vb. (51273, kishsheph) being that whence the participles in Ex 22 18 and Dt 18 10, tr d in AV "witch," are derived (see above). The word tr' 1 in AV "witchcraft" in Gal 5 20 ((pap/^aKfia, pharmakcia) is the ordinary Or one for "sorcery," and is so rendered in RV, though it means literally the act of administering drugs and then of giving magical potions. It naturally comes then to stand for the magician's art, as in the present passage and also in Wisd 12 4; 18 13; and in the LXX of Isa 47 9, where it represents the Heb noun D" 1 ?!!'? , k e shdphim, tr d "sorceries"; cf the Ileb vb. 51273, kishsheph; see above.

      The pi. "witchcrafts" (in AV and RV) stands for the Heb noun just noticed (k e shaphlm) in 2 K 9 22; Mic 5 12; Nah 3 4. but in all three passages a proper rendering would be "sorceries" or "magical arts." "Witchcrafts" is inaccurate and misleading.

      The vb. "bewitch" occurs in Acts 8 9.11 AV (of Simon Magus bewitching the people) and in Gal 3 1 ("O foolish Galatians, who hath bewitched you?"). In the first context the Gr vb. is ^to-r^/ut, cxls- tf'mi., which is properly rendered by the Revisers "amazed"; in ver 13 the passive of the same vb. is tr d "He was amazed" (AV "He wondered"). In Gal 3 1, the vb. is ;3a

      Though the conceptions conveyed by the Eng. word "witch" and its cognates were unknown to the Hebrews of Bible times, yet the funda- 3. Common mental thought involved in such terms Elements in was familiar enough to the ancient Witchcraft Hebrews and to other nations of antiq- and Ancient uity (Babylonians, Egyptians, etc), Oriental viz. that there exists a class of persons Magic called by us magicians, sorcerers, etc,

      who have superhuman power over liv- ing creatures including man, and also over Nature and natural objects. This power is of two kinds: (1) cosmic, (2) personal. For an explanation sec MAGIC, II. It is in Assyr-Bab literature that we have the completest account of magical doctrine and practice. The words used in that literature for the male and female magician are ashipu and axhiptH, which correspond to the Heb m'khashsheph and m'khashshepfiah in Dt 18 10 and Ex 22 18 (see 2, above) and are cognate to 512755, 'ashshaph (see Did 1 20; 2 2.10, etc), which means a magi- cian (RV "enchanter"). Other Bab words are kashshapu and kashshaptu, which in etymology and

      Witch, Witchcraft Wolf



      in sense agree with the I Id) terms m"khashsheph

      and m e kh(ix/ifiht.~]>!idli mentioned above. But neither in the Bab or lleb \\vords is there the peculiar idea of a witch, viz. one who traffics with malicious spirits for malicious ends. Indeed the magician was a source of good (male and female) as conceived by the Babylonians, esp. the axliipu and axhiplii, to the state and to individuals, as well as of evil, and he was often therefore in the service of the state as the guide of its policy. And the same applies to the magician as the Hebrews regarded him, though the true teachers and leaders in Israel condemned magic and divination of every sort as being radically opposed to the religion of Jeh (Dt 18 10 f). Of course, if a Bab magician used his art to the injury of others he was punished as other criminals, and in case of the death of the victim he was executed as a murderer. It is, how- ever, noteworthy in its bearing on "witchcraft '' that the female magician or sorceress played a larger part in ancient, Babylonia than her male counter- part, and the same is true of the (Ireeks and other ancient people. This arose perhaps from the fact that in primitive times men spent their time in fighting and hunting; the cooking of the food and the healing of the sick, wounded, etc, by magical potions and otherwise, falling to the lot of the woman who stayed at home. In the early history of the, Hebrews inspired women played a greater role than in later time; cf Miriam (Ex 15 20 f; Nu 12); Deborah (,Jgs 5 12);_ lluldah (2 K 22 14 ff). Note also the rTCrfi HEX , ' ix/ix/idfi hdkhd- indli, or "wise woman" of 2 S 14 2ff; 20 10.

      The first two sections of the CII are as follows: " 1. If a man has laid a curse [/:ixpu=^" > Z'^I < k''sfiai>irt>n] upon [another! man ;uul it is not justified, he that laid the curse shall lie put to death. 1>. If a man has put a spell upon [another] man and it- is not justified, he upon whom the spell is laid shall go to tlie holy river; into the holy river shall he plunge. If the holy river overcome him [and he is drowned], the man \\\\lio put the spell upon him shall take possession of his house. If the holy river declares him innocent and he remains unharmed the man who laid tin; spell shall be put lo death. Jle that plunged into the river shall take possession of the house of him who laid the spell upon him." Not a word is said here, of a female that weaves a spell, but probably the word "man" in the Bab is to lie taken as including male and female (so Canon C. If. W. Johns in a private letter, dated December 212, 1912).

      In the early and esp. in the mediaeval church, the conception of the devil occupied a very important

      place, and human beings were thought 4. Rise, to be under his dominion until he was Spread and exorcised in baptism. It is to this be- Persecution lief that we owe the rise and spread of of Witch- infant baptism. The unbapfized were craft thought to be devil-possessed. The

      belief in ttie existence of women magi- cians had come down from hoary ant iquity. It was but a short step to ascribe the evil those women wrought to the devil and his hosts. Then it was natural to think that the devil would not grant such extraordinary powers without some quid pro quo; hence the witch (or wizard) was supposed to have sold her (or his) soul to the devil, a proceeding that would delight the heart of the great enemy of good always on the alert to hinder the salvation of men; cf the Faust legend. For the conditions believed to be imposed by the devil upon all who would be in league with him see A. Lehmann, Aberglaubc und Zaubcrci* (190S), 11 Off.

      This idea of a covenant with the devil is wholly absent from the early heathen conception of magic; nor do we in the latter read of meetings at night between the magicians and the demons with whom they dealt, such as took place on the Witches' Sab- bath. The witches were believed to have sexual commerce with devils and to be capable only of

      inflicting evil, both thoughts alien to oriental and therefore to Bib. magic.

      The history and persecution and execution of women, generally ignorant and innocent, supposed to have been guilty of witchcraft, do not fall within the scope of this article, hut may bo perused in innumerable works: see "Literature" below. In Europe alone, not to mention America (Salem, etc), Sprenger says that over nine million suspected witches were put to death on the flimsiest evidence; even if this estimate be too high the actual number must have been enormous. The present writer in his booklet, The Survival of the Evangelical Faith ("Essays for the Times," 1909), gives a brief ac- count of the defence of the reality of witch power by nearly all the Christian theologians of the 17th cent. and by most of those living in the early ist-h cent, (sco pp. 23 If). See also M.-une, and Expos T, IX, 157 if.

      LiTKKATt-RK. In addition to the literature cited under arts. DIVINATION- and MACK: (q.v.), the following works may be mentioned (the books on witchcraft proper are simply innumerable): Reginald Scot. The Disearer;/ <>J Witchcraft (aimed at preventing the persecution of witches, 1.5X4; republished London, 188(1); reply to the last work by James I of England: Daemonologie, 1.5!)7; Casaubon, On Crcdnlit>/ and 1 ncri'itnlitu .... .1 Treatise J'ron'iif/ Spirits, \'itclus and Supernatural Operations, 1(1(18; Joseph (ilanrill, Xadiicisnnix Trium- plititux: Full mill Plain Eridineis conn ruini/ \'itc/ixir it inn. v (the last two books are by theologians who class with "atheists" a vague word in those times for unbelief -all such as doubt the power of witches and deny the power of devils upon human life). For the history of witchcraft and its persecutions see Howard Williams, The Superstitions of Witchcraft, 18(1.5, and (brief but interesting and compact) Charles Mackay, Mrmoirs (if Extraordinary Popular Delusions (2 vols, ls.51, 101-91). See also 'Sir W. Scott, Demonology and Witchcraft, 1830; W. K. Halliday, (!r Divination: A Stmli/ of Its Method* an

      U.S.A., see The W


      WITHERED, with'erd (*i: , nabhc.l, "to fade away,' 1 "to be dried up"): (1) Used figuratively to express leanness of soul, spiritual impotence, a low condition of spiritual life, a lack of moral nourish- ment: "My heart is smitten like grass, and wither- oth" (Ps 102 4). The contrasting figure empha- sizes this idea: "All my fountains are in thee" (87 7). Also Ps 1 3, where the freshness and beauty of the righteous man's life are thus described: "And he shall be like a tree planted by the streams of water, .... whose leaf also doth not wither." In the NT ZrjpaLvu, xcrtdno, "to wither," is used to carry out the same idea of moral decay, or malnutrition of soul (Mt 13 G; 21 19). (2) "Wither'; also had a physiological meaning, expressing both in the OT and in the NT the idea of bodily impotence, esp., though not exclusively, of the limbs. Jeroboam was struck suddenly with paralysis of the arm, which is said to have "dried up" (1 K 13 4-0); "probably due to sudden hemorrhage affecting some part of the brain, which may under certain circumstances be only temporary" (IIDJ1, 1-vol, 590). "Their skin cleaveth to their bones; it is withered" (Lam 4 8).

      In the NT (Mt 12 10; Mk 3 1; Lk 6 6) "withered hand" was probably our modern "in- fantile paralysis," which may leave one or more limbs shrunken and powerless without detriment to the general health. ARTHUR WALWYN EVANS

      WITHES, wilhs, withs, WITHS, withs, GREEN (S^ni C^^Pi^ , ythdrlm lahlm, m "new bowstrings," AVm "new [moist] cords" [Jgs 16 7]; LXX vtvpd v-ypd, ncurd hitgrd): The material with which Sam- son was bound by Delilah (ver 8) was probably some moist "gut" such as was used for bowstrings. Cf D'nrP'a, mctharlm, "bowstrings" (Ps 21 12; HP? , yether, Job 30 11 ; Ps 11 2) ; lahlm, tr d "green," means "fresh," "sappy" or "moist."



      Witch, Witchcraft Wolf

      WITNESS, wit 'ncs (nouns ~7 , W/i, and n"7 , *cdh(ih., :uul vb. niy , *dndh; (idprvs, mdrius, with all derivative words and their compounds): The word "witness" is used of inanimate things, e.g. the heap of stones testifying to the eovenant be- tween Jacob and Laban (den 31 44-54), and the Song of Moses (Dt 31 19.21). The main use of the word is forensic, and from this use all other applications are naturally derived. Important legal agreements required the attestation of wit- nesses, as in the case of the purchase of property, or a betrothal (Ruth 4 1-11, where we are told that the ancient form of attestation was by a man drawing off his shoe and giving it to his neighbor).

      The Mosaic Law insisted on the absolute necessity of witnesses in all cases which came before a judge, esp. in criminal cases. Not only in criminal cases, but in all case's, it was necessary to have at least two witnesses to make good an accusation against a person (Dt 17 6; 19 la; cf Nu 35 30; Ml 18 10; .In 8 17; 2 Cor 13 1; 1 Tim 5 19). According to the Talm (/'''.w/it//;, 113h), if in a case of immorality only one witness came forward to accuse anyone, it was regarded as sinful on the part of that witness.

      On the other hand, anyone who, being present at the adjuration (Lev 6 1 RV), refused to come for- ward as a witness when he had testimony to bear, was considered to have sinned (Prov 29 24). Among those not qualified to be witnesses were the near relations of the accuser or the accused, friends and enemies, gamesters, usurers, tax-gatherers, heathen, slaves, women and those not of age (Sanhedhrln 3 3, 4; Ro'sh Ha-shdndh 1 7; Bdbhd' Kanttnd' 88a; cf A nl, IV, viii, 15). No one could be a witness who had been paid to render this service (B e khdroth 4 6). In cases of capital punishment there was an elaborate system of warning and cautioning witnesses. Each witness had to be heard separately (Sanhedhrln 6; cf 3 5). If they contradicted one another on impor- tant points their witness was invalidated (Sanhcdh- riti 6).

      No oath was required from witnesses. The meaning of Lev 6 1 was not that witnesses had to take an oath, as some think; it describes the solemn adjuration of the judge to all those with knowledge of the case to come forward as witnesses (see OATH). When a criminal was to be put to death, the wit- nesses against him were to take the foremost share in bringing about his death (Dt 17 7; cf Acts_7 58), in order to prove their own belief in their testimony. In the case of a person condemned to be stoned, all the witnesses had to lay their hands on the head of the condemned (Lev 24 14). "False witnessing" was prohibited in the Decalogue (Ex 20 16); against it the lex talionis was enforced, i.e. it was done to the witness as he meant to do to the ac- cused (Dt 19 16-21). The Sadducees held that only when the falsely accused had been executed, the false witnesses should be put to death; the Pharisees, that false witnesses were liable to be executed the moment the death sentence had been passed on the falsely accused (Makkoth 1 7). In spite of prohibitions, false witnessing was a very common crime among the people (Ps 27 12; 35 1 1 ; Prov 6 19; 12 17; 14 5; 19 5; 24 28; Mt 26 60; Acts 6 13).

      In Acts 22 20; Rev 2 13; 17 6 the word martus, "witness," seems to be beginning to acquire the meaning of "martyr," as in AV, although 11V translates "witness" in the first two passages, re- taining "martyr" only in the third with "witness" in the in. For "Tabernacle of Witness" see TAB- ERNACLE. PAUL LEVERTOFF

      WITNESS OF THE SPIRIT: This phrase arises from the words of Rom 8 16: "The Spirit himself beareth witness with our spirit, that we are

      children <>f (!od." With this may be grouped, a,s illustrative, 1 ,ln 5 10: "He that, bclieveth on the Son of God hath the witness in him." in inter- preting, we may approach the former passage through the latter. To the man who "believeth on the Son of God," BO as to pror<; Jj im by reliance, He becomes self -evidential in experience, verifying Him- self to the believer as the Divine response to his whole spiritual need. Thus believed on as the Son, lie awakens in the soul which He embraces the filial attitude toward God, the cry, "Abba, Father." On the other side the Spirit, both in the written Word (e.g. Jn 1 12) and in His secret converse with the believer in the life of faith, assures him of the paternal love toward him, as toward a "dear child," (Eph 5 1) of the Father of his Lord. There is thus a concurrent "witnessing." The believer's spirit says, "Thou art my Father"; the Spirit says to the believer's spirit, "Thou art His child." We may compare Rom 5 5: "The love of God hath been shed abroad in our hearts through the Holy Spirit."



      WOLF, wcjolf ([1] 1ST , z e 'ebh [Gen 49 27; Isa 11 6; 65 25; Jer 5 0; Ezk 22 27; Hub 1 8; Zeph 3 3; also as proper name, Zeeb, prince of Midian, Jgs 7 25; 83; Ps 83 11]; cf Arab.

      dJii'b, colloquial v_^oj> , dhV>, or


      Wolf (Canis lupus).

      Jn 10 12; Acts 20 29; Ecclus 13 17; cf 2 Esd 5 IS, lupus]; [3] S^X, 'lyim, 11 V "wolves" [Isa 13 22; 34 14; Jer 60 39]):

      While the wolf is surpassed in size by some dogs, it is the fiercest member of the dog family (Canidac), which includes among others the jackal and the fox. Dogs, wolves and jackals are closely allied and will breed together. There is no doubt that the first dogs were domesticated wolves. While there are local varieties which some consider to be distinct species, it is allowable to regard all the wolves of both North America, Europe, and Northern Asia (except the American coyote) as members of one species, Canis lupus. The wolf of Syria and Pal is large, light colored, and does not seem to hunt in packs. Like other wolves it is nocturnal. In Pal it is the special enemy of the sheep and goats. This fact comes out in two of the seven passages cited from the OT, in all from the NT, and in the two from Apoc. In Gen 49 27 Benjamin is likened to a ravening wolf. In Ezk 22 27, and in the similar Zeph 3 3, the elders of Jerus are compared to wolves. In Jer 5 6 it is a wolf that shall destrov




      the people of Jems, and in Hah 1 8 tho horses of the Chaldaeai.s "arc swifter than leopards, and are more fierce than the evening wolves." Babylon and Edoin (Lsa 13 22; 34 14; Jer 60 39) are to be the haunts of 'lyltn (RV "wolves") and other wild creatures.

      The name of Zeeb, prince of Midian (Jgs 7 2. r >; 8 3), has its parallel in the Arab. Dib or Dfnb, which is a common name today. Such animal names are frequently given to ward off the evil eye. See also TOTKMISM. ALFRED ELY DAY

      WOMAN, w oom'an (nU?J5 , 'ishshcth, "a woman" [fern, of TIPS , 'l$h, "a man"]; ywv^, ywnl, "a woman," "wife"):


      1. Prominence of Women

      2. Social Equality

      3. Marriage Laws

      4. Inheritance

      5. Domestic Duties

      ('). Dress and Ornaments

      7. Religious Devotion and Service

      (1) In Idolatry and False Religion

      (2) In Spiritual Religion



      1. Mary and Elisabeth

      2. .Jesus and Women

      3. In the Karly Church

      4. Official Service !>. Widows

      (). Deaconesses V. LATKK TIM KM

      1. Changes in Character and Condition

      2. N'otahle Examples of Christian Womanhood

      3. Woman in the 20th Century

      The generic term "man" includes woman. In the narrative of the creation ((leu 1 2(1.27) Adam is a collective term for mankind. It may signify a human being, male or female, or humanity entire. "God said, Let us make man .... and let them" (ver 2')), the latter word "them" defining "man" in the former clause. So in ver 27, "In the image of God created he him; male and female created lie them," "them" being synonymous with "him" (see also ADAM; ANTHROPOLOGY).

      /. In the Creative Plan. Whatever interpreta- tion the latest scholarship may give to the story of woman's formation from the rib of man (Gen 2 21-24)", the passage indicates, most profoundly, the inseparable unity and fellowship of her life with his. Far more than being a mere assistant, "helper" ("Ijy, Wr, "help," "helper," Gen 2 18), she is man's complement, essential to the perfection of his being. Without her he is not man in the generic fulness of that term. Priority of creation may indi- cate headship, but not, as theologians have so uniformly affirmed, superiority. Dependence indi- cates difference of f unct ion, not. inferiority. Human values are estimated in terms of the mental and .spiritual. Man and woman are endowed for equal- ity, and are mutually interdependent. Physical strength and prowess cannot be rated in the same category with moral courage and the capacity to endure ill-treatment, sorrow and pain; and in these latter qualities woman has always proved herself the superior. Man's historic treatment of woman, due to his conceit, ignorance or moral perversion, has taken her inferiority for granted, and has thus necessitated it by her enslavement and degradation. The narrative of the Fall (Gen 3) ascribes to woman supremacy of influence, for through her stronger personality man was led to disobedience of God's command. Her penalty for such ill-fated leader- ship was that her husband should "rule over" her (Gen 3 16), not because of any inherent superiority on his part, but because of her loss of prestige and power through sin. In that act she forfeited the respect and confidence which entitled her to equal-

      ity of influence in family affairs. Her recovery irom the curst; of subjection was to come through the afflictive suffering of maternity, for, as St. Paul puts it, "she shall be saved [from the penalty of her transgression] through her child-bearing" (1 Tim 2 15).

      Sin, both in man and woman, has been universally the cause of woman's degradation. All history must bo interpreted in the light of man's consequent mistaken estimate of her endowments, worth and rightful place. The ancient Hebrews never entirely lost the light of their original revelation, ami, more than any other oriental race, held woman in high esteem, honor and affection. Christianity completed the work of her restoration to equality of opportunity and place. Wherever its teach- ings and spirit prevail, she is made the loved companion, confidante and adviser of her husband.

      //. In OT Times. Under the Hcb system the position of woman was in marked contrast with

      her status in surrounding heathen na- 1. Promi- tions. Her liberties were greater, her nence of employments more varied and impor- Women tant , her social standing more respect-

      ful and commanding. The Divine law given on Sinai (Ex 20 12) required children to honor the mother equally with the father. A similar es- teem was accorded her in patriarchal times. Sarah held a position of favor and authority in Abraham's household. Rebekah was not less influential than Isaac, and was evidently the stronger personality. The "beautiful" Rachel (Gen 29 17) won from Jacob a love that accepted her as an equal in the com- panionship and counsels of family life. Many Heb women rose to eminence and national leadership. Miriam and Deborah were each a prophetess and a poetess. The former led bands of women in trium- phant song and procession, celebrating the over- throw of enemies (Ex 15 20); the latter, through her dominating personality and prophetic power, be- came the virtual judge of the nation and led armies to victory. Her military general, Barak, refused to advance against Sisera without her presence and commanding influence (Jgs 4 8). Her ode of victory indicates the intellectual endowment and culture of her sex in that unsettled and formative era (Jgs 5). No person in Israel surpassed Hannah, the mother of Samuel, in intelligence, beauty and fervor of religious devotion. Her spiritual exaltation and poetic gift found expression in one of the choicest specimens of early Heb lyric poetry (1 S 2 1-10). Other women eminent as prophetesses were: Huldah, whose counsel was sought by high priest and king (2 Ch 34 22; cf 2 K 22 14); Noadiah (Neh 6 14); Anna (Lk 2 30). The power to which woman could attain in Israel is illustrated in the career of the wicked, merciless, murderous, idolatrous Jezebel, self-styled prophetess (Rev 2 20). Evidence of woman's eminence in the king- doms of Judah and Israel is seen in the influence she exercised as queen mother (1 K 15 13) and queen (2 K 8 IS); in the beautiful honor shown by King Solomon to his mother, Bath-sheba (1 K 2 19); in the filial devotion of the prophet Elisha (1 K 19 20); in the constant mention of the mother's name in the biographies of successive kings, making it evident that she was considered the important and determining factor in the life of her royal sons. Her teaching and authority were sufficiently eminent to find recognition in the proverbs of the nation: "tho law of thy mother" (Prov 1 8; 6 20) was not to be forsaken, while contempt for the same merited the curse of God (Prov 19 20; 20 20; 30 11.17).

      Additional evidence of woman's social equality comes from the fact that men and women feasted together without restriction. Women shared in the sacred meals and great annual feasts ; Dt 16 n 14); in wedding festivities (Jn g 1-3) ;


      -3) ; j n the fellowship of the family meal (12 3). They could appear, as Sarah did in the court of Egypt, unveiled (Gen 12 11.14). Re-




      bekah (Ccn 24 10; ef vcr 65), Rachel (29 11), Han- nah (1 S 1 i:{) appeared in public and before suitors with uncovered faces. The secluding veil was intro- duced into Mohammedan and other oriental lands through the influence of the Koran. Tho custom was non-Jewish in origin, and the monuments make it evi- dent that it did not prevail, in early times, in Assyria and Egypt. Even Greece and Home, at the time of their supremo culture, fell far below the Hob conception of woman's preeminent worth. Tho greatest Hellenic philosophers declared that it would radically disorgan- ize the state for wives to claim equality with their hus- bands. Aristotle considered women inferior beings, intermediate between freemen and slaves. Socrates and Demosthenes held them in like depreciation. Plato advocated community of wives. Substantially the same views prevailed in Rome. Distinguished men, like Metullus and Cato, advocated marriage only as a public duty. More honor was shown the courtesan than the wife. Chastity and modesty, the choice inheritance of Heb womanhood, were foreign to the Gr conception of morality, and disappeared from Rome when Gr cul- ture and frivolity entered. The Greeks made the shame- less Phryne tin; model of the goddess Aphrodite, and lifted their hands to public prostitutes when they prayed in their temples. Under pagan culture and heathen darkness woman was universally subject to inferior and degrading conditions. Every decline in her status in the Heb commonwealth was due to the incursion of foreign influence. The lapses of Heb morality, esp. in the court of Solomon and of subsequent kings, occurred through the borrowing of idolatrous and heathen customs from surrounding nations (1 K 11 1-8).

      The Bible gives no sanction to dual or plural marriages. The narrative in Gen 2 18-24 indi- cates that monogamy was the Divine 3. Marriage ideal for man. The moral decline of Laws the generations antedating the Flood

      seems to have been due, chiefly, to the growing disregard of the sanctity of marriage. Lamech's taking of two wives (Gen 4 19) is the first recorded infraction of the Divine ideal. By Noah's time polygamy had degenerated into pro- miscuous inter-racial marriages of the most inces- tuous and illicit kind (Gen 6 1-4; see SONS OF GOD). The subsequent record ascribes marital infidelity and corrupt ion to sin, and affirms that the destruction of the race by the Flood and the over- throw of Sodom and Gomorrah were God's specific judgment on man's immorality. The dual mar- riages of the Patriarchs were due, chiefly, to the desire for children, and are not to be traced to Di- vine consent or approval. The laws of Moses regarding chastity protected the sanctity of mar- riage (see MARRIAGE), and indicated a higher regard for woman than prevailed in gentile or other Sem races (Lev 18 0-20). They sought to safeguard

      Concubinage in Israel was an importation from heathenism.

      Divorce was originally intended to protect the sanctity of wedlock by outlawing the offender and liis moral offence. Its free extension to include any marital infe- licity met the stern rebuke of Jesus, who declared that at the best it was a concession to human infirmity and hardness of heart, and should be granted only in case of adultery (Mt 5 32). See DIVOHCE.

      Heb women were granted a freedom in choosing a hus- band not known elsewhere in the East (Gen 24 58). Jewish tradition declares that a girl over 12 J years of age had the right to give herself in marriage. Vows made by a daughter, while under age, could be annulled by the father (Xu 30 3-5) or by the husband (vs 6-10). Whenever civil law made a concession to the customs of surrounding nations, as in granting the father power to sell a (laughter into bondage, it sought to surround her with all possible protection (Dt 22 10 ff).

      The Mosaic Law prescribed that the father's

      estate, in case there were no sons, should pass to

      the daughters (Nu 27 1-8). They

      4. Inherit- were not permitted, however, to alien-

      ance ate the family inheritance by marrying

      outside their own tribe (36 6-9).

      Such alien marriages were permissible only when

      the husband took the wife's family name (Neh 7

      63). Unmarried daughters, not provided for in the

      father's will, were to be cared for by the eldest son (Gen 31 11.15J. The bride's dowry, at, marriage, was intended as a substitute! for her share in the family estate. In rabbinical law, a century or more before Christ, it took the form of a settlement upon the wife and was considered obligatory. Pro- vision for woman under the ancient, Mosaic; Law was not inferior to her .status under Eng. law regarding landed estates.

      Among the Hebrews, woman administered the affairs of the home with a liberty and leadership

      unknown to other oriental peoples. 6. Domestic Her domestic duties were more inde- Duties pendent, varied and honorable. She

      was not the slave or menial of her hus- band. Her outdoor occupations were congenial, healthful, extensive. She often tended the flocks (Gen 29 G; Ex 2 10); spun the wool, and made the clothing of the family (Ex 35 20; Prov 31 19;

      1 S 2 19); contributed by her weaving and needle- work to its income and .support, (Prov 31 11.24), and to charity (Acts 9 39). Women ground the grain (Mt 24 41); prepared the meals (Gen 18 0;

      2 S 13 8; Jn 12 2); invited and received guests (Jgs 4 18; 1 S 25 18 ff; 2 K 4 8-10); drew water for household use (1 S 9 1 1 ; Jn 4 7), for guests and even for their camels (Gen 24 15-20). Heb women enjoyed a freedom that corresponds favor- ably with the larger liberties granted them in the Christian era.

      That women were fond of decorations and display in

      ancient as in modern times is clear from the reproof

      administered by the prophet i'or their

      6. Dress haughtiness and excessive ornamentation

      and Orna W sa 3 10). Ho bids them "remove ithel u yrnd yeil Htrip Qff the trami -. that th( . y may bo

      better able to "grind meal" and attend to the other womanly duties of the homo (47 2). These prophetic reproofs do not necessarily indicate general conditions, but exceptional tendencies to extravagance and excess. Tho ordinary dress of women was modest and simple, consisting of loose How- ing robes, similar to those worn by men, and still in vogue among Orientals, chiefly the mantle, shawl and veil (Ruth 3 15; Isa 3 22.23). Tho veil, however, was not worn for seclusion, as among the Moslems. The exten- sive wardrobe and jewelry of Heb women is suggested by the catalogue given in Isa 3 1S-24: anklets, cauls crescents, pendants, bracelets, mufflers, headtires, ankle chains, sashes, perfume-boxes, amulets, rings, nose- jewels, festival robes, mantles, shawls, satchels, hand- mirrors, flno linen, turbans, veils. Tho elaborateness of this ornamentation throws light on the apostle; Peter's counsel to Christian women not to make their adornment external, e.g. the braiding of the hair, the wearing of jewels of gold, the putting on of showy apparel, but rather the apparel of a meek and quiet spirit (1 Pet 3 3.4).

      The reflections cast upon woman for her leadership

      in the first transgression (Gen 3 6.13.10; 2 Cor 11

      3; 1 Tim 2 14) do not indicate her

      7. Religious rightful and subsequent place in the Devotion religious life of mankind. As wife, and Service mother, sister, she has been preemi- nently devout and spiritual. History

      records, however, sad and striking exceptions to this rule.

      (1) Often woman's religious intensity found ex- pression in idolatry and the gross cults of heathen- ism. That she everywhere participated freely in t he religious rites and customs of her people is evident from the fact that women were often priestesses, and were often deified. The other Sem religions had female deities corresponding to the goddesses of Greece and Rome. In the cult of Ishtar of Babylon women were connected with the immoral rites of temple-worship. The women of heathen nations in the harem of Solomon (1 K 11 1) turned the heart of the wise king to unaccountable foil}' in the wor- ship of the Sidonian goddess Ashtoreth, and of Chemosh and Molech, in turn the "abomination" of Moab and Ammon (11 5-8). The fatal spell of Maacah morally blighted the reigns of her husband,




      son and grandson, until Asa tin- latter deposed bet- as queen and destroyed the obscene image of Asherah which she had set up (1 K 15 13). As "queen mother" (ffhlilrdli, "leader") she \\vas equivalent to the Turkish Xnllana VuUtlc.

      Baal-worship was introduced into Israel by Jezebel (1 K 16 31.32; 18 19; 2 K 9 22), and into Judah by her daughter Athaliah (2 Ch 22 3; 24 7). The ])roniinence of women in idolatry and in the abominations of foreign religions is indicated in the writings of the prophets (.Jer 7 IS; E/k 8 1-1). Their malign influence appeared in the sor- ceress and witch, condemned to death by the Mosaic Law (Ex 22 IS); yet continuing through the nation's entire history. Even kings consulted them (1 S 28 7-14). The decline and overthrow of Judah and Israel must, be attributed, in large measure, to the deleterious effect of wicked, worldly, idolatrous women upon their religious life.

      (2) The bright side of Ueb history is an inspiring contrast to this dark picture. 1'rior to the Chris- tian era no more luminous names adorn the pages of history than those of the devout and eminent Heb women. Jochebed, the, mother of Moses, left upon him a religious impress so vital and enduring as to safeguard him through youth and early man- hood from the fascinating corruptions of Pharaoh's Egyp court (Ex 2 1-10; He 11 23 26). In Ruth, the converted Moabitess, the royal ancestress of

      1 )avid and of Jesus, we have an unrivaled example of filial piety, moral beauty and self-sacrificing reli- gious devotion (Ruth 1 15-1X). The prayers and piety of Hannah, taking effect in the spiritual power of her son Samuel, penetrated, purified and vitalized the religious life of the (Mil ire nation. Literature contains no finer tribute to the domestic virtues and spiritual qualities of woman than in the beautiful poem dedicated to his gifted mother by King Lemuel (Prov 31).

      Women, as well as men, took upon themselves the self-renouncing vow of the Na/irite (Nu 6 -), and shared in ottering sacrifices, as in the vow and sacrifice of Manoah's wife (Jgs 13 i:i.!4>; were granted thc- ophanies, e.g. Hagar (Gen 16 V; 21 17), Sarah (18 9.10), Manoah's wife (Jgs 13 :i-;V9) ; were even permitted to "minister" at the door of the sanctuary (Ex 38 K; 1 S

      2 22)- rendered conspicuous service in national religious songs 'and dances (Kx 15 lit); Jgs 11 :M; l S 18 0.7); in the great choirs and choruses and processionals of the Temple (l>s 68 ^: K/.r 2 05; Neh 7 07) ; in religious mourning (Jer 9 17-20; Mk 5 3S. They shared equally with men in the, great religious feasts, as is indicated by the law requiring their attendance (in 12 is).

      /// Inter-Testament Era. The women portrayed in the apocryphal literature of the Jews reveal all the varied characteristics of their sex so conspicuous in OT history: devout piety, ardent patriotism, poetic fervor, political intrigue, worldly ambition, and sometimes a strange combination of these contradictory moral qualities, Whether fictitious, or founded on fact, or historical, these portrayals are true to the feminine life of that era.

      Anna is a beautiful example of wifely devotion. By her faith and hard toil she supported her husband Tobit, after the loss of his property and in his blindness, until sight and prosperity were both restored (Tob 1 '.); 2 1-14).

      Edna, wife of Raguel of Kcbatana and mother of Sarah made her maternal love and piety conspicuous in the blessing bestowed on Tobias on the occasion of his marriage, to her daughter, who had hitherto been cursed on the night of wedlock by the death of seven successive husbands (7; 10 12).

      Sarah, innocent of their death, which had been com- passed by the evil spirit Asmodeus. at last had the reward of her faith in the joys of a happy marriage (Tob 10 10; 14 13).

      Judith, a rich young widow, celebrated in Heb lore as the savior of her nation, was devoutly and ardently patriotic. When Nebuchadnezzar sent his general Holofernes with an army of 132,000 men to subjugate the .lews, she felt called of Cod to be their deliverer. Visiting Holofernes, she so captivated him with her beauty and gifts that he made a banquet in her honor. While he was excessively drunk with the wine of his own bounty, she beheaded him in his tent. The Assyrians, paralyzed by the loss of their leader, easily fell a prey to the armies of Israel. Judith celebrates her triumph in a song, akin in its triumphant joy, patriotic fervor

      and religious zeal, to the ancient songs of Miriam and Deborah (,1th 16 1 17).

      Susanna typifies the ideal of womanly virtue. The daughter of" righteous parents, well instructed in the sacred Law, the wife of a rich and honorable man, Joachim by name, she was richly blessed in position and person. Exceptionally modest, devout and withal very beautiful, she attracted the notice of two elders, who were also judges, and who took occasion frequently to visit Joachim's house. She spurned their advances and when falsely charged by them with the sin which she so successfully resisted, she escapes the judgment brought against her, by the subtle skill of Daniel. As a result, his fame and her innocence became widely known. See SrsANXA, HISTORY OF.

      Cleopatra, full of inherited intrigue, is influential in the counsels of kings. She married successively for political power; murdered her eldest son Seleucus, by Demetrius, and at last dies by the poison which she intended for her younger son, Antioehus VIII. Her fatal influence is a striking example of the perverted use of woman's power (1 Mace 10 ">S; Jos, Ant, XIII, iv, 1; ix, X).

      IV. In NT Times. A new era _ dawned^ for woman with the advent of Christianity. The

      honor conferred upon Mary, as mother 1. Mary of Jesus, lifted her from her "low es- and fate," made after-generations call her

      Elisabeth blessed (Lk 1 4S), and carried its

      benediction to the women of all sub- sequent times. St. Luke's narrative of the Na- tivity (Lk 1, 2) has thrown about motherhood the halo' of a new sanctity, given mankind a more _ ex- alted conception of woman's character and mission, and made the world's literature the vehicle of the same lofty reverence and regard. The two dis- pensations were brought together in the persons of Elisabeth and Mary: the former the mother of John the Baptist, the lust of the old order of prophets; the latter the mother of the long-expected Messiah. Both are illustrious examples of Spirit-guided and Spirit-filled womanhood. The story of Mary's intellectual gifts, spiritual exaltation, purity and beauty of character, and her training of her Divine child,' has been an inestimable contribution to woman's world-wide emancipation, and to the up- lift and ennoblement of family life. To her poetic inspiration, spiritual fervor and exalted thankful- ness as expectant mother of the Messiah, the church universal is indebted for its earliest and most ma- jestic hymn, the Maijiiijlnil. In her the ^religious teachings, prophetic hopes, and noblest ideals of her race were epitomized. Jesus' reverence for woman and the new respect for her begotten by His teaching were well grounded, on their human side, in the qualities of His own mother. The fact that lie Himself was born of woman has been cited to her praise in the ecumenical creeds of Christen- dom.

      From the first, women were responsive to His teachings and devoted to His person. The sisters of Lazarus, Mary and Martha, made their 2. Jesus home at Bethany, His dearest earthly and Women refuge and resting-place. \\Yomen of all ranks in society found in Him a benefactor and friend, before unknown in all the history of their sex. They accompanied Him, with the Twelve, in His preaching tours from city to city, some, like Mary Magdalene, grateful because healed of their moral infirmities (Lk82); others, like Joanna the wife of Chuzas, and Susanna, to minister to His needs (8 3). Even those who were ostracized by society were recognized by Him, on the basis of immortal values, and restored to a womanhood of virtue and Christian devotion (Lk 7 37-50). Mothers had occasion to rejoice in His blessing their children (Mk 10 13-10); and in His raising their dead (Lk 7 12-15). AVomen followed Him on His last journey from Galilee to Jerus; ministered to Him on the way to Calvary (Mt 27 55.56); wit- nessed His crucifixion (Lk 23 49); accompanied His body to thesepulcher (Mt 27 61; Lk 23 55); pre- pared spices and ointments for His burial (Lk 23




      56); were first at (he tomb on the morning of His resurrect ion (Ml 28 1; Mk 16 I; Lk 24 1; Jn 20 Ij; and were the first, to whom tlic risen Lord appeared (Ml, 28 <); Mk 16 '.); Jn 20 11). Among Ihose thus faithful and favored \\vere Mary Magda- lene, Mary the mother of James and Joses, Salome (Ml, 27 /><>)> Joanna, and other unnamed women (Lk 24 10). Women had thehonorof being the first to announce* the fact of 1 he resurrect ion tot lie chosen disciples (Lk 24 9.10.22). They, including the mother of Jesus, were among the 120\\vho continued in prayer in the upper room and received the Pente- costal enduement (Acts 1 14); they were among the first Christian converts (8 12); suffered equally with men in the early persecutions of the church (9 2). The Jewish enemies of the new faith sought their aid and influence in the persecutions raised against .Paul and Barnabas (13 50); while women of equal rank among the Creeks became; ardent and intelligent believers (17 12). The fidelity of women to Jesus during His three years' ministry, and at the cross and sepulcher, typifies their spiritual devotion in the activities and enterprises of the church of the 20th century.

      Women were prominent, from the first, in the

      activities of flu 1 early church. Their faith and

      prayers helped to make Pentecost

      3. In the possible (Acts 1 14). They were emi- Early nent, as in the case of Dorcas, in Church charity and good deeds (9 36); fore- most in prayer, like Mary the mother of

      John, who assembled the disciples at her home to pray for Peter's deliverance (12 12). Priscilla is equally gifted with her husband us an expounder of "the way of Cod," and instructor of Apollos (18 26j, and as Paul's "fellow-worker in Christ" (Rom 16 3). The daughters of Philip were proph- etesses (Acts 21 S.9). The first convert in Europe was a woman, Lydia of Thyatira, whose hospitality made a home for Paul and a meeting-place for the infant church (16 14). Women, as truly as men, were recipients of the charismatic gifts of Chris- tianity. The apostolic greetings in the Epp. give them a place of honor. The church at Rome seems to have been blessed with a goodly number of gifted and consecrated women, inasmuch as Paul in the closing salutations of his Epp. sends greetings to at least eight prominent in Christian activity: Phoebe, Prisca, Mary "who bestowed much labor on you," Tryphena and Tryphosa, Persis, Julia, and the sister of Nereus (Rom 16 To no women did the great apostle feel himself more deeply indebted than to Lois and Eunice, grand- mother and mother of Timothy, whose "faith un- feigned" and ceaseless instructions from the holy Scriptures (2 Tim 1 5; 3 14.15) gave him the most "beloved child" and assistant in his ministry. Their names have been conspicuous in Christian history for maternal love, spiritual devotion and fidelity in teaching the Word of Cod. See also CLATDIA.

      From the first, women held official positions of

      influence in the church. Phoebe (Rom 16 1) was

      evidently a deaconess, whom Paul

      4. Official terms "a servant of the church," "a Service helper of many" and of himself also.

      Those women who "labored with me in the gospel" (Phil 4 3) undoubtedly participated with him in preaching. Later on, the apostle used his authority to revoke this privilege, possibly because some women had been offensively forward in "usurping authority over the man" (1 Tim 2 12 AY). Even though he bases his argument for woman's keeping silence in public; worship on Adam's priority of creation and her priority in transgression (2 13.14), modern scholarship un- hesitatingly affirms that his prohibition was appli- cable only to the peculiar conditions of his own time.

      Her culture, grace, scholarship, ability, religious devotion and spiritual enduement, make it evident that, she is often as truly called of Cod to public address and instruction as man. It is evident, in the NT and in (he writings of the Apostolic Fathers that women, through the agency of two ecclesias- tical orders, were; assigned official duties in the con- duct and ministrations of the early church.

      Their existence as a distinct order is indicated in 1 Tim 5 D.10, where l';uil directs Timothy as in the conditions of their enrolment. " Xo widow should be 6. Widows I' 1 '" 1 " , 11 ''''" (jcaTaAeyo,, hataleyf,, " cata- logued," "registered") under <;<) years of age, or if more than once married. She must be "well reported of for good works"; a mother, having "brought up children"; hospitable, having 'used hospitality to strangers" ; Ohristlike in loving serv- ice, having "washed the saints' feet." Clirvsostom and lertulhan make mention of this order. it bound its members to tin; service; of Cod for life, and assigned them ecclesiastical duties, e.g. the superintendence of the rest of the women, and the charge of the widows and orphans supported at public expense. J)ean Alford (see Comm. m loc.) says they "wen; vowed to perpetual widow- hood, clad in a vestis vidualis ("widow's garments"] and ordained by the laying on of hands. This institution was abolished by the eleventh Canon of the council of Laodicea.

      _ Other special duties, mentioned by the Church Fathers, Included prayer and fasting, visiting the sick, instruction of women, preparing them for baptism, assisting in the administration of this sacrament, and taking them the communion. The spiritual nature of the office is indi- cated by its occupant being variously termed "the inter- cessor of the church"; "the keeper of the door," at public- service; " the altar of God." See \\V mows.

      Many of these duties were transferred, by the 3d cent., to the deaconesses, an order which in recent history has been restored to its original importance and 6. Deacon- ell'ectiveness. The women already referred PQP to in Rora 16 i- - 1 ^ <'' evidently of this

      order, the term 6i/>r

      V. Later Times. Tertullian mentions the mod- est garb worn by Christian women (I)c Cult. 7

      ii.ll) as indicating their conscious- 1. Changes ness of their ne\\v spiritual wealth and in Character worthiness. They no longer needed and the former splendor of outward a( lorn-

      Condition riient, because clothed with the beauty

      and simplicity of Christ like character. They exchanged the temples, theaters, and festivals of paganism for the home, labored with their hands, cared for their husbands and children, graciously dispensed Christian hospitality, nourished their spiritual life in the worship, service and sacraments of the church, and in loving ministries to the sick. Their modesty and simplicity were a rebuke to and reaction from the shameless extravagances and immoralities of heathenism. That t hey were among the most conspicuous examples of the transforming power of Christianity is manifest from the admira- tion and astonishment of the pagan Libanius who exclaimed, "What women these Christians have!" The social and legal status of woman instantly improved when Christianity gained recognition iii the Empire. Her property rights as wife were es-

      Woman Worker



      tablished by law, and her husband made subject to accusation for marital infidelity. II or inferiority, subjection and servitude among all non-Jewish and non-Christian races, ancient and modern, are the severest possible arraignment of man's intelligence and virtue. Natural prudence should have dis- covered the necessity of a cultured and noble motherhood in order to a fine grade of manhood. Races that put blighting restrictions upon woman consign themselves to perpetual inferiority, im- potence and final overthrow. The decline of Islam and the collapse of Turkey as a world-power are late striking illustrations of this fundamental truth.

      Woman's activity in the early church came to its zenith in the 4th cent. The typo of feminine character produced by Christianity in that era is n'Klo indicated by such notable examples as Km- L e melia and Maerina, the mother and sister

      Examples of of Basil; Anthusa, Xonna, Monica, re- Christian spectively the mothers of Chrysostom, -.rr ' .j Gregory Nazianzen and Augustine. Like

      Womannooa tlu , mot hcrs of Jerome and Ambrose, they gave luster to the womanhood of the early Christian centuries by their accomplishments and emi- nent piety. As defenders of the faith women stand side by side with Ignatius and Polyearp in their capacity to face death and endure the agonies of persecution. The roll of martyrs is made luminous by the unrivaled purity, undaunted 'heroism, unconquerable faith of such Chris- tian maidens as Blandina, Potamiaena, Perpetua and Felicitas, who, in their loyalty to Christ, shrank not from the most fiendish tortures invented by the diabolical cruelties and hatred of pagan Rome.

      In the growing darkness of subsequent centuries women, as mot tiers, teachers, abbesses, kept the light of Christian faith and intelligence burning in mediaeval Europe. The mothers of St. Bernard and Peter the Ven- erable witness to the conserving and creative power of their devotion and faith. The apotheosis of the Virgin Mother, though a grave mistake and a perversion of Christianity by substituting her for the true object of worship, nevertheless served, in opposition to pagan cul- ture, to make the highest typo of womanhood the ideal of mediaeval greatness. The full glory of humanity was represented in her. She became universally domi- nant in religion. The best royalty of Europe was con- verted through her influence. Poland and Russia were added to European Christendom when their rulers accepted the faith of their Christian wives. Clotilda's ((inversion of Clovis made Franco Christian. The mar- riage of Bertha, another Christian princess of France, to Ethelbert introduced Roman Christianity into England, which became the established religion when Edwin, in turn, was converted through the influence of his Chris- tian wife. The process culminated, in the 10th cent., In the long, prosperous, peaceful, Christian reign of Vic- toria, England's noblest sovereign.

      The opening decades of the 2()th cent, are witnessing a movement among women that is one of the most re- markable phenomena in the history of man- 3. Woman kind. It is world-wide and spontaneous, . ' ,1 onth an d aims at nothing less than woman's in me zuin universal education and enfranchisement. Century This new ideal, taking its rise in the teach-

      ing of Jesus regarding the value of the human soul, is permeating every layer of society and all races and religions. Woman's desire for development and self-expression, and bettor still for service, has given birth to educational, social, eleemosynary, missionary organizations and institutions, international in scope and influence. In 75 years after Mary Lyon inaugurated the higher education of woman at Mt. Holyoke College, in 18:^7, (50,000 women were students in the universities and colleges of the United States; nearly 40,000 in the uni- versities of Russia; and increasingly proportionate num- bers in every higher institution of learning for women in the world; 30,000 were giving instruction in the primary and secondary schools of Japan. Even Moslem leaders confessed that the historic subjection of woman to igno- rance, inferiority, and servitude was the fatal mistake of their religion and social system. The striking miracle occurred when Turkey and China opened to her the here- tofore permanently closed doors of education and social opportunity.

      This universal movement for woman's enlightenment and emancipation is significantly synchronous with the world-wide extension and success of Christian missions. The freedom wherewith Christ did set us free includes her complete liberation to equality of opportunity with man. In mental endowment, in practical ability, in all the higher ministries of life, and even in statecraft, she has proved herself the equal of man. Christianity always tends to place woman side by side with man in all the groat achievements of education, art, literature, the humanities, social service and missions. The entire movement of modern society toward her perfect en- franchisement is the distinct and inevitable product of

      the teaching of Jesus. The growing desire of woman for the right of suffrage, whether mistaken or not, is thn incidental outcome of this new emancipation. The initial stages of this evolutionary process are attended by many abnormal desires, crudities of experiment and conduct, but ultimately, under the guidance of the Spirit of God and the Christian ideal, woman will intelligently adjust herself to lr i r new opportunity and environment, recognizing every God-ordained difference of function, and every complementary and cooperative relation be- tween the sexes. The result of this latest evolution of Christianity will not only bo a new womanhood for the race but, through her enlightenment, culture and spiritual leadership, a new humanity.


      WONDER, wun'der, WONDERFUL, wun'der- ful: The vb. "wonder" occurs only a few times in the OT; "wonder" as noun is much more frequent, and is chiefly the tr of the word FlSTC , mopheth, a splendid or conspicuous work, a "miracle" (Ex 4 21 ; 11 9, etc), often conjoined with 'otkoth, "signs" (Ex 7 3; Dt 6 22; 131.2; 3^11; Neh 9" t 10, etc).' Other frequent words are X5S , paid', X~3 , pclc', a "marvel," "miracle" (Ex 3 20; 15 1 1 ; Josh 3 5; Isa 9 6, in "wonderful counsellor," etc). In the NT the ordinary vb. is 6av/j.dfa, tluiumdzo, and the most frequent noun is r^pas, terns, a "marvel," "portent," answering in its meaning to Hob paid'. As in the OT the "wonder" is chiefly a miraculous work, so in the Gospels the feeling of wonder is chiefly drawn out by the marvelous displays of Christ's power and wisdom (Alt 15 31; Mk 6 51; Lk 4 22, etc).

      Wonderful, that which excites or calls forth wonder, is in the OT chiefly the tr of paid' or pele' (2 S 1 20; Ps 40 3; Isa 28 29, etc); in the NT of (lidUHidsios (once, Mt 21 15).

      For "wondered" in Lk 8 25; 11 14, RV has "marvelled" (of 9 43); in the OT also "marvel- lous" frequent Iv for "wondrous," etc, (1 Ch 16 9; Job 9 10; Ps 96 3; 105 2). W. L. WALKEH

      WOOD, wood. See BOTANY; FOREST; TREES.


      WOOF, woof P"ir, 'm'ft/i, "mixture," "woof" [Lev 13 48ff]j. See WARP.

      WOOL, wool ("TCS , qt'incr; epiov, erion) : Wool and flax were the fibers most used by the ancient weavers. Wool was used principally for the out- side garments (Lev 13 48 ff; Prov 31 13; Ezk 34 3; IIos 2 5.9). Syrian wool is found on the world's markets today, but it is not rated as first quality, partly because it is so contaminated with thorns, straw and other foreign matter which be- come entangled with the wool while the sheep are wandering over the barren, rocky mountain sides in search of food. Extensive pastures are almost unknown.

      Two kinds of wool are sold: (1) That obtained by shearing. This is removed from the animal as far as possible in one piece or fleece usually without previous washing. The fleeces are gathered in bales and carried to a washing-place, which is usually one of the stony river beds, with but a small stream flowing through it during the summer. The river bed is chosen because the rocks are clean and free from little sticks or straw which would cling to the washed wool. The purchaser of this washed wool submits it to a further washing with soap, ishnan (alkali plant), "soapwort," or other cleans- ing agent (see FULLER), and then cards it _before spinning and weaving. The wool thus obtained is nearly snow white. (2) The second supply of wool is from the tanneries where the wool is removed from the skins with slaked lime (see TANNING).



      This is washed in many changes of wafer and us,. for stuffing mattresses, quilts, etc, hut not foi weaving.

      Gideon used a fleece of wool to seek an omei from God (Jgs 6 37). Mesha, king of Moab, sent a large quantity of wool as a tribute to the king of Israel (2 K 3 4).

      Wool was forbidden to be woven with linen (Dt 22 11; cf Lev 19 ID). Priests could not wear woolen garments (Ezk 44 17). Wool dyed scarlet with the kermcs was used in the blood-covenant ceremony (He 9 19; cf Lev 14; Nu 19 6).

      The whiteness of wool was used for comparison (1) with snow (Ps 147 10); (2) with sins forgiven (Isa 1 18); (3) with hair (Dnl 7 9; Rev 1 14).


      WORD, wurd: The commonest term in the OT for "word" is "III" , dabhar (also "matter," "thing"); in the NT \\6yos, logos ("reason," "discourse," "speech"); but also frequently p%*a, rhPma. Rhema is a "word" in itself considered; logos is a spoken word, with reference generally to that which is in the speaker's mind. Some of the chief appli- cations of the terms may thus be exhibited:

      (1) We have the word of Jeh (or God; see below) (a) as the revelation to the patriarch, prophet, or inspired person (Gen 15 1 ; Ex 20 1 ; Nu 22 3S, etc); (A) as spoken forth by the prophet. (Ex 4 30; 34 1; 2 K 7 1; Isa 1 10, etc). (2) The word is often a commandment, sometimes equivalent to "the Law" (Ex 32 28; Nu 20 24- Dt 6 6; Ps 105 8; 119 11.17; Isa 66 2, etc).' (3) As a promise and ground of hope (Ps 119 25. 2S. 38, etc; 130 5, etc). (4) As creative, upholding, and preserving (Ps 33 6; cf Gen 1 3 ff ; Ps 147 15.18; He 1 3; 11 3; 2 Pet 3 5.7). (5) As per- sonified (in Apoc, Wisd 18 15; Ecclus 1 5, RYm "omitted by the best authorities"). (6) As per- sonal (Jn 1 1). Logos in Philo and Gr-Jewish philosophy meant both reason or thought and its utterance, "the whole contents of the Divine world of thought resting in the Nous of God, synonymous with the inner life of God Himself and correspond- ing to the logos endidthctos of the human soul; on the other hand, it is the externalizing of this as revelation corresponding to the logos prophorikos in which man's thought finds expression' 5 (Schultz). Cf also the references to Creation by "the word of God" and its personifications; see LOGOS; incar- nated in Jesus Christ (Jn 1 14; 1 Jn 1 1.2; Rev 19 13, "His name is called, The Word of God," Ho Logos ton Thcou). See PERSON- OP CHRIST. (7) Cannot be broken, endureth forever (2 K 10 !() Ps 119 89; Isa 40 8, etc). (8) A designation of the gospel of Christ: sometimes simply "the word"; with Jesus "the word of the Kingdom" (Mt 13 19- Mk 2 2; Acts 4 4.29.31, etc). In John's Gospel Jesus frequently speaks of His "word" and "works" as containing the Divine revelation and require- ments made through Him, which men are asked to believe in, cherish and obey (Jn 5 24; 6 63 68 etc); "the words of God" (Jn 3 34; 8 47; 14 10; 17 8.14, etc); His "word" (logos and rhema) is to be distinguished from Mid, speech (cf Mt 26 73- Mk 14 70), tr d "saying," Jn 4 42 (ver 41, "Many more believed because of his own word" [logos]; ver 42, "not because of thy saying" [Mia], RV "speak- ing"); in the only other occurrence of Mia in this Gospel (8 43) Jesus uses it to distinguish the out- ward expression from the inner meaning, "Why do ye not understand my speech?" (Mia), "Even because ye cannot hear my word" (logos). (9) "Words" are distinguished from "power" (1 Cor 4 20; 1 Thess 1 5); are contrasted with "deed" (Mai 2 17; 1 Cor 4 20; 1 Jn 3 18). (10) Paul refers to "unspeak- able words" (drrheta rhtmata) which he heard in

      Woman Worker

      Paradise (2 Cor 12 4), and to "words [logoi] which the Spirit teacheth" (L Cor 2 13;.'

      For "word" RV has "commandment" (N T u 4 45 etc)- for "words," "things" (Jn 7 ; 8 :); 9 22.40; 17 1)' _ sayings" (Jn 10 21; 12 47.4S); for " enticing words," persuasiveness of speech" (Col 2 4); conversely "word" for "commandment" (Xu 24 i:i- 27 14- Josh 8 8, etc), with numerous oilier changes.

      \\V. L. WALKICR

      WORK, wilrk, WORKS, wurks: "To work" in the OT is usually the tr of HiT? , f a.I/t, or of b?E , pa'al (of the works both of God and of man), and "work" (noun) is most frequently the tr of HC"^ , ma'dsch, or ~3X'P , nrlakliah; in the NT of tvepytu, cncrged,, crgdzainai (and compound;, with tpyov, ergon (noun). The word "works" (erga) is a favorite designation in Jn for the wonderful works of Jesus (5 3(5; 10 38; 15 24, etc; "miracles" to us, "works" to Him). "Works" is used by Paul and James, in a special sense, as denoting (with Paul) those legal performances by means of which men sought to be accepted of God, in contradis- tinction to that faith in Christ through which the sinner is justified apart from all legal works (Rom 3 27; 4 2.6, etc; Gal 2 16; 3 2.5.10), "work- ing through love" (Gal 5 0; 1 Thess 1 3), and is fruitful in all truly "good works," in which Christian believers are expected to abound (2 Cor 9 8; Eph 2 10; Col 1 10; 2 Thess 2 17, etc). When James speaks of being justified by "works" as well as by "faith" (2 14-26), he has in view those works which show faith to be real and vital. "Dead works" avail nothing (cf He 9 14; 10 24). Judgment is accord- ing to "works" (Alt 16 27, RV "deeds," m "Gr 'doing,'" praxis; Rom 2 6; 1 Pet 1 17, etc), the new life being therein evidenced. A contrast between "faith" and "good works" is never drawn in the NT. See, further, JUSTIFICATION. W. L. WALKER

      WORKER, wur'ker, WORKFELLOW, wilrk'- fel-o, WORKMAN, wurk'man (HTH , hdrdsh, b?E , pd\\il; ^p-yo.TT]s, crgdlcs, ervvep-yos, suncrgox) : "Worker" (artificer) is the tr of hartisb, "to cut in" (1 K 7 14, "a worker in brass"), and of hardsh "artificer," etc (1 Ch 22 15); "workers of stone," rendered "workman," "workmen" (Isa 40 20' 44 11; Jer 10 3.9, "artificer"; Hos 8 6); *asah, "to work," is tr d "workers" of iniquity (Ps 37 1, "them that work unrighteousness";; 'dsdh M e ld'khdh, "to do work" (2 K 12 14.15, "workmen," "them that did the work"; 1 Ch 22 15; 2 Ch 24 13, etc; Ezr 3 9); 'an'she m'la'khah, "men of work" (1 Ch 25 1, "workmen," "them that did the work"); 'dmel, "working," "toiling" (Jgs 5 26, "put .... tier right hand to the workmen's hammer"); pa l al, "to act," "do," when tr d "workers," is joined with "iniquity," "workers of iniquity" (Job 31 3' 34 8.22; Ps 5 5; 6 8; 14 4, etc; Prov 10 29; 21 15); ergates, "worker," is tr d "workman" (Mt 10 10, 'laborer"; 2 Tim 2 15; Acts 19 25), "workers" (of iniquity) (Lk 13 27), "deceitful workers" (2 Cor 11 13), "evil workers" (Phil 3 2); dunamis, 'power," is tr d "[workers of] miracles" (1 Cor 12 29m, RV "powers"); sunerged, "to work with" (2 Cor 6 1, "working together with him").

      Workfellow is the tr of sunergos, "joint or fellow- corker" (Rom 16 21; Col 4 11).

      Workmaster occurs in Ecclus 38 27, as the tr of architekton.

      For "of ["with"] cunning work" (Ex 26 1.31; 28 6.15; 36 8.35; 39 3.8), ARV has "the work of the skilful workman," ERV "of the cunning vorkman"; instead of "I was by him as one >rought up [with him]" (Prov 8 30), RV has '1 was by him as a master workman."

      W. L. WALKER




      WORLD, wu-ld (COSMOLOGICAL, koz-mo-loj'- i-kal):

      1 Terms and General Meaning 2. Hebrew Idea of the World

      l" OriKin^oTthc World -Biblical and Contrasted Views 5' The Cosmogony of Gen 1 Comparison with Baby- lonian and Other Cosmogonies 6. Gen 1 and Science


      The Hebrews had no proper word for "world" in its wide sense, of "universe." The nearest ap- proach to such a meaning is in the 1 Terms phrase "the heavens and the earth" and (den 1 1, etc). Even this, in a physi-

      General cal reference, does not convey the Meaning modern idea, for the earth is still the center with which heaven and the heavenly bodies are connected as adjuncts It is here however, to be remembered that to the Ileb mind the physical world was not the whole. Be- yond were the heavens where God's throne was, peopled by innumerable spiritual intelligences, whose host's worshipped and obeyed Him (Gen 28 12- Ps 103 19-21, etc). Their conception of the universe was thus enlarged, but the heavens, jn this sense, would not be included in the "world. lor "world," in its terrestrial meaning, several Heb words are used. The AV thus occasionally renders the word Vrrf, "earth" (the rendering is retained in RV in Isa 23 17; Jer 25 2<>; in Ps 22 27; Isa 62 11, it is changed to its proper meaning earth ); 'oldni, "age," twice rendered "world" in A\\ (Ps 73 12; Keel 3 11), is changed in RV in the latter case into "eternity." The chief word for "world' in tin; sense of the habitable earth, the abode of man, with its fulness of created life, is tebhela poetical term (1 S 2 8; 2 S 22 1C,; Job 18 IS; 34 l|i; 37 12; Ps 9 8; 18 15, etc) answering to the Gr (rikownene.

      In the NT a frequent word for "world is mon, "age" (Mt 12 32; 13 22.3'.).40.4<); 24 3; Mk 4 I'.l; Lk^lG S; Rom 12 2; He 1 2, etc). RV notes in these; cases "age" in m, and sometimes changes in text, into "of old" (thus AHV in Lk 1 70; Acts 3 4 >1) "ages " "times," etc, according to the sense (cf 1 Cor 10 11; He 6 f>; 9 2<>; 2 Tim 1 9; Tit 1 2, etc) Most generally the Gr word used is kdsmos, the "ordered world" (e.g. Mt 4 S; 5 14; 26 i:i; Mk 8 :!(>; Jn 1 9; 8 12; Acts 17 24; Rom 1 8.20, etc). The wider sense of "all creation," or "uni- verse" (see above on the OT), is expressed by such phrases as pdntn, "all things" (Jn 1 3), pdsa he ktisis, "the whole creation" (Rom 8 22).

      Two errors are to be avoided in framing a repre- sentation of the Heb conception of the world. (1) The attempt should not be made to 2. Hebrew find in the Bib. statements precise Idea of the anticipations of modern scientific dis- World coveries. The relations of the Bib.

      teaching to scientific discovery are considered below. Here it is enough to say that the view taken of the world by Bib. writers is not that of modern science, but deals with the world simply as we know it as it lies spread out to ordi- nary view and things are described in popular language as they appear to sense, not as telescope, microscope, and other appliances of modern knowl- edge reveal their nature, laws and relations to us. The end of the narration or description is through- out religious, not theoretic. (2) On the other hand, the error is to be avoided of forcing the language of popular, often metaphorical and poetic, description into the hard-and-fast forms of a cosmogony which it is by no means intended by the writers to yield. It is true that the Hebrews had no idea of our modern Copernican astronomy, and thought of the earth as a flat surface, surmounted by a vast ex-

      panse of heaven, in which sun, moon and stars were placed, and from whose reservoirs the rain de- scended. But it is an exaggeration of all this to speak, as is sometimes done, as if the Hebrews were children who thought of the sky as a solid vault (Gen 1 6-S; Job 37 18), supported on pillars (Job 26 11), and pierced with windows (Gen 7 11; Isa 24 18), through which the rains came. "The world is a solid expanse of earth, surrounded by and resting on a world-ocean, and surmounted by a rigid vault called the 'firmament,' above which the waters of a heavenly ocean are spread" (Skinner). The matter is carried farther when elaborate re- semblances are sought between the Heb and Bab cosmogonies (see below). Such representations, though common, are misleading. Language is not to be pressed in this prosaic, unelastic way. It is forgotten that if the "firmament" or "heaven" is sometimes spoken of as a solid vault, it is at other limes compared to a "curtain" stretched out (Ps 104 2; Isa 40 22), or a "scroll" that can be rolled up (Isa 34 4); if "windows" of heaven are once or twice mentioned, in many other places there is a quite clear recognition that the rain comes from the clouds in the air (Jgs 6 4; Job 36 28; Ps 77 17, etc) ; if the earth is somct hues spoken of as a "circle (Isa 40 22), at other times it has "corners" and "ends" (Isa 11 12; Dt 33 17; Job 37 3; Ps 19 6, etc); if sun, moon and stars arc figured as if attached to the firmament "fixed as nails," as one has put it "from which they might be said to drop off" (Isa 14 12, etc), far more frequently the sun is represented as pursuing his free, rejoicing course around the heavens (Ps 19 S.O, etc), the moon as "walking" in brightness (Job 31 2G), etc. The proper meaning of the word rukl^ is simply "ex- panse," and the pellucid vault of the heavens, in which the clouds hung, and through which the sun traveled, had probably for the Hebrews associations not very different from what it has to the average mind of today. The earth, itself composed of "dry land" and "seas" (Gen 1 9.10), the former with its mountains, valleys and rivers, may have been con- ceived of as encircled by an ocean the circular form being naturally suggested by the outline of the horizon. A few passages convey the idea of depths within or beneath, as well as around the solid earth (Gen 7 11; Dt 33 13) a thought again suggested by springs, wells, floods, and similar natural phe- nomenabut there is no fixity in these representa- tions. One place in Job (26 7) has the bold idea of the earth as hung in free space a near approach to the modern conception.

      The ideas formed of the extent of the, world were natu- rally limited by the geographical knowledge of the Hebrews, and expanded as that knowledge o T* T?_+ + increased. At no time, however was it so 3. Its i*Xtent limited as might be supposed. The 'I ABLE OF NATIONS (q.v.) in Gen 1Q shows a wide knowledge of the different peoples of the world, lifter their tongues, in their lands, in their nations" (vs 20.31). The outlook to the VV. was bounded by the Mediterranean ("great sea, ISu 34 <>; Ezk 47 10. etc), with its "islands" (Gen 10 5; Isa 11 11. etc), to Tarshish (Spain?) in the extreme W To the N .was the great empire of the Hittites (Josh 14:1 K 10 29, etc) N and E., across the desert, beyond Syria, lay the familiar region of Mesopotamia (Aram-Naharaim. Ps 60? title), with Ararat (Gen 8 4) still farther Is .; and southward, in the Tigris-Euphrates valley. * ancient and powerful empires of Assyria and Babylonia (Gen 2 14" 10 10.11), with Media and Elam (Gen 10 2.22), ft a later time Persia (Est 1 1), farther E TotheS.L between the Red Sea and the Pers Gulf, lay the great peninsula of Arabia, and to the W. of the Red Sea. SW of Canaan, the mighty Egypt, Isra el s never-forgotten land of bondage" (Kx 20 2, etc). S. of Eg yp t was Ethiopia. Of more distant peoples, India is first men- tioned in Est 1 1 ; 8 9. but trade with it must have been as early as the days of Solomon On the dim horizon are such peoples as Gomer (the Cimmerians N. of the Euxine. Gen 10 2; Ezk 38 6) and Magog (Gen 10 2. Ezk 38 2, the Scythians [?]); probably even China is intended by "the laud of Simm" m Isa 49 12. lu the




      apocryphal books and the NT the geographical area is perceptibly widened. Particularly do Asia Minor, Macedonia, Greece and Italy, with their islands, cities, etc, come clearly into view. A list like (hat in Acts 2 9-11 of the representatives of peoples present at the day of Pentecost gives a vivid glimpse of the extent of the Jewish religious connection at this period (cf Acts 8 27 ff).

      From thcfirst there has been abundant speculation in religion and philosophy as to how the world came

      to be whether it was eternal, or had 4. Origin a commencement, and, if it began to of World be, how it originated. Theories were, Biblical and as they are still, numberless and vari- Contrasted ous. Some cosmogonies were purely Views mythological (Bab, Hesiod); some were

      materialistic (Democritus, Epicurus "concourse of atoms"); some were demiurgic (Plato in Timaeus an eternal matter formed by a demi- urge); some were emanational (Gnostics result of overflowing of fulness of Divine life in "aeons"); some were dualistic (Parsism, Manicheism good and evil principles in conflict); some imagined end- less "cycles" alternate production and destruction (Stoics, Buddhist kalpas)', many were pantheistic (Spinoza an eternal "substance," its "attributes" necessarily determined in their "modes"; Hegel, "absolute spirit," evolving by logical necessity); some are pessimistic (Schopenhauer the world the result of an irrational act of "will" ; hence necessarily evil), etc.

      In contrast with these conflicting, and often foolish and irrational, theories, the Bib. doctrine of the origin of the world stands alone and unique. It is unique because the view of God on which it rests is unique. According to the teaching of the Bible, from its first page to its last, God is a free, personal Spirit, one, omnipotent, holy, and the world originates in a free act of His almighty will (Gen 1 1; Ps 33 9; He 11 3; Rev 4 11, etc), is con- tinually upheld by His power, ruled by His provi- dence, and is the sphere of the realization of His purpose. As against theories of the eternity of the world, accordingly, it declares that the world had a beginning (Gen 1 1); as against dualism, it declares that it is the product of one almighty will (Dt 4 35; Isa 45 7; 1 Cor 8 6, etc); as against the supposition of an eternal matter, it declares that matter as well as form takes its origin from God (Gen 1 1; He 11 3); as against pantheism and all theories of necessary development, it affirms the distinction of God from His world, His transcend- ence over it as well as His immanence in it, and His free action in creation (Eph 4 6; Rev 4 11); as against pessimism, it declares the constitution, aim and end of the world to be good (Gen 1 31; Ps 33 5; Mt 6 45, etc). To the OT doctrine of the origin of the world the NT adds the fuller determination that the world was created through the agency of the "Word" (Logos), or Son (Jn 1 3; Col 1 16, 17; He 1 2.3, etc).

      No stronger proof could be afforded of the truth and sublimity of the Bib. account of the origin of

      things than is given by the comparison 6. Cosmog- of the narrative of creation in Gen 1 ony of Gen 2 4, with the mythological cosmogonies 1 Compar- and theogonies found in other reli- ison with gions. Of these the best known, up Babylonian to the time of recent discoveries, were and Other the Bab account of the creation pre- Cosmog- served by Berosus, a priest of Babylon onies in the 3d cent. BC, and the Theogony of

      the Gr Hesiod (9th cent. BC). Hesiod's poem is a confused story of how from Chaos came forth Earth, Tartarus (Hell), Eros (Love) and Ere- bus (Night). Erebus gives birth to Aether (Day). Earth produces the Heaven and the Sea. Earth and Heaven, in turn, become the parents of the

      elder gods and the Titans. Cronus, one of these gods, begets /ens. Zeus makes war on his father Cronus, overthrows him, and thus becomes king of the Olympian gods. The descent of these is then traced. How far this fantastic; theory, commencing with Chaos, and from it generating Nature and the gods, has itself an original affinity with Bab conceptions, need not here be discussed. It hardly surpasses in crudeness the late shape; of the Bab cosmogony furnished by Berosus. Here, too, Chaos "darkness and water" is the beginning, and therefrom are generated strange and peculiar forms, men with wings and with two faces, or with heads and horns of goats, bulls with human heads, dogs with four bodies, etc. Over this welter a woman presides, called Omorka. Belus appears, cuts the woman in twain, of one half of her makes the heavens, and of the other the earth, sets the world in order, finally makes one of the gods cut off his head, and from the blood which flowed forth, mixed with earth, forms intelligent man. That Berosus has not es- sentially misrepresented the older Bab conceptions is now made apparent through the recovery of the Bab story itself.

      In 1875 George Smith discovered, among the tablets in the British Museum brought from the great library of the Assyr king Assurbanipal (7th cent. BC), .several on which was inscribed the Chaldaean story of creation, and next year published his work, The Chaldean Account of Gen. The tablets, supplemented by other fragments, have since been repeatedly tr d by other hands, the most complete tr being that by L. W. King in his Seven Tab- lets of Creation in the Babylonian and Axsyruin Lii/i'/nlx concerning the Creation of the. World. The story of these tablets, still in many parts fragmentary, is now familiar (see BABYLONIAN KEI.ICIO.V AND LITERATURE). Here, too, the origin of all things is from Chaos, the presiding deities of which are Apsu and Tiamat. The gods are next called into being. Then follows a long mythological description, occupying the first four tablets, of the war of Marduk with Tiamat, the conflict issuing in the woman being cut in two, and heaven being formed of one half and earth of the other. The 5th tablet narrates the ap- pointing of the constellations. The 6th seems to have recorded the creation of man from the blood of Marduk. This mythological epic is supposed by many scholars to be the original of the sublime, orderly, monotheistic account of the creation which stands at the commence- ment of our Bible. The Bab story is (without proof) supposed to have become naturalized in Israel, and there purified and elevated in accordance with the higher ideas of Israel's religion. We cannot subscribe to this view, which seems to us loaded with internal and historical improbabilities. Points of resemblance are indeed alleged, as in the use of the Ileb word f'/tdm for "deep" (Gen 1 2), cognate with Tiamat; the separation of heaven and earth (Gen 1 6-8) ; the appointing of the constellations (Gen 1 14-1X), etc. But in the midst of the scanty resemblances, how enormous an; the con- trasts, which all writers acknowledge! Gunkel, e.g., says, "Anyone who compares this ancient Bab myth with Gen 1, will perceive at once hardly anything else than the infinite distance between them. There the heathen gods, inflamed against each other in wild war- fare, hen; the One, who speaks and it is done" (Israel und liabylonien, 24). One can understand how these wild polytheistic legends could arise from corruption of a purer, simpler form, but not vice versa. The idea of a "deep," or chaos, must have preceded the fanciful and elaborate creation of the woman-monster, Tiamat; the distinction of sky and earth would go before the coarse idea of the cutting of the woman in two; and so with the other features of supposed resemblance. Professor (May has recently shown reason for challenging the whole idea of the borrowing of these myths from Babylonia, and declares that "it is unreasonable to assume that the

      Heb f horn is a modification of a Bab pattern To

      say, therefore, that the origin of the Marduk-Tiamat myth is to be found in a Nippurian version, originally known as Ellil-Tiamat, is utterly without foundation" (Amurru, 50). Much more reasonably may we adopt the hypothesis of Dillmann, Kittel, Hommel, Oettli, etc, that the relation between these Bab legends and the Bib. narratives is one of cognateness, and not of derivation. These traditions came down from a much older source and are preserved by the Hebrews in their purer form (see the writer's POT, 402-9).

      The superiority of the Gen cosmogony to those of other peoples is generally admitted, but objec- tion to it is taken in the name of modern science. The narrative conflicts, it is said, with both modern astronomy and modern geology; with the former, in

      World Wormwood



      regarding the earth as the center of the universe, and with the latter in its picture of the order and

      stages of creation, and the time occu- 6. Gen 1 pied in the work (for a full statement and Science of these alleged discrepancies, see Dr.

      Driver's (!en, Intro). On the general question of the harmony of the Bible with science it is important that a right standpoint be adopted. It has already been stated that it is no part of the aim of the Bib. revelation to anticipate the discoveries of 19th- and 20th-cent. science. The world is taken as it is, and set in its relations to God its Creator, without consideration of what after-light science may throw on its inner consti- tution, laws and methods of working. As Calvin, with his usual good sense, in his comm. on den 1 says, "Moses wrote in the popular style, which, without instruction, all ordinary persons endowed

      with common sense are able to understand

      He does not call us up to heaven; but only pro- poses things that lie open before our eyes." This of itself disposes of the objection drawn from astron- omy, for everywhere heaven and earth are spoken of according to their natural appearances, and not in the language of modern Copernican science. To this hour we use the same language in speaking of the sun rising and setting.

      The further objection that modern knowledge discredits the Bib. view by showing how small a speck the world is in the infinitude of the universe is really without force. Whatever the extent of the universe, it remains the fact that on this little planet life has effloresced into reason, and we have as yet no ground in science for believing that anywhere else it has ever done so (cf Dr. A. R. Wallace's striking book, J/V;//,s Place in the Universe). Even supposing that there are any number of inhabited worlds, this does not detract from the soul's value in this world, or from Clod's love in the salvation of its sinful race. The objection drawn from geology, though 80 much is sometimes made of it, is hardly more formidable. It does not follow that, because the Bible does not teach modern science, we are justified in saying that it contradicts it. On the contrary, it may be affirmed, so true is the stand- point of the author in this first chapter of Gen, so Divine the illumination with which he is endowed, so unerring his insight into the order of Nature, that there is little in his description that even yet, with our advanced knowledge, we need to change. To quote words used elsewhere, ''The dark watery waste over which the Spirit broods with vivifying power, the advent of light, the formation of an atmosphere or sky capable of sustaining the clouds above it, the settling of the great outlines of the continents and seas, the clothing of the dry land with abundant vegetation, the adjustment of the earth's relation to sun and moon as the visible rulers of its day and night, the production of the great sea- monsters and reptile-like creatures and birds, the peopling of the earth with four-footed beasts and cattle, last of all, the advent of man is there so much of all this which science requires us to cancel?" (Orr, Christian View of God and the. World, 421). _ Even in regard to the "days" the duration of time involved there is no insuperable difficulty. The writer may well have intended symbolically to represent the creation as a great week of work, ending with the Creator's Sabbath rest. In view, however, of the fact that days of 24 hours do not begin to run till the appointment of the sun on the 4th (lay (Gen 1 14), it seems more probable that he did not intend to fix a precise length to his creation "days." This is no new speculation. Already Augustine asks, "Of what fashion these days were it is exceeding hard or altogether impos- sible to think, much more to speak" (De Civ. Dei,

      xi.6, 7); ami Thomas Aquinas in the Middle Ages leaves the matter an open question. Neither does this narrative, in tracing the origin of all things to the creative word of God, conflict with anything that may be discovered by science as to the actual method of creat ion, e.g. in evolution. Science itself is gradually coming to see the limits within which the doctrine of evolution must be received, and, kept within these limits, there is nothing in that doctrine which brings it into conflict with the Bib. representations (see ANTHROPOLOGY; CREATION; EVOLUTION-; also the writer's works, God's Image in Man and Sin as a Problem of To/lay}. Whatever may be said of the outward form of the narrative, one has only to look at the great ideas which the first chapter of Gen is intended to teach to see that it conveys those great truths on the origin and ordering of things which are necessary as the basis of a true religious view of the world, no matter to what stage knowledge or science may attain. This chapter, standing at the head of the Bible, lays the foundation for all that follows in the Bib. view 'of the relation of God to the world, and yields the ground for our confidence that, as all things are created by God and dependent on Him, so everything in Nature and providence is at His disposal for the execution of His purposes and the care and protection of His people. _ The story of creation, therefore, remains to all time of the highest religious value.

      LITERATI-HE. See arts. "Earth" in Smith's DB and in EH. The other works mentioned above may be con- sulted. A valuable extended discussion of the word "Firmament" may be seen in Essay V of the older work Aids to Faith (London, Murray), 220-30.

      JAMKS Oim


      WORLD (GENERAL) : In AV this word represents

      several originals, as follows: yiS , 'cref, "earth";

      ^"7^, hedhcl, "the underworld"; "H ,

      1. Original heledh, "lifetime," "age"; ^"12, 'dldrn, Words "indefinite time," "age"; bin, tebhel,

      "fertile earth"; 7??, gt, "earth"; aluv, aidn, /'age," "indefinite time," w'ith frequent con- notation of the contents of time, its influences and powers; OIKOV^VTJ, oikoumene, "inhabited earth," the world of man considered in its area and distri- bution; last, and most frequently, K6

      Of the above terms, some need not detain us;

      'm-f, as the original to "world," occurs only thriccj

      hedhel, once, heledh, twice, 'o/aw, twice

      2. Remarks (including Keel 311), ye, once. The

      most important of the series, looking at frequency of occurrence, are tebhel, aidn, oikoumene, kosmos. On these we briefly comment in order.

      (1) Tebhel. This, as the original to "world," occurs in 35 places, of which 15 are found in Pss and 9 in the first half of Isa. By derivation it lias to do with produce, fertility, but this cannot be said to come out in usage. The word actually plays nearly the same part as "globe" with us, denoting man's material dwelling-place, as simply as possible, with- out moral suggestions.

      (2) Aion. We have indicated above the special- ity of this word. It is a time, with the suggestion always of extension rather than limit (so that it



      World Wormwood

      lends itself to phrases denoting vast if not endless extension, such as "to the aions of aions," rendered "forever and ever," or "world without end"). In He 1 2; 11 13, it denotes the "aeons" of the creative process. In numerous places, notably in Mt, it refers to the "dispensations" of redemption, the present "age" of grace and, in distinction, the "age" which is to succeed it "that world, and the resurrection" (Lk 20 35). Then, in view of the moral contents of the present state of things, it freely passes into the thought of forces and influ- ences tending against faith and holiness, e.g., "Be not fashioned according to this world" (Rom 12 2). In this connection the Evil Power is said to be "the god of this world" (2 Cor 4 4).

      (3) The word oikoumene occasionally means the Rom empire, regarded as preeminently the region of set tied human life. So Lk 2 1; Acts 11 28, and perhaps Rev 3 10, and other apocalyptic passages. In He it is used mystically of the Empire of the Messiah (1 0; 2 5).

      (4) Kosmon. We have remarked above on this word, with its curious and suggestive history of meanings. It may be enough here to add that that history prepares us to find its reference! varying by subtle transitions, even in the same passage. See e.g. Jn 1 10, where "the world" appears first to denote earth and man simply as the creation of "the Word," and then mankind as sinfully alienated from their Creator. Via are not surprised accordingly to read on the one hand that "God .... loved the world" (Jn 3 10), and on the other that the Chris- tian must "not love the world" (1 Jn 2 15). The reader will find the context a sure clue in all cases, and the study will be pregnant of instruction.


      WORM, wurm, SCARLET-WORM, skar'let-

      tola\\ith, P.375P , told f ath, from V ^P> , tdla'; cf Arab.

      *JL> , tala, "to stretch the neck"; usually with * ' ^ ^

      "'ITZJ , shdnl, "bright" (cf Arab. (tf x-w, sand, "a flash of lightning"), the term "'IttJ Fis^P, , tola*ath shdnl being tr d "scarlet" in EV; also in the same sense the following: r,""P ^fty , s}t f nl Idla'ath (Lev 14 4), rr.P, tola* (Isa 1 18, EV "crimson"), n^TT , s/idnlm (Prov 31 21; Isa 1 18, EV "scar- let"), ^TD, shdnl (On 38 28; Josh' 2 18; Cant 4 3); also K6/cKos, kokkos, and K&KKIVOS, kokkinos (Mt 27 28; He 9 19; Rev 17 3.4; 18 12.10). (2) HE-!, rim- indh, from V C'C'l , rd- mam, "to putrefy" (Ex 16

      20); cf Arab. . , ramm, "to become carious" (of

      bone). (3) DC, sds (only in Isa 51 8); cf Arab.


      IJHJ+H, stis, "worm"; ff^s, sts, "moth" (Mt 6 19).

      (4) L2T?n'T , zoMllm (Mic 7 17, AV "worms/ 7 RV "crawling things"), from V "HT , zdhal, "to crawl."

      (5) (TKW\\T], skolcx (Mk 9 48), tr/ccoXij/ci/tywros, skole- kdbrotos, "eaten of worms" (Acts 12 23).

      Besides the numerous passages, mostly in Ex, referring to the tabernacle, where tola^ath, with shdnl, is tr d "scarlet," there are eight passages in



      Scarlet Insect.

      which it, is tr' 1 "worm." These denote; worms which occur in decaying organic matter or in sores (Ex 16 20; Isa 14 1 1 ; 66 24 j; or which are destructive to plants (Dt 28 39; Jon 4 7); or tin; word is used as a term of contempt or depreciation (Job 25 (i; Ps 22 0; Isa 41 14). Rinnndh is used in the same senses. It occurs with toltfath as a synonym in Ex 16 24; Job 25 0; Jsa 14 11. Jn Job 25 0, EV, rendering both tol/i'alh and rittntidh by "worm," 'eitdxh and 'Culhdin by "man." and introducing twice "that is a," makes a painfully monotonous distich out of the concise and elegant original, in which not one word of the first part is repeated in the second. ,S'.s (Isa 51 8), EV "worm," is the larva of the clothes-moth. See MOTH. In none of the cases here considered are worms, properly so called, de- noted, but various insect larvae which are commonly called "worms," e.g. "silkworm," "apple-worm," "meal-worm," etc. These larvae arc; principally those of Diptera or flies, Cohoptcm or beetles, and Lepidoptera or butterflies and moths.

      Tiila'ath ftJinnl, "scarlet," is the scarlet-worm, r?rmcs vrrmilio, a scale-insect which feeds upon the oak, and which is used for producing a red dye. It is called by the Arabs dade/i, "a worm." a word also used for various insect larvae. It is also called kirmiz, whence "crimson" and the generic name Cvmirx. This scarlet-worm or scale-insect is one of the family Cm-ridne of the order Rhynchota or Hemiptera. The female is wingless and adheres to its favorite plant by its long, sucking beak, by which it extracts the sap on which it lives. After once attaching itself it remains motionless, and when dead its body shelters the eggs which have been deposited beneath it. The males, which are smaller than tin; females, pass through a complete metamorphosis and develop wings. The dye is made from the dried bodies of the females. Other species yielding red dyes are Porphyrophora polonica and Coccus cacti. The last named is the Mexican cochineal insect which feeds on the cactus and which largely supplanted the others after the discovery of America. Aniline dyes have; in turn to a great extent superseded these natural organic colors, which, however, continue to be unsurpassed for some purposes. See COLORS.


      Wormwood (Artemisia absinthium).

      WORMWOOD, wurm'wood (n:J5 , la'anuh [Dt 29 IS; Prov 5 4; Jer 9 15; 23 ]/>;' Lam 3 15.19; Am 57; 6 12, AV hemlock]; a\\J/iv0os, dpsinthos

      Wormwood, Star Worship



      [Rov 8 11]): What (lie Hob ht'dnah may have been is obscure; it is t lear it was a bitter substance and it is usually associated with "gall"; in LXX it is variously tr' 1 , but never by r;/W/i//io.s-, ''wormwood." Nevertheless all ancient tradition supports the EY tr. The genus Arli'mittid (N.( ). Compositav), ''worm- wood," has five species of shrubs or herbs found in Pal (Post), any one of which may furnish a bitter taste. The name is derived from the property of many species acting as anthelmint ics, while other varieties are used in the manufacture of absinthe. E. \\Y. G. ]\\ I. VSTKH MAN- WORMWOOD, THE STAR: In Rev 8 11, the name is figurative, given to a great star which, at the sounding of the third angel's trumpet, fell from heaven upon the third part of the rivers and on the fountains of Ihe waters, turning them to a bitter- ness of which many died. Wormwood is used of bitter calamities (cf Lam 3 1~>), and may here indi- cate some judgment, inflicted under a noted leader, affecting chiefly the internal sources of a country's prosperity. Older expositors, applying the earlier trumpets to the downfall of the Rom empire, saw in the star a symbol of the barbarian invasions of Attila or Cienserie. See also ASTKOXOMV, I, 8.


      WORSHIP, wiVship (AS urortlixcipe, wi/rth- sci/jx', "honor," from worth, icurth, "worthy," '"honorable," and acipc, ''ship"):

      1. Terms

      2. OT Worship

      3. XT Worship

      4. Public Christian Worship


      Honor, reverence, homage, in thought, feeling, or act, paid to men, angels, or other "spiritual" beings, and figuratively to other entities, ideas, powers or qualities, but specifically and supremely to Deity.

      The principal OT word isHHu,', KJiiUnlh, "depress," "bow down," "prostrate" (Ilithpael), as in Ex 4 31, "bowed their heads and wor- 1. Terms shipped"; so in 94 other places. The context determines more or less clearly whether the physical act or the volitional and emo- tional idea is intended. The word is applied to acts of reverence to human superiors as well as supernatural. RV renders it according to its physi- cal aspect, as indicated by the context, "bo\\\\rd himself down" (AV "worshipped," C!en 24 o2; cf 23 7; 27 21), etc).

      Other words are: "oC , y<~iuJitt

      in Isa 44 15.17.1'.); 46 0, but rendered (EV) "fall down."

      In Dnl 2 -Iti; 3 r>.i>.7.10.15.LS.2.s, it (.Aram. ~}C , *'.

      " serve, "is rendered "worship" by EV in 2 K 10 19. '21 fl": " the worshippers [servants] of Haul." In Isa 19 21 KV

      has " worship with sacrifice and oblation " ( A V " do sacri- fice"). Isa 19 23 A\' has "served," K V "worship." ^237, 'Cifubh, "carve," "fabricate," "fashion," is once

      given "worship," i.e. "make [an object of] worship" (Jer 44 li), AHVm "portray").

      The OT idea is Ilierefore the reverential attitude of mind or body or both, combined with the more generic notions of religious adoration, obedience, service.

      The principal NT word (f>9 t) is TrpoaKwtu, pros- knuco, "kiss [the hand or the ground] toward," hence often in the oriental fashion bowing prostrate upon the ground; accordingly, LXX uses it, for the Ilithpael of sJtuhuh (hishtah&wah), "prostrate one- self." It is to render homage to men, angels, demons, the devil, the "beast," idols, or to God. It is rendered 16 t to Jesus as a beneficent superior; at least 24 t to God or to Jesus as Clod. The root idea of bodily prostration is much less prominent than in the OT. It is always tr d "worship."

      and its various cognates,, sel/dzomai, tvo-e/Sec, cusebro, 0toa-t^>j?, theoseMs, o-ejSacrnxa. srba.ima. Its roc

      in the ol)servance of the rites instituted for His worship." It is tpi" worship" in Acts 7 42; 24 14 AV, but "serve, " AKV: "serve the host of heaven," "servo I the Uod of "


      n te secon two specic. n m an many

      other cases both AV and RV give "serve," the meaning not being confined to worship; but cf Lk 2 37 KV: "worshipping [AV "served"] with fastings and suppli- cations." Rom 1 25 gives both srbazomai and laln-uii in their specific meanings: "worshipped [venerated] and served [religiously] the creature." <5ofa,, "glory" (Lk 14 10 AV: "Thou shalt have worship," is a sur- vival of an old Kng. use, rightly discarded in RV). #P>J

      rfwKopos, ncoh-oriix, "temple-sweepers," "temple-keeper' (Acts 19 35), has its true meaning in KV, but " worship- per" is needed to complete the idea, in our modern idiom. In the Apoc the usage is the same as in the XT, the vbs. used being, in the order of their frequency, pruxkunto, xtliomai, thrcxkcuo, and latrtiiu.

      The NT idea of worship is a combination of the reverential attitude of mind and body, the general ceremonial and religious service of God, the feeling of awe, veneration, adoration; with the outward and ceremonial aspects approaching, but not reach- ing, the vanishing point. The total idea of worship, however, both in the OT and NT, must be built up, not from the words specifically so tr' 1 , but also, and chiefly, from the whole body of description of wor- shipful feeling and action, whether of individuals singly and privately, or of larger bodies engaged in the public services of sanctuary, tabernacle, temple, synagogue, upper room or meeting-place.

      Space permits no discussion of the universality of worship in some form, ranging from superstitious fear or fetishism to the highest spiritual exercise of which man is capable; nor of the primary motive of worship, whether from a desire to placate, in- gratiate, or propitiate some higher power, or to commune and share with him or it, or express in- stinctive or purposed devotion to him. On the face of the Bible narratives, the instinct of com- munion, praise, adoring gratitude would seem to bo the earliest moving force (cf Gen 4 3.4, Cain, Abel; Rom 1 1S-25, the primitive knowledge of God as perverted to creature-worship; Gen 8 20, Noah's altar; and Gen 12 7, Abram's altar). That- propitiation was an early element is indicated probably by Abel's offering from the flock, cer- tainly by the whole system of sacrifice. Y\\ hatever its origin, worship as developed in the OT is the expression of the religious instinct in penitence, prostration, adoration, and the uplift of holy joy before the Creator.

      In detail, OT worship was individual and private, though not necessarily secret, as with Eliezer (Gen 24 2(>f), the expression of personal 2. OT gratitude for the success of a mission,

      Worship or with Moses (Ex 34 8), seeking God's favor in intercessory prayer; it was sometimes, again, though private, in closest associa- t ion with others, perhaps with a family significance (Gen 8 20, Noah; Gen 12 7; 22 5, Abraham: "I and the lad will go yonder; and .... worship"); it was in company with the "great congregation,' perhaps partly an individual matter, but gaining blessing and force from the presence of others (Ps 42 4: "I went with the throng .... keeping holy- day"); and it was, as the national spirit developed,



      Wormwood, Star Worship

      the expression of the national devotion (1 Ch 29 20:

      "And all the assembly .... worshipped Jeh, and the king"). In this public national worship the truly devout Jew took his greatest delight, for in it were inextricably interwoven together, his patriot- ism, his sense of brotherhood, his feeling of soli- darity, his personal pride and his personal piety.

      The general public worship, esp. as developed in the Temple services, consisted of: (1) Sacrificial acts, either on extraordinary occasions, as at the dedication of the Temple, etc, when the blood of the offerings flowed in lavish profusion (2 Ch 7 5), or in the regular morning and evening sacrifice's, or on the great annual days, like the Day of Atone- ment. (2) Ceremonial acts and post ure of reverence or of adoration, or symbolizing the seeking and receiving of the Divine favor, as when the high priest returned from presenting incense offering in the holy place, and the people received his bene- diction with bowed heads, reverently standing (2 Ch 7 6), or the worshippers prostrated themselves as the priests sounded the silver trumpets at the conclusion of each section of the Levites' chant. (3) Praise by the official minis) rants of the people or both together, the second probably to a very limited extent. This service of praise was either instru- mental, silver "trumpets and cymbals and instru- ments of music," or it might be in vocal song, the chant of the Levites (very likely the congregation took part in some of the antiphonal psalms); or it might be both vocal and instrumental, as in the magnificent dedicatory service of Solomon (2 Ch 6 13), when "the trumpeters and singers were as one, to make one sound to be heard in praising and thanking Jeh." Or it might be simply spoken: "And all the people said, Amen, and praised Jeh" (1 Ch 16 30). How fully and splendidly this musical element of worship was developed among the Hebrews the Book of Ps gives witness, as well as the many notices in Ch (1 Ch 15, 16, 25; 2 Ch 5, 29, 30, etc). It is a pity that our actual knowl- edge of Heb music should be so limited. (4) Public prayer, such as is described in Dt 26, at the dedi- cation of the Temple (2 Ch 6, etc'), or like Pss 60, 79, 80. Shorter forms, half praise, half prayer, formed a part of the service in Christ's time. " (.">) The annual feasts, with their characteristic cere- monies. See PASSOVER; TABERNACLE, etc. Places of worship are discussed under ALTAR; HIGH PLACE; SANCTTAKY; TABEHXACLIO; TEMPLE, etc.

      In the NT we find three sorts of public worship, the temple-worship upon OT lines, the synagogue- worship, and the worship which grew 3. NT up in the Christian church out of the

      Worship characteristic life of the new faith. The synagogue-worship, developed by and after the exile, largely substituted the book for the symbol, and thought for the sensuous or object appeal; it was also essentially popular, homelike, familiar, escaping from the exclusiveness of the priestly service. It had four principal parts: (1) the recitation of the s7<''//w', composed of Dt 6 4-9; 11 13-21, and Nu 15 37-41, and beginning, "Hear [.s7r//m'], () Israel: Jeh our Cod is one Jeh"; (2) prayers, possibly following some set form, perhaps repeating some psalm; (3) the reading by male indi- viduals of extracts from the Law and the Prophets selected by the "ruler of the synagogue," in later years following the fixed order of a lectionary, as may have been the case when Jesus "found the place"; (4) the taryum or condensed explanation in the vernacular of the Scriptures read.

      It is questioned whether singing formed a part of the service, but, considering the place of music in Jewish religious life, and its subsequent large place; in Christ ian worship, it is hard to think of it as absent from the synagogue.

      Public Christian worship necessarily developed along the lines of the synagogue and not the temple,

      since the whole sacrificial and cere- 4. Public inonial system terminated for Chris- Christian tianity with the life and death of Jesus. Worship The perception of this, however, was

      gradual, as was the break of Jewish Christians with both synagogue and temple. Jesus Himself held the temple in high honor, loved to frequent it as His Father's house, reverently ob- served the feasts, and exhibited the characteristic attitude of the devout but un-Pharisaic Israelite toward tin; temple and its worship. Yet by speak- ing of Himself as "greater than the temple" (Alt 12 G) and by ([noting Hos 6 0, "I desire good- ness and not sacrifice," He indicated the relative subordinateness of the temple and its whole system of worship, and in His utterance to the woman of Samaria He intimated the abolition both of the whole idea of the central sanctuary and of the entire ceremonial worship: "Neither in this mountain, nor in Jerus, shall ye worship the Father"; "They that worship him must worship in spirit and truth" (Jn 4 21.24). His chief interest in the temple seems to have been as a "house of prayer" and an opportunity to reach and touch the people. We cannot help feeling that with all His love for the holy precincts, He; must have; turned with relief from the stately, formal, distant, ceremonial of the temple, partly relieved though it was by the genuine religious passion of many worshippers, to the freer, more vital, closer heart -worship of the synagogue, loaded though that also was with form, tradition, ritual and error. Here He was a regular and reverent attendant and participant (Mk 1 21.39; 31; 62; Lk 6 6). Jesus did not Himself pre- scribe public worship for His disciples, no doubt assuming that instinct and practice, and His own spirit and example, would bring it about sponta- neously, but He did seek to guard their worship from the merely outward and spectacular, and laid great emphasis on privacy and real "innerness" in it (Mt 6 1-1S, etc). Synagogue-worship was prob- ably not abandoned with Pentecost, but private brotherhood meetings, like that in the upper chamber, and from house to house, were added. The young church could hardly have "grown in favor with the people," if it had completely with- drawn from the popular worship, either in temple or synagogue, although no attendance on the latter is ever mentioned. Possibly the Christians drew themselves together in a synagogue of their own, as did the different nationalities. The reference in Jas: "if there; come unto your synagogue" (2 2), while not conclusive, since "synagogue" may have gained a Christian significance by this time, never- theless, joined with the trad it ions concerning James's ascetic zeal and popular repute, argues against such a complete separation early. Necessarily with the development into clearness of the Christian ideas, and with the heightening persecution, together with the hard industrial struggle of life, the observance of the Jewish Sabbath in temple or synagogue, and of the Christian's Lord's Day, grew incompatible. Yet the full development of this must have been rather late in Paul's life. Compare his missionary tactics of beginning his work at tin; synagogue, and his custom of observing as far as possible the Jewish feasts (Acts 20 10; 1 Cor 16 8). Our notions of the worship of the early church must be constructed out of the scattered notices descriptive of different stages in the history, and different churches present different phases of development. The time was clearly the Lord's Day, both by the Jewish churches (Jn 20 19.20) and by the C,r (Acts 20 7; 1 Cor 16 2). The daily meeting of Acts 2 40 was prob- ably not continued, no mention occurring later.

      Worship Wrest



      There are no references to yearly Christian festivals, though the wide observance in the sub-apostolic period of the Jewish Passover, with references to the death and resurrection of Jesus, and of Pentecost to commemorate the gift, of the Holy Spirit, argues for their early use. The place was of course at first in private houses, and the earliest form of Christian church architecture developed from this model rather than the later one of the basilica. 1 Cor gives rather full data for the worship in this free and enthusiastic church. It appears that- there were two meetings, a public and a private. The public worship was open, informal and missionary, as well as edificatory. The unconverted, inquirers and others, were expected to be present, and were frequently converted in the meeting (1 Cor 14 24). It resembled much more closely an evangelical "prayer and conference meeting of today than our own formal church services. There is no inen- t ion of official ministrant s, t hough the meet ing seems to have been under some loose guidance. Any male member was free; to take part, as the Spirit might prompt, esp. in the line of his particular "spiritual gift" from God, although one individual might have several, as Paul himself. Largely developed on synagogue; lines, but with a freedom and spirit the latter must have greatly lacked, it was composed of: (1) Prayer by several, each followed by the congregational "Amen." (2) Praise, con- sisting of hymns composed by one or another of the brethren, or coming down from the earlier days of Christian, perhaps Jewish, history, like the Benc- dirtiix, the Maynificat, the \\nnc ilinn'ltix, etc. Por- tions of these newer hymn-; seem to be imbedded here and there in the NT, as at Rev 5 9-13: "Worthy art them," etc (cf Rev 15 3; 11 17, etc); also: "He who was manifested in the flesh, Justified in tin 1 spirit, Seen of angels, Preached among the nations, Believed on in the world, Received up in glory" (1 Tim 3 10). Praise also might take 1 1n- form of individual testimony, not in metrical form (1 Cor 14 10). (3) Reading of the Scripture must have followed, according to the synagogue model. Paul presupposes an acquaintance with the OT Scriptures and the facts of Jesus' life, death, resur- rection. Instructions to read certain epp. in the churches indicate the same. (4) Instruction, as in

      I Cor 2 7; 6 f>, teaching for edification. (These passages, however, may not have this specific ref- erence.) (f>) Prophesying, when men, believed by themselves and by the church to be specially taught by the Holy Spirit, gave utterance to His message. At Corinth these crowded on one another, so that Paul had to command them to speak one at a time. (6) Following this, as some believe, came the "speak- ing with tongues," perhaps fervent and ejaculatory prayers "so rugged and disjointed that the audience for the most part could not understand" until some- one interpreted. The speaking with tongues, how- ever, comprised praise as well as prayer (1 Cor 14 10), and the whole subject is enshrouded in mystery. See TONGUKS, GIFT OF. (7) The meeting closed with the benediction and with the "kiss of peace."

      The "private service" may have followed the other, but seems more likely to have been in the evening, the other in the morning. The disciples met in one place and ate together a meal of their own providing, the agape, or love feast, symbolizing their union and fellowship, preceded or followed by prayers (Did., x), and perhaps interspersed by hymns. Then followed the "Lord's Supper" itself, according to the directions of the apostle (1 Cor

      II 23-28).

      How far "Christian worship" was "Christian" in the sense of being directly addressed to Christ, is not easily answered. We must not read into their mental content the fully developed Christology of later centuries, but

      it is hard to believe that those who had before them Thomas' adoring exclamation, " My Lord and my God!" the saying of the first martyr. "Lord Jesus, receive my spirit," the dictum of the great apostle, " Who, existing in the form of God," the utterances of He, "And let all the angels of God worship him," "Thy throne, O God, is forever and forever," and, later, the prologue of Jn, and the ascriptions of praise in the Apocalypse, could have failed to bow down in spirit before Jesus Christ, to make known their requests through Him, and to lift up their adoration in song to Him, as according to Pliny's witness, 1 12 AD, "they sing a hymn to Christ as God." The absolutely interchangeable way in which Paul, for instance, applies "Lord" in one breath to the Father, to the OT Jeh, and to Jesus Christ (Rom 10 11.13; 14, etc) clearly indicates that while (rod the Father was, as He must be, the ultimate and principal object of worship, the heart and thought of God's NT people also rested with adoring love on Him who is "worthy .... to receive the power and riches and wisdom" and might, and glory, and honor and blessing." Tlie angel of the Apocalypse would not permit the adora- tion of the seer (Rev 22 0), but Jesus accepts the homage of Thomas, and in the Fourth Gospel declares it the duty of all to "honor the Son, even as they honor the Father" (Jn 5 23).

      The classical passages for Christian worship are Jn 4 23.24, culminating in (m) : "God is spirit : and they that worship him must worship in spirit and truth. 1 ' and Phil 3 3, "who worship by the Spirit of God." These define its inner essence, and bar out all ceremonial or deputed worship whatever, except as the former is, what the latter can never be, the genuine and vital expression of inner love and devotion. Anything that really stimulates and expresses the worshipful spirit is so far forth a legitimate aid to worship, but, never a substitute for it, and is harmful if it displaces it. Much, perhaps most, stately public worship is as significant to ( Jod and man as the clack of a Thibetan prayer-mill. The texts cited also make of worship something far deeper than the human emotion or surrender of will; it is the response of God's Spirit in us to that Spirit in Him, whereby we answer "Abba, Father," deep calling unto deep. Its object is not ingratiation, which is unnecessary, nor propitiation, which _ has been made "once for all," nor in any way "serving" the God who 'needeth not to be worshipped with men's hands' (Acts 17 25), but it is the loving at- tempt, to pay our unpayable debt of love, the ex- pression of devoted hearts, "render[ing] as bullocks the offering of our lips" (Hos 14 2). For detail it is not a physical act or material offering, but an at tit tide of mind: "The sacrifices of God are a broken spirit"; "sacrifices of praise, with which God is well pleased"; not the service of form in an outward sanctuary, the presentation of slain animals, but the service of love in a life: "Present your bodies a living sacrifice" ; not material sacrifices, but spirit ual : your rat ional "service" ; not the service about an altar of stone or wood, but about the sanctuary of human life and need; for this is true religion ("service," "worship," threskda), "to visit the fatherless and widows in their affliction"; not the splendor of shin- ing robes or the sounding music of trumpets or organs, but the worshipping glory of holy lives; in real fact, "hallowing Thy name," "and keeping one- self unspotted from the world." The public worship of God in the presence of His people is a necessity of the Christian life, but in spiritual Christianity the ceremonial and outward approaches, if it does not quite reach, the vanishing point.

      LITERATURE. BDB; Thayer's AT Lexicon s.v. ; arts. on "Praise," "Worship," "Temple," "Church," "Prayer," in IIDB, Dn, New Sch-IIerz, DCG; comms. on Pss, Ch, Cor; Weizsiicker, The Apostolic Age of the Church, II; Pfleiderer, Das Urrhrixtenthum (ET) ; Leqning, Gemeinde- cerfassung tics Urchristenthums; Edersheim, The Temple. Its Ministry and Service, as They Were at the Time of Jesus Christ, and Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah; Hort, The Christian Ecclesia; Lindsay, Church and the Ministry in the Early Centuries; McGiffert, A History of Chris- tianity in the Apostolic Age.




      Worship Wrest


      WORTHIES, wur'thi/ (T^X , 'ndfllr, "majestic," "noble" [cf Jg.s 5 13, etc]): fn Nah 2 5, AV "He shall recount his worthies" (m "gallants"), ERV "He remembereth his worthies," ARV "He; rcrriern- bereth his nobles." As MT stands, the Assyr king hurriedly summons his commanders to repel the as- sault, but the passage is obscure and the text quite possibly in need of emendation.

      WOT. See WIST, WITTY, WOT.

      WRATH, rath, roth, rath (ANGER) (=1X , 'aph, from J!^ , 'anaph, "to snort," "to be angry"; op-yrj, ory?, 6v|A6s, thumos, 6p-yio[Aai, orgizomai) '. Desig- nates various degrees of feeling, such as sadness (I's 85 4), a frown or turning away of the face in grief or anger (2 Ch 28 19; Jer 3 12), indignation (I's 38 3), bitterness (Jgs 18 25), fury (Est 1 12), full of anger ((Jen 4 ,5; Jn 7 23), snorting mad (On 27 4.-,; Alt 2 16).

      Wrath is used with reference to both Cod and

      man. When used of God it is to be understood

      that there is the complete absence of

      1. Divine that caprice and unethical quality Wrath so prominent in the anger attributed

      to the gods of the heathen and to man. The Divine wrath is to be regarded as the natural expression of the Divine nature, which is absolute holiness, manifesting itself against the wilful, high- handed, deliberate, inexcusable sin and iniquity of mankind. God's wrath is always regarded in the Scripture as the just, proper, and natural expression of His holiness and righteousness which must always, under all circumstances, and at all costs be maintained. It is therefore a righleous indig- nation and compatible with the holy and righteous nature of God (Nu 11 1-10; Dt 29 27; 2 S 6 7; Isa 5 25; 42 25; Jer 44 6; Ps 79 6). The ele- ment of love and compassion is always closely con- nected with God's anger; if we rightly estimate the Divine anger we must unhesitatingly pronounce it to be but the expression and measure of that love (cf Jer 10 24; Ezk 23; Am 3 2).

      Wrath, when used of man, is the exhibition of an

      enraged sinful nature and is therefore always inex-

      cusable (Gen 4 5.6; 49 7; Prov 19 10;

      2. Human Job 5 2; Lk 4 28; 2 Cor 12 10; Gal Wrath 6 20; Eph 4 31; Col 3 8). It is for

      this reason that man is forbidden to allow anger to display itself in his life. He is not to "give place unto wrath" (Rom 12 19 m), nor must he allow "the sun to go down upon his wrath" (Eph 4 26). He must not be angry with his brother (Mt 6 22), but seek agreement with him lest the judgment that will necessarily fall upon the wrathful be meted out to him (Mt 6 25.26). Particularly is the manifestation of an angry spirit prohibited in the training and bringing up of a family (Eph 6 4; Col 3 10). Anger, at all times, is prohibited (Nu 18 5; Ps 37 8; Rom 12 10; Gal 6 10; Eph 4 26; Jas 1 19.20).

      Wrath or anger, as pertaining to God, is very much more prominent in the OT than in the NT.

      This is to be accounted for probably

      3. Divine because the NT magnifies the grace Wrath Con- and love of God as contrasted with His sistent with wrath; at least love is more promi- Love nent than wralh in the revelation and

      teaching of Christ and His apostles. Nevertheless, it must not be thought that the ele- ment of wrath, as a quality of the Divine nature, is by any means overlooked in the NT because of the prominent place there given to love. On the

      contrary, the wrath of God is intensified because of the more wonderful manifestation of His grace, mercy and love in the gift of His Son Jesus Christ as the Saviour of the world. God is not love only: He is also righteous; yea, "Our God is a consuming fire" (He 12 20); "It is a fearful thing to fall into the hands of .the living God" (He 10 31). No effeminate, sentimental view of the Fatherhood of God or of His mercy and loving-kindness can ex- clude the manifestation of His just, righteous and holy anger against sin and the sinner because; of his transgression (1 Pet 1 17; He 10 20). One thing only can save the sinner from the outpouring of God's righteous anger against sin in the day of visitation, namely, faith in the Lord Jesus Christ as the Divinely appointed Redeemer of the world (Jn 3 36; Rom 1 16-lX; 5 0). Nor should the sinner think that, the postponement, or the omission (or seeming omission) of the visitation of God's wrath against sin in the present means the total abolition of it in the future. Postponement is not abolition; indeed, the .sinner, who continually rejects Jesus Christ, and the salvation which God has pro- vided in Him, is simply 'treasuring up' wrath for himself "in the day of wrath and revelation of 1 1n- righteous judgment of God; who [one day] will render to every man according to his works: .... to them that, .... obey not the truth, but obey unrighteousness, .... wrath and indignation, trib- ulation and anguish, upon every soul of man 1 hat worketh evil" (Rom 2 5-9; 2 Pet 3 10; Rev 6 16.17; 16 19; 19 15j. See RETRIBUTION, 5.

      God's anger while slow, and not easily aroused (Ps 103

      Certain specific things are said esp. to arouse; God's anger: continual provocation (Xu 32 14), unbelief (Ps 78 21.22; He 3 IS. 19), impenitence (Isa 9 13 14- Horn 2 5), apostasy (He 10 20.27), idolatry (Dt 32 19. 20.22; 2 K 22 17: Jer 44 3). sin in God's people (Ps 89 30-32; Isa 47 (>), and it is manifested esp. against opponents of the gospel of Jesus Christ (Ps 2 235- 1 Thess 2 10).

      There is a sense, however, in which anger is the duty of man; he is to "hate evil" (Ps 97 10). It is not enough that God's people should 4. Right- love righteousness, they must also be eous and angry with sin (not the sinner). A Unrighteous man who is incapable of being angry Anger at sin is at the same time thereby ad-

      judged to be incapable of having a real love for righteousness. So there is a sense in which a man may be said to "be .... angry, and sin not" (Eph 4 26). Anger at the sin and un- righteousness of men, and because their sin is grievous to God, may be called a "righteous indig- nation." Such an indignation is attributed to Jesus when it is said that He "looked round about on them with anger, being grieved at the harden- ing of their heart" (Mk 3 5). When anger arises because of this condition, it is sinless, but when anger arises because of wounded or aggrieved per- sonality or feelings, it is sinful and punishable. Anger, while very likely to become sinful, is not really sinful in itself.

      We have illustrations in the Scriptures of wrath or anger that is justifiable,: Jesus (Mk 3 5), Jacob ((Jen 31 30), Moses (Kx 11 S; 32 19; Lev 10 10; Xu 16 15), Nehemiah (Neh 5 0; 13 17.25); of sinful anger: Cain (Gen 4 5.(>), Esau (Gen 27 45), Moses (Nu 20 10.11), Balaam (N T u 22 27), Saul (1 S 20 30), Ahab (1 K 21 4), Xaaman (2 K 5 11), He-rod (Mt 2 10), the Jews (Lk 4 2S), the high priest (Acts 5 17; 7 54).


      WREST, rest: Found in AV and RV 3 t in the writings of Moses, viz. Ex 23 2.6; Dt 16 19. In

      Wrestling Writing



      all three places it refers to twisting, or turning aside, or perverting judgment or justice. In l)t 24 17 RV has "wrest" where AV has "pervert."

      In Ps 56 5 PS? , \\l&ibli); 2 Pet 3 1C) (o-TpeX6w, strchlod), it refers to the word or words of (lod in the Scriptures. In the Pss the servant of (lod, who speaks in (lod's name, complains that the enemies "wrest," misinterpret, misapply and pervert his words. In Pet it is the ignorant, and unstedfast who so pervert and misuse some of the difficult words of Paul, and they do it to their own destruc- tion a most earnest warning against carelessness and conscienceless indifference in interpreting Scripture. G. II. (IKKBKKI>I.\\<;

      WRESTLING, res'] ing fplX , Tihhak; -rraXi], pule). See GAMES II, 3, (i); JACOB; NAPIITALI.

      WRINKLE, rin'k'l (Ett^ , fcaniat, "to lay hold on''; pvfis, rfntlix, "a wrinkle"): In Job 16 S, RV subst itutes, "Thou hast laid fast hold on me" (m "shrivelled me up") for AV "Thou hast filled me with T////,Yr.s." In Eph 5 27, St. Paul's figurative reference 1 to the church as a bride, "not having spot or wrinkle," is indicative of the perennial youth and attractiveness of the church.

      WRITING, lit 'ing:

      I. ( i 10-N KKAL

      1. Definition '2. Inward Writing :?. Out-ward Writing II. M'lii: SYMBOLS

      1. Object Writing

      2. Image Writ ing

      3. Picture Writing

      4. Mnemonic Writing . r >. Phonetic Writing


      I V. I \\STKCMKNTS V. M ATF. HIAl.rt

      1. (May 2. Stone :<. head

      4. Bron/e

      f>. ( iold and Silver

      (i. Wood

      7. Bones and Skins

      5. Vellum !). Papyrus

      1(1. Paper 11. Ink VI. KOKMS

      1. The Roll

      2. The ( 'odex VII. WIUTIN<;

      1. Writers

      '2. The Writing Art VIII. HISTORY

      1. Mythological Origins

      2. Ka'rliest l T se

      :?. Biblical History LIT KK \\TI UK

      /. General. Writing is the art of recording thought, and recording is the making of permanent symbols. Concept, expression and 1. Defini- record are three states of the same tion work or word. Earliest mankind ex-

      pressed itself by gesture or voice and recorded in memory, but at a very early stage man began to feel the need of objective aids to memory and the need of transmitting a message to a distance or of leaving such a message for the use of others when he should be away or dead. For these pur- poses, in the course of time, he has invented many symbols, made in various ways, out of every ima- ginable material. These symbols, fixed in some substance, inward or outward, are writing as distin- guished from oral speech, gesture language, or other unrecording forms of expression. In the widest sense writing thus includes, not only penmanship or chirography, but epigraphy, typography, phonog- raphy, photography, cinematography, and many other kinds of writing as well as mnemonic object writing and inward writing.

      Writing has to do primarily with the symbols, but as these symbols cannot exist without being in some substance, and as they are often modified as to their form by the materials of which they are made or the instruments used in making, the history of writing has to do, not only with the signs, symbols or char- acters themselves, but with the material out of which they are made and the instruments and methods by which they are made.

      The fact that memory is a real record is well

      known in modern psychology, which talks much of

      inward speech and inward writing.

      2. Inward By inward writing is commonly meant Writing the inward image or counterpart of

      visual or tangible handwriting as dis- tinguished from the inward records of the sound of words, but the term fairly belongs to all inward word records. Of t hese permanent records two chief classes may be (list inguished : sense records, whet her the sense impression was by eye, ear, finger-tip or muscle, and motor records or images formed in the mind with reference to the motion of the hand or other organs of expression. Both sense records and motor records include the counterparts of every imaginable kind of outward handwriting.

      We meet this inward writing in the Bible in the writing upon the tablets of the heart (Prov 3 oj 7 8; Jer 17 1 ; 2 Cor 3 3), which is thus not a mere figure of speech but a proper description of that effort to fix in memory which some effect by HUM us of sound symbols and some by the sight symbols of ordinary handwriting.

      It has also its interesting and important bearing on questions of inspiration and revelation where the prophet "hears" a voice (Ex 19 1<); Nu 7

      Outward writing includes many kinds of symbols

      produced in various ways in many kinds of material.

      The commonest kind is alphabetical

      3. Outward handwrit ing with pen and ink on paper, Writing but alphabetic; symbols are not the

      only symbols, the hand is not the only means of producing symbols, the pen is not the only instrument, and ink and paper are far from being the only materials.

      The ordinary ways of human expression arc voice 1 and gesture. Corresponding to these there is an oral writing and a gesture writing. For the recording of vocal sounds various methods have been invented: direct- carving or molding in wax or other material, or translating into light vibrations and recording these by photograph or kymograph. IJoth phonographic and photographic records of sounds are strictly oral writing.

      The record of gestures by making pictures of them forms a large fraction of primitive, picture writing (e.g. the picture of a man with weapon poised to throw) and the modern cinematography of pantomime is simply a perfected form of this primitive picture writing.

      Handwriting is simply hand gesture with a mechanical device for leaving a permanent record of its motion by a trail of ink or incision. In the evolution of expression the imitation of human action tends to reduce itself to sign language, where both arms and the whole body are used, and then to more and more conventionalized hand gesture. This hand gesture, refined, condensed and adapted to mechanical conditions, and provided with pencil, chisel, or pen and ink, is handwriting. Its nature is precisely analogous to that of the self-registering ther- mometer or kymograph.

      Nearly all the great body of existing written docu- ments, save for the relatively few modern phono- graphic, kymographic and other visible speech records, is handwritten, the symbols being produced, selected, arranged, or at least pointed out, by the hand. Even the so-called phonetic writing, as usually understood, is not sound record but consists of hand-gesture symbols for sounds.



      Wrestling Writing

      //. The Symbols. Among the ni;iny kinds of outward signs used in writing the best known ;ire the so-culled Phoen alphabet and its many derivatives, including the usual modern alphabets. Other well-known varieties are the wedge system of Assyria and Babylonia, the hieroglyphic systems of Egypt and Mexico, the Chinese characters, stenographic systems, the Morse code, the Braille system, the abacus, the notched stick, the knotted cord, wampum and twig bundles. These, however, by no means exhaust the list of signs which have been used for record or message purposes ;_ e.g. colored flags for signaling, pebbles, cairns, pillars, flowers, trees, fishes, insects, animals and parts of animals, human beings, and images of _ all these things, have all served as record symbols in writing.

      The various symbols may be grouped as objects and images, each of these classes divided again into pictorial or representative signs and mnemonic or conventional signs, mnemonic signs again divided into ideographic and phonetic, and phonetic again into verbal, syllabic (consonantal), and alphabetic. This may be represented graphically as follows:

      (A) OBJECTS

      (1) Pictorial

      (2) Conventional (Mnemonic)

      (<0 Ideographic (Eye linages) (6) Phonetic (Ear linages)

      (a) Verbal

      O) Syllabic

      (y) (Consonantal)

      (S) Alphabetic

      (B) IMAGES

      (1) Pictorial

      (2) Conventional (Mnemonic) () Ideographic

      (6) Phonetic (a) Verbal O) Syllabic (Y) (Consonantal) (S) Alphabetic

      Objects may be whole objects (a man) or char- acteristic parts (human head, arm, leg) or samples (feather or piece of fur). The objects may be natu- ral objects or artificial objects designed for another purpose (arrow), or objects designed esp. to be used as writing symbols (colored flags). Images include images of all these objects and any imaginary images which may have been invented for writing purposes.

      Pictorial or representative signs arc distinguished from mnemonic or conventional signs by the fact that in themselves they suggest the thing meant, while the others require agreement beforehand as to what they shall mean. The fact, however, that the symbol is a picture of something does not make it pictorial or the writing picture writing. It is pictorial, not because! it is a picture, but because; it pictures something. The fact, e.g., that a certain symbol may be recognized as ail ox de>es not make of this a pictograph. If it stands for or means an ox, it is a pictograph; if it stands for "divinity," it may be; calleel an ideograph, or if it stands for the letter u it is phonetic, a phonogram.

      The key to the evolution of writing symbols is to be found in a law of economy. Object writing un- doubtedly came first, but man early learned that the image of an object would serve as well for record purposes and was much more convenient to handle. True picture writing followed. The same law of economy leel to each of the other steps from pictorial to alphabetic, and may be traced in the histe>ry of eae'h kind and part. Every alphabet exhibits it. The history of writing is in brief a history of_short- haml. It begins with the whole object or image, passes to the characteristic part, reduces this to the fewest possible strokes whie'h retain likeness, con- ventionalizes these strokes, and then, giving up all pretense of likeness to the original symbol, and frankly mnemonic, it continues the process of ab- breviation until the whole ox has become the letter "a" or perhaps a single dot in some system of stenography.

      Object writing is not common in the phonetic stage, but e!ve>n this is found, e.g., in alphabetical Hags for

      ship signaling. The! actual historical eye>liitiem e>f writing seems to liavi! be'en e>bje'Ct, image-picture', ideo- gram, phonogram, syllable-, consemant, leater. All of thesei stage's have; somes echoes at le'ast in the! Bible, although e!ve-n tlie syllabic stage se>e>ms to have! been alivaely passe'el at the: time; e>f Moses. The Ili'b ()T as a whole stands fe>r the! consonantal stage! and the; Cr XT fe>r the complete alphabetic still the climax e>f lianel- writing, unless the! eve>lutiem e)f mathematical symbols, which is a very elaborate evolution of ideographic hand- writing, is so regarded.

      Although probably not even a single sentence of the Heb Bible was written in ideographic, picture, or object handwriting, many documents which are use'el or quoted by Bib. writers we're writ t en by t hese methods, and all of them are repeatedly implied. In a number of cases full exegesis requires a knowl- edge of their nature and history. A certain number of scholars now believe that the Pent was originally written in cuneiform, after the analogy of the cir- cumstances shown by the Am Tab. In this case of course there would still be traces both of the syllabic and ideographic, but the thee>ry is improbable.

      The most primitive writing was naturally pie-- torial object writing. When the hunter first brought home his quarry, this had in it most of 1. Object the essential elements of modern hand- Writing writing. Those who remained at home: read in the actual bodies the most essential record of the trip. When, further, the hunter brought back useless quarry to evidence his tale of prowess, the whole essence of handwriting was involved. This was whole-object record, but eibject abbreviations soon followed. Man early learned that skins represented whole animals (the determinative for "quadruped" in Egyp is a hide), and that a reindeer's head or antlers, or any char- acteristic part, served the simple purpose of record just as well as the whole object, and this method of record survives in a modern hunting-lodge. The bounty on w r olves' scalps and the expression "so many head of cattle" are similar survivals. In war, men returning hung the dead bodies of their enemies fre>m the prows of their triumphal ships or from the walls of the city, and, in peace, from the gibbet, as object lessons. They soon ^earned, however, that a head would serve: all practical pur- poses as well as a whole body, and the inhabitants of Borneo today practise the>ir discovery. Then they discovered that a scalp was just as character- istic and more portable, and the scalp belt of the American Indian is the result. The ancient Egyp- tians counted the dead by "hands" carried away as trophies. Both objects and images tend thus to pass from the whole object to a characteristic part, then to the smallest characteristic part: fre>m the tiger's carcase or stuffed tiger to the tiger's claw or its pie;ture. The next or mnemonic step was taken when the simplest characteristic part was ex- changed for a pebble, a twig, a notched stick, a knot, or any other obje-e-t or image of an object which does not in itself suggest a tiger.

      The pictorial object writing had an evolution of its own and reached a certain degree of complexity in elaborate personal adornment, in sympathetic magic, the medicine bag, the prayer stick, _pillars, meteoric stones, etc, for worship, collections of liturgical objects, fetishes, votive offerings, trophies, etc.

      It reached a still higher order of complexity when it passed into the mnemonic stage represented by the abacus, the knotted cord, the notched stick, the wampum, etc. The knotted cord may be recog- nized in the earliest hieroglyphic signs, is found still among primitive people, and its most famous ex- ample is the Peruvian quipu. It still survives in the cardinal's hat and the custom of knotting a handkerchief for mnemonic purposes. It is found in the Bible in a peculiarly e'le:ar statement in the




      mnemonic "fringes" of Nu 15 3711 (cf Dt 22 12). The notched stick is equally old, as seen in ihe Australian message stick, and its best-known modern example is the tally of the British Exchequer. The abacus and the rosary are practically the lineal descendants of the pebble heap which has a con-

      step may perhaps be seen in the account of the leopard-tooth necklace of an African chief described by Frobcnius. In itself this was merely a complex trophy record the tribal record of leopards slain. When, however, the chief took for his own necklace the actual trophy which some members of the tribe


      crete modern counterpart in (lie counting with pebbles by Italian shepherd boys. It is possible that the notched message stick has its echo in Jgs 6 14_ (military scribe's staff); Nu 17 1-10 (Aaron's inscribed rod), and all scepters (rods of authority) and herald's wands.

      It was a very long step in the history of hand- writing from object to image, from the trophy record to the trophy image record. The nature" of this

      had won, while the hunter made a wooden model of the tooth which served him as trophy, this facsimile tooth became an image record. This 2. Image same step from object to image is most Writing familiar in the history of votive offer-

      ings, where the model is substituted for the object, the miniature model for the model, and finally a simple written inscription takes the place of the model. It is seen again in sympathetic




      magic when little wax or clay images are vicariously buried or drowned, .standing for the person to he injured, and taking the place of .sample parts, such as the lock of hair or nail-parings, etc, \\\\hith are used in like manner by still more primitive peoples.

      The Q.uipu.

      It was another long step in the evolution of sym- bols when it occurred to man that objects worn for record could be represented by paint 3. Picture upon the body. The origin of written Writing characters is often sought in the prac- tice of tattooing, but whatever truth there may be in this must be carried back one step, for it is generally agreed and must naturally have been the fact that body painting preceded tattooing, which is a device for making the record permanent. The transition from the object trophy to the image on the skin might easily have come from the object causing a pressure mark on the skin. There is good reason to believe that the wearing of trophies was the first use of record keeping.

      It is of course not proved that body ornaments or body marks are the original of image writing or that trophies are the earliest writing, nor yet that models of trophies or votive offerings were the first step in image writing. It may be that the first images were natural objects recognized as resem- bling other objects. The Zuiii Indians used for their chief fetishes natural rock forms. The first step may have been some slight modification of natural stone forms into greater resemblance, such as is suggested by the slightly modified sculptures of the French-Spanish eaves. Or again the tracks of ani- mals in clay may have suggested the artificial pro- duction of these tracks or other marks, and the de- velopment of pottery and pottery marks may have been the main line of evolution. The Chinese trace the origin of their symbols to bird tracks. Or again smear marks of earth or firebrand or blood may have sviggested marks on stone, and the marked pebbles of the Pyrenean caves may have reference to this. Or yet again the marks on the animals in the Pyre- nean caves may have been ownership marks and point back to a branding of marks or a primitive tattooing by scarification.

      Whatever the exact point or motive for the image record may have been, and however the transition was made, the idea once established had an extensive development which is best illustrated by the picture writing of the American Indians, though perhaps to be found in the Bushmen drawings, petroglvphs, and picture writing the world over. It is almost historic in the Sumerian and the Egyptian, whose phonetic symbols are pictographic in origin at least and whose determinatives are true pictpgraphs.

      The transition from pictorial to conventional or mnemonic takes place when the sign ceases to sug- gest the meaning directly, even after 4. Mnemon- explanation. This happens in two ic Writing ways: (1) when an object or image stands for something not directly re- lated to that naturally suggested, e.g., when a stuffed fox stands for a certain man because it is his totem, or an ox's head stands for divinity or for the sound "a," or when the picture of a goose stands

      Jewish Mnemonic Fringes, 9th Century

      for "son" in the Egyp because the sounds of the two words are the same; (2) when by the natural proc- ess of shorthanding the object or image has been reduced beyond the point of recognition. Histori- cally the letter a is ox (or goat?); actually it means a certain sound.

      When this unrecognizable or conventional sign is intended to suggest a visual image it is called an ideogram, when an ear picture, a phonogram. Any- body looking casually over a lot of Egyp hiero- glyphics can pick out kings' names because of the oval line or cartouche in which they are inclosed.


      the pic within t hose obje is the per, is phonet i(


      Both old Hal) and Egyp show signs of picture origin, but the earliest Hal) is mainly ideographic, and both developed soon into the mixed stage of phonetic writing \\vitli determinatives.

      Phonetic writing seems to have developed out of

      the fact that in all languages the same sound often

      has many different meanings. In

      5. Phonetic Eng. "goose" may mean the fowl or

      Writing the tailor's goose. In Egyp the sound

      ,sa or .s, with a smooth breathing, means

      "goose" or "son,"' mid the picture of a goose means


      Whether the word-sign is an ideogram or a phono- gram is a matter of psychology. Many modern readers even glimpse a \\vord as a whole and jump to the visual image without thinking of sounds at all. To them it is an ideogram. Others, however, have to spell out the sounds, even moving their lips to correspond. To them as to the writer it is a phono- gram. The same was true of the ancient, picture or ideographic sign. The word-sign was ideogram or phonogram according to intention or to perception.

      With the transition to syllabic writing, record became chiefly phonetic. The transition was made apparently by an entirely natural evolution from the practice of using the same word-sign for several different objects having the same sound, and it pro-

      ceeded by the way of rebus, as shown in Mexican and Kgyp hieroglyphics.

      Syllabic writing implies a symbol for every mono- syllable. If was a great step therefore when it was discovered that the number of sounds was small and could be represented by individual symbols, as com- pound words could by syllable signs. At first only consonants were written. In the Sem languages vowels were at first not written at all possibly they were not even recognized, and one might use any vowel with a particular combination of consonants. However that may be, what many prefer to call consonantal writing seems to have existed for 2,000 years before the vowels were recognized and regu- larly introduced into the Phoen alphabet. It is at this stage that alphabetic writing, as usually reck- oned, began. See ALPIIABKT.

      Phonetic consonantal writing lias now been in use some 0,000 years and strict alphabetic writing some o.OOO years, almost to the exclusion of other forms. The characters in use today in several hundred alphabets are probably the historical de- s'endants, with accumulation of slight- changes through environment, of characters existing from near the beginning.

      Alongside the development, of the historic system of symbol-;, t here luis been, still wit hin t lie field of alphabetic writing for the most, part, a parallel line with multitudes of shorthand and cryptographic systems. An equally great multitude of code systems are in effect, phonetic words or sentences and cryptographic-ally or otherwise used for cable or telegraph, diplomatic letters, criminal correspondence and other secret purposes.

      ///. Methods. Roughly speaking, the ways of making symbols, apart from the selection of the ready-made, may be reduced to two which corre- spond to art in the round or in three dimensions








      Foatpr.nt -,f Road Mountain. PCLSS Wide Gap in. t*K

      Word-Signs Used by Tewa Indians.

      and art in the flat or in two dimensions. The former appeals to eye or touch, affording a contrast by ele- vation or depression, while the latter produces the same effect by contrasting colors on a flat surface.

      Written symbols in three dimensions are pro- duced either by cutting or by pressure. In the case of hard material superfluous matter is removed by sculpture, engraving or die; cutting, lu the case of plastic or malleable material, it is modeled, molded, hammered or stamped into the required form. To the first form belongs the bulk of stone inscriptions, ancient metal inscriptions, scratched




      graffiti, _wax tablets, etc, to the Liter clay tablets, votive figurines, seal impressions, hammered inscrip- tions, minted coins, also molded inscriptions, coins and medals, etc. Several of the Heb :uid Or words for writing imply cutting (hakak, humt, hurash, etc; grdpho).

      Symbols in two dimensions are produced either by drawing or printing, both of which methods con- sist in the applying of some soft or liquid material to a material of a contrasting color or cutting from thin material and laving on. Drawing applies the material in a continuous or interrupted line of paint, charcoal, colored chalk, graphite, ink or other ma- terial. Its characteristic product is the manuscript. This laying on is implied, as some think (Blau, lf>l), in the commonest Heb word for writing (kdthabh). Tattooing (Dt 14 1; Lev 19 2S, etc), embroidery (embroidered symbolic; figures, Ex 28 33.34) and weaving belong in this class (embroidered words in Pal Talm 20a, qt. Blau, 10;")).

      Printing consists in laying the contrasting color on by means of stencil or pressure, forming symbols in two dimensions at one stroke. Perhaps the most primitive form of printing is that of the pintadoes, by which the savage impresses war paint or other ceremonial forms on his face and bod}'. Brandhg also belongs in this class (Gal 6 17, figuratively; 3 Mace 2 19; branding on the forehead, CII, 127; branding a slave, CII, 220, 227).

      These processes of cutting, molding, drawing and printing roughly correspond with inscriptions, coins, medals, seals, manuscripts, and printed documents epigraphy, numismatics, sigillography, chirog- raphy, typography.

      IV. Instruments. The commonest instruments of ancient writing were the pen, brush and style. Other instruments are: the various tools for model- ing, molds, stencils, dies, stamps, needles, engraving tools, compass, instruments for erasure, for the ruling of lines, vessels for ink or water, et c. Several of these are mentioned and others are implied in the Bible. The chisel which cuts and the stylus which scratches are both called stylus or simply the "iron" (the iron pen). The graving tool of Ex 32 4, the iron pen of Job 19 24, the pen of Isa 8 1, the pen of iron of Jer 17 1, and, with less reason, the pencil of Isa 44 13, are all commonly interpreted as N/////.S or style, but they arc; sometimes at least cutting rather than scratching tools. References to wooden tablets also imply the style, and references to clay tablets either the style proper or a similar instru- ment for pressure marks. The point of a diamond in Jer 17 1, whether it is joined with the pen of iron or not, seems to refer to the use of corundum in the engraving of precious stones. The passages which refer to blotting out (sec; below) or writing on papy- rus (see below) or refer to an ink-horn or ink (see respective articles) imply a pen, or brush rather than style, and presumably the writing of the NT im- plied in general a reed pen. The wide house "painted with vermilion" (Jer 22 14) implies the brush, but there 1 is no direct evidence of its use in writing in the Bible itself. The existing ostraca from Ahab's palace are, however, done with the brush. The pencil (xrredh) mentioned in Isa 44 13 certainly means some instrument for shaping, but is variously tr d as "line" (AV), "red ochre" (RVm), and even "stilus," or "line-marking stilus" (paragraphis Aq.). The compass, often referred to in classical times, is found in Isa 44 13. The line ruler (paragraphis), referred to by Aquila (Isa 44 13), and the simple plummet as well were prob- ably used, as in later times, for marking lines. The needle is referred to in late Heb and needlework in the Bible (see III, above). The ink-horn or water vessel for moistening the dry inks is implied in all papyrus or leather writing (see INK, INK-HORN).

      The Heb term t r' 1 "weight of lead" in Zee 5 X, and "talent of lead" is precisely equivalent to the Gr term for the circular plate of lead (knkloniolil)- (lu.v) used for ruling lines, but. something heavier than the ruling lead seems meant.

      Erasure or blotting out is culled for in Nu 5 23,

      Modern Egyptian Writing Materials.

      and often figuratively (Ex 32 32.33; Rev 3 ;"), etc). If writing was on papyrus, this would call for the sponge rather than the penknife as an eraser, but the latter, which is use* I for erasure or for making reed pens, is referred to in Jer 36 23. For erasing waxed surfaces the blunt end of the style was used certainly as early as the; NT times. Systematic erasure when vellum was scarce produced the palimpsest.

      V. Materials. The materials used in writing include almost every imaginable substance, mineral, vegetable, and animal: gold, silver, copper, bron/e, clay, marble, granite, precious gems, leaves, bark, wooden planks, many vegetable complexes, antlers, shoulder-blades, and all sorts of bones of animals, and esp. skins. The commonest are stone, clay, metal, papyrus, paper and leather, including vellum, and all of these except paper are mentioned in the Bible. Paper too must be reckoned with in textual criticism, and it was its invention which, perhaps more even than the discovery of print ing wit h mov- able type, made possible the enormous multiplication of copies of the Bible in recent times.

      Whatever may be the fact as to the first material used for record purposes, the earliest actual records now existing in large quantities are 1. Clay chiefly on clay or si one, and, on the

      whole, clay records seem to antedate and surpass in quantity stone inscriptions for the earliest historical period. After making all allow- ances for differences in dating and accepting latest dates, there is an immense quantity of clay records written before 2/>()() BC and still existing". About 1400 or 1500 BC the clay tablet was i;i common use from Crete to the extreme East and all over Pal, everywhere, in short, but Egypt, and it seems per- haps to have been the material for foreign diplo- matic communications, even in Egypt. Hundreds of thousands of these tablets have been dug up, and undoubtedly millions are in existence, dug or undug. These are chiefly of Mesopotamia. The most famous of these tablets were for a long time of the later period from the library of Ashurbanipal at Nineveh. See LIBRARY OF NINEVEH. Recently, however, those from Tell el-Amarna in Egvp't, Boghax-keui in the Hittite country, and a few from Pal itself vie with these in interest. Most of these tablets are written on both sides and in columns ruled in lines. They measure from an inch to a foot and a half in length and are about two-thirds as wide; as they are long. Many of these tablets, the so-called "cast; tablets," are surrounded with another layer of clay with a docketing inscription. See TABLETS. Other clay forms are the potsherd-




      ostraca, now being dug up in considerable quanti- ties in Pal. E/ekiel (4 1) and perhaps Jeremiah (17 13) refer to this material. See OSTKACA.

      Stones were used for record before image writing was invented as cairns, pillars, pebbles, etc'.

      Many of the early and primitive image 2. Stone records are on the walls of caves or on

      cliffs (Bushmen, American Indians, etc). Sometimes these are sculptured, sometimes

      Letter from the Governor of Jerusalem about i:i?r> li(\\

      made by charcoal, paint, etc. The durability rather than the more extensive use of stone makes of these documents the richest source for our knowl- edge of ancient times. Besides natural stone ob- jects, stone pillars, obelisks, statues, etc, stone-wall tablets, the sides of houses and other large or fixed surfaces, there are portable stone-chip ostraca and prepared tablets (tablets of si one, Ex 24 12; 31 IS). These latter might be written on both sides (Ex 32 1~>). Job seems to refer to stone inscrip- tions (19 24). The famous trilingual inscription of Behistun which gave Kawlinson the key to the Assyrian was on a cliff and refers to King Darius (Rawlinson, Life, 58 if, 142 ff). Two of the most famous of stone inscriptions are the Ilosetta Stone, which gave the key to the Egyp hieroglyphics, and the Moabite Stone (W. II. Bennett, Moal>ite Stone, London, 1911), and both have some bearing on Jewish history. An esp. interesting and suggestive stone inscription is the Annals of Thutmose 111 of Egypt, about 1500 BC, inscribed on the walls of the temple at Karnak. This gives a long account of campaigns in Syria and Pal (Breasted, Ancient Records of Egypt, 163-217). The Siloam Inscrip- tion, and in general all the recently discovered in-

      scriptions of Pal, have their more or less important bearings on Bib. history (Lidzbarski, Huiulb. and Ephem.). Moses provided (Dt 27 2-S) for writing the Law on stone (or plaster), and Joshua executed the work (Josh 8 21.32).

      Another form of record on stone is the engraving of gems, which is referred to in Ex 28 9.11.21; 39 0.14, etc, and possibly Zee 3 9.

      One of the commonest materials, on account of the ease of engraving, probably, is lead. Used more or less for inscriptions proper, it is also 3. Lead used for diplomatic records and even literary works. It was very commonly used for charms in all nations, and is referred to in Job (19 24), where it perhaps more likely means a rock inscription filled with lead, rather than actual leaden tablets. For the text of Ps 80 on lead see Gardthausen, p. 20. Submergence curses were usu- ally of lead, but that of Jer 51 02 seems to have been of papyrus or paper (cf W. S. Fox in Am. Jour, of 1'hiL, XXXIII, 1912, 303-4).


      -I '

      Siloam Inscription. Writing at Jerusalem at the Time of Hezekiah.

      Bronze was used for several centuries BC, at least

      for inscribed votive offerings, for public records set

      up in the treasuries of the temples and

      4. Bronze for port able tablets such as the military

      diplomas. In the time of the Macca- bees public records were engraved on such tablets and set up in the temple at Jerus (1 Mace 14 27). There were doubtless many such at the time when Jesus Christ taught there.

      (lold and silver as writing material are most commonly and characteristically used in coins and

      medals. References to money, mostly

      5. Gold and silver money, are numerous in the ( )T, Silver but these are not certainly coins with

      alphabetic inscriptions. In NT times coins were so inscribed, and in one ease at least the writing upon it is referred to "Whose is this image and superscription?" (Mt 22 20). Theactual inscription and the actual form of its letters are known from extant specimens of the denarius of the period. See MONKY.

      The use of the; precious metals for ordinary in- scriptional purposes was, however, frequent in antiquity, and the fact that rather few such inscrip- tions have survived is probably due to the value of the metal for other purposes. The Ilittite treaty of Khetasar or Hattusil engraved on silver and sent to the king of Egypt, has long been known from the Egyp monuments (tr in Breasted, Ancient Records of Egypt, III, 1(55-74), and recently fragments of the ilittite version of this treaty have been dis- covered at Boghaz-keui (Winckler, MDOG, XXXV, 12 ff). This has very close relations to Bib. history, whether it was made before or after the Exodus. The famous Orphic gold tablets (Harrison, "Orphic Tablets," in Prolegomena to the Study of Gr Relu/ion, 573-000, 000-74) have a bearing on a comparative study of Bib. doctrine. Direct reference to en- graving on gold is found in the account of the in- scription on the high priest's miter (Ex 28 36). Writing on the horns of the altar is referred to in Jer 17 1, and these horns too were of gold (Ex 30 3). Queen Helena of Adiabene is said to have pre- sented an inscribed gold tablet to the temple at Jerus (Blau, 67). The golden shrines of Ptolemy V




      with their inscribed golden phylacteries :ire mentioned on the Rosetta Stone.

      Silver, and more osp. gold, have also boon very exten- sively used for the. laying on of contrasting colors, either furnishing the background or more often the material laid on. The history of chrysography is a long and full one (Gardthauscn, I, 214-17; Blau, i:j, ISO-OS). The standard copy of the OT at Jerus, which was loaned to Alexandria, was apparently in gold letters (Jos, Ant, XII, ii, 10) (see SKPTUAGINT), and many of the famous Bib. MSS of the Middle Ages were written wholly or in part with gold, either laid on as gold leaf or dissolved and used as an ink or paint (Gardthausen, 210).

      Leaves of trees were early used for charms and writing. Some of the representations of writing on the Egyp monuments show the 6. Wood goddess of writing inscribing the leaves of growing trees. Jewish tradition (Tosepht.a' Cittin 2 3-5; _Mish Gittln 2 3, etc, qt. Blau, 16) names many kinds of leaves on which a bill of divorcement (Dt 24 1.3) might or might not be written. Reference to the use of leaves is found in early Gr, Lat and Arab, sources and they are still used in the East.

      Bark also has often been used: both liber in Lat and ''book" in Eng., according to some, are thought to refer to the bark of the lime or beech tree, and birch bark was a common writing material among the American Indians. It is in the form of wrought wood, staves, planks or tablets, however, that wood was chiefly known in historical times. These wood tablets were used in all early periods and among all nations, esp. for memorandum accounts and children's exercises. Sometimes the writing was di- rectly on the wood, and sometimes on wood coated with wax or with chalk. See TABLETS. Writing on staves is referred to in Nu 17 2. Mk 15 26 seems perhaps to imply that the "superscription" of the cross was on wood, unless Jn 19 19 contra- dicts this.

      Woven linen as a writing substance had some fame in antiquity (libri lintri), and many other fibers which have been used for woven or embroid- ered writing are, broadly speaking, of wood. So too, in fact, when linen or wood is pulped and made int o paper, the material is still wood. Most modern writing and printing is thus on wood. See 10, below.

      Diogenes Lacrtius (vii.174) tells that Cleanthes wrote on the shoulder-blades of oxen, but he was preceded by the cave-dwellers of the 7. Bones Neolithic age, who wrote on reindeer and Skins horns and bones of many kinds (Dcche- lette, Arch, preliist., 1908, 125, 220-37, et passim). Ivory has often been used and was a favorite material for tablets in classical times. The LXX translates "ivory work" of Cant 6 14 as "ivory tablets." Horns are given in late Heb (Tos('i)hta', qt. Blau, 16) as a possible material for writing. They have been used at all times and are well illustrated in modern times by the inscribed powder horns.

      The hides of living animals have served for brand- ing, and living human skin for painting, branding and tattooing extensively in all lands and all times. The literature of ceremonial painting and tattooing is very extensive, and the branding of slaves was common in many lands. See PRINTING.

      The use of skins prepared for writing on one side (leather) was early and general, dating back as far at least as the IVth Dynasty of Egypt. The Annals of Thutmose III in Pal were written on rolls of leather. Its use was common also in Persia (Dio- dorus ii.32; Herod, v.58; Strabo xv.l), and it was a natural universal material. It has been much used by modern American Indians. It was the usual material of early Heb books, and the official copies at least of the OT books seem always to have

      been written on this malcri:il (Blau, M-ldj, and are so, indeed, even to the present day.

      Vellum is simply a fine quality of leather prepared for writing on both sides. The autographs of the

      NT were most likely written on papy- 8. Vellum rus, rather than leather or vellum, but

      most of the earliest codices and all, until recent discoveries, were on this material, while

      Signs of the Cave-Dwellers.

      very few of the long list of MSS on which the NT text is founded are on any other material. This material is referred to as parchment by St. Paul (2 Tim 4 13). Almost every kind of skin (leather or vellum) has been used for writing, including snake skin and human skin. The -pnUmpxcst is second- hand or erased vellum, written upon again. See PARCHMENT; PARCHMENTS.

      Papyrus Marsh with Bout (Bulrushes and Boat of Bulrushes).

      Papyrus was not only the chief of the vegetable 1 materials of antiquity, but it has perhaps the long- est record of characteristic general 9. Papyrus use of anything except stone. The 1 papyrus was made from a reed culti- vated chiefly in Egypt, but having a variety found also in Syria, according to Theophrastus. The




      papyrus reed grows iti the marshes and in stagnant pools; is ai best al>< 'it t ho thickness of one's arm, and grows to the height of at most from 12 to If) feet . It was probably a pool of these papyrus reeds ('flags") in which Moses was hidden (Ex 3 3), and the ark of bulrushes was evidently a small boat or chest made from papyrus reeds, as many of the Egyp boats were. These boats are referred to in Isa 18 2.

      Papyrus \\v;is made by slicing the rood and laying the pieces crosswise, moistening with sticky water, and press- ing or pounding together. The breadth of the manu- factured article varied from ."> in., and under, to 91 in., or even to a foot or a foot and a half. The earliest Egyp papyrus ran from C> to 11 in. Kgyp papyri run to SO, '.)() and even 1 :',."> ft. in length, but the later papyri are generally from 1 to 10 ft. long. The use of papyrus dates from before 12700 1JC at latest.

      Many Bible fragments important for textual criticism have been discovered in Egypt in late years. These, together with the light which other papyri throw on Hellenistic (!r and various paleo- graphieal and historical problems, make the study of papyri, which has been erected into an inde- pendent science, one of very great importance as to Bib. history and Bib. criticism (cf Mitteis_u. \\Vilcken, drniiilzilijc ....

      The introduction of paper was from Western

      Asia, possibly in the Stli cent., and it began to be

      used in Europe commonly from the

      10. Paper 13th cent. While few Western MSS

      of any importance are on paper, many of the Eastern are. It was the invention of paper, in large measure, which made possible the immense development in the multiplication of books, since the invention of printing, and the enormous number of Bibles now in existence.

      Of the many materials used in order to lay one

      contrasting color on another, the flowing substances,

      paint and ink, are commonest. In

      11. Ink general throughout antiquity the ink

      was dry ink and moistened when need- ed for writing. Quite early, however, the liquid inks were formed with the use of gall nut or acid, and many recipes and formulas used during the Middle Ages are preserved. See INK, IXK-HOIIN. The reading of a palimpsest often depends on the kind of ink originally used and the possibility of reviving by reagents.

      VI. Forms. The best known ancient forms of written documents are the tablet or sheet, the roll, the diploma and the codex. These may be ana- lyzed into one-face documents and many-faced documents page documents and leaf documents. The roll, the diploma and the usual folding tablet or pleated document are forms of the one-page document, while the codex or bound book (Eng. "volume") is the typical leaf document. The roll is the typical form of the OT, the codex of the NT, extant MSS.

      A book as regards its material form consists of a single limited surface suited for writing, or a suc- c(\\ssion of such surface's. This single surface may be the; face of a cliff or house wall, a broken piece of

      pottery, a leaf, a sheet of lead, papyrus, vellum or paper, a tablet- of clay, stone or wood, a cylinder, prism, cone, pyramid, obelisk, statue or any one of the thousands of inscribed objects found among votive offerings. The typical form is the flat surface to which the term "tablet" or "sheet" is applied, and which is called "page" or "leaf" according as one or both surfaces are in mind.

      These single flat loaves are characteristically quad- rilateral, but may be of any shape (circular, oval, heart- shaped, etc) or of any thickness, from the paper of an Oxford Bible or equally thin gold foil up to slabs of stono many inches thick.

      When the document to bo written is long and the sheet becomes too large for convenient handling, space; may be gained by writing on both sides or by making still larger and either folding or rolling, on the one hand, or breaking or cutting up into a series of smaller sheets, on the other. This folding or rolling of the largo sheet sur- vives still in folded or rolled maps and the folded or rolled documents (diplomas) of mediaeval and modern archives. The use of the tablet series for long works instead of one overgrown tablet was early quite likely as early as the time of actual writing on real "leaves."

      These smaller tablets or sheets were at first, it would seem, kept together by numbering (cf Dziatzko, Ant. Buchw., 127), catchwords, tying in a bundle, or gathering in a small box (capsa). This has indeed its analogy with the mnemonic twig bundle of object writing. The Pent gets its name from the five rolls in a box, jar, or basket (Blau, 65; Birt, BuchroUe, 22).

      The next step in the evolution of book forms was taken when the various leaves or sheets were fast- ened to each other in succession, being strung, pasted or hinged together.

      The stringing together is as early and primitive us the leopard-tooth trophy necklace of the African chief or the shell and tooth necklaces of quaternary Europe (Dechelette, Arch., 20S-9). It was perhaps used with annual tablets in the first dynasties of Egypt and is found in oriental palm-leaf books today.

      The roll consists normally of a series of one-sur- face sheets pasted or sewed together. Even when made into a roll before writing upon,

      1. The Roll the fiction of individual tablets was

      maintained in the columns (delcths, Jer 36 23 = "doors"). It was the typical book form of antiquity. It was commonly of leather, vellum, papyrus, and sometimes of linen. It might rarely be as much as 13f> ft. long X 1? ft. wide for papyrus, and leather rolls might be wider still. It was the form traditionally used by the Hebrews, and was undoubtedly the form used by Our Lord in the synagogue. It is still used in the synagogue. It was possibly the form in which the NT books also were written, but this is much more doubtful.

      The roll form is founded on the one-surface tab- let, and, as a matter of fact, neither leather nor papyrus was well suited to take ink on the back; it developed from the sewing together of skins and the past ing together of sheets of papyrus. _ Although papyrus is found written on both sides, it is in gen- eral not the same document on the back, but the old has been destroyed and utilized as waste paper. This writ ing on both sides of the roll (opisthography) is referred to in Ezk 2 10 (Rev 6 1), where the roll is written within and without.

      Wood and metal tablets, not being flexible, could

      not be rolled, but were hinged and became diptychs,

      triptychs, polyptychs. The typical

      2. The method of hinging these tablets in Codex Rom times was not the codex or

      modern book form proper, where all are hinged by the same edge, but a folding form based on a series of one-surface tablets hinged suc- cessively so as to form a chain (Gardthausen, Gr Pal, I, 129, fig. 12). They were strictly folding tablets, folding like an accordion, as in some Far




      Eastern MSS of recent times. The modern hing- ing was used but rarely.

      It is commonly said that it was this folding or hinged wooden tablet which produced the co//i.r of the Latins and the "book" of modern Germanic races. Some, however, prefer to trace the origin to the folded docu- ment. The wood or waxed tablet was commonly used in antiquity for letters, but even more commonly the sheet of papyrus or vellum. It is quite, natural to fold such a sheet once to protect, the writing. Whether this was suggested by the diptych, or vice versa, the form of a modern sheet of note paper was early introduced. Either the diptych or the folded single sheet may have suggested the codex.

      Whether the first codices were wood and metal or papyrus and vellum, the hinging at one edge, which is the characteristic, is closely connected with the doublo- (or multiple-) face tablet. With suitable material the simplest way of providing space, if the tablet is too small, is to turn over and finish on the back. The clay tablets lend themselves readily to writing on both sides, but not to hinging. It developed, however, to a certain degree the multiple-face idea by use of prisms, pyramids, hexagonal and other cylinders, but it was early forced into the numbered series of moderate-sized tablets.

      Wood and metal tablets would be; hinged, but the wood tablets were too bulky and metal tablets too heavy for long works, and the. ring method of joining actually led away from the book to the pleated form. Papyrus and leather, however, while they might be used (as they were used) as single; tablets were thin enough to allow of a long work in a single codex. They soon developed, therefore, perhaps through the folded sheet, into the codex proper and the modern bound book. The codex, as Thompson remarks, was destined to be the recipient of Christian literature, as the papyrus roll had been the basis of the pagan literature, and there is some evi- dence to show that the form was, historically, actually developed for the purposes of the Christian writings, and in papyrus, while the pagan papyri continued to be in roll form. Since the invention of the codex is placed at the end of the 1st cent., and the earliest codices were esp. the NT writings, there is a certain possibility that at least the historical introduction of the codex wa.s in the NT books, and that its invention comes perhaps from combining the NT epistles on papyrus into a vol- ume. In the West at least the roll is, however, the pre- vailing form of the NT until the 3d or 4th cent. (Birt, Buckrolle, passim).

      VII. Writing. The chief Ileb words for the pro- fessional "writer" nrcsoplicr and shotcr, both akin to

      Assyr words for "writing" and used 1. Writers also for kindred officers. The word

      sophcr scorns closely connected with the cphcr, "book, and with the idea of numbering. This official is a military, mustering or enrolling officer (Jgs 5 14; 2 Ch 26 11; 2 K 25 19), a numbering or census officer for military purposes or for taxation (Isa 33 18) and a royal secretary (2 S 8 17).

      The shotcr appears as a herald (Dt 20 5.8; Josh 1 10; 32), as overseer of the brick-making in Egypt, and as overseer of the outward business of Israel (1 Ch 26 29). He is associated with the elders (Nu 11 Hi; Dt 29 10 [Hob 9]; 31 28; Josh 8 33; 23 2; 24 1) or with the judges (Josh 8 33; 23 2; 24 1; Dt 16 18).

      Scribes with Utensils.

      The two terms are often, however, used together as of parallel and distinct offices (2 Ch 26 11; 34 13). If any such distinction can be made, it would seem that the Kdpher was originally the military scribe and the shotcr the civil scribe, but it is better to say that they are "evidently .... synonymous terms and could be used of any subordinate; office which required ability to write' ' (Cheyne in EH). There seem to have been at least 70 of these officers at the time of the Exodus, and by infer- ence many more (Nu 11 Hi), and 0,000 Levites alone in the time of David (1 Ch 23 4) were "writers."

      Another kind of professional scribe was the tiph-

      ar (Jer 51 27, "marshal"; Nah 3 17 in), or tablet writer, a word apparently directly borrowed from the Assyr. This too seems to be a real synonym for both of the other words. In brief, therefore, all three terms mean scribe in the Egyp or Assyr sense, where the writer wa.s an official and the official necessarily a writer.

      Still another word, rendered in RV as "magi- cians," is rendered in its margin as "stirred scribe" (hnrtoin). This word being derived from the stilus recalls the close connection between the written charm and magic. None of these words in the OT refers directly to the professional copyist of later times whose business was the multiplication of copies.

      Sayee argues from the name Kiriath-sepher that there was a university for scribes at this place, and according to 1 Ch (2 55) there were Kenite families of professional scribes at Jabez.

      The professional scribe, writing as an amanuen- sis, is represented by Baruch (Jer 36 4) and Tortius (Rom 16 22), and' tin; calligraphist by Ezra (Ezr 7 6). In later t imes the scribe stood for the man of learning in general and esp. for the lawyer.

      It would seem that Moses expected that kings should write with their own hands (Dt 17 18; 31 24), and the various letters of David (2 S 11 15), Jezebel (1 K 21 9), the king of Aram (2 K 5 5), Jehu (2 K 10 2.C.), Jeremiah (ch 29), Elijah (2 Ch 21 12-15), the letters of the Canaanite and Hittite princes to one another in the Am Tab and Bnghaz- keui tablets, etc, while they may sometimes have been the work of secretaries, were undoubtedly often by the author. For the prevalence of hand- writing in Bib. times and places see LIBRARY. Its prevalence in OT times may be compared perhaps to the ratio of college graduates in modern life. In NT times the ratio was probably much greater, and it appears not only that Zacharias, the priest, and the educated St. Paul and St. Luke could write, but even the poorer apostles and the carpenter's Son. It is assumed that all of a certain rich man's debtors could write (Lk 16 7). This general liter- acy was due to the remarkable public-school system of the Jews in their synagogues, which some good Jewish scholars (Klostermann, qt. Krauss, Talmud. Archncol., Ill, 336, n.l) trace as far back as Isaiah. In Vespasian's time it is said there were in Jems alone 480 synagogues each with its school, and tin- law that there must be primary schools in every city dates at latest ((13-65 AD) from this time and more likely from 130 BC. The compulsory public-school law of Simeon ben Setach (c 70 BC), although it has been labeled mythical, is nevertheless entirely credible, in view of the facts as they appear in NT times and in Jos. The talc that there were in Helhor, after the fall of Jerus had crowded full this seat of learning, "400 synagogues each with 400 teachers and 400 pupils," carries fiction on its face, but there is little doubt that there were public schools long before this in nearly every town of Pal and compulsory education from the age of or 7 (cf Krauss, III, ch xii, "Srhule," 119-239, 330-uN).

      Writing in the Hob as in Sem languages in general except Ethiopic is from right to left and in Gr from left to right as in modern western 2. The usage. On the one hand, however,

      Writing Art some Sabaean inscriptions and, on the other hand, a number of early Gr in- scriptions are written alternately, or boustrophcdon, and suggest the transition from Sem to western style. The earlier ( ir MSS did not separate the words, and it is inferred from text corruptions that the earliest Hob writing did not. As early as the Mcsha and Siloam inscriptions, the dot was used to separate words, and the vertical stroke for the end of a sen- tence. Vowel points were introduced somewhere




      from the f>th to the 8th cent. AD by the Massoretes, but ;ire not :illo\\v( 1 even now in the synagogue rolls. Some of the inscriptions employ the Palestinian or Tiberian system of vowel points, and others the Bab (above the line). Accents indicate not only stress but intonation and other relations. Very soon after Ezra's day, and before the LXX tr, the matter of writing the Bib. books had become one of very great care, the stipulations and the rules for careful correction by the authorized text being very strict (Blau, 185-87). The MSS were written in columns (doors), and a space between columns, books, etc, was prescribed, as also the width of the column. All books were ruled. Omitted words must be interlined above. The margins were fre- quently used for commentaries. For size, writing on the back, etc, see above, and for the use of ab- breviations, reading, punctuation, etc, see Blau, Gardthauseu, Thompson, the Introductions to textual criticism and the arts, on textual criticism in this Encyclopaedia.

      VIII. History of Biblical Handwriting. Mytho-

      logically speaking the history of handwriting dates

      from the beginning when the Word

      1. Mytho- created the heavens. The firmament logical is a series of heavenly tablet s, t he hand- Origins writing of God, as conceived by the

      tablet-using Babylonians, or a scroll in the thought of prophets, the NT writers, and the rabbis. Whether the idea that "the heavens de- clare the glory of Clod," etc (Ps 19 1-4), refers to this notion or not, it was one extensively developed and practised in the science of astrology. In any event the doctrine of t he Creator-Word reaches deep into the psychology of writing as a tangible record of invisible words or ideas, and this philosophizing stretches some 3,000 years or so back of the Chris- tian era.

      For writing among the gods in the mythologies of non-Bib, religions, see BOOK; LIDKAKY.

      When and why the very simplest kind of writing began to be used has been the subject of much con- jecture. The Enc 'Brit (XVI, 445)

      2. Earliest suggests that ''the earliest use .... Use of inscribed or written signs was for

      important religious and political trans- actions kept by priests in temples," but the memo- rial pillar is older than the temple, and the economic or social record is perhaps older than the sacred, although this is less clear. Three things seem rather probable: (1) that the first records were number records, (2) that they concerned economic matters although it is not excluded that the occa- sion for first recording economic matters was reli- gious, (3) that they were not used memorially for important transactions, but rather as utilitarian or business records.

      The original mnemonic record was probably a number record. The Heb words for "book" and "word" both seem to mean a setting down of one thing after another, and various words in various other languages point in the same direction, as do also in a general way the nature of the primitive situation and the evidences of history. Many of the oldest records are concerned with numbers of animals. Immense quantities of very old Sumerian records are simply such lists, and the still earlier cave drawings (whether they have numbers or not) are at least drawings of animals. One use of the primitive Quipu was for recording sales of different kinds of animals at market, arid the twig bundle and notched records an; in general either pure number records or mnemonic records with a number base. What these animal records were for is another matter. If they were; records of ownership for mere tally purposes (a natural enough pur- pose, carrying back even to hunting trophies) the use was purely economic, but as a matter of fact the early Bab lists seem generally to have been temple records, and even the cave records are commonly thought to bo associated with religion. The early Egyp lists too have religious associations, and the somewhat later records are largely concerned with endowment of temples or at least temple ii.sts of offerings votive offerings or sac-

      rifices. This points perhaps to a religious origin and possibly leads back to the very first felt need of records for a tithing for religious purposes. But it may equally lead to the sharing of spoils socially rather than reli- giously, although the history of the common meal and sacrifice shared by worshippers points to a very early religious sanction for the problem of equitable sharing of spoils, and it may have been precisely at this point

      Common Egyptian Writing in the Time of Abraham.

      and for this purpose that number record was invented. However that may be, the evidence seems to point to a number-record origin even back of the cave drawings (which are said to be chiefly of domestic rather than wild animals) at a period variously figured as from 0,000 or 8,000 years ago, more or less, to millions of years ago.

      The pseudepigraphic books of the OT variously represent writing as invented and first practised by Jeh, Adam, Cain, or Seth. Taking 3. Biblical the Bib. narrative as it stands, the ear- History liest allusion to true writing is the sign of Cain (Gen 4 lo), if indeed this refers to a body mark, and particularly if it has analogy with the "mark upon the forehead" of the Book of Rev (17 5; cf 13 US; 14 1) and the tattoo marks of ownership or tribal marks of primitive tribes, as is thought by many.

      The setting of the rainbow as a permanent sign (Gen 9 12-17) for a permanent covenant is quite in line with the recognized mnemonic writing. Noah's building of an altar had the same character if it was built for a permanent memorial. More obviously akin to this primitive form of writing was, however, the dedication of a memorial altar or pillar as a memorial of a particular event in a particular place, as in Jacob's pillar (Gen 28 18.22).

      For perhaps 2,000 years before Abraham, image writing had been practised in both Babylonia and Egypt, and for more than 1,000 years a very highly developed ideographic and phonetic writing had been in use. There were millions of cuneiform documents existing in collections large and small in Babylonia when he was there, and equal quanti- ties of hieroglyphic and hieratic papyri, leather and skin documents in Egypt when he visited it. See BOOK; LIBRARY; HAMMURABI, CODE OF.




      Abraham himself presumably used cuneiform writing closely parallel to the writing on Ham- murabi's statue. A similar script was presumably also used by his Ilittite allies. In Egypt he met, with the hieroglyphics on the monuments, but for business and common use the so-called hieratic cursive forms were already developed toward, if not well into, the decided changes of the middle hieratic period (c, 2030- 1 788 BC ; cf Moller, 1 Herat. Palacog., VI, 190!), 3, etc). It is a question whether the boundary heap, which Laban "called" the heap of witness in Aram, and Jacob by the same name in Heb, was inscribed or not, but, if inscribed, both faces or lines of the bilingual inscription were pre- sumably in cuneiform characters. The cuneiform remained, probably continuously, the prevailing script of Syria and Pal until about 1300 BC, and until, some time well before 1000, the old Sern alpha- bet began to be employed.

      The question of the relation of the writing in Mosaic times and in the time of the Judges to the cuneiform or the hieratic on the one side and the alphabet on the other is too much mixed up with the question of the Pent to allow of much dogmatiz- ing. Some scholars are convinced that the Pent was written in cuneiform characters if not, in the Bab language. The old Sem-(!r, "Phoenician," alphabet was, however, probably worked out in the Palestinian region between 1400 and 1100 BC (wherever the Hebrews may have been at this t hue), and it remained the Heb writing until the introduc- tion of the .square characters. Sec ALPHABET.

      Common Egyptian Writing during the Bondage.

      At the beginning of the Christian era there had been a long period of the use of Gr among the edu- cated, and long before the NT was written there was a large body of Palest inian-Gr and Egyp-Gr literature. Latin for a time also had been used, more or less, officially, but the Aram., development of whose forms may be well traced from about 500

      BC in the inscriptions and in the Elephantine papyri, was the prevailing popular writing. Gr remained long the language of the educated world. It was after 135 AD that. II. Simeon ben Gamaliel was said to have had 500 students in Heb (New Heb) and 500 in Gr (Krauss, III, 203).

      Three Writings in Common Use in Palestine in Gospel Times: First, Aramaic; .Second, Greek; Third, Latin.

      Latin, Gr, and Aram. (New Heb) characters were all needed for the inscription on the cross. Heb had at this time certainly passed into the square form long enough ago to have had yodh pass into proverb as the smallest letter (jot) of the alphabet (Mt 5 18). Through the abundance of recent papyrus and inscriptional discoveries, it is now possible to trace the history of the varying forms of the bookhand and cursive (Ir letters, and even of the Latin letters, for several centuries on either side of the year of Our Lord and up to the time of the longer known manuscripts (see works of Gardthausen and Thompson). One may get in this way a good idea of how the most famous of all trilingual in- scriptions may have looked as to its handwriting how in fact it probably did look, jotted down as memorandum by Pilate, and how transcribed on the cross, assuming that Pilate wrote the Rom cursive (Thompson, facs. 106 [AD 41], 321), and the clerks a fair epigraphic or rather for this purpose perhaps bookhand Greek (Thompson, facs. 8 [AD 1], 123; Latin, facs. 83 [AD 79], 270). See TITLE.

      LiTKRATrRE. General: Edward Clodd, Story of the Alphabet, New York, 1912 (popular); Fritz Specht, Die Schrift u. Hire Entwicklung, 3. Ausg., Berlin, 1909 (popu- lar); I. Taylor, History of the Alphabet, London, 1899, 2 vols, 8vo; H. Wuttke, Geschichte der Schrift, Leipzig, 1874-75 (rich and comprehensive on primitive writing); Philippe Bergcr, Histoire dc Vecriture dans I'antiquite, 2d ed, Paris, 1892; Karl Faulmann, Illustrirtc (;

      I'riniitice: Leo Frobenius, The Childhood of Man, Philadelphia, 1908 (casual but useful aggregation of primitive examples); Frederick Webb Hodge, ed., Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico, Wash- ington, 1907-10, 2 vols (dictionary form); G. Mallery, Smithsonian lust. Reports, IV (1882-83), 3-256, X (1888- 89), 1-822; M. Beuchat, Mutual d'mchculoyie americaine, Paris, 1912; M. H. Kingsley, Travels in West Africa, London, 1897; R. E. Dennet, At the Back of the Black Man's Mind, 1906; A. W. Howitt, Native Tribes of South-East Australia, London, 1904 (esp. ch xi); E. C. Richardson, The Beginnings of Libraries, London and Princeton, 1914.

      Mediterranean: Deeholetto, Archeologie prehistorique. 1908; Arthur J. Evans, Scrip/a Min.oa, Oxford, 1909; Angclo AIosso, The Dawn of Mediterranean Civilization, London, 1910.

      Hebrew, Greek and Latin: Frederic G. Kenyon, Our Bible and the Ancient MSS, 3d ed. London, 1898; George Milligan, The NT Documents, 1913, Lndwig Blau, Htu- dien zum a/thtbraischen. Buchwesen, Strassburg, 1902 (scholaily; first rank); Leopold Loew, Clrnphische Requi- sitcn und Erzeugnisse bei den Juden, Leipzig, 1870-71, 2 pts.; Samuel Krauss, Talmudische Arclifiolo^ie, Leipzig, 1910-12, 3 vols, 1I[, 131-239, 3001? (full critical notes and references); Mark Lidzbarski, Hundbuch d. nonl- semitischen Epigraphik, 1902-8 (also Ephemeris)', Alvin



      zig, 1900; Ernest Christian Wilhclra Wattenbaeh, Das Mr.hriftwi'xcn im M illflnltcr, Leipzig, lS!)(i (has an im- mense mass of original quotations of authorities).

      Sources for latest literature: W. Weinberger, " Beitriige zur Handschriftenkundc," Sitzunyxher. Akml. Wii-n., !">'.), 161 (1908-9), pp. 79-195; Zentralblatt f. Bililiothekswcsen, Leipzig (monthly); Hortzschansky, Biblioyraphie .... Burhwcscns (annual cumulation of tho Zentralblatt material).

      For inward writing see modern general psychologies and the books and articles in Hand's bibliographical supplement to Baldwin's Dirt, of rxi/rlmloyy. For con- tinual ion literature see the Psychological In/lex. For various aspects of writing consult also books on general Bib. archaeology (e.g. Xowack and Benzinger), general Intros. and arts, on "Alphabet," "Book," "Library," "Manuscripts," "Textual Criticism," and other special topics in this or other Bib. and general encyclopaedias.

      E. C. RlCHAKDSON

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