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Ellen G. White;

Scholar, Teacher Theologian;

Major Founder of 7th Day Adventist Movement;



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Ellen G. White;

Scholar, Teacher Theologian;

Major Founder of 7th Day Adventist Movement;

Ellen G. White: First Female Denominational Leader!

    Ellen G. White, born 1827 in the Spirit of the Second Great Awakening, was a self-taught theologian, teacher and author of many books.

    Ellen G. White, along with other Sabbatarian Adventist leaders, such as Joseph Bates, William Miller, and her husband James White, would form what is now known as the Seventh-day Adventist Church.

    Ellen White was a woman of visions and dreams, and reported her visionary experiences to her fellow believers. Husband James White, and other 7th-Day Adventist pioneers, viewed these experiences as the Biblical gift of prophecy as outlined in Revelation 12:17 and 19:10 which declare:

      "the testimony of Jesus is the 'spirit of prophecy'."

    Her "Conflict of the Ages" series of writings endeavor to showcase the hand of God in Biblical and Christian church history. This cosmic conflict, referred to as the "Great Controversy" theme, is foundational to the development of Seventh-day Adventist theology.


Ellen G. White;

Scholar, Teacher Theologian;

Major Founder of 7th Day Adventist Movement;

First Female Denominational Leader!

    White was considered a somewhat controversial figure. Her reports of visionary experiences and her use of other sources in her writings comprise much of the controversy. She received her first vision soon after the Millerite Great Disappointment a prophecy of the "Return of Christ" in 1844. [1] [2]

    Arthur L. White, her grandson and biographer, writes

      Ellen G. White is the most translated female non-fiction author in the history of literature, as well as the most translated American non-fiction author of either gender.[5]

    Her writings covered creationism, agriculture, theology, evangelism, Christian lifestyle, education and health.

      >> She advocated vegetarianism.

      >> She promoted the establishment of schools and medical centers.

      >> During her lifetime she wrote more than 5,000 periodical articles and 40 books.

      >> Today, including compilations from her 50,000 pages of manuscript, more than 100 titles are available in English.

      >> Her most profitable books include The Desire of Ages, and The Great Controversy.

      >> Her work on successful Christian living, Steps to Christ, has been published in more than 140 languages.


Ellen G. White;

Scholar, Teacher Theologian;

Major Founder of 7th Day Adventist Movement;

Ellen White - Early Life:

    Ellen Gould White, maiden name Harmon (1827–1915) along with her twin sister Elizabeth, were born November 26, 1827, to Robert and Eunice Harmon. Robert was a farmer who made hats also, and the whole family helped with the hatmaking. With eight children in the family making hats, home was a busy place.

    The family lived on a small farm near the village of Gorham, Maine. However, a few years after the birth of the twins, Robert Harmon gave up farming, and, with his family, moved into the city of Portland, about twelve miles east.[edit] Ancestry

    In 1999, Charles E. Dudley, Sr., a distinguished black Adventist,[6] published a book entitled, The Genealogy of Ellen Gould Harmon White: The Prophetess of the Seventh-day Adventist Church, and the Story of the Growth and Development of the Seventh-day Adventist Denomination As It Relates to African-Americans. [7]

    In his book, Charles Dudley provides evidence in order to prove that Ellen White had African-American ancestry.

    In March 2000, the Ellen G. White Estate commissioned Roger D. Joslyn, [8] a professional genealogist, to research Ellen G. White's ancestry. Joslyn concluded that she was of Anglo-Saxon origin. [9]

    Joslyn found that that Ellen's mother, Eunice (Gould) Harmon was the daughter of Joseph Goold/Gould, an American Revolutionary soldier. After the war, he moved from Kittery to Portland, Maine.

    His father was Joseph Gould of Kittery. His father, Ellen's great grandfather, was also named Joseph Gould. He settled in Kittery in the first decade of the 1700's and was probably from Taunton, Massachusetts.

    His father was John Gould of Taunton and probably the one born in Hingham, Massachusetts Bay Colony, son of Jarvis Gould, a 1635 immigrant from England. [9] See her ancestral chart

Head injury

    At the age of nine, Ellen was struck with a rock thrown by a fellow student. The injury severely disfigured her nose, and left her in a coma for three weeks.[10]

    When Ellen Harmon had her first "conversion experience," she would later write:

      "This misfortune, which for a time seemed so bitter and was so hard to bear, has proved to be a blessing in disguise. The cruel blow which blighted the joys of earth, was the means of turning my eyes to heaven.

      I might never had known Jesus, had not the sorrow that clouded my early years led me to seek comfort in Him."

      [SOURCE: Review and Herald, Nov. 25, 1884, par.2].

    Shortly after her injury, Ellen, with her parents, attended a Methodist camp meeting at Buxton, Maine, and there, at the age of 12, she was converted.

    Two years later, on June 26, 1842, at her request she was baptized by immersion.


Ellen G. White;

Scholar, Teacher Theologian;

Major Founder of 7th Day Adventist Movement;

Ellen G. White: Grows yup in Millerite movement:

    In 1840, at age 12, her family became involved with the Millerite movement. As she attended William Miller's lectures, Ellen felt guilty for her sins, and she was filled with terror about being eternally lost.

    She describes herself as spending nights in tears and prayer, and being in this condition for several months. She was baptized by John Hobart in Casco Bay in Portland, Maine, and eagerly awaited Jesus to come again.

    In her later years, she referred to this as the happiest time of her life. Her family's involvement with Millerism caused their disfellowship by the local Methodist church.[11]

    Marriage and family

    Sometime in 1845 Ellen came into contact with her future husband James Springer White, a Millerite who became convinced that her visions were genuine. A year later James proposed and they were married by a justice of the peace in Portland, Maine, on August 30, 1846.

    James later wrote:

      We were married August 30, 1846, and from that hour to the present she has been my crown of rejoicing....It has been in the good providence of God that both of us had enjoyed a deep experience in the Advent movement....

      This experience was now needed as we should join our forces and, united, labor extensively from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific....[12]

    James and Ellen had four sons: Henry Nichols, James Edson (known as Edson), William Clarence (known as Willie or W. C.), and John Herbert.

    Only Edson and William lived to adulthood. John Herbert died of erysipelas at the age of three months, and Henry died of pneumonia at the age of 16 in 1863.

    Final years and death [ See Ellen G. White In Memoriam.jpg ]

    Ellen White spent 34 years of her life in Elmshaven, her home in Saint Helena, California after the death of her husband James White in 1881. During her final years she would travel less frequently as she concentrated upon writing her last works for the church.

    Ellen G. White died July 16, 1915, at her home in Elmshaven, which is now an Adventist Historical Site.

    Ministry - Visions - First reported vision

    In 1844, Ellen White reported her first encounter with having visions at age 17:

      "At this time I visited one of our Advent sisters, and in the morning we bowed around the family altar. It was not an exciting occasion, and there were but five of us present, all females.

      While praying the power of God came upon me as I never had felt it before, and I was wrapt up in a vision of God's glory, and seemed to be rising higher and higher from the earth and was shown something of the travels of the Advent people to the Holy City...."[13]

      > In this vision she reportedly saw the “Advent people” traveling a high and dangerous path towards the city of New Jerusalem [heaven].

      > Their path was lit from behind by “a bright (light)...which an angel told me was the midnight cry.”

      > According to her vision, some of the travelers grew weary and were encouraged by Jesus; others denied the light, the light behind them went out, and they fell “off the path into the dark and wicked world below.” [14]

      > The vision continued with a portrayal of Christ’s second coming, following which the Advent people entered the New Jerusalem;

      > and ended with White returning to earth feeling lonely, desolate and longing for that “better world.”

    As Godfrey T. Anderson points out, “In effect, the vision assured the Advent believers of eventual triumph despite the immediate despair into which they had plunged.” [15]


Ellen G. White;

Scholar, Teacher Theologian;

Major Founder of 7th Day Adventist Movement;

Ellen G. White: Second and third visions

    In February 1845, White claimed to receive a second vision which became known as the “Bridegroom” vision in Exeter, Maine.

    Together with a third vision where White reportedly saw the new earth, these visions "gave continued meaning to the October 1844 experience and supported the developing sanctuary rationale.

    Additionally they played an important role in countering the spiritualizing views of many fanatical Adventists by portraying the Father and Jesus as literal beings and heaven as a physical place." [16]

    Public testimony

    Fearing people would not accept her testimony, Ellen did not initially share her visions with the wider Millerite community.

    In a meeting at her parent’s home when she received what she regarded as confirmation of her ministry:

      While praying, the thick darkness that had enveloped me was scattered, a bright light, like a ball of fire, came towards me, and as it fell upon me, my strength was taken away. I seemed to be in the presence of Jesus and the angels.

      Again it was repeated, ‘Make known to others what I have revealed to you.’[17]

    Soon Ellen was giving her testimony in public meetings — some of which she arranged herself — and in her regular Methodist class meetings in private homes.

    I arranged meetings with my young friends, some of whom were considerably older than myself, and a few were married persons. A number of them were vain and thoughtless; my experience sounded to them like an idle tale, and they did not heed my entreaties.

      "But I determined that my efforts should never cease till these dear souls, for whom I had so great an interest, yielded to God.

      Several entire nights were spent by me in earnest prayer for those whom I had sought out and brought together for the purpose of laboring and praying with them."[18]

    News of her visions spread and White was soon traveling and speaking to groups of Millerite followers in Maine and the surrounding area. Her visions were not publicized further afield until January 24, 1846, when White’s account of the first vision: "Letter From Sister Harmon" was published in the Day Star, a Millerite paper published in Cincinnati, Ohio by Enoch Jacobs.

    White had written to Jacobs to encourage him and although she stated the letter was not written for publication, [19] Jacobs printed it anyway. Through the next few years it was republished in various forms — including as part of White's first book, Christian Experience and Views, published in 1851.

    Two Millerites claimed to have had visions prior to Ellen White – William Ellis Foy (1818–1893), and Hazen Foss (??–1893), Ellen White's brother-in-law. Adventists believe the gift offered to these two men was instead passed on to White.[20]


Ellen G. White;

Scholar, Teacher Theologian;

Major Founder of 7th Day Adventist Movement;

Ellen G. White: Middle life

    Ellen White described the vision experience as involving a bright light which would surround her and she felt herself in the presence of Jesus or angels who would show her events (historical and future) and places (on earth, in heaven, or other planets).

    The transcriptions of White's visions generally contain theology, prophecy, or personal counsels to individuals or to Adventist leaders.

    One of the best examples of her personal counsels is found in a 9-volume series of books entitled Testimonies for the Church, that contains edited testimonies published for the general edification of the church. The spoken and written versions of her visions played a significant part in establishing and shaping the organizational structure of the emerging Adventist Church.

    Her visions and writings continue to be used by church leaders in developing the church's policies and for devotional reading.

    On March 14, 1858, at Lovett's Grove, near Bowling Green, Ohio, White received a vision while attending a funeral service. On that day James White wrote that "God manifested His power in a wonderful manner" adding that "several had decided to keep the Lord's Sabbath and go with the people of God."

    In writing about the vision, she stated that she received practical instruction for church members, and more significantly, a cosmic sweep of the conflict "between Christ and His angels, and Satan and his angels."

    Ellen White would expand upon this great controversy theme which would eventually culminate in the Conflict of the Ages series.[21]

    From 1861 to 1881 Ellen White's prophetic ministry became increasingly recognized among Sabbatarian Adventists. Her frequent articles in the Review and Herald (now the Adventist Review) and other church publications were a unifying influence to the beginning church.

    She supported her husband in the church's need for formal organization. The result was the organization of the Seventh-day Adventist Church in 1863.

    During the 1860s and 1870s the Whites participated in the founding of the denomination's first medical institution (1866) and school (1874).

    Later ministry

    After 1882 Ellen White was assisted by a close circle of friends and associates. She employed a number of literary assistants who would help her in preparing her writings for publications. She also carried on an extensive correspondence with church leaders.

    She then traveled to Europe on her first international trip.


Ellen G. White;

Scholar, Teacher Theologian;

Major Founder of 7th Day Adventist Movement;

Ellen G. White: Righteous by WORKS v FAITH: Controversy:

    Upon her return she promotedthe message of righteousness by faith presented by young ministers E. J. Waggoner and A. T. Jones, leading to a more Christ-centered theology for the church.

    When church leaders resisted her counsel on this and various other matters,she was sent to Australia as a missionary for several years.

    Final years

    When Ellen White returned to the US in 1900, she thought her stay would be temporary, and she called for church re-organization at the pivotal 1901 General Conference Session.

    During her later years she wrote extensively for church publications and wrote her final books, including the fourth and final edition of The Great Controversy with historical revisions (1911).

    During her final years she would travel less frequently as she concentrated upon writing her last works for the church. Ellen G. White died July 16, 1915, at her home in Elmshaven, which is now an Adventist Historical Site.

    Personality and public persona

    White was a powerful and sought after preacher.[22][23] While she has been perceived as having a strict and serious personality, perhaps due to her lifestyle standards, numerous sources describe her as a friendly person.[24][25]

    Teachings of Ellen White - Health reform

    Ellen White expounded greatly on the subject of health and nutrition, as well as healthy eating and a balanced diet.[26][27]

    At her behest, the Seventh-day Adventist Church first established the Western Health Reform Institute in Battle Creek, Michigan in 1866 to care for the sick as well as to disseminate health instruction.[28]

    Over the years, other Adventist sanitariums were established around the country. These sanitariums evolved into hospitals, forming the backbone of the Adventists' medical network and, in 1972, forming the Adventist Health System.

    The beginnings of this health ministry are found in a vision that White had in 1863. The vision was said to have occurred during a visit by James and Ellen White to Otsego, Michigan to encourage the evangelistic workers there.[29]

    As the group bowed in prayer at the beginning of Sabbath, Ellen White reportedly had a vision of the relation of physical health to spirituality, of the importance of following right principles in diet and in the care of the body, and of the benefits of nature's remedies—clean air, sunshine, exercise and pure water.

    Previous to this vision, little thought or time had been given to health matters in the church, and several of the overtaxed ministers had been forced to become inactive because of sickness.

    This revelation on June 6, 1863 impressed upon the leaders in the newly organized church the importance of health reform. In the months that followed, as the health message was seen to be a part of the message of Seventh-day Adventists, a health educational program was inaugurated.

    An introductory step in this effort was the publishing of six pamphlets of 64 pages each, entitled, Health, or How to Live, compiled by James and Ellen White. An article from White was included in each of the pamphlets.

    The importance of health reform was greatly impressed upon the early leaders of the church through the untimely death of Henry White at the age of 16, the severe illness of Elder James White, which forced him to cease work for three years, and through the sufferings of several other ministers.

    Early in 1866, responding to the instruction given to Ellen White on Christmas Day in 1865[30] that Seventh-day Adventists should establish a health institute for the care of the sick and the imparting of health instruction, plans were laid for the Western Health Reform Institute, which opened in September, 1866.[31]

    While the Whites were in and out of Battle Creek from 1865 to 1868, James White's poor physical condition led them to move to a small farm near Greenville, Michigan.

    White's idea of health reform included vegetarianism in a day and age where "meat and two vegetables" was the standard meal for a typical North American. Her health message inspired a health food revolution starting with John Harvey Kellogg in his creation of Corn Flakes.

    The Sanitarium Health Food Company as it is now known was also started by this health principle. It is also based on White's health principles that Kellogg differed from his brother's views on the sugar content of their Corn Flake breakfast cereal.

    The latter started Kellogg Company. White championed a vegetarianism that was intended to be spiritually helpful and with regard to the moral issues of the cruel treatment of animals.[32]

    Her views are expressed in many of her writings such as

    Important Facts Of Faith: Laws Of Health, And Testimonies, Nos. 1-10 (1864),

    Healthful Living (1897, 1898),

    The Ministry of Healing (1905),

    The Health Food Ministry (1970), and

    Counsels on Diet and Foods (1926).


Ellen G. White;

Scholar, Teacher Theologian;

Major Founder of 7th Day Adventist Movement;

Ellen G. White: Her Education

    Ellen White's earliest essays on Education appeared in the 1872 autumn editions of the Health Reformer. [33] In her first essay, she stated that working with youthful minds was the most delicate of tasks.

    The manner of instruction should be varied. This would make it possible for the "high and noble powers of the mind" [33] to have a chance to develop. To be qualified to educate the youth, parents and teachers must have self-control, gentleness and love.

    Ellen White's idea of creating a Christian educational system and its importance in society is detailed in her writings Christian Education (1893, 1894) and Education (1903).


    Christ-centered salvation by grace[34]

    The Great Controversy theme

    Obedience to revealed truth a sign of genuine faith[35]

    Jerry Moon argues that White taught Assurance of salvation.[36]

    Arthur Patrick believes that White was evangelical, in that she had high regard for the Bible, saw the cross as central, supported righteousness by faith, believed in Christian activism, and sought to restore New Testament Christianity.[37]

    List of Ellen White writings

    Some of her most well known books are:[38]

    Steps to Christ (1892), a classic concise treatment.

    Christ's Object Lessons (1900), about the parables of Jesus.

    Education (1903), principles of Christian education

    The Ministry of Healing (1905), instructions on healthy living and the care of others.

    Thoughts from the Mount of Blessing (1896), about Christ's Sermon on the Mount.


Ellen G. White;

Scholar, Teacher Theologian;

Major Founder of 7th Day Adventist Movement;

Ellen G. White: Conflict of the Ages Series

    Patriarchs and Prophets (1890), covering Genesis to the end of David's reign.

    Prophets and Kings (1917), covering Solomon to the last prophetic book of the Old Testament.

    The Desire of Ages (1898), covering the life and ministry of Jesus.

    The Acts of the Apostles (1911), describing the twelve apostles and the early Christian church.

    The Great Controversy (1858, 1884, 1888, 1911), about church history viewed in terms of the conflict between Christ and Satan.

    During her lifetime she wrote more than 5,000 periodical articles, 40 books, and reported over 2000 visual/aural paranormal experiences, most of which she was convinced were communications with supernatural entities including various angels and sometimes Jesus.

    Today over 100 titles are available in English, including compilations from her 50,000 manuscript pages.

    Book links are to the official Ellen White website, and also available as E-books.


Ellen G. White;

Scholar, Teacher Theologian;

Major Founder of 7th Day Adventist Movement;

Ellen G. White: Historic Legacy

    Walter Martin described her as "one of the most fascinating and controversial personages ever to appear upon the horizon of religious history."[4]

    According to one evangelical author, "No Christian leader or theologian has exerted as great an influence on a particular denomination as Ellen White has on Adventism."[39] Additional authors have stated "Ellen G. White has undoubtedly been the most influential Seventh-day Adventist in the history of the church."[40][41]

    Ellen G. White Estate

    The Ellen G. White Estate, Inc., was formed as a result of Ellen G. White's will. [42] It consists of a self-perpetuating board and a modest staff which includes a secretary (now known as the director), several associates, and a support staff. The main headquarters is at the Seventh-day Adventist General Conference headquarters in Silver Spring, Maryland.

    Branch Offices are located at Andrews University, Loma Linda University, and Oakwood College. There are 15 additional research centers located throughout the 13 remaining divisions of the world church. The mission of the White Estate is to circulate Ellen White's writings, translate them, and provide resources for helping to better understand her life and ministry.

    At the Toronto General Conference Session (2000) the world church expanded the mission of the White Estate to include a responsibility for promoting Adventist history for the entire denomination.

    Adventist historic sites

    Several of Ellen G. White's homes are historic sites. The first home that she and her husband owned is now part of the Historic Adventist Village in Battle Creek, Michigan.[43]

    Her other homes are privately owned with the exception of her home in Cooranbong, Australia, which she named "Sunnyside," and her last home in Saint Helena, California, which she named "Elmshaven".[44]

    These latter two homes are owned by the Seventh-day Adventist Church and the "Elmshaven" home is also a National Historic Landmark.

    Biographical writings

    The most comprehensive biography of Ellen G. White is an extensive six-volume work called "Ellen G. White: A Biography" written by her grandson, Arthur L. White.

    Thousands of articles and books have been written about various aspects of Ellen G. White's life and ministry. A large number of these can be found in the libraries at Loma Linda University and Andrews University, the two primary Seventh-day Adventist institutions with major research collections about Adventism.

    An "Encyclopedia of Ellen G. White" is being produced by two faculty at Andrews University: Jerry Moon ,[45] chair of the church history department, and Denis Fortin, [46] dean of the Seventh-day Adventist Theological Seminary.


    Red Books: Our Search for Ellen White is a play about White, a co-founder of the Seventh-day Adventist Church, and the various perceptions of her throughout the history of the church. It was produced by the Dramatic Arts Society of Pacific Union College in California.

    It was based on interviews collected from over 200 individuals. The title derives from White's books, which were traditionally bound with a red cover.[47][48]


Ellen G. White;

Scholar, Teacher Theologian;

Major Founder of 7th Day Adventist Movement;

Ellen G. White: Debate regarding the prophetic value of her writings

    Inspiration of Ellen White

    Most Adventists believe her writings are inspired and continue to have relevance for the church today.

    Seventh-day Adventists began to discuss her writings at the 1919 Bible Conference, soon after her death.

    During the 1920s the church adopted a Fundamentalist stance toward inspiration. Because of criticism from the evangelical community, in the 1940s and 1950s church leaders such as LeRoy Edwin Froom and Roy Allan Anderson attempted to help evangelicals understand Seventh-day Adventists better by engaging in extended dialogue that resulted in the publication of Questions on Doctrine (1956) that explained Adventist beliefs in evangelical language.

    Evangelical Walter Martin of the countercult Christian Research Institute "rejected White’s prophetic claims", yet saw her "as a genuine Christian believer", unlike her contemporaries Joseph Smith, Jr., Mary Baker Eddy, and Charles Taze Russell.

    Kenneth Samples, a successor of Martin in his interaction with Adventism, also denies White's prophetic claims yet "believe[s] she, at minimum, had some good biblical and theological instincts."[49]

    Adventist statement of belief about the Spirit of Prophecy

    Spirit of Prophecy (Adventist)

    Ellen White's writings are sometimes referred to as the Spirit of Prophecy by Adventists. The term is dually applied to the Holy Spirit which inspired her writings.

    Early Sabbatarian Adventists, many of whom had come out of the Christian Connexion, were anti-creedal. However, as early as 1872 Adventists produced a statement of Adventist beliefs.

    This list was refined during the 1890s and formally included in the SDA Yearbook in 1931 with 22 points. In 1980 a statement of 27 Fundamental Beliefs was adopted, to which one was added to in 2005 to make the current list of fundamental beliefs. Ellen G. White is referenced in the fundamental belief on spiritual gifts.

    This doctrinal statement says:

    "One of the gifts of the Holy Spirit is prophecy. This gift is an identifying mark of the remnant church and was manifested in the ministry of Ellen G. White. As the Lord's messenger, her writings are a continuing and authoritative source of truth which provide for the church comfort, guidance, instruction, and correction.

    They also make clear that the Bible is the standard by which all teaching and experience must be tested. (Joel 2:28,29; Acts 2:14-21; Hebrews 1:1-3; Revelation 12:17; 19:10.)"[50]


Ellen G. White;

Scholar, Teacher Theologian;

Major Founder of 7th Day Adventist Movement;

Ellen G. White: Criticism of Ellen White

    Ellen Harmon's critics began to cast doubt as to the reliability and authenticity of her visions, beginning after her first vision in 1845.

    The most prominent critic was D.M. Canright whose criticisms are summarized in his 1919 book, Life of Mrs. E.G. White, Seventh-day Adventist Prophet: Her False Claims Refuted.

    and served as a basic text for many of Ellen G. White's critics. Some of the most prominent criticisms include:


    Many critics have also accused Ellen White of extensive plagiarism. One such was Walter T. Rea, who argued against the "original" nature of her supposed revelations in his book The White Lie. Another critic Ronald Numbers argues that her understanding of health reform was simply plagiarized from other health reformers and therefore did not come from divine revelation.[51]

    Denial of the Trinity

    Some critics, as well as some non-Trinitarian Adventists, have asserted that in her early writings Ellen White did not support the teaching of the Trinity[52]

    Some early Adventists advocated what seems like Arianism,i.e. the view that Jesus is a separate, lesser being than God the Father.

    Some critics have characterized her descriptions of the Godhead as Tritheistic.[53][54][55]

    Church historians have pointed out that early Seventh-day Adventists came from a wide assortment of nineteenth-century American Protestant churches, and typical among early Adventists, two of the church's principal founders, James White and Joseph Bates, had a background in the Restorationist Christian Connection church, which rejected the Trinitarian conception of God as held by the mainline churches.[56]

    However, they claim that the teachings and writings of Ellen White, who was raised in a Methodist family, ultimately proved influential in shifting the church from largely Semi-Arian[57] roots towards Trinitarianism.[58]

    Some disagree and point to a study that White's views reflected the materialist theology of early Adventism and argue how much her writings shifted the church towards Trinitarianism.[59]


Ellen G. White;

Scholar, Teacher Theologian;

Major Founder of 7th Day Adventist Movement;

Ellen G. White: Views on masturbation

    "Few topics have generated more ridicule from critics than Ellen White's statements regarding 'self-abuse,' 'solitary vice,' 'self-indulgence,' 'secret vice,' 'moral pollution,' etc." Though her meaning was clear, Ellen White never used the actual term 'masturbation.' [60]

    In her book "A Solemn Appeal" she writes that:

      "If the practice [self-indulgence] is continued from the age of fifteen and upward, nature will protest against the abuse she has suffered, and continues to suffer, and will make them pay the penalty for the transgression of her laws, especially from the ages of thirty to forty-five, by numerous pains in the system, and various diseases, such as affection of the liver and lungs, neuralgia, rheumatism, affection of the spine, diseased kidneys, and cancerous tumors.

      Some of nature's fine machinery gives way, leaving a heavier task for the remaining to perform, which disorders nature's fine arrangement, and there is often a sudden breaking down of the constitution; and death is the result."[61]

    On Females and Masterbation:

      "Females possess less vital force than the other sex, and are deprived very much of the bracing, invigorating air, by their in-door life.

      The result of self-abuse in them is seen in various diseases, such as catarrh, dropsy, headache, loss of memory and sight, great weakness in the back and loins, affections of the spine, and frequently, inward decay of the head.

      Cancerous humor, which would lie dormant in the system their lifetime, is inflamed, and commences its eating, destructive work.

      The mind is often utterly ruined, and insanity supervenes."[61]

    Critics cite a study which alleges that masturbation provides preventive benefits in the area of heart disease for males.[62]

    Thomas Szasz, MD states the shift in scientific consensus as "Masturbation: the primary sexual activity of mankind. In the nineteenth century it was a disease; in the twentieth, it's a cure."[63]


Ellen G. White;

Scholar, Teacher Theologian;

Major Founder of 7th Day Adventist Movement;

Ellen G. White: Racism?

    Some critics[64] claim that Ellen White also wrote racist statements in her book "Spiritual Gifts."[65][66]

      "Every species of animal which God had created were preserved in the ark. The confused species which God did not create, which were the result of amalgamation, were destroyed by the flood.

      Since the flood there has been amalgamation of man and beast, as may be seen in the almost endless varieties of species of animals, and in certain races of men."[65]

    This criticism is compounded by a defense published several years later by church leader Uriah Smith, inferring that this "amalgamation" produced certain lesser races which are difficult to differentiate from animals:

      "Now we have ever supposed that anybody that was called a man, was considered a human being. The vision speaks of all these classes as races of men; yet in the face of this plain declaration, they foolishly assert that the visions teach that some men are not human beings!

      But does any one deny the general statement contained in the extract given above?

      They do not.

      If they did, they could easily be silenced by a reference to such cases as the wild Bushmen of Africa, some tribes of the Hottentots, and perhaps the Digger Indians of our own country.

      Moreover, naturalists affirm that the line of demarkation between the human and animal races is lost in confusion. It is impossible, as they affirm, to tell just where the human ends and the animal begins.[67]


Ellen G. White;

Scholar, Teacher Theologian;

Major Founder of 7th Day Adventist Movement;

Ellen G. White: Seventh-day Responses to criticism

    Adventists have long responded to critics with arguments and assertions of their own. Typical responses to these criticisms include:

    Plagiarism: A Roman Catholic lawyer, Vincent L. Ramik, undertook a study of Ellen G. White's writings during the early 1980s, and concluded that they were "conclusively unplagiaristic."[68]

    When the plagiarism charge ignited a significant debate during the late 1970s and early 1980s, the Adventist General Conference commissioned a major study by Dr. Fred Veltman. The ensuing project became known as the "'Life of Christ' Research Project."

    The results are available at the General Conference Archives.[69] Dr. Roger W. Coon,[70] David J. Conklin,[71] Dr. Denis Fortin,[72][73] King and Morgan,[74] among others, undertook the refutation of the accusations of plagiarism.

    At the conclusion of Ramik's report, he states:

      "It is impossible to imagine that the intention of Ellen G. White, as reflected in her writings and the unquestionably prodigious efforts involved therein, was anything other than a sincerely motivated and unselfish effort to place the understandings of Biblical truths in a coherent form for all to see and comprehend.

      Most certainly, the nature and content of her writings had but one hope and intent, namely, the furthering of mankind's understanding of the word of God.

      Considering all factors necessary in reaching a just conclusion on this issue, it is submitted that the writings of Ellen G. White were conclusively unplagiaristic."[75]

    Critics have especially targeted Ellen White's book The Great Controversy arguing in contains plagiarized material.[76] However in her introduction she wrote...

      "In some cases where a historian has so grouped together events as to afford, in brief, a comprehensive view of the subject, or has summarized details in a convenient manner, his words have been quoted;

      but in some instances no specific credit has been given, since the quotations are not given for the purpose of citing that writer as authority, but because his statement affords a ready and forcible presentation of the subject.

      In narrating the experience and views of those carrying forward the work of reform in our own time, similar use has been made of their published works."

      [SOURCE: Ellen G. White: The Great Controversy, p. xi.4 1911 edition].

    Denial of the Trinity: Fundamental belief#2 of the Seventh Day Adventist Church is the belief of the Trinity. Their belief statement declares "There is one God: Father, Son, and Holy Spirit, a unity of three co-eternal Persons. God is immortal, all-powerful, all-knowing, above all, and ever present." [77] Ellen White clearly stated that Jesus was divine in her book "The Desire of Ages"

      "By His humanity, Christ touched humanity; by His divinity, He lays hold upon the throne of God. As the Son of man, He gave us an example of obedience; as the Son of God, He gives us power to obey.

      It was Christ who from the bush on Mount Horeb spoke to Moses saying, "I AM THAT I AM.... Thus shalt thou say unto the children of Israel, I AM hath sent me unto you." Exodus 3:14.

      This was the pledge of Israel’s deliverance. So when He came "in the likeness of men," He declared Himself the I AM. The Child of Bethlehem, the meek and lowly Saviour, is God "manifest in the flesh." 1 Timothy 3:16." The Desire Of Ages, p. 24

    Ellen White also stated that the Holy Spirit was divine.

    "The Holy Spirit has a personality, else He could not bear witness to our spirits and with our spirits that we are the children of God. He must also be a divine person, else He could not search out the secrets which lie hidden in the mind of God.

    "For what man knoweth the things of a man, save the spirit of man which is in him? even so the things of God knoweth no man, but the Spirit of God." (1 Corinthians 2:11)

    The prince of the power of evil can only be held in check by the power of God in the third person of the Godhead, the Holy Spirit." Evangelism, p. 617

    Views on Masturbation: Ellen White's religious views on masturbation are shared by many other religions, both Christian and otherwise; her views on the adverse health consequences of masturbation were typical of her era. Adventists state that sin is never beneficial to health but rather “the wages of sin is death” (Romans 6:23).

    Ellen White states:

      "Man is doing the greatest injury and injustice to his own soul when he thinks and acts contrary to the mind and will of God. He is sowing to the flesh, and will of the flesh reap corruption.

      No real joy can be found in the path forbidden by the God who knows what is best, and who plans for the good of his creatures. The path of transgression is a path of misery and destruction, and he who walks therein is exposed to the wrath of God and the Lamb." Signs Of The Times, April 20, 1888

    Racism: Ellen White wrote the following before the American Civil War

    "When the laws of men conflict with the word and law of God, we are to obey the latter, whatever the consequences may be. The law of our land requiring us to deliver a slave to his master, we are not to obey; and we must abide the consequences of violating this law.

    The slave is not the property of any man. God is his rightful master, and man has no right to take God's workmanship into his hands, and claim him as his own." Testimonies For The Church Volume 1, p. 201-202

    Also, Ellen White stated the following near the end of the 19th century

    "Walls of separation have been built up between the whites and the blacks. These walls of prejudice will tumble down of themselves as did the walls of Jericho, when Christians obey the Word of God, which enjoins on them supreme love to their Maker and impartial love to their neighbors. The religion of the Bible recognizes no caste or color.

    It ignores rank, wealth, worldly honor. God estimates men as men. With Him, character decides their worth. And we are to recognize the Spirit of Christ in whomsoever He is revealed." The Review and Herald, December 17, 1895, Testimonies for the Church Vol 9 p. 223.

    Besides her strong stance against slavery and racism, Adventist scholars have noted that there is not one instance where her writings hint to a half-man/half-animal race of people.[78] Instead, her amalgamation statements were a reference to Leviticus 19:19, 2 Corinthians 6:14 and Genesis 6:1-5.


Ellen G. White;

Scholar, Teacher Theologian;

Major Founder of 7th Day Adventist Movement;

Ellen G. White: Other Info:

    See also Seventh-day Adventist Church portal Christianity portal

    Prophecy in the Seventh-day Adventist Church


    Jerry Moon and Denis Fortin, editors. The Ellen G. White Encyclopedia (Hagerstown, MD: Review and Herald, forthcoming)

    The World of Ellen G. White edited by Gary Land, a historical background to White's writings without critically comparing the two

    R. E. Graham, Ellen G. White, Cofounder of the Seventh-day Adventist Church (New York: Peter Lang, 1985)

    Ronald Graybill, "The Power of Prophecy: Ellen G. White and Women Religious Founders of the Nineteenth Century" (Ph.D. diss.: The Johns Hopkins University, 1983)

    "Prophecy, Gender, and Culture: Ellen Gould Harmon [White] and the Roots of Seventh-day Adventism" by Jonathan M. Butler. Religion and American Culture 1:1 (Winter, 1991), p3–29


Ellen G. White;

Scholar, Teacher Theologian;

Major Founder of 7th Day Adventist Movement;

Ellen G. White: References:

    ^ Ron Graybill (February 1994). "Visions and Revisions, Part 1". Ministry Magazine. Retrieved March 13, 2011.

    ^ The various printed editions of her first vision can be found at Adventist History Library's Ellen White's First Vision

    ^ "White, Ellen Gould (née Harmon)" in Encyclopedia of Evangelicalism" by Randall Balmer, p614–15

    ^ Walter Martin, The Kingdom of the Cults. Minneapolis, Minnesota: Bethany Fellowship, 1965, p379

    ^ Arthur L. White (August 2000). "Ellen G. White: A Brief Biography". Ellen G. White Estate.

    ^ Office for Regional Conference Ministry: Dr. Charles Edward Dudley, Sr.

    ^ Dudley, Sr., Charles E. (1999). The genealogy of Ellen Gould Harmon White: the prophetess of the Seventh-Day Adventist Church, and the story of the growth and development of the Seventh-Day Adventist denomination as it relates to African-Americans. Dudley Pub. Services, 1999 - 172 pages. ISBN 9780967027104. Retrieved March 12, 2011, no preview.

    ^ Association of Professional Genealogists. Roger D Joslyn, CG, FASG

    ^ a b Joslyn, Roger D.. "GOULD ANCESTRY OF ELLEN GOULD (HARMON) WHITE". Australasian Union Record, May 21, 1973, p. 5 (Ellen G. White Estate). Retrieved March 12, 2011


    ^ Merlin D. Burt (1998). Ellen G. Harmon's Three Step Conversion Between 1836 and 1843 and the Harmon Family Methodist Experience.. Term paper, Andrews University.

    ^ Life Sketches, 1880 edition, 126, 127.

    ^ Ellen G. White, A Sketch of the Christian Experience and Views of Ellen G. White (1851)

    ^ Ellen G. White, To the Little Remnant Scattered Abroad, (April 6, 1846)

    ^ Godfrey T. Anderson, "Sectarianism and Organisation, 1846-1864," in Adventism in America: a History, ed. Gary Land (Berrien Springs: Andrews University Press, 1998), 31.

    ^ Merlin D. Burt, “The Historical Background, Interconnected Development, and Integration of the Doctrines of the Heavenly Sanctuary, the Sabbath, and Ellen G. White's Role in Sabbatarian Adventism from 1844-1849”, PhD, Andrews University, 2002, 170.

    ^ Ellen G. White, Spiritual Gifts vol. 2, (1860), 37.

    ^ Ellen G. White, Testimonies for the Church Vol.1, (1855-1868)

    ^ Day Star. Letter from Sister Harmon, Falmouth Mass., Feb., 15, 1846

    ^ Nix, James R. (4 December 1986). "The third prophet spoke forth" (DjVu). Adventist Review (Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald) 163: 22. ISSN 0161-1119. Retrieved 2008-04-15.

    ^ Ellen G. White (1860). My Christian Experience, Views, And Labors In Connection With The Rise And Progress Of The Third Angel's Message. James White.

    ^ See Horace Shaw's doctoral dissertation, "A Rhetorical Analysis of the Speaking of Mrs. Ellen G. White, A Pioneer Leader and Spokeswoman of the Seventh-day Adventist Church" (Michigan State University, 1959), p282.

    ^ Chapter 12: "The Sought-for Speaker" in Messenger of the Lord by Herbert Douglass

    ^ See Walking With Ellen White: The Human Interest Story by George R. Knight.

    ^ Life With My Mother-in-law: An interview with Ethel May Lacey White Currow" DjVu by Ed Christian. Her grandson Arthur L. White recounts happy childhood memories of her



    ^ "Adventist Health," Company Histories, FundingUniverse

    ^ E.G. White, Review & Herald, Oct. 8, 1867; Counsels on Diets and Foods, p. 481.

    ^ Testimonies for the Church, vol. 1, p.489

    ^ Battle Creek Sanitarium

    ^ Ministry of Healing pg. 315

    ^ a b White, Ellen G. (September, 1872). "Proper Education". The Health Reformer (Battle Creek, Michigan: The Health Reform Institute) 7 (9): 284–286 (electronic 28–30). Retrieved May 31, 2011.

    ^ "My soul was daily drinking rich draughts of salvation. I thought that those who loved Jesus would love His coming, so went to the class meeting and told them what Jesus had done for me and what a fullness I enjoyed through believing that the Lord was coming.

    The class leader interrupted me, saying, "Through Methodism"; but I could not give the glory to Methodism when it was Christ and the hope of His soon coming that had made me free." Early Writings Pg. 13

    ^ A Word to the Little Flock


    ^ Arthur Patrick, "An Adventist and an Evangelical in Australia? The Case of Ellen White In The 1890s." in Lucas: An Evangelical History Review No. 12, December 1991

    ^ List consists of titles in Selection of Ellen G. White's Best-Known Books

    ^ CRI Journal - CRJ0005B

    ^ Meeting Ellen White: a fresh look at her life, writings, and major themes by George R. Knight

    ^ Adventist ABC Bookstore Last Day Events

    ^ Last Will and Testament of Ellen G. White

    ^ Adventist Heritage Site

    ^ Elmshaven website

    ^ Jerry Moon Faculty bio at Andrews University

    ^ Denis Fortin Faculty bio at Andrews University

    ^ "PUC theater turns attention to school’s founder, Ellen White". Napa Valley Register. 1 March 2007. Retrieved 21 December 2010.

    ^ Red Books: Our Search for Ellen White. Reviewed by Adrian Zytkoskee

    ^ Samples, Kenneth (2007). "Evangelical Reflections on Seventh-day Adventism: Yesterday and Today". Questions on Doctrine 50th anniversary conference

    ^ Fundamental Beliefs

    ^ Ronald Numbers (1992). Prophetess of Health: Ellen G. White and the Origins of Seventh-Day Adventist Health Reform. University of Tennessee Press. ISBN 0870497138.

    ^ Poirier, Tim. Ellen White's Trinitarian Statements: What Did She Actually Write? Ellen G. White Estate.

    ^ Ratzlaff, Dale (2007). Truth about Adventist "Truth". LAM Publications, LLC. p. 28. ISBN 0-9747679-4-8.

    ^ Wiebe, Elmer (2006). Who Is the Adventist Jesus?. Xulon Press. ISBN 1-59781-328-1.

    ^ Tinker, Colleen (March/April 2007). "Discovering the Adventist Jesus" (PDF). Proclamation! (Life Assurance Ministries, Inc.) 8 (2): 10–17. Retrieved 2011-01-12.

    ^ Knight, George, 2000, A Search for Identity, Review and Herald Pub., pp. 30-32

    ^ by Jerry Moon. "Were early Adventists Arians?".

    ^ Jerry A. Moon, The Adventist Trinity Debate Part 1: Historical Overview and The Adventist Trinity Debate Part 2: The Role of Ellen G. White. Copyright 2003 Andrews University Press. See also "The Arian or Anti-Trinitarian Views Presented in Seventh-day Adventist Literature and the Ellen G. White Answer" by Erwin Roy Gane

    ^ McElwain, Thomas, 2010, Adventism and Ellen White: A Phenomenon of Religious Materialism, Swedish Science Press

    ^ The White Estate. Issues. Frequently Asked Questions. Comments Regarding Unusual Statements Found In Ellen G. White's Writings. Subsection: Physical and spiritual dangers of masturbation or "self-abuse"

    ^ a b Ellen G. White (1870). Solemn Appeal, A. The Seventh-day Adventist Publishing Association.

    ^ Smith, George Davey; Frankel, Stephen and Yarnell, John. (December 1997). "Sex and death: are they related? Findings from the Caerphilly cohort study". British Medical Journal 315 (7123): 1641–1644. PMC 2128033. PMID 9448525. Retrieved 2008-04-29.

    ^ Thomas S. Szasz Quotes

    ^ See Nickel, Francis D. (1951). Ellen G. White and Her Critics. Chapter 20, “Amalgamation of Man and Beast”. Hagerstown, Md. Review and Herald Publishing Association. Online Edition.

    ^ a b White, Ellen G. (1864). Spiritual Gifts. Volume 3. Chapter 10: The Flood. p. 75. Online Edition.

    ^ Google search results for "confused species which God did not create" total 12,300 results. Search date: March 27, 2011

    ^ Smith, Uriah (1868). The Visions of Mrs. E. G. White: A Manifestation of Spiritual Gifts According to the Scriptures. Battle Creek, Michigan. Seventh-day Adventist Pub. Assn. pp. 102-105. Cited in Patrick, Arthur N. Does Our Past Embarrass Us. Ministry, April, 1991, pp. 7-10. Accessed March 27, 2001

    ^ The Ramik Report Memorandum of Law Literary Property Rights 1790 - 1915

    ^ General Conference Archives of the Seventh-day Adventist Church

    ^ Ellen G. White as a Writer: Part III - The Issue of Literary Borrowing

    ^ An Analysis of the Literary Dependency of Ellen White

    ^ Ellen G. White as a Writer: Case Studies in the Issue of Literary Borrowing

    ^ The Ellen G. White Encyclopedia

    ^ E. Marcella Anderson King and Kevin L. Morgan (2009). More Than Words: A Study of Inspiration and Ellen White's Use of Sources in The Desire of Ages. Honor Him Publishers.

    ^ Also appears in Review article

    ^ See borrowing or plagiarism

    ^ Seventh Day Adventist Church Fundamental Beliefs

    ^ "Chapter 20: Amalgamation of Man and Beast".

    Official Ellen G. White Estate

    Ellen G. White Estate, Inc.

    Ellen G. White Photographs

    Loma Linda University Ellen G. White Estate Branch Office

    Andrews University Ellen G. White Estate Branch Office

    Biography by Arthur White

    Center for Adventist Research: Ellen G. White Resources, listing unpublished materials, list of books in White's library, etc.


    White Estate: Answers for the critics and criticisms

    Examines the Critics Allegations

    Free Ebook - Was Ellen White a Plagiarist?

    Christian Media Ministry - Will Fults


    Cult or Christian: Does Seventh-day Adventism Teach the Trinity?

    Ellen White Exposed

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    Truth or Fables

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    Old and new search engines for "The Complete Published Writings of Ellen G. White"

    Truth for the End of Time, audio recordings of major Ellen White books in mp3 format

    Adventist Archives Contains many articles written by Ellen White

    Ellen G. White's book: Steps to Christ Audio & Document

    Books by Ellen G. White Beautifully illustrated & printer-friendly versions of Ellen White's major books

    Earlysda Books by Adventist pioneers with an emphasis on Ellen White's works Audiobooks by Ellen White in multiple languages (mp3 download)

    Truth for the End of Time Audio recordings of 38 of Ellen White's books in English plus 11 other languages in mp3 format

    Ellen G. White's book: Steps to Christ Audio & Document

    Ellen White audio books -- Streaming audio or file download (MP3) of Ellen White's popular books


    Entry in the Australian Dictionary of Biography

    Articles by White and about White as cataloged in the Seventh-day Adventist Periodical Index (SDAPI) -- The Ellen White information website


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