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    (See Cambridge Concise Bible COMMENTARY)

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    Cambridge Bible Commentary Concise,
    Published AD-1706, Amplified & Edited 2000;

    Letter ""


    Deuter-canonical Books are included as references, and less often, the Pseudoe-pigraphia (extra-biblical New Testament Era writings - such as the Gospel of Barnabas - used for over 300 years by the early Church.

    Though these are not Inerrant Scripture, they are very important as geographical and historical references, and helping to understand how particular Hebrew and Greek words were used.

    Since the Deuter-canonical Books were part of the Jewish Bible that Jesus and Paul used, they have great value for understanding the era between the Covenants, and all things Jewish.

    Many will be surprised to know they were in the Geneva Bible of Calvin and Knox - and the Puritan Pilgrims - and included in the King James for over 275 years . . .

    . . . and left out in later versions - ONLY to make the Bible MORE PROFITABLE, by selling at the usual price, while being much smaller to print!

    No wonder Paul said the "love of money is the root of all evil!"

    Further know, that that these books are rejected by most Bible Preachers today, BECAUSE the Jews of Jesus' Day rejected them for the Jewish Canon at the Council of Jamnia after the fall of Jerusalem.

    This seems reasonable enough, and though these Scribes and Lawyers SHOULD have had superior knowledge in ALL THINGS JEWISH . . . in their Jewish wisdom, THEY ALSO REJECTED JESUS AS THE MESSIAH!!!

    TheDeuter-canonical Books are very "Kingdom of God" and "Messianic" Oriented, thus the Jews sis NOT want any writings confirming that Jesus WAS the Jewish Messiah.

    The wise "Students-N-Scholars" will know them, as they provide light on New Testament Scripture that are NOT understood otherwise;

    Quick Example:

    In Luke 3:36 YOUR Bible reads as follows:

      "Which was the son of Cainan, which was the son of Arphaxad, which was the son of Sem (Shem), which was the son of Noe (Noah), which was the son of Lamech;"

    This ancestor of Jesus named "Cainan, son of Arphaxad": where is he in YOUR Bible/ (Check Genesis 11:13, and other genealogies).

    This dilemma - which the WORLD calls a great contradiction in the linage of Jesus as the Christ - can ONLY be solved by the Bible Jesus used, which included the Deuter-canonical Books.

    Do you suppose Jesus knew more about the "Correct Books" of the Bible than modern Denomination?

    [1] Cambridge Bible Commentary Concise, HOMEPAGE and INDEX

    [2] Cambridge Bible Commentary Concise, INTRO and PREFACE

    [3] Cambridge Bible Commentary Concise, GENESIS - DEUTERONOMY

    [4] Cambridge Bible Commentary Concise, JOSHUA To ESTHER

    [5] Cambridge Bible Commentary Concise, JOB To SONG of SOLOMON

    [6] Cambridge Bible Commentary Concise, THE PSALMS

    [7] Cambridge Bible Commentary Concise, ISAIAH To JEREMIAH

    [8] Cambridge Bible Commentary Concise, EZEKIEL To MALACHI

    [9] Cambridge Bible Commentary Concise, MATTHEW To ACTS

    [10] Cambridge Bible Commentary Concise, ROMANS To THE-REVELATION

    [11] Cambridge Bible Commentary Concise, The Whole OLD TESTAMENT

    [12] Cambridge Bible Commentary Concise, The Whole NEW TESTAMENT


    Cambridge Bible Commentary, Concise;

    Jamieson, Fausset & Brown: Annotated by NewtonStein;

    "Genesis to The Revelation"



    by Robert Jamieson

      Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible Robert Jamieson Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole BibleRobert Jamieson, A.R. Fausset, and David Brown: 1871


      The Pentateuch, the name by which the first five books of the Bible are designated, is derived from two Greek words, pente, "five," and teuchos, a "volume," thus signifying the fivefold volume.

      Originally these books formed one continuous work, as in the Hebrew manuscripts, and they are still connected in one unbroken roll. At what time they were divided into five portions, each having a separate title, is not known, but it is certain that the distinction dates at or before the time of theSeptuagint translation.

      The names they bear in our English version are borrowed from the Septuagint, and they were applied by those Greek translators as descriptive of the principal subjects—the leading contents of the respective books.

      In the later Scriptures they are frequently comprehended under the general designation, The Law, The Book of the Law, since, to give a detailed account of the preparations for, and the delivery of, the divine code, with all the civil and sacred institutions that were peculiar to the ancient economy, is the object to which they are exclusively devoted.

      They have always been placed at the beginning of the Bible, not only on account of their priority in point of time, but as forming an appropriate and indispensable introduction to the rest of the sacred books.

      The numerous and oft-recurring references made in the later Scriptures to the events, the ritual, and the doctrines of the ancient Church would have not only lost much of their point and significance, but have been absolutely unintelligible without the information which these five books contain.

      They constitute the groundwork or basis on which the whole fabric of revelation rests, and a knowledge of the authority and importance that is thus attached to them will sufficiently account for the determined assaults that infidels have made on these books, as well as for the zeal and earnestness which the friends of the truth have displayed in their defense.

      The Mosaic origin of the Pentateuch is established by the concurring voices both of Jewish and Christian tradition; and their unanimous testimony is supported by the internal character and statements of the work itself. That Moses did keep a written record of the important transactions relative to the Israelites is attested by his own express affirmation.

      For in relating the victory over the Amalekites, which he was commanded by divine authority to record, the language employed,"write this for a memorial in a book" [Hebrew, the book], (Exodus 17:14), shows that that narrative was to form part of a register already in progress, and various circumstances combine to prove that this register was a continuous history of the special goodness and care of divine providence in the choice, protection, and guidance of the Hebrew nation.

      First, there are the repeated assertions of Moses himself that the events which checkered the experience of that people were written down as they occurred (see Exodus 24:4-7; 34:27; Numbers 33:2). Secondly, there are the testimonies borne invarious parts of the later historical books to the Pentateuch as a work well known, and familiar toall the people (see Joshua 1:8; Joshua 8:34; 23:6; Joshua

      24:26; 1 Kings 2:3, &c.) Thirdly, frequent references are madein the works of the prophets to the facts recorded in the books of Moses;


        Isaiah 1:9 with Genesis 19:1;

        Isaiah 12:2 with Exodus 15:2;

        Isaiah 51:2 with Genesis 12:2;

        Isaiah 54:9 with Genesis 8:21, 22;

        Hosea 9:10 with Numbers 25:3;

        Hosea 11:8 with Genesis 19:24;

        Hosea 12:4 with Genesis 32:24, 25;

        Hosea 12:12 with Genesis 28:5; 29:20;

        Joe 1:9 with Numbers 15:4-7; 28:7-14;

        Deuteronomy 12:6, 7; 16:10, 11;

        Amos 2:9 with Numbers 21:21;

        Amos 4:4 with Numbers 28:3;

        Amos 4:11 with Genesis 19:24;

        Amos 9:13 with Leviticus 26:5;

        Micah 6:5 with Numbers 22:25;

        Micah 6:6 with Leviticus 9:2;

        Micah 6:15 with Leviticus 26:16, etc;

      Fourthly, the testimony of Christ and the Apostles is repeatedly borne to the books of Moses (Matthew 19:7; Luke 16:29; 24:27; John 1:17; 7:19;2

      Cambridge Bible Commentary, ConciseActs 3:22; 28:23; Romans 10:5).

      Indeed the references are so numerous, and the testimonies so distinctly borne to the existence of the Mosaic books throughout the whole history of the Jewish nation, and the unity of character, design, and style pervading these books is so clearly perceptible,

      notwithstanding the rationalistic assertions of their forming a series of separate and unconnected fragments, that it may with all safety be said, there is immensely stronger and more varied evidence in proof of their being the authorship of Moses than of any of the Greek or Roman classics being the productions of the authors whose names they bear.

      But admitting that the Pentateuch was written by Moses, an important question arises, as to whether the books which compose it have reached us in an authentic form; whether they exist genuine and entire as they came from the hands of their author.

      In answer to this question, it might be sufficient to state that, in the public and periodical rehearsals of the law in the solemn religious assemblies of the people, implying the existence of numerous copies, provision was made for preserving the integrity of "The Book of the Law."


    Cambridge Bible Commentary, Concise;

    Jamieson, Fausset & Brown: Annotated by NewtonStein;

    "Genesis to The Revelation"



      But besides this, two remarkable facts, the one of which occurred before and the other after the captivity, afford conclusive evidence of the genuineness and authenticity of the Pentateuch.

        [1] The first is the discovery in the reign of Josiah of the autograph of the Law which was deposited by Moses in the ark of the testimony,

        [2] The second is the schism of the Samaritans, who erected a temple on Mount Gerizim,

      Which Samaritans, appealing to the Mosaic law as the standard of their faith and worship equally with the Jews, watched with jealous care over every circumstance that could affect the purity of the Mosaic record.

      There is the strongest reason, then, for believing that the Pentateuch, as it exists now, is ubstantially the same as it came from the hands of Moses.

      The appearance of a later hand, it is true, is traceable in the narrative of the death of Moses at the close of Deuteronomy, and some few interpolations, such as inserting the altered names of places, may have been made by Ezra.

      FACT: Ezra did NOT revised or correct the ancient Scriptures per se, but rather UPDATE the name changes over many centuriessuch as the following:

        >> Salem to Jeru-salem, or Jerusalem;

        >> Oshea, to Yehoshua, to Yeshua, or as we transliterate in English Joshua;

        >> The marshy 'Salt Pits' to the Salt Sea;

        >> Assyria to Syria;

        >> etc.;

      But, substantially, the Pentateuch is the genuine work of Moses, and many, who once impugned its claims to that character, and looked upon it as the production of a later age, have found themselves compelled, after a full and unprejudiced investigation of the subject, to proclaim their conviction that its authenticity is to be fully relied on.

      The genuineness and authenticity of the Pentateuch being admitted, the inspiration and canonical authority of the work follow as a necessary consequence. The admission of Moses to the privilege of frequent and direct communion with God (Exodus 25:22; 33:3; Numbers 7:8-9; 9:8); his repeated and solemn declarations that he spoke and wrote by command of God;

      The submissive reverence that was paid to the authority of his precepts by all classes of the Jewish people, including the king himself (Deuteronomy 17:18; 27:3); and the acknowledgment of the divine mission of Moses by the writers of the NewTestament, all prove the inspired character and authority thus the INERRANCY - of his books.

      The Pentateuch possessed the strongest claims on the attention of the Jewish people, as forming the standard of their faith, the rule of their obedience, the record of their whole civil and religious polity.

      But it is interesting and important to all mankind, inasmuch as besides revealing the origin and early development of the divine plan of grace, it is the source of all authentic knowledge, giving the true philosophy, history, geography, and chronology of the ancient world.

      Finally, the Pentateuch "is indispensable to the whole revelation contained in the Bible;

        [1] For Genesis being the preface to the Law;

        [2] The Law being the preface to the Prophets correcting the Nations;

        [3] The Prophets correcting the Nations being the preface to Christ and the New Testament Scriptures;

        [4] The Bible being the preface to the Church age;

        [5] The Church being the preface to World Salvation;

        [6] World Salvation being preface to the Millennium;

        [7] The Millennium being preface to God Visibly Reigning in His Eternal Kingdom;

      Thus NONE of the World of God could not have been omitted. What the four Gospels and Acts are to the New Testament Church, the five books of Moses are to the Nation of Israel."



    Cambridge Bible Commentary, Concise;

    Jamieson, Fausset & Brown: Annotated by NewtonStein;

    "Genesis to The Revelation"



      Genesis, the book of the origin or production of all things, consists of two parts: the first, comprehended in the first through eleventh chapters, gives a general history; the second, contained in the subsequent chapters, gives a special history.

      The two parts are essentially connected; the one, which sets out with an account of the descent of the human race from a single pair, the introduction of sin into the world, and the announcement of the scheme of divine mercy for repairing the ruins of the fall, was necessary to pave the way for relating the other, namely, the call of Abraham, and the selection of his posterity for carrying out the gracious purpose of God.

      An evident unity of method, therefore, pervades this book, and the information contained in it was of the greatest importance to the Hebrew people, as without it they could not have understood the frequent references made in their law to the purposes and promises of God regarding themselves.

      The arguments that have been already adduced as establishing the Mosaic origin of the Pentateuch, prove of course, that Moses was the author of Genesis.

      The few passages on which the rationalists grounded their assertions that it was the composition of a later age have been successfully shown to warrant no such conclusion; the use of Egyptian words and the minute acquaintance with Egyptian life and manners, displayed in the history of Joseph, harmonize with the education of Moses, and whether he received his information by immediate revelation, from tradition, or from written documents, it comes to us as the authentic work of an author who wrote as he was inspired by the Holy Ghost (2 Peter 1:21).

      Exodus, a "going forth," derives its name from its being occupied principally with a relation of the departure of the Israelites from Egypt, and the incidents that immediately preceded as well as followed that memorable migration.

      Its authorship by Moses is distinctly asserted by himself (Exodus24:4), as well as by our Lord (Mark 12:26; Luke 20:37). Besides, the thorough knowledge it exhibits of the institutions and usages of the ancient Egyptians and the minute geographical details of the journey to Sinai, establish in the clearest manner the authenticity of this book.


      So called from its treating of the laws relating to the ritual, the services, and sacrifices of the Jewish religion, the superintendence of which was entrusted to the Levitical priesthood. It is chiefly, however, the duties of the priests, "the sons of Aaron," which this book describes;

      and its claim to be the work of Moses is established by the following passages:—2 Chronicles 30:16; Nehemiah 8:14; Jeremiah 7:22-23; Ezekiel 20:11 Matthew 8:4; Luke 2:22; John 8:5; Romans 10:4; 13:9; 2 Corinthians 6:16; Galatians 3:12; 1 Peter 1:16.


      This book is so called because it contains an account of the enumeration and arrangement of the Israelites. The early part of it, from the first through the tenth chapters, appears to be asupplement to Leviticus, being occupied with relating the appointment of the Levites to the sacred offices.

      The journal of the march through the wilderness is then given as far as Numbers 21:20; after which the early incidents of the invasion are narrated.

      One direct quotation only from this book (Numbers 16:5) is made in the New Testament (2 Timothy 2:19); but indirect references to it by the later sacred writers are very numerous.

      Deuteronomy, the second law, a title which plainly shows what is the object of this book, namely, a recapitulation of the law.

      It was given in the form of public addresses to the people; and as Moses spoke in the prospect of his speedy removal, he enforced obedience to it by many forcible appeals to the Israelites, concerning their long and varied experience both of the mercies and the judgments of God.

      The minute notices of the heathen people with whom they had come in contact, but who afterward disappeared from the pages of history, as well as the accounts of the fertility and products of Canaan, and the counsels respecting the conquest of that country, fix the date of this book and the time of its composition by the hand of Moses.

    Cambridge Bible Commentary, Concise

      The close, however, must have been added by 4another; and, indeed, it is supposed by some to have formed the original preface to the Book of Joshua.


      The title of this book is derived from the pious and valiant leader whose achievements it relates and who is commonly supposed to have been its author. The objections to this idea are founded chiefly on the clause, "unto this day," which occurs several times (Joshua 4:9; 6:25; 8:28).

      But this, at least in the case of Rahab, is no valid reason for rejecting the idea of his authorship; for assuming what is most probable, that this book was composed toward the close of Joshua's long career, or compiled from written documents left by him, Rahab might have been still alive.

      A more simple and satisfactory way of accounting for the frequent insertion of the clause, "unto this day," is the opinion that it was a comment introduced by Ezra, when revising the sacred canon; and this difficulty being removed, the direct proofs of the book having been produced by a witness of thetransactions related in it,

      the strong and vivid descriptions of the passing scenes, and the use of the words "we" and "us," (Joshua 5:1-6), viewed in connection with the fact, that, after his farewell address to the people, Joshua "wrote these words in the book of the law of God" [Joshua 24:26]—all afford strong presumptive proof that the entire book was the work of that eminent individual.

      Its inspiration and canonical authority are fully established by the repeated testimonies of other Scripture writers

      (compare Joshua 6:26 with 1 Kings 16:34;

      compare Joshua 10:13 with Habakkuk 3:11;

      Joshua 3:14 with Acts 7:45;

      Joshua 6:17-23 with Hebrews 11:30;

      Joshua 2:1-24 with James 2:25; salms 44:2; 68:12-14; 78:54-55).

      As a narrative of God's faithfulness in giving the Israelites possession of the promised land, this history is most valuable, and bears the same character as a sequel to the Pentateuch, that the Acts of the Apostles do to the Gospels.

      Judges is the title given to the next book, from its containing the history of those non-regal rulers who governed the Hebrews from the time of Joshua to that of Eli, and whose functions in time of peace consisted chiefly in the administration of justice, although they occasionally led the peoplein their wars against their public enemies.

      The date and authorship of this book are not preciselyknown. It is certain, however, that it preceded the Second Book of Samuel (compare Judges 9:35 with 2 Samuel 11:21), as well as the conquest of Jerusalem by David (compare Judges 1:21 with 2 Samuel 5:6).

      Its author was in all probability Samuel, the last of the judges (see Judges 19:1; 21:25), and the date of the first part of it is fixed in the reign of Saul, while the five chapters at the close might not have been written till after David's establishment as king in Israel (see Judges 18:31).

      It is a fragmentary history, being a collection of important facts and signal deliverances at different times and in variousparts of the land, during the intermediate period of three hundred years between Joshua and the establishment of the monarchy.

      The inspired character of this book is confirmed by allusions to it in many passages of Scripture (compare Judges 4:2; 6:14 with 1 Samuel 12:9-12; Judges 9:53 with 2 Samuel 11:21; Judges 7:25 with Psalms 83:11; compare Judges 5:4, 5 with Psalms 7:5; Judges 13:5; 16:17 with Matthew 2:13-23; Acts 13:20; Hebrews 11:32).


    Cambridge Bible Commentary, Concise;

    Jamieson, Fausset & Brown: Annotated by NewtonStein;

    "Genesis to The Revelation"



      Ruth is properly a supplement to the preceding book, to which, in fact, it was appended in the ancient Jewish canon. Although it relates an episode belonging to the time of the Judges, its precise date is unknown.

      It appears certain, however, that it could not have been written prior to the time of Samuel (see Ruth 4:17-22), who is generally supposed to have been its author; and this opinion, in addition to other reasons on which it rests, is confirmed by Ruth 4:7, where it is evident that the history was not compiled till long after the transactions recorded.

      The inspiration and canonical authority of the book is attested by the fact of Ruth's name being inserted by Matthew in the Saviour's genealogy [Matthew 1:5].5

    Cambridge Bible Commentary, Concise

      The First and Second Books of Samuel. The two were, by the ancient Jews, conjoined so as to make one book, and in that form could be called the Book of Samuel with more propriety than now, the second being wholly occupied with the relation of transactions that did not take place till after the death of that eminent judge.

      Accordingly, in the Septuagint and the Vulgate, it is called the First and Second Books of Kings. The early portion of the First Book, down to the end of the twenty-fourth chapter, was probably written by Samuel; while the rest of it and the whole of the Second, are commonly ascribed to Nathan and Gad, founding the opinion on 1 Chronicles 29:29.

      Commentators, however, are divided about this, some supposing that the statements in 1 Samuel 2:26; 3:1, indicate the hand ofthe judge himself, or a contemporary; while some think, from 1 Samuel 6:18; 12:5; 27:6, that its composition must be referred to a later age. It is probable, however, that these supposed marks of an after-period were interpolations of Ezra.

      This uncertainty, however, as to the authorship does not affect the inspired authority of the book, which is indisputable, being quoted in the New Testament (1 Samuel 13:14 in Acts 13:22, and 2 Samuel 7:14 in Hebrews 1:5), as well as in many of the Psalms.The First and Second Books of Kings, in the ancient copies of the Hebrew Bible, constitute one book.

      Various titles have been given them; in the Septuagint and the Vulgate they are called the Third and Fourth Books of Kings. The authorship of these books is unknown; but the prevailing opinionis that they were compiled by Ezra, or one of the later prophets, from the ancient documents thatare so frequently referred to in the course of the history as of public and established authority. Theirinspired character was acknowledged by the Jewish Church, which ranked them in the sacred canon;and, besides, it is attested by our Lord, who frequently quotes from them (compare 1 Kings 17:9; 2 Kings 5:14 with Luke 4:24-27; 1 Kings 10:1 with Matthew 12:42).The First and Second Books of Chronicles were also considered as one by the ancient Jews, who calledthem "words of days," that is, diaries or journals, being probably compiled from those registersthat were kept by the king's historiographers of passing occurrences. In the Septuagint the titlegiven them is Paraleipomenon, "of things omitted," that is, the books are supplementary becausemany things unnoticed in the former books are here recorded; and not only the omissions aresupplied, but some narratives extended while others are added. The authorship is commonly ascribedto Ezra, whose leading object seems to have been to show the division of families, possessions,&c., before the captivity, with a view to the exact restoration of the same order after the return fromBabylon. Although many things are restated and others are exact repetitions of what is containedin Kings, there is so much new and important information that, as Jerome has well said, the Chroniclesfurnish the means of comprehending parts of the New Testament, which must have beenunintelligible without them. They are frequently referred to by Christ and the Apostles as formingpart of "the Word of God" (see the genealogies in Matthew 1:1-16; Luke 3:23-38; compare 2 Chronicles 19:7 with1 Peter 1:17; 2 Chronicles 24:19-21 with Matthew 23:32-35).Ezra was, along with Nehemiah, reckoned one book by the ancient Jews, who called them theFirst and Second Books of Ezra, and they are still designated by Roman Catholic writers the Firstand Second Books of Esdras. This book naturally divides itself into two parts or sections, the onecontained in the first six chapters, and which relates the circumstances connected with the returnof the first detachment of Babylonish exiles under Zerubbabel with the consequent rebuilding ofthe temple and the re-establishment of the divine service. The other part, embraced in the fourconcluding chapters, narrates the journey of a second caravan of returning captives under the conductof Ezra himself, who was invested with powers to restore, in all its splendor, the entire system ofthe Jewish ritual. The general opinion of the Church in every succeeding age has been that Ezra6

    Cambridge Bible Commentary, Concise

      was the author of this book. The chief objection is founded on Ezra 5:4, where the words, "Thensaid we unto them after this manner, What are the names of the men that make this building?" haveoccasioned a surmise that the first portion of the book was not written by Ezra, who did not go toJerusalem for many years after. But a little attention will show the futility of this objection, as thewords in question did not refer to the writer, but were used by Tatnai and his associates [Ezra 5:3].The style and unity of object in the book clearly prove it to have been the production of but oneauthor. The canonical authority of this book is well established; but another under the name of Ezrais rejected as apocryphal.Nehemiah appears to have been the author of this book, from his usually writing in his own name,and indeed, except in those parts which are unmistakably later editions or borrowed from publicdocuments, he usually employs the first person. The major portion of the book is occupied with ahistory of Nehemiah's twelve years' administration in Jerusalem, after which he returned to hisduties in Shushan. At a later period he returned with new powers and commenced new and vigorousmeasures of reform, which are detailed in the later chapters of the book.Esther derives its name from the Jewess, who, having become wife of the king of Persia, employedher royal influence to effect a memorable deliverance for the persecuted Church of God. Variousopinions are embraced and supported as to the authorship of this book, some ascribing it to Ezra,to Nehemiah, or to Mordecai. The preponderance of authorities is in favor of the last. The historicalcharacter of the book is undoubted, since, besides many internal evidences, its authenticity is provedby the strong testimony of the feast of Purim, the celebration of which can be traced up to the eventswhich are described in this book. Its claim, however, to canonical authority has been questionedwhile it is a record of the superintending care of divine providence over his chosen people, withJewish and the Christian Churches supports this claim, which nothing in the book tends to shake;
      which it is of the utmost importance the Church should be furnished. The name of God is strangelyenough omitted, but the presence of God is felt throughout the history; and the whole tone andtendency of the book is so decidedly subservient to the honor of God and the cause of true religionthat it has been generally received by the Church in all ages into the sacred canon.



    Cambridge Bible Commentary, Concise;

    Jamieson, Fausset & Brown: Edited, Annotated by NewtonStein;

    "Genesis 1"



      Hebrew poetry is unique in its kind; in essence, the most sublime; in form, marked by a simplicity and ease which flow from its sublimity. "The Spirit of the Lord spake by me [the Hebrew poet], and his word was in my tongue" (2 Samuel 23:2).

      Even the music was put under the charge of spirituallygifted men; and one of the chief musicians, Heman, is called "the king's seer in the words of God" (1 Chronicles 25:1, 5).

      King David is stated to have invented instruments of music (Amos 6:5).

      There is not in Hebrew poetry, the artistic rhythm of form which appears in the classical poetry of Greece and Rome, but it amply makes up for this by its fresh and graceful naturalness.

      Early specimens of Hebrew poetry occur; for example, Lamech's skeptical parody of Enoch's prophecy, or, as others think, lamentation for a homicide committed in those lawless times inself-defense (Genesis 4:23; compare Jude 14; Exodus 32:18; Numbers 21:14, 15, 17, 18, 27; Numbers 23:7, 8, 18; 24:3,15).

      The poetical element appears much more in the Old than in the New Testament.

      The poetical books are exclusively those of the Old Testament; and in the Old Testament itself, the portions that are the most fundamental (for example, the Pentateuch of Moses, the lawgiver, in its main body), are those which have in them least of the poetical element in form. Elijah, the father of the prophets,is quite free of poetical art.

      The succeeding prophets were not strictly poets, except in so far as the ecstatic state in inspiration lifted them to poetic modes of thought and expression. The prophet was more of an inspired teacher than a poet. It is when the sacred writer acts as the representative of the personal experiences of the children of God and of the Church, that poetry finds its propersphere.

      The use of poetry in Scripture was particularly to supply the want not provided for by the law, namely, of devotional forms to express in private, and in public joint worship, the feelings of pious Israelites. The schools of the prophets fostered and diffused a religious spirit among the people; and we find them using lyric instruments to accompany their prophesyings (1 Samuel 10:5).

      However, it was David, who specially matured the lyric effusions of devotion into a perfection which they had not before attained.

      Another purpose which Psalmody, through David's inspired productions, served, was to draw forth from under the typical forms of legal services their hidden essence and spirit, adapting them to the various spiritual exigencies of individual and congregational life.

      Nature, too, is in them shown to speak the glory and goodness of the invisible, yet ever present God. A handbook of devotion was furnished to the Israelite whereby he could enter into the true spirit of the services of the sanctuary, and so feel the need of that coming Messiah, of whom especially the Book of Psalmstestifies throughout.

      We also, in our Christian dispensation, need its help in our devotions.

      Obliged as we are, notwithstanding our higher privileges in most respects, to walk by faith rather than bysight in a greater degree than they, we find the Psalms, with their realizing expression of the felt nearness of God, the best repertory whence to draw divinely sanctioned language, wherewith to express our prayers and thanksgivings to God, and our breathings after holy communion with our fellow saints.

      As to the objection raised against the spirit of revenge which breathes in some psalms, the answer is: a wide distinction is to be drawn between personal vindictiveness and the desire forGod's honor being vindicated. Personal revenge, not only in the other parts of Scripture, but also8

    Cambridge Bible Commentary, Concise

      in the Psalms, in theory and in practice, is alike reprobated (Exodus 23:4, 5; Leviticus 19:18; Job 31:29, 30; Psalms 7:4, 5, 8, 11, 12; Proverbs 25:21, 22), which corresponds to David's practice in the case of his unrelenting enemy (1 Samuel 24:5-6; 26:8-10).

      On the other hand, the people of God have always desired that whatever mars the cause of God, as for instance the prosperity of the enemies of God and His Church, should be brought to an end (Psalms 10:12; 35:27; 40:16; 79:6, 10).

      It is well for us, too, in our dispensation of love, to be reminded by these psalms of the danger of lax views as to God's hatred of sin; and of the need there is that we should altogether enter into the mind of God on such points at the same time that we seek to convert all men to God (compare 1 Samuel 16:1; Psalms 139:21; Isaiah 66:24; The Revelation 14:10).


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    Jamieson, Fausset & Brown: Annotated by NewtonStein;

    "Genesis to The Revelation"



      Some psalms are composed of twenty-two parallel sentences or strophes of verses, beginning with words of which the initial letters correspond with the Hebrew letters (twenty-two) in their order

      (compare Psalms 37:1-40 and Psalms 119:1-176).

      So also Lamentations.

      This arrangement was designed as a help to the memory and is found only in such compositions as do not handle a distinct andprogressive subject, but a series of pious reflections, in the case of which the precise order was of less moment.

      The Psalmist in adopting it does not slavishly follow it; but, as in Psalm 25, he deviates from it, so as to make the form, when needful, bend to the sense. Of these poems there are twelvein all in the Hebrew Bible (Psalms 25:1-22; 34:1-22; 37:1-40; 111:1-10; 112:1-10; 119:1-176; 145:1-21 Proverbs 31:10-31; La 1:1-4:22).

      The great excellence of the Hebrew principle of versification, namely, parallelism, or "thought rhythm" [Ewald], is that, while the poetry of every other language, whose versification depends on the regular recurrences of certain sounds, suffers considerably by translation, Hebrew poetry, whose rhythm depends on the parallel correspondence of similar thoughts, loses almost nothing in being translated—the Holy Spirit having thus presciently provided for its ultimate translation into everylanguage, without loss to the sense.

      Thus in our English Version, Job and Psalms, though buttranslations, are eminently poetical.

      On parallelism, see the Introduction to Job.

      Thus also a clue is given to the meaning in many passages, the sense of the word in one clause being more fully set forth by the corresponding word in the succeeding parallel clause.

      In the Masoretic punctuation of the Hebrew, the metrical arrangement is marked by the distinctive accents. It accords with the divine inspiration of Scripture poetry, that the thought is more prominent than the form, the kernelthan the shell.

      The Hebrew poetic rhythm resembled our blank verse, without, however, metrical feet.


      There is a verbal rhythm above that of prose; but as the true Hebrew pronunciation is lost,

      the rhythm is but imperfectly recognized.

      The peculiarity of the Hebrew poetical age is that it was always historic and true, not mythical, as the early poetical ages of all other nations. Again, its poetry is distinguished from prose by the use of terms decidedly poetic.

      David's lament over Jonathan furnishes a beautiful specimen ofanother feature found in Hebrew poetry, the strophe: three strophes being marked by the recurrence three times of the dirge sung by the chorus; the first dirge sung by the whole body of singers, representing Israel; the second, by a chorus of damsels; the third, by a chorus of youths (2 Samuel 1:17-27).

      The lyrical poetry, which is the predominant style in the Bible and is especially terse and sententious, seems to have come from an earlier kind resembling the more modern Book of Proverbs(compare Genesis 4:23, 24).

      The Oriental mind tends to embody thought in pithy gnomes, maxims, and proverbs.

      "The poetry of the Easterns is a string of pearls.

      Every word has life.

      Every proposition is condensed wisdom. Every thought is striking and epigrammatical"

      (Kitto, Biblical Cyclopædia).9

    Cambridge Bible Commentary, Concise

      We are led to the same inference from the term Maschal, a "proverb" or "similitude," being used to designate poetry in general.


      "Hebrew poetry, in its origin, was a painting to the eye, a parable or teaching by likenesses discovered by the popular mind, expressed by the popular tongue, and adopted and polished by the national poet."

      Solomon, under inspiration, may have embodied in his Proverbs such of the pre-existing popular wise sayings as were sanctioned by the Spirit of God.


    Cambridge Bible Commentary, Concise;

    Jamieson, Fausset & Brown: Annotated by NewtonStein;

    "Genesis to The Revelation"



      The Hebrew title for the Psalms, 'Tehilim', means "hymns," that is, joyous praises (sometimes accompanied with dancing, Exodus 15:1-20; Judges 5:1-31),

      not exactly answering to the Septuagint title, 'Psalms', that is, "lyrical odes," or songs accompanied by an instrument.

      The title, Tehilim, "hymns," was probably adopted on account of the use made of the Psalms in divine service, though only apart can be strictly called songs of praise, others being dirges, and very many prayers

      (whence in Psalms 72:20, David styles all his previous compositions, the "Prayers of David").

      Sixty-five bear the title, "lyrical odes" 'Mizmorim',

      while only one is styled Tehilah or "Hymn."

      From the title being Psalms in the Septuagint and New Testament, and also in the Peshito, it is probable that Psalms (Mizmorim) or "lyrical odes," was the old title before Tehilim.Epic poetry, as having its proper sphere in a mythical heroic age, has no place among the Hebrews of the Old Testament Scripture age.

      For in their earliest ages, namely, the patriarchal, notfable as in Greece, Rome, Egypt, and all heathen nations, but truth and historic reality reigned; so much so, that the poetic element, which is the offspring of the imagination, is found less in those earlier, than in the later, ages.

      The Pentateuch is almost throughout historic prose. In the subsequent uninspired age, in Tobit we have some approach to the Epos.


      Drama, also, in the full modern sense, is not found in Hebrew literature.

      This was due, not to any want of intellectual culture, as is fully shown by the high excellence of their lyric and didacticpoetry, but to their earnest character, and to the solemnity of the subjects of their literature.

      The dramatic element appears in Job, more than in any other book in the Bible; there are the dramatis personæ, a plot, and the "denouement" prepared for by Elihu, the fourth friend's speech, and brought about by the interposition of Jehovah Himself.

      Still it is not a strict drama, but rather an inspired debate on a difficult problem of the divine government exemplified in Job's case, with historic narrative, prologue, and epilogue. The Song of Solomon, too, has much of the dramatic cast.

      See Introductions to Job and Song of Solomon. The style of many psalms is very dramatic, transitions often occurring from one to another person, without introduction, and especially from speaking indirectly of God to addresses to God;

      Thus in Psalms 32:1, 2, David makes a general introduction, "Blessed is the man whose iniquity is forgiven," &c.;

      then in Psalms 32:3-7, he passes to addressing God directly;

      then in Psalms 32:8, without preface God is introduced, directly speaking, in answer to the previous prayer;

      then in Psalms 32:10, 11, again he resumes indirect speaking of God, and addresses himself in conclusion to the righteous.

      These quick changes of person do not startle us, but give usa stronger sense of his habitual converse with God than any assertions could do.

      Compare also in Psalms 132:8-10, the prayer, "Arise, O Lord, into thy rest; thou, and the ark of thy strength. Let thypriests be clothed with righteousness; and let thy saints shout for joy.

      For thy servant David's sake turn not away the face of thine anointed," with God's direct answer, which follows in almost thewords of the prayer,

      "The Lord hath sworn unto David," &c. [Psalms 132:11-18].

      "This is my rest for ever [Psalms 132:14]. I will clothe her priests with salvation: and her saints shall shout aloud for joy."

      Thus also in the second Psalm, various personages are introduced, dramatically acting and speaking—the confederate nations [Psalms 2:1-3],

      Jehovah [Psalms 2:4-6],

      Messiah [Psalms 2:7-9],

      Psalmist [Psalms 2:10-12].


    Cambridge Bible Commentary, Concise

      A frequent feature is the alternate succession of parts, adapting the several psalms to alternate recitation by two semi-choruses in the temple-worship, followed by a full chorus between the parts or at the end. (So Psalms 107:15, 21, 31).

      Dr. Burgh, in his valuable commentary on the Psalms, remarks, "Our cathedral service exemplifies the form of chanting the Psalms, except that the semi-chorus is alternately a whole verse, instead of alternating, as of old, the half verse;

      while the full chorus is the 'gloria' at the end of each Psalm."


    Cambridge Bible Commentary, Concise;

    Jamieson, Fausset & Brown: Annotated by NewtonStein;

    "Genesis to The Revelation"



      In conclusion, besides its unique point of excellence, its divine inspiration, Hebrew poetry is characterized as being essentially national, yet eminently catholic, speaking to the heart and spiritual sensibilities of universal humanity.

      Simple and unconstrained, it is distinguished by a naturalfreshness which is the result of its genuine truthfulness.

      The Hebrew poet sought not self or his own fame, as did heathen poets, but he was inspired by the Spirit of God to meet a pressing want which his own and his nation's spiritual aspirations after God made to be at once a necessity and adelight.

      Compare 2 Samuel 23:1, 2, "The sweet Psalmist of Israel said, The Spirit of the Lord spake by me," &c.

      Ewald rightly remarks that several odes of the highest poetic excellence are not included (for example,

        oo the songs of Moses, Exodus 15:1-19 and Deuteronomy 32:1-43;

        oo the song of Deborah, Judges 5:1-31;

        oo the song of Hannah, 1 Samuel 2:1-10;

        oo the song of Hezekiah, Isaiah 38:9-20;

        oo the song of Habakkuk, Habakkuk 3:1-19;

        oo the song of David's dirge over Saul and Jonathan, 2 Samuel 1:17-18).

      The selection of the Psalms collected in one book was made not so much with reference to the beauty of the pieces, as to their adaptation for public worship. Still one overruling Spirit ordered the selection and arrangement of the contents of the book, as one pervading tone and subject appear throughout, Christ in His own inner life as the God-man, and in His past,present, and future relations to the Church and the world.

      Isaac Taylor well calls the Psalms, "The Liturgy of the spiritual life"; and Luther, "A Bible in miniature."

      The principle of the order in which the Psalms are given to us, though not always discoverable, is in some cases clear, and shows the arrangement to be unmistakably the work of the Spirit, not merely that of the collector.


        Psalm 22 plainly portrays the dying agonies of Messiah;

        Psalm 23, His peaceful rest in Paradise after His death on the cross;

        Psalm 24, His glorious ascension into heaven.


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    "Genesis 1"



    by A. R. Faussett:

      This constitutes the second division, the others being the Law and Hagiographa.

      It included Joshua, Judges, First and Second Samuel, First and Second Kings, called the former prophets;

      and Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, &c., to Malachi, the latter prophets. Daniel is excluded, because, though highly endowed with prophetic gifts, he had not filled the prophetic office: his book is therefore classed with the Hagiographa.

      Ezra probably commenced, and others subsequently completed, thearrangement of the canon. The prophets were not mere predictors.


      Their Hebrew name, 'nabi', comes from a root "to boil up as a fountain" (Gesenius); hence the fervor of inspiration (2 Peter 1:21).

      Othersinterpret it as from an Arabic root (Exodus 4:16, "spokesman" of God, the Holy Ghost supplying him with words); communicated by dreams (Joe 2:28; Job 33:14-17 — no instance of this occurs inIsaiah);

      or visions, the scene being made to pass before their mind (Isaiah 1:1); or trance, ecstasy (Numbers 24:4, 16; Ezekiel 1:3; 3:14); not depriving them, however, of free conscious agency (Jeremiah 20:7, 9; 1 Corinthians 14:32).

      These Peculiar Forms of inspiration distinguish prophets, strictly so called, from Moses and others, though inspired (Numbers 12:6-8). Hence their name seers. Hence, too, the poetical cast of their style, though less restricted, owing to their practical tendency, by the outward forms observed in strictly poetical books. Hence, too, the union of music with prophesying (1 Samuel 10:5).

      This ecstatic state, though exalted, is not the highest:for Jesus Christ was never in it, nor Moses.

      It was rendered necessary by the frailty of the prophets, and the spiritual obtuseness of the people.

      It accordingly predominates in the Old Testament, but is subordinate in the New Testament, where the Holy Ghost by the fulness of His ordinary gifts renders the extraordinary less necessary.

      After the time of the Mosaic economy, the idea of a prophet was regularly connected with the prophetic office — not conferred by men, but by God. In this they differ from mystics whose pretended inspiration is for themselves: prophetism is practical, not dreamy and secluded; the prophet's inspiration is theirs only as God's messengers to the people.

      His ordinary servants and regular teachers of the people were the priests; the prophets distinguished from them by inspiration, were designed to rouse and excite.

      In Israel, however, as distinguished from Judah (as there was no true priesthood) the prophets were the regular and only ministers of God. Prophecy in Israel needed to be supported morepowerfully: therefore the "schools" were more established;

      and more striking prophetic deeds (for example, Elijah's and Elisha's) are recorded, than in Judah. The law was their basis (Isaiah 8:16, 20), both its form and spirit (Deuteronomy 4:2; 13:1-3); at times they looked forward to a day when its ever-living spirit would break its then imperfect form for a freer and more perfect development (Jeremiah 3:16;31:31);

      but they altered not a tittle in their own days. Eichorn well calls Moses' song (Deuteronomy 32:1-47) the Magna Charta of prophecy. The fulfilment of their predictions was to be the sign of their being real prophets of God (Deuteronomy 18:22); also, their speaking in the name of no other but the true God (Deuteronomy 18:20).

      Prophecy was the only sanctioned indulgence of the craving after knowledge of future events, which is so prevalent in the East (Deuteronomy 18:10, 11). For a momentary inspiration the merebeginning of spiritual life sufficed, as in Balaam's case; but for a continuous mission, the prophet must be converted (Isaiah 6:7). In Samuel's days (1 Samuel 10:8; 19:20) begin the prophetic "schools."

      These were associations of men, more or less endowed with the Spirit, in which the feebler were helped by those of greater spiritual powers: so at Beth-el and Gilgal (2 Kings 2:3; 4:38; 6:21). Only the


    Cambridge Bible Commentary, Concise

      leaders stood in immediate communion with God, while the rest were joined to Him through their mediation (1 Kings 19:15; 2 Kings 8:13); the former acted through the latter as their instruments (1 Kings 19:16; 2 Kings 9:1, 2). The bestowal of prophetic gifts was not, however, limited to these schools (Amos 7:14,15).

      As to Symbolic Actions, many of them are not actual but only parts of the prophetic visions, internal not external facts, being impossible or indecent (Jeremiah 13:1-10; 25:12-38; Hosea 1:2-11). Still the internal actions, when possible and proper, were often expressed externally (1 Kings 22:11). Those purelyinternal express the subject more strikingly than a naked statement could.

      Other Criteria of a true prophet, besides the two above, were, the accordance of his addresses with the law; his not promising prosperity without repentance;

      his own assurance of his divine mission (sometimes received reluctantly, Jeremiah 20:8, 9; 26:12), producing that inward assurance of the truth in others, which is to them a stronger proof from the Spirit of God, than even outward miracles and arguments: his pious life, fortitude in suffering, and freedom from fanaticism, confirmthese criteria.

      Miracles, though proofs, are not to be trusted without the negative criteria (Deuteronomy 13:2).

      Predictions fulfilled in the prophet's lifetime established his authority thenceforth (1 Samuel 3:19; Jeremiah22:11-12; Ezekiel 12:12,13; 24:1-27).

      As to their Promulgation, it was usually oral, before the assembled people, and afterwards revised in writing. The second part of Isaiah and Ezekiel 40-48 were probably not given orally, but in writing.

      Before Isaiah's and his contemporaries' time, prophecies were not written, as not being intended for universal use.

      But now a larger field was opened.

      To the worldly power of heathen nations which threatened to destroy the theocracy is henceforth opposed the kingdom of God, about to conquer all through Messiah, whose coming concerns all ages. The lesser prophets give the quintessence of the prophecies of their respective authors.

      An instance of the mode of collecting and publishing prophecies occurs (Jeremiah 36:4-14). Those of the later prophets rest on those of the earlier (Zec 1:4; 7:7, 12).

      Ewald fancies that a great number of prophetic rolls have been lost.

      But the fact of the prophets often alluding to writings which we have, and never to those which it can be proved we have not, makes it likely that we have all those predictions which were committed to writing; the care bestowed on them as divine, and the exact knowledge of them long after (Jeremiah 26:18, 19), confirm this view.

      The Arrangement is chronological; but as the twelve lesser prophets are regarded as one work, and the three last of them lived later than Jeremiah and Ezekiel, the former are put after the latter. The lesser prophets are arranged chronologically, except Hosea, who being the largest, is placed first, though some were earlier than he; also Jonah, who seems to have been the earliest of the latter prophets.

      As to The Messiah, no single prophet gives a complete view of Him: this is made up of the various aspects of Him in different prophecies combined; just as His life in the Gospels is one under a fourfold aspect. In the first part of Isaiah, addressed to the whole people, the prominent idea is His triumph, as King, the design being there to remove their fears of the surrounding nations; in the second, addressed to the elect remnant, He is exhibited as Prophet and Priest, Himself being the sacrifice.



    Cambridge Bible Commentary, Concise;

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    "Genesis 1"



    by A. R. Faussett

      The prophetic gift existed long before the prophetic office was instituted. Thus Enoch had theformer (Jude 14); so Abraham is called a prophet (Genesis 20:7) as are also the patriarchs (Psalms 105:15).The office was first instituted under the Mosaic economy; but even then the gift was not alwaysconnected with the office; for example, Daniel was endowed largely with the gift, but was nevercalled to the office, as living in a heathen court where he could not have exercised it. So David (Matthew13:35; 27:35).

      Hence the writings of both are classed with the Hagiographa, not with the prophets.Moreover, though the office ceased with the close of the Old Testament dispensation, the giftcontinued, and was among the leading charisms of the New Testament Church. "Prophet" (inHebrew, from a root, "to gush out like a fountain") meant one acting as spokesman for another (Exodus7:1); so, one speaking authoritatively for God as interpreter of His will.

      "Seer" was the more ancientterm (1 Samuel 9:9), implying that he spake by a divine communication presented either to his sensesor his mind: as "prophet" indicated his authority as speaking for God.

      Christ was the only fountain of prophecy (1 Peter 1:11;

      The Revelation 19:10; also Acts 16:7, the oldest reading,"the Spirit of Jesus"), and declared God's will to men by His Holy Spirit acting on the minds of theprophets. Thus the history of the Church is the history of God's revelations of Himself in His Sonto man. The three divisions of this history, the Patriarchal, the Mosaic, and the Christiandispensations, are characterized each by a distinct mode of God's manifestations—that is, by adistinct form of the prophetic gift.

      (1) The theophanic mode characterizes the Patriarchaldispensation: God revealing Himself in visible appearances, or theophanies.

      (2) The theopneusticmode, the Mosaic: God revealing Himself through God-inspired men.

      (3) The theologic mode, the Christian: God revealing Himself, not merely at intervals as before, but permanently by inspiredwritings ("the oracles of God," 1 Peter 4:11).

      In the first or patriarchal age, men work no miracles, unlike all other primeval histories, which abound in miracles wrought by men: a proof of genuineness.

      All the miracles are wrought by God without man's intervention; and the divine communications are usually by direct utterance, whence the prophetic gift is rare, as God in this dispensation only exceptionally employs the prophetic agency of men in it:

      only in Genesis 20:7, is the term "prophet" found.

      In the second or Mosaicdispensation, God withdraws Himself more from direct communication with man and manifestsHimself through human instruments. Instead of working miracles directly, Moses, Joshua, &c., areHis agents. So in His communications He speaks not directly, but through Moses and his successors.The theocracy needed a new form of prophetic gift: God-inspired (theopneustic) men must speakand act for God, the Head of the theocracy, as His administrators; the prophetic gift is thereforenow connected with the prophetic office. These prophets accordingly are acting, not writing,prophets. The latter did not arise till the later ages of this second dispensation. Moses acted as alegislator; Joshua, the Judges, and Samuel as executive prophets; David and Solomon as devotionalprophets. Even in the case of the writing prophets of the latter half of the Mosaic dispensation, theirprimary duty was to speak and act. Their writing had reference more to the use of the New Testamentdispensation than to their own (1 Peter 1:12). So that even in their case the characteristic of the Mosaicdispensation was theopneustic, rather than theologic. The third, or Christian dispensation, istheologic, that is, a revelation of God by inspired writings. Compare 1 Peter 4:11; 2 Peter 1:16-21, where14

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      he contrasts "the old time" when "holy men spake by the Holy Ghost" with our time when we havethe "sure word of prophecy"; or, as it may be translated, "the word of prophecy confirmed [to us]."Thus God now reveals His will, not by direct theophanies, as in the first dispensation; not by inspiredmen, as in the second; but by the written word which liveth and abideth for ever (as opposed to thedesultory manifestations of God, and the noncontinuance in life of the prophets, under the twoformer dispensations respectively, 1 Peter 1:23; 2 Peter 3:2, 16). The next form shall be the return of thetheophanic manifestations on earth, in a more perfect and abiding form than in the first age (The Revelation21:3).The history of the prophetic office under the Mosaic dispensation falls into three divisions. (1)The first ends with the age of Samuel and has no regular succession of prophets, these not beingneeded while God Himself ruled the people without an hereditary executive. (2) The second periodextends from Samuel to Uzziah, 800 B.C., and is the age of prophets of action. Samuel combinedin himself the three elements of the theocracy, being a judge, a priest, and a prophet. The creationof a human king rendered the formal office of prophet more necessary as a counterpoise to it. Hencethe age of the kings is the age of the prophets. But at this stage they were prophets of action, ratherthan of writing. Towards the close of this second period, the devotional and Messianic propheciesof David and Solomon prepared the way for the third period (from 800 B.C. to 400 B.C.), whichbegan under Uzziah, and which was the age of written prophecy. (3) In this third period the prophetsturn from the present to the future, and so the Messianic element grows more distinct. Thus in thesethree shorter periods the grand characteristics of the three great dispensations reappear. The firstis theophanic; the second, theopneustic; and the third, theologic. Just as the great organic laws ofthe world reappear in smaller departments, the law of the tree developing itself in miniature formsin the structure of the leaf, and the curve of the planet's orbit reappearing in the line traced by theprojected cannon ball [Moore].Samuel probably enacted rules giving a permanent form to the prophetic order; at least in histime the first mention occurs of "schools of the prophets." These were all near each other, and inBenjamin, namely, in Beth-el, Gilgal, Ramah, and Jericho. Had the prophet been a mere foretellerof events, such schools would have been useless. But he was also God's representative to ensurethe due execution of the Mosaic ritual in its purity; hence arose the need of schools wherein tostudy that divinely ordained institution. God mostly chose His prophets from those thus educated,though not exclusively, as the cases of Amos (Amos 7:14) and Elisha (1 Kings 19:19) prove. The factthat the humblest might be called to the prophetic office acted as a check to the hereditary kinglypower and a stimulus to seeking the qualifications needed for so exalted an office. The MessianicPsalms towards the close of this second period form the transition between the prophets of actionand the prophets of word, the men who were busy only with the present, and the men who lookedout from the present into the glorious future.The third period, that from Uzziah to Malachi, includes three classes of prophets: (1) Those ofthe ten tribes; (2) Those of the Gentiles; (3) Those of Judah. In the first class were Hosea and Amos.Few of the writing prophets belonged to Israel. They naturally gathered about the seat of thetheocracy in Judah. Hence those of the ten tribes were mostly prophets of action. Under the secondclass fall Jonah, Nahum, and Obadiah, who were witnesses for God's authority over the Gentileworld, as others witnessed for the same in the theocracy. The third class, those of Judah, have awider scope and a more hopeful, joyous tone. They fall into five divisions: (1) Those dwelling inJudah at the highest point of its greatness during its separate state; namely, the century between15

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      Uzziah and Hezekiah, 800-700 B.C., Isaiah, Joel, and Micah. (2) The declining period of Judah,from Manasseh to Zedekiah, for example, Zephaniah and Habakkuk. (3) The captivity: Jeremiah.(4) The exile, when the future was all that the eye could rest on with hope; for example, Ezekieland Daniel, who are chiefly prophets of the future. (5) The restoration: to which period belong thethree last writing prophets of the Old Testament, Haggai, Zechariah, and Malachi. John the Baptistlong subsequently belonged to the same dispensation, but he wrote nothing (Matthew 11:9-11); likeElijah, he was a prophet of action and preaching, preparing the way for the prophets of word, asJohn did for the Incarnate Word.To understand the spirit of each prophet's teaching, his historical position and the circumstancesof the time must be considered. The captivity was designed to eradicate the Jews' tendency toidolatry and to restore the theocratic spirit which recognized God as the only ruler, and the Mosaicinstitutions as His established law, for a time until Messiah should come. Hence the prophets ofthe restoration are best illustrated by comparison with the histories of Ezra and Nehemiah,contemporaries of Malachi.Of the three prophets of the restoration, two, Haggai and Zechariah, are at the beginning of theperiod, and the remaining one, Malachi, is at the close. The exile was not one complete deportationof the people, but a series of deportations extending over a century and a half. So the restorationwas not accomplished at once, but in successive returns extending over a century. Hence arises thedifferent tone of Haggai and Zechariah at its beginning, and of Malachi at its close. The first returntook place in the first year of Cyrus, 536 B.C.; 42,360 persons returned under Shesh-bazzar orZerubbabel and Joshua (Ezra 2:64). They built an altar and laid the foundations of the temple. Theywere interrupted by the misrepresentations of the Samaritans, and the work was suspended forfourteen years. The death of Smerdis gave an opportunity of renewing the work, seventy years afterthe destruction of the first temple. This was the time when Haggai and Zechariah arose, the formerto incite to the immediate rebuilding of the temple and restoration of the Mosaic ritual, the latterto aid in the work and to unfold the grand future of the theocracy as an incentive to present labor.The impossibility of observing the Mosaic ritual in the exile generated an anti-theocratic indifferenceto it in the young who were strangers to the Jerusalem worship, from which the nation had beendebarred for upwards of half a century. Moreover, the gorgeous pomp of Babylon tended to makethem undervalue the humble rites of Jehovah's worship at that time. Hence there was need of aHaggai and a Zechariah to correct these feelings by unfolding the true glory of the theocraticinstitutions.The next great epoch was the return of Ezra, 458 B.C., eighty years after the first expeditionunder Zerubbabel. Thirteen years later, 445 B.C., Nehemiah came to aid Ezra in the good work. Itwas now that Malachi arose to second these works, three-fourths of a century after Haggai andZechariah. As their work was that of restorers, his was that of a reformer. The estates of many hadbecome mortgaged, and depression of circumstances had led many into a skeptical spirit as to theservice of God. They not only neglected the temple of worship, but took heathen wives, to thewrong of their Jewish wives and the dishonor of God. Therefore, besides the reformation of civilabuses and the rebuilding of the wall, effected through Nehemiah's exertions, a religious reformerwas needed such as was Ezra, who reformed the ecclesiastical abuses, established synagogues,where regular instruction in the law could be received, restored the Sabbath, and the Passover, andthe dignity of the priesthood, and generated a reverence for the written law, which afterwardsbecame a superstition. Malachi aided in this good work by giving it his prophetical authority. How


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      thoroughly the work was effected is proved by the utter change in the national character. Oncealways prone to idolatry, ever since the captivity they have abhorred it. Once loving kingly rule,now contrary to the ordinary course of history, they became submissive to priestly rule. Oncenegligent of the written Word, now they regarded it with reverence sometimes bordering onsuperstition. Once fond of foreign alliances, henceforth they shrank with abhorrence from allforeigners. Once fond of agriculture, now they became a trading people. From being pliable before,they now became intensely bigoted and nationally intolerant. Thus the restoration from Babylonmoulded the national character more than any event since the exodus from Egypt.Now the distinction between Judah and the ten tribes of Israel disappears. So in the NewTestament the twelve tribes are mentioned (Acts 26:7; James 1:1). The theocratic feeling generated atthe restoration drew all of the elect nation round the seat of the theocracy, the metropolis of thetrue religion, Jerusalem. Malachi tended to promote this feeling; thus his prophecy, though addressedto the people of Jerusalem, is called "the word of the Lord to Israel" [Mal 1:1].The long silence of prophets from Malachi to the times of Messiah was calculated to awakenin the Jewish mind the more earnest desire for Him who was to exceed infinitely in word and deedall the prophets, His forerunners. The three prophets of the restoration being the last of the OldTestament, are especially distinct in pointing to Him who, as the great subject of the New Testament,was to fulfil all the Old Testament.17

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      by David Brown


      Parables. Where Spoken. Where Recorded.

      The two debtors [Capernaum] Luke 7:40-43.Matthew 12:29; Mark 3:27; Luke 11:21,22.

      The strong man armed GalileeThe unclean spirit Galilee Matthew 12:43-45; Luke 11:24-26.Matthew 13:3-9, 18-23; Mark 4:3-9,14-20; Luke 8:5-8, 11-15.

      The sower Seashore of GalileeThe tares and wheat Seashore of Galilee Matthew 13:24-30, 36-43.Matthew 13:31, 32; Mark 4:30-32; Luke 13:18, 19.

      The mustard seed Seashore of Galilee

      The seed growing secretly Seashore of Galilee Mark 4:26-29.

      The leaven Seashore of Galilee Matthew 13:33; Luke 13:20, 21.

      The hid treasure Seashore of Galilee Matthew 13:44.

      The pearl of great price Seashore of Galilee Matthew 13:45, 46.

      The draw net Seashore of Galilee Matthew 13:47-50.

      The unmerciful servant Capernaum Matthew 18:21-35.

      The good Samaritan Near Jerusalem Luke 10:29-37.

      The friend at midnight Near Jerusalem Luke 11:5-8.

      The rich fool Galilee Luke 12:16-21.

      The barren fig tree Galilee Luke 13:6-9.

      The great supper Perea Luke 14:15-24.

      The lost sheep Perea Matthew 18:12-14; Luke 15:3-7.

      The lost piece of money Perea Luke 15:8-10.

      The prodigal son Perea Luke 15:11-32.

      The good shepherd Jerusalem John 10:1-18.

      The unjust steward Perea Luke 16:1-8.

      The rich man and Lazarus Perea Luke 16:19-31.

      The profitable servants Perea Luke 17:7-10.

      The importunate widow Perea Luke 18:1-8.

      The Pharisees and publicans Perea Luke 18:9-14.

      The laborers in the vineyard Perea Matthew 20:1-16.

      The pounds Jericho Luke 19:11-27.


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      The two sons Jerusalem Matthew 21:28-32.

      Matthew 21:33-44; Mark 12:1-12; Luke


      The wicked husbandmen Jerusalem

      The marriage of the king's son Jerusalem Matthew 22:1-14.

      The ten virgins Mount of Olives Matthew 25:1-13.

      The talents Mount of Olives Matthew 25:14-30.


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      by David Brown


      On the order of some of our Lord's Miracles and Parables,

      the data being scanty, considerable difference obtains.

      Miracles. Where Wrought. Where Recorded.

      Water made wine Cana John 2:1-11.Traders cast out of the temple Jerusalem John 2:13-17.Nobleman's son healed Cana John 4:46-54.First miraculous draught of Sea of Galilee Luke 5:1-11.fishesMatthew 8:2-4; Mark 1:40-45; Luke5:12-15.Leper healed CapernaumCenturion's servant healed Capernaum Matthew 8:5-13; Luke 7:1-10.Widow's son raised to life Nain Luke 7:11-17.Demoniac healed Capernaum Mark 1:21-28; Luke 4:31-37.Matthew 8:14, 15; Mark 1:29-31; Luke4:38, 39.Peter's mother-in-law healed CapernaumMatthew 9:2-8; Mark 2:1-12; Luke5:17-26.Paralytic healed CapernaumImpotent man healed Jerusalem John 5:1-16.Matthew 12:10-14; Mark 3:1-6; Luke6:6-11.Man with withered hand healed GalileeBlind and dumb demoniac Galilee Matthew 12:22-24; Luke 11:14.healedMatthew 8:23-27; Mark 4:35-41; Luke8:22-25.Tempest stilled Sea of GalileeDemoniacs dispossessed Gadara Matthew 8:28-34; Mark 5:1-20.Matthew 9:18-26; Mark 5:22-24; Luke8:41-56.Jairus' daughter raised to life CapernaumMatthew 9:18-26; Mark 5:22-24; Luke8:41-56.Issue of blood healed Near CapernaumTwo blind men restored to sight Capernaum Matthew 9:27-31.Dumb demoniac healed Capernaum Matthew 9:32-34.Matthew 14:13-21; Mark 6:31-44; Luke9:10-17; John 6:5-14.Five thousand miraculously fed Decapolis20

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      Matthew 14:22-33; Mark 6:45-52; John6:15-21.Jesus walks on the sea Sea of GalileeSyrophoenician's daughter healed Coasts of Tyre and Sidon Matthew 15:21-28; Mark 7:24-30.Deaf and dumb man healed Decapolis Mark 7:31-37.Four thousand fed Decapolis Matthew 15:32-39; Mark 8:1-9.Blind man restored to sight Bethsaida Mark 8:22-26.Matthew 17:14-21; Mark 9:14-29; Luke9:37-43.Demoniac and lunatic boy Near Cæsarea PhilippihealedMiraculous provision of tribute Capernaum Matthew 17:24-27.The eyes of one born blind Jerusalem John 9:1-41.openedWoman, of eighteen years' [Perea.] Luke 13:10-17.infirmity, curedDropsical man healed [Perea.] Luke 14:1-6.Ten lepers cleansed Borders of Samaria Luke 17:11-19.Lazarus raised to life Bethany John 11:1-46.Matthew 20:29-34; Mark 10:46-52; Luke18:35-43.Two blind beggars restored to JerichosightMatthew 21:12, 13, 18, 19; Mark11:12-24.Barren fig tree blighted BethanyBuyers and sellers again cast out Jerusalem Luke 19:45, 46.Matthew 26:51-54; Mark 14:47-49; Luke22:50, 51; John 18:10,11.Malchus' ear healed GethsemaneSecond draught of fishes Sea of Galilee John 21:1-14.21

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      CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE OF THE PRINCIPAL EVENTS CONNECTED WITHTHE LIFE OF THE APOSTLE David Brown1137Certainty in these dates is not to be had, the notes of time in the Acts being few and vague. Itis only by connecting those events of secular history which it records, and the dates of which areotherwise tolerably known to us—such as the famine under Claudius Cæsar (Acts 11:28), the expulsionof the Jews from Rome by the same emperor (Acts 18:2), and the entrance of Porcius Festus uponhis procuratorship (Acts 24:27), with the intervals specified between some occurrences in the apostle'slife and others (such as Acts 20:31; 24:27; 28:30; and Galatians 1:1-2:21)—that we can thread our waythrough the difficulties that surround the chronology of the apostle's life, and approximate tocertainty. Immense research has been brought to bear upon the subject, but, as might be expected,the learned are greatly divided. Every year has been fixed upon as the probable date of the apostle'sconversion from A.D. 31 [Bengel] to A.D. 42 [Eusebius]. But the weight of authority is in favor of datesranging between 35 and 40, a difference of not more than five years; and the largest number ofauthorities is in favor of the year 37 or 38. Taking the former of these, to which opinion largelyinclines, the following Table will be useful to the student of apostolic history:A.D. 37 Paul's Conversion Acts 9:1.A.D. 40 First Visit to Jerusalem Acts 9:26; Galatians 1:18.A.D. 42-44 First Residence at Antioch Acts 11:25-30.A.D. 44 Second Visit to Jerusalem Acts 11:30; 12:25.A.D. 45-47 First Missionary Journey Acts 13:2; 14:26.A.D. 47-51 Second Residence at Antioch Acts 14:28.Acts 15:2-30; Galatians 2:1-10.(on which see Notes)Third Visit to JerusalemA.D. 51,53, or 54 Second Missionary Journey Acts 15:36, 40; 18:22.A.D. 53 or 54 Fourth Visit to Jerusalem Acts 18:21, 22.Third Residence at Antioch Acts 18:22, 23.A.D. 54-58 Third Missionary Journey Acts 18:23; 21:15.Fifth Visit to Jerusalem Acts 21:15; 23:35.Arrest and Imprisonment atCæsareaA.D. 58A.D. 60 (Autumn)— Voyage to and Arrival in Rome Acts 27:1; 28:16.A.D. 61 (Spring)Acts 28:30.1 & 2 Tim. 1:1-4:22 and Tit.Release from ImprisonmentAt Crete, Colosse, Macedonia,Corinth, Nicopolis, Dalmatia,TroasA.D. 63A.D. 63-65, or 66, or possibly as Martyrdom at Romelate as A.D. 66-6822

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      ABOUT THE ELECTRONIC EDITIONThis electronic edition of Jamieson, Fausset, and Brown's one-volume Commentary on theWhole Bible has been prepared from text scanned by Woodside Bible Fellowship. The work hasbeen completed in three passes: first, to import the text into the verse notes of the OnLine Bible,correct common scanning errors, and insert markers for Scripture references, boldface and italics;second, to verify the markers for boldfacing, italics, Scripture citations, cross references, &c.; third,to format the notes.Expanded Electronic Version.The designation of this electronic edition of the commentary as expanded refers to the editor'spreference for complete words rather than abbreviations in the commentary (with the exception ofScripture references); the addition of white space in layout by placing on new lines the portion ofthe Scripture on which commentary has been provided by the authors; the replacement of thestandard abbreviations "ch." and "vs." in citations with a complete reference to the Bible book,chapter, and verse; the rendering of the abbreviation of standard reference works by Greek andLatin Fathers in full English titles. The purpose of these expansions is to make the Commentarymore readable and accessible to the modern reader.It is worth noting that in the printed version, errors in spelling, punctuation, numbering, crossreferences have followed throughout the printing history of this one-volume edition of theCommentary. This electronic edition, then, may represent the first corrected edition.Conventions.In formatting the commentary for use with the OnLine Bible, the following corrections andimprovements have been made, with a view toward improving the readability and, thus, enhancingthe usefulness of this reference work:(1) Added "white space" by beginning a new paragraph with each part of quoted Scripture forwhich commentary is written.(2) Formatted Scripture references, using the OnLine Bible abbreviations. When an entirechapter is referenced, the first and last verses are included so that the Scriptures may be viewedfrom the notes. The abbreviations for "chapter" ("ch." and "chs.") and "verse" ("vs." and "vss.")have been replaced with the appropriate OnLine Bible book designations. Scripture references havebeen checked for validity, but not necessarily for appropriateness.(3) Added Scripture references to quotations and allusions in the commentary. These have beenenclosed within square brackets.(4) Standardized inconsistencies in conventions observed by the three authors. For example, inthe printed edition, references to notes are indicated variously as "see on," "cf. on," "Note"; marginalnotes are indicated as "Margin," "marg.," or "margin" (sometimes the word "margin" appearsbefore the verse reference, sometime after), in roman or italic type; inferential words in Scriptureare some times indicated by parentheses or square brackets, or by use of regular type when theverse is in boldface type; bibliographic citations are variously given (for instance, Josephus's TheWars of the Jews as B.J., J.B., Bell. Judges., Wars, Jewish Wars); alternate textual and marginal readingsappear variously in roman type, italic type, within quotation marks; to indicate continuation of theScripture quotation, sometimes ellipsis is used, at other times, "&c."(5) Expanded the following abbreviations:"cf." (French, "confer") as "compare" or "for comparison";23

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      "ed." as "edition";"e.g." (Latin, "exempli gratia") as "for example" or "for instance";"i.e." (Latin, "id est") as "that is";"lit." as "literal" or "literally";"LXX" and "Sept." as Septuagint;"MSS." as "manuscripts,""N.B." (Latin, Nota Bene) as "Note";"q.d." (Latin, quasi dicat) as "As if he should say";"viz.," (Latin, videlicet) as "namely."(6) The English titles have been provided for the titles (and abbreviations of titles) of Greekand Latin books. For example, instead of adv. Haer., Irenaeus' treatise has been specified as AgainstHeresies; instead of Deuteronomy viris illustribus or Catalogus scriptorum ecclesiasticorm, or Deuteronomy scriptorum,Jerome's book has been designated as On Illustrious Men. For patristic works, the titles in TheEarly Church Fathers series have been the ones preferred. Where authors or titles abbreviated incitations cannot be identified certainly, the authors' notes have been retained. (Not all referenceshave been checked for accuracy; however, some corrections have been provided.) The followingis a list of the Greek and Latin titles and their English equivalents used in this electronic edition;variants of authors' names are also listed:Ambrose Amularis de Officiis The Duties of the ClergyAmbrose Ep. EpistlesArrian Expeditio Alexandri Campaigns of AlexanderAthanasius Orat. OrationsAthenagoras Deuteronomy Resurrectione Mortuorum Of the Resurrection of the DeadAugustine Civit. Dei The City of GodAugustine Deuteronomy Civitate Dei The City of GodAugustine Deuteronomy Sancta Virginitate Holy VirginityAugustine Ad Catechumenos The CreedAugustine Deuteronomy Symbolo ad Catechumenos The CreedAugustine Enchir. de Laurentium EnchirdonAugustine Ep. EpistlesTen Homilies on the FirstEpistle of JohnAugustine Ep. JohnAugustine Hæreses HeresiesAugustine Quæst. Evang. The Question of the GospelsAulus Gellius Noctes Atticæ Attic NightsBede Explan. Apocalypse Explanation of the ApocalypseBirks Horæ Apostolicæ Apostolic HistoryBirks Horæ Evangelicæ Gospel History24

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      Cæsar B. G. Commentaries on the Gallic WarChrysostom Deuteronomy Sacerdotio On the PriesthoodChrysostom Orationes OrationsCicero Deuteronomy Natura Deorum The Nature of the GodsCicero Parad. ParadoxClemens Alexandrinus Clement of AlexandriaClement of Alexandria Pædagogus The InstructorWho Is the Rich Man Who ShallBe SavedClement of Alexandria Quis Dives SalvusClement of Alexandria Stromata MiscellaniesClemens Romanus Clement of RomeClement of Rome Constitut. Apostolical ConstitutionsClement of Rome Epistola ad Corinthios Epistle to the CorinthiansCyprian Ad Rogatian To RogatianusOn the Advantage of Patience(Treatise 9)Cyprian Deuteronomy Bene PatientiæConcerning the Baptism ofHereticsCyprian Deuteronomy Hæreticis BaptizandisCyprian Deuteronomy Opere et Eleemos On Works and Alms (Treatise 8)On the Lord's Prayer (Treatise4)

      Cyprian Deuteronomy Oratione DominiCyprian Ep. EpistlesCyril of Alexandria Deuteronomy Adoratione On WorshipCyril of Jerusalem Catechesis Catechetical LecturesEphrem the Syrian Opp. Græc. Against the GreeksEphrem Syrus Ephrem the SyrianEpiphanius Hæreses HeresiesEusebius Chron. ChroniclesEusebius Demonstratio Evangelicæ Demonstration of the GospelEusebius H. E. Ecclesiastical HistoryEusebius Præparatio Evangelica Preparation of the GospelFirmillian Epistle ad Cyprian Epistle to CyprianHermas Shepherd Shepherd (Vision First, &c.)Similitudes (Similitude Sixth,&c.)Hermas Similes25

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      Hippolytus Deuteronomy Antichristo On AntichristHippolytus Refut. of Hæres. The Refutation of All HeresiesHovenden, Roger Angl. Chron. AnnalsIgnatius Ad Symrnæos Epistle to the SymrnæansIgnatius Epistola ad Ephesum Epistle to the EphesiansIgnatius Epistola ad Romanos Epistle to the RomansIgnatius Magnes. Epistle to the MagnesiansIgnatius Martyrium Ignatii The Martyrdom of IgnatiusIrenæus Adversus Hæreses Against HeresiesIrenæus Præf. PrefaceJerome Adv. err. Johann. Hieros. Against John of JerusalemJerome Annotationes in Matthæum Commentary on MatthewCatalogus Ecclesiasticorum On Illustrious MenScriptorum, (full title, Liber DeuteronomyJeromeViris Illustribus Seu CatalogusScriptoribus Ecclesiasticus)Jerome Catalogus Scriptorum On Illustrious MenCatalogus Scriptorum On Illustrious MenEcclesiasticorumJeromeJerome Contra Helvidium Against HelvidiusDialogues against theLuficeriansJerome Contra LuciferianosJerome Deuteronomy Scriptorum Ecclesiasticorum On Illustrious MenJerome Deuteronomy Viris Illustribus On Illustrious MenJerome Epistola ad Paulinum Epistle to PaulinusJerome Proæmium in Matthoeum Commentary on MatthewJerome Proæmium in Philemonem Commentary on PhilemonJosephus Contra Apion Against ApionJulian Ep. EpistlesJustin Martyr Contra Tryphonen Dialogue with TryphoJustin Martyr Dialogue contra Tryphonen Dialogue with TryphoJustin Martyr Oratio ad Græcos Discourse to the GreeksJustin Martyr Quæst ad Orthod.Of the Manner in Which thePersecutors DiedLactantius Deuteronomy Mortibus Persecutorium26

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      Hebrew and TalmudicExercitationsLightfoot Horæ Hebraicæ et TalmudicæMacrob. MacrobiusMarcellus Cærmoniale Rom. Roman CeremonialOppian Cynegetica CynegeticksOrigen adv. Celsum Against Celsusc. Cels. Against CelsusContra CelsumOrigenOrigen Principia On First PrinciplesThe Seven Books of Historyagainst the PagansHist.Historiarum LibriOrosiusPaley Horæ Paulinæ History of St. Paulde Mon. The Creation of the WorldDeuteronomy Mundo OpificioPhiloPhilo Legat. ad Caium The Embassy to GaiusPlato Legge LawsPlautus Miles Gloriosus A Boastful SoldierPliny Ep. EpistlesPlutarch Deuteronomy Educatione Puerorum On the Education of ChildrenPolycarp Ep. Philipp. Epistle to the PhilippiansPolycarp ad Philippenses Epistle to the PhilippiansPorphyry Deuteronomy Abstin. On AbstinencePrimasius Ad Apocalypsin in fine Commentary on the ApocalypseReliq. Sacr. Sacred FragmentsReliqiuæ SacræRouthCommentary on the Apostle'sCreedRufinus Expositio Symboli ApostolorumHist.Historia MonachorumRufinusSt. Bernard Serm. SermonSeneca Ep. EpistlesSocrates Historia Ecclesiastica Ecclesiastical HistoryTacitus Agricola On AgricultureTertullian Adv. Judges. Epistle against JudaizersTertullian Adversus Marcion Against Marcion27

    Cambridge Bible Commentary, Concise

      Tertullian Adversus Praxean Against PraxeasTertullian Adversus Valentinianos Against ValentinianTertullian Contra Marcion Against MarcionTertullian Contra Gnosticos Against the GnosticsTertullian Deuteronomy Anima A Treatise on the SoulDeuteronomy Coron. The ChapletDeuteronomy CoronaTertullianTertullian Deuteronomy Baptism. On BaptismTertullian Deuteronomy Cultu Fæminarum On the Apparel of WomenTertullian Deuteronomy Oratione PrayerDeuteronomy pat. PatienceDeuteronomy PatientiaTertullianThe Prescription againstHereticsTertullian Deuteronomy Præscriptione HaereticorumTertullian Deuteronomy pudicitia On ModestyTertullian Deuteronomy Resurrectione Carnis On the Resurrection of the FleshTertullian Deuteronomy Velandis Virginibus On the Veiling of VirginsScorp. Antidote to the Scorpion's StingScorpiaceTertullianTheophilus Ad Autolychus To AutolychusTheophylact Ad Autolychus To AutolychusThe Revelation Rust. On AgricultureRerum RusticariumVarroChristian A. Wahl Clavis Key of the New TestamentCitations in which the author and chapter-section notations are given, but not the title, this hasbeen supplied. For example, [Eusebius, 5.2] has been expanded to [Eusebius, Ecclesiastical History,5.2], referring the reader to the fifth chapter, the second section of that work.Since, in the printed edition, the use of the abbreviations in citations for "book" ("l.," for theLatin "liber"), "chapter" ("c." or "ch."), and "section" ("s." or "sec.") is somewhat erratic, theseabbreivations have been eliminated (in most instances) and the Loeb system of citation has beenadopted. For instance, [Irenæus, adversus Hæreses, 4.18, sec. 3] has been cited as [Irenæus, AgainstHeresies, 4.18.3], referring the reader to the fourth book, the eighteenth chapter, the third section.

      (7) In the printed version, both quotation mark and italics are employed to designate a wordused as a word; in the electronic version, quotation marks have been used for this purpose, and theuse of italics reserved for emphasis of words.

      (8) Where boldfacing has been used to highlight words within a sentence, italics have been substituted:28

    Cambridge Bible Commentary, Concise

      Proverbs 19:5

      (9) Compare Proverbs 19:9, where perish explains not escape here (compare Psalms 88:9,10).

      (10) Passages including interpolations have been formatted in the manner of the Commentaryas a whole. For example, in the printed text, the passage from Matthew 2:22 is set as follows:notwithstanding [or more simply, "but"] being warned of God in a dream,he turned aside [withdrew] into the parts of Galilee, or the Galilean parts.In the electronic version, however, it is set as follows:notwithstanding—or more simply, "but."being warned of God in a dream, he turned aside—withdrew.into the parts of Galilee—or the Galilean parts.

      When work on the Commentary was begun in 1995, it was under somewhat different editorialrules.

      (1) Since the OnLine Bible did not support italics at that time, quotation marks were used to indicate emphasis; emphasis within quotations in the text was ignored.

      (2) Since the OnLine Bibleeschews hyphenated compound words, many of the hyphens used in the text were eliminated.

      (3) Marginal notes from the Bible were included in the Commentary to supplement those alreadymentioned by the authors.

      (4) Interpolations in quotations were set off by square brackets instead of parentheses. However, when the final pass was begun in 1997, I attempted to adhere more closely to the printed text in regard to use of italics, hyphenation, marginal notes, parentheses, and brackets.

      Commentary Robert Jamieson

      The Old Testament

      on the ground that the name of God does not once occur in it. But the uniform tradition both of the

    "God's Goals"

    For This World!

    Does God Achieve His Goals?
    OR, does Satan achieve his goals?

    (All Teaching- and Commentary is from "INSPIRED-INERRANT!" View of Scripture!)

    The most IMPORTANT "3-QUESTION QUIZ" you'll ever Take?

    The Adversary’s Goals:

      SCRIPTURE: "The ‘Devil’ ... walketh about seeking whom he may DEVOUR." I Pet 5:8

      SCRIPTURE: "The ‘Thief’ (Devil) cometh not but for to steal, to kill and to DESTROY." John 10:10

        QUESTION: Do you Believe Satan the Adversary ___Succeeds? Or ___Fails?

    God the Father’s Goals:

      SCRIPTURE: "For God sent NOT His Son into the world to condemn the world, but that the world though Him might be SAVED! See John 3:16 John 3:17

      SCRIPTURE: "Beloved, be not ignorant of this one thing, ... The Lord is ... NOT willing that any should perish, but that ALL should come to repentance. II Pet 3:9

        QUESTION: Do you Believe God the Father ___Succeeds? Or ___ Fails?

    God the Son’s Goals:

      SCRIPTURE: "For the Son of Man is come to seek and to SAVE that which is lost!" Luk 19:10 "For I came NOT to judge the world, but to SAVE the world. John 12:47

      SCRIPTURE: "And I, if I be lifted up from the Earth, I WILL DRAW ALL men unto Me." Joh 12:32

        QUESTION: Do you Believe God the Son (Jesus Christ): ___Succeeds? Or ___ Fails?

    God the Spirit’s Goals:

      SCRIPTURE: Jesus declares: "'I WILL' send him (Holy Spirit) unto you, and when He is come 'He WILL' testify of Me: John 14:26

      SCRIPTURE: "He WILL reprove the world [convict, convince, correct] of sin, of righteousness, and of judgment: John 16:7

      SCRIPTURE: (1) Of sin, because they believe not on me; ... (2) Of righteousness, because I go to my Father; ...(3) Of judgment, because the 'Prince of this World' is judged.[A] John 16:8-10

        QUESTION: Do you think God the Spirit: ___Succeeds Or ___Fails?


        If you believe

        God the Father,

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