PRESIDENT JAMES MONROE,
FOUNDING FATHER, BIO
PRESIDENT JAMES MONROE,
FOUNDING FATHER, BIO

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An Online Christian Worldview Encyclopedia,
Where God's Word is "STILL...INERRANT!"
PRESENTING
JAMES MONROE, FOUNDING FATHER, BRIEF BIO

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We will never forget 9-11 in Patriotic colors
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Browse Massive Evidence Below:
"AMERICAN DECLARATION of INDEPENDENCE"
Declares USA Recognizes: "SELF-EVIDENT TRUTHS!"
Declaring ALL are "CREATED" equal!
Endowed by Their "CREATOR"
With 'Certain', 'Inalienable', 'Rights';
1776 AMERICAN FLAG 1776 THOMAS-JEFFERSON-DECLARATION-of-INDEPENDENCE1776 AMERICAN FLAG 1776
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Statesman Thomas Jefferson
Author, Immortal USA Declaration of Independence'
AMERIPEDIA Thomas Jefferson: His Personal "TRIBUTE to DECLARATION of INDEPENDENCE

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U.S. Supreme Court Decision:
(Unanimous Decision!) "THIS IS A CHRISTIAN NATION!"
Trinity vs. New York, 143 US 457, 36 L ed 226,

Thomas Jefferson!
"Most Misunderstood" Founding Father!
Some say Non-Christian for REJECTING Christ's Divinity
(He believed like Jehovah's Witnesses: Not Mainstream but Christian!)
THOMAS-JEFFERSON-SIGNATURE

However, multitudes of Christians IN ALL AGES saw
Christ as "PERFECT MAN" the "SECOND ADAM" Rom 5:6-16
Worshipping Christ as SAVIOUR and KING, but not DIVINE!( Arianism)

FACT! President Jefferson STARTED Church in the US Capitol Building!

FACT! He JOINED it the same weekend he wrote SEPARATION CHURCH-STATE letter!

FACT! Jefferson ALLOWED several groups to have Church in the US Capitol!

FACT! He oversaw other Churches in the US TREASURY and SUPREME COURT!

FACT! Jefferson hired MARINE BAND to play each Lord's Day...

FACT! ... And paid them with TAX DOLLARS!

FACT! ... Likewise PAID the Ministers, Preachers!

FACT! Jefferson Translated Bible WHILE PRESIDENT - from Greek Language!

FACT! Wrote a book on LIFE of CHRIST for American Natives!

FACT! Gave FEDERAL LAND/MONEY for Missionaries to Natives in Illinois Territory!

FACT! Legislated land for Church-House in each Township of NORTHWEST ORDINANCE!

FACT! Legislated Federal land for Missionaries to Natives in Ohio Territory!

FACT! Wrote letter to Daughter on HOW TO BE READY for RETURN of CHRIST!

FACT! Wrote a GOVERNMENT PRAYER to be used EACH 4th of JULY CELEBRATION

FACT! Jefferson's US CAPITOL CHURCH became largest in the Nation for decades!

FACT! Jefferson NEVER drank, smoked, cussed, missed Church, HIS WHOLE LIFE!

FACT! FEW - WHO EVER LIVED - were better Disciples of Christ than Thomas Jefferson!

FACT! (George Washington, Abe Lincoln were TWO of those FEW!)

Jefferson, Joins, Supports, Leads Church in US Capitol: FOOTNOTES [1-43]

Capitol Church Photos on OFFICIAL US GOV WEBSITE

"President-To-Be" James Madison;
JAMES-MADISON-SIGNATURE
Joined President Jefferson's U.S. Capitol Church!

Jefferson, Madison Belong to Church in US Capitol: FOOTNOTE [14]

Don't be Fooled by "Willfully Blind", Atheist, Anti- Christian "Deceived-and-Deceiving" College Professors,

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First Prayer, First Congress, 1774;

George Washington, left, is KNEELING on Both Knees!
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George Washington: Kneeling while most others stood;

"Willfully-blind" Modern-Scholars declare the USA was NOT established as a Christian Nation. President Barack Obama travels the world declaring:
"The USA is NOT a Christian nation!"

Sadly, most do not know the US SUPREME COURT;
Researched 1,000's of documents, VOTED UNANIMOUSLY:
The USA is unquestionably a CHRISTIAN NATION!

U.S. SUPREME COURT Declares USA A Christian Nation!

Legal Scholar Justice David Brewer on "Christian Nation Decision"

Abraham Lincoln Declares USA Founded on "SPIRIT of CHRISTIANITY!"

Abraham Lincoln: Proclaims USA A CHRISTIAN NATION in 1862

Isabella Potts-James Testifies Washington Prayed, Valley Forge;

Nathaniel R. Snowden: Recorded Washington's Valley Forge Prayer

Officer Muhlenberg Witnessed Washington Pray, Valley Forge;

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SELF-CONFESSED LISTS:

HOMO & PRO-HOMO SODOMITES: PASTORS, MINISTERS, LEADERS

LESBIAN and PRO-LESBIAN PASTORS, CHAPLAINS, LEADERS

(Has YOUR "Spiritual Leader" COME OUT?)

AMERIPEDIA: George Washington on HOMOSEXUALITY

Early Church OUTLAWS HOMOSEXUALITY in Roman Empire!

"DID YOU KNOW?
EVERY REVIVAL in Bible Began by Removing SODOMITES!

1 Kin 14:24, 1 Kin 15:15, 1 Kin 22:6, 2 Kin 23:7,
(OBEDIENCE, Deut 23:17, NOT PRAYER, Brings REVIVAL!)
SKULL and BONESSODOMITES: Tolerance is SIN, Approval is BLASPHEMY! SKULL and BONES

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"HAECKEL'S DRAWINGS" FRAUD In SCIENCE!

Haeckel's Imaginary Drawings: 100 Years of Error!

The 40-Year “Piltdown Man Hoax!”

The 'Nebraska Man' becomes a 'Pig's Tooth!'

10 Scientific Frauds that Rocked the World!

Global Warming Hoax (Hundreds of Articles!)

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Take a Moment and Check how OUTRAGEOUS!

WIKIPEDIA: ANTI-AMERICA, ANTI-BIBLE, ANTI-CHRIST!
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What Is
The WORD of GOD?
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Statement On The Holy Scriptures;
‘Lens’ Through Which ALL Knowledge Is Understood;

THE WORD of GOD, AXIOM-1:
    "IF" there exists any such thing as 'The Word of God'; [and ALL evidence proves such does exist:]

    "THEN" by inherent definition - it must be "GOD-BREATHED!"

      (Holy, Inspired, Inerrant, Intrepid, Infallible, Infinitive, Invincible, Indestructible, Inexhaustible, Inalienable, Immutable, Implacable, Impossible-to-Improve: Eternal and Indubitable - NEVER FAILING - and ALL CONQUERING!)

      DEDUCTING the above from the simple fact: That GOD EQUATES HIS WORD WITH HIMSELF!

        "In the Beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God, . . ." John 1:1 (and other Scriptures),
    Thus 'GOD'S WORD' can have no lesser standard than that stated;


    "GOD'S WORD MUST" THEREFORE BE:

      As true in history, archeology, geography, Earth science, medical science, nutrition, gerontology, agriculture, botany, astronomy, physics, chemistry, climatology, government, law, psychology, sociology - and every subject it touches - as in Theology, Divinity and Doctrine:

    And "IF IT BE NOT" - true in ALL subjects mentioned above; and And "IF IT BE NOT"

      Holy, Inspired, Inerrant, Intrepid, Infallible, Infinitive, Invincible, Indestructible, Inexhaustible, Inalienable, Immutable, Implacable, Impossible-to-Improve: Eternal and Indubitable in EVERY FIELD OF KNOWLEDGE:
    Whatever else such writing may be, it cannot be ‘The Incomparable Word’ of the Great Creator God!

God's Eternal Guarantee!
"Heaven and Earth Shall Pass Away;
But 'MY WORDS', SHALL NOT, PASS AWAY!"

-- Jesus of Nazareth, "The Messiah!" AD-33 (Matthew 5:18)

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[1] “BIBLIPEDIA™" - "GREAT COMMISSION MANDATE!” Sober Questions; (Brief!)

[2] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – "God’s Goals” v “Satan’s Goals” – WHO WINS? (Brief)

[3] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – Greatest PLAN of Evangelization: DO THE MATH, (Brief!)

[4] “BIBLIPEDIA™" –Jesus said: “I WILL Build MY Church!”
(But Did He Really Mean It?)

[5] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – Alarming Church News! USA! (Brief)

[6] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – Christ’s Commission: Does it Mean “Global Domination?”

[7] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – Can You Face The Truth? Part-1 (MESSAGE)

[8] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – Can You Face The Truth? Part-2 (MESSAGE)

[9] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – Jesus and Paul on the “End-of-the-World” by NewtonStein

[10] “BIBLIPEDIA™" - Conservative Activists: "Who's Who in Christian Politics?

[11] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – Is Our Modern Church Ignorant of Christ’s Purpose?

[12] "RAPTURE-READY™" Why Jesus didn't come back in 2009, '10, '11! (You Know?)

[13] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – Preachers’ Greatest Sin: (Are You guilty?)

[14] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – Christ Warns: A “Five-Fold-Question!”

[15] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – OPEN LETTER to Our Fellow Laborers

[16] “BIBLIPEDIA™" - "Are All Denominations Wrong? Mostly?

[17] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – Who Will save Christianity?

[18] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – A Workable Plan that would-Truly Revive Christianity!

[19] “BIBLIPEDIA™" - "American Christianity Rides The Titanic!

[20] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – Founding Fathers’ Kingdom, Now Dominion!

[21] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – Great Falling Away Prophesied by Apostle Paul!

[22] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – Biblical End of World, Basic Terms and Concepts

[23] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – Christianity Dying In Western Civilization: WHY?

[24] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – Christian Myths! Do You Believe Them?

[25] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – Church Growth Goals Priority Page

[26] "RAPTURE-READY™" – Modern Christianity Is A Mess!

[27] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – The “Anti-Christ Home Page

[28] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – TOP-TEN Messages To Maximize Your Ministry

[29] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – Calling All Christians Unite, Christ Commands!

[30] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – Christianity Is Confusing and Getting WORSE! WHY?

[31] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – Every- Minister A Hero!

[32] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – Legal Abortion: Is It Good for Christians?

[33] " CHRISTIPEDIA™" – Southern Baptists Dying: WHY?

[34] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – Satan’s TOP-TEN Greatest-Lies! Do You Believe Any?

[35] “BIBLIPEDIA™" –Truth Test-3 Questions For Christians

[36] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – Evangelicals Call for Government School Exodus!

[37] “BIBLIPEDIA™" - "Hall of Faith" Christian Activist Ministers, 20th Cent."

[38] “BIBLIPEDIA™" –The Early Christian-Church Outlaws Homosexuality!

[39] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – PREACHERS! Do You Know About PULPIT FREEDOM SUNDAY?

[40] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – GOD-GIVEN Rights, Guaranteed in Bible: Called “Civil & Human” Rights

[41] “BIBLIPEDIA™" - "Rush Limbaugh Quotes" on Christ and Christianity!

[42] “BIBLIPEDIA™" - "TALK-RADIO REPUBLICANS, "Republican Power and Catholics!"

[43] “BIBLIPEDIA™" - "GREAT COMMISSION MANDATE!" Some Sobering Questions;

[44] “BIBLIPEDIA™" - "Hall of Faith" Christian Activist Ministers 20th Century"

[45] “BIBLIPEDIA™" –The Early Christian-Church Outlaws Homosexuality!

[46] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – PREACHERS! Do You Know About PULPIT FREEDOM SUNDAY?

[47] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – GOD-GIVEN Rights Guaranteed in Bible: Called “Civil & Human” Rights

[48] “BIBLIPEDIA™" - "Rush Limbaugh Quotes" on Christ and Christianity!

[49] “BIBLIPEDIA™" - "TALK-RADIO REPUBLICANS, "Republican Power and Catholics!"

[50] “AMERIPEDIA™" - George Washington Used 30-THEOLOGICAL TERMS, 3000 Times!

[**] Why to UNINCORPORATE your Church BEFORE it's TOO LATE!

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Many Fine Bible Scholars seem unaware,
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(See Greatest Parable on End of Times!)

Christ’s Greatest Parable on End of Times: Brief Overview

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Dr. William Smith

Approx 4,400 Word Entries;
Approx 12,000 Standard Pages;
Approx 150,000 Scripture References;

From "INSPIRED-INERRANT" Scriptural Position!
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NEW INTERNATIONAL STANDARD BIBLE DICTIONARY™
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Dr. William Smith

“RESEARCHER'S VERSION” - ALL ON ONE WEB PAGE;
Key-Word - Color-Coded Editions;
(Our Most Popular Bible Dictionary!)

Approx 4,400 Word Entries;
Approx 12,000 Standard Pages;
Approx 150,000 Scripture References;

From "INSPIRED-INERRANT" Scriptural Position!

Each Webpage Volume over 3,000 Pages!

LETTERS 'A-F' LETTERS 'G-J' LETTERS 'K-Q' LETTERS 'R-Z'

Dr. Smith’s Original Preface

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Smith-Cambridge Concise Bible Dictionary™
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Dr. William Smith

Edited and Annotated by NewtonStein,
SMITH'S: Greatest Singular Bible Dictionary in History!

by Cambridge Theological Seminary™

All NewtonStein: INSPIRED-INERRANT Scriptural View!

Cambridge Smith-NewtonStein Concise Bible Dictionary "A thru Z"

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Cambridge-Cruden Complete Concordance
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Dr. Alexander Cruden

Dr. Cruden Finished the First Complete Bible Concordance!

The "IDEA" of a concordance began in 1100's. Bible Scholars worked for 600 years;
Sometimes working in groups; some as lone Ministers;
Often spending "ALL" their spare time for their "LIFETIME!"

Alexander Cruden, an extremely dedicated Scholar,
finally got it FINISHED - about the time George Washington was born (1730's)

[NOTE: It would take one person - all day, six-days a week - 1500 YEARS,
To complete the Exhaustive Concordance!
LET'S APPRECIATE IT!

Cambridge-Cruden's Complete Bible CONCORDANCE

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Learn About the Dedicated Alexander Cruden;
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Dr. Alexander Cruden

Cruden Devoted His Whole Life to Christian Scholarship!

Alexander Cruden 'Man of God' BRIEF-BIO, PART-1 - Completed First Concordance

Alexander Cruden 'Man of God' BRIEF-BIO, PART-2 - Bizarre Situation

Alexander Cruden: 200 Names and Titles of Jesus, 200 Names for God's People, with Scriptural References

Summary of Each Chapter of Each Bible Book by ALEXANDER CRUDEN


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Cambridge Orthodox™ Bible Dictionary

All Are Key-Word - Color-Coded Editions;

To help Understand Orthodox and Catholic Thinking;

Developed over 1,200 Years: Published in 1800's;

From an ABSOLUTE-INSPIRED Scriptural Position!

INDEX OF CAMBRIDGE ORTHODOX BIBLE DICTIONARY ENTRIES

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Cambridge Comprehensive Bible "ENCYCLOPEDIA"™
"NewtonStein Edited for “Students-N-Scholars!”
"Key-Word - Color-Coded Edition"

Most Extensive Work of Biblical Scholarship of ALL-TIME
International Standard, UNABRIDGED, Annotated by NewtonStein

Approx 16,000 Std Pages;
Approx 12,500 Major Entries;
Approx 200,000 Scripture References;

From "INSPIRED-INERRANT" Scriptural Position!

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The "New International STANDARD Bible"™
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Dr. Noah Webster

Is Basically Webster's Bible, which Corrects KJV as Follows:
Replaces VULGAR words 'whor_', 'a_s', 'bas_ard', 'pi_s, etc.,

Do you use a Bible with VULGAR LANGUAGE?

If So, "WHY?"

Noah Webster Devoted His Whole Life to Ministry Scholarship!

SCRIPTIPEDIA!™ Noah Webster: Preface to His KJV REVISION, PART-1

SCRIPTIPEDIA!™ Noah Webster: His Actual Changes to the KJV Bible, PART-2

SCRIPTIPEDIA!™ Noah Webster: His Actual Changes to the KJV Bible, PART-3

SCRIPTIPEDIA!™ Noah Webster: His Actual Changes to the KJV Bible, PART-4

SCRIPTIPEDIA!™ Noah Webster: His Actual Changes to the KJV Bible, PART-5

SCRIPTIPEDIA!™ Noah Webster: His Actual Changes to the KJV Bible, SUMMARY

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Read About "Founding Father" Noah Webster
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Dr. Noah Webster

Served under Washington in American Revolution
Webster was asked by Washington to do this Dictionary!

Webster: Master of 20 Languages! Fluent in 7 More!
Noah Webster: The Greatest Linguistics Scholar ever!

Webster's Great Treatise on Origins of Language: Preface to Dictionary

Noah Webster: The "Father of American Scholarship!"

Noah Webster: Brief Bio of an American Founding Father!

Webster's 1828-1841 Original Dictionary,

With Annotations By NewtonStein;
"Key-Word - Color-Coded Edition"
One of the ALL-TIME Greatest Works of Scholarship!

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Dictionary of the “King James Bible Era”
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King James (QUEEN JAMES?) KJV Bible;

King James, "Bisexual", was buried with male lover, not his wife!
Please don't try to understand the “KJV” Bible,
Using An English Dictionary 400 years Newer!

(All Entries “A-Z” on One Webpage for Research Convenience!)

Dictionary of the “King James Bible Era: 2,600 Entries
ITALICIZED Words in the KING JAMES BIBLE
Why Noah Webster REVISED the King James Bible: VULGAR LANGUAGE

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Dictionary of “Puritan-Pilgrim Era”
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John Calvin, Geneva Bible Notes;

Considered by many to be most "impacting" Theologian of Reformation!
Pleas Don't try to Understand the Pilgrims' “GENEVA BIBLE”
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Dictionary of Puritan-Pilgrims: “The Geneva Bible Era:" 1550-1650
The GENEVA BIBLE: Bible of the Puritans-Pilgrims
The GENEVA Puritans-Pilgrims BIBLE Background: (Brief)

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Dictionary of William Shakespeare

Most Referenced Singular Author of All Time!
Considered the Greatest Master of English for Nearly 5 Centuries!
Considered also to be a Profound, "Informal" Theologian!
Used over 2,000 Bible References in his works: AMAZING!

(All Entries “A-Z” on One Webpage for Research Convenience!)

Dictionary of the “King James Bible Era"
William Shakespeare: His Beliefs of Christianity!
Shakespeare REFERENCED BIBLE 2,000 Times! (The Most of all Writers)



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"God's Goals"

For This World!

Does God Achieve His Goals?
OR, does Satan achieve his goals?

(All Teaching and Commentary from "INSPIRED-INERRANT!" View of Scripture!)

The most IMPORTANT "3-QUESTION QUIZ" you'll ever Take?

The Adversary’s Goals:

    SCRIPTURE: "The ‘Devil’ ... walketh about seeking whom he may DEVOUR." I Pet 5:8

    SCRIPTURE: "The ‘Thief’ (Devil) cometh not, but for to steal, to kill and to DESTROY." John 10:10

      QUESTION: Do you Believe Satan the Devil Succeeds?___ Or Fails?___

God the Father’s Goals:

    SCRIPTURE: "For God sent NOT His Son into the world to condemn the world, but that the world though Him might be SAVED! See John 3:16 John 3:17

    SCRIPTURE: "Beloved, be not ignorant of this one thing, ... The Lord is ... NOT willing that any should perish, but that ALL should come to repentance. 2 Pet 3:9

      QUESTION: Do you Believe God the Father Succeeds?___ Or Fails?___

God the Son’s Goals:

    SCRIPTURE: "For the Son of Man is come to seek and to SAVE that which is lost!" Luk 19:10 "For I came NOT to judge the world, but to SAVE the world. John 12:47

    SCRIPTURE: "And I, if I be lifted up from the Earth, I WILL DRAW ALL men unto Me." Joh 12:32

      QUESTION: Do you Believe God the Son (Jesus Christ): Succeeds?___ Or Fails?___ center>

God the Spirit’s Goals:

    SCRIPTURE: Jesus declares: "'I ’WILL’' send Him (Holy Spirit) unto you, and when He is come 'He ’WILL’' testify of Me: John 14:26

    SCRIPTURE: "He ’WILL’ reprove the world [convict, convince, correct] of sin, of righteousness, and of judgment: John 16:7

    SCRIPTURE: (1) Of sin, because they believe not on me; ... (2) Of righteousness, because I go to my Father; ...(3) Of judgment, because the 'Prince of this World' IS JUDGED![A] John 16:8-10

      QUESTION: Do you think God the Spirit Succeeds?___ Or Fails?___

      ULTIMATELY, WHO, ACHIEVES THEIR STATED GOALS? GOD or Satan?

      If you believe







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    CHRISTIPEDIA

    PRESIDENT JAMES MONROE,

    Soldier Under George Washington, BRIEF BIO;

    (Always "INSPIRED-INERRANT!" View of Scripture!)

    AMERICAN FLAG DRAPE LEFT THESIS, TOPIC: James Monroe, age 17 when Revolutionary War began, was with Washington at valley Forge; was shot, became a Captain; Was mentored by Jefferson after the War, became a lawyer, Congressman, Cabinet Member, then President for two terms;

    CHRISTIAN FLAG WAVING JAMES-MONROE-PHOTO-OVAL-in-SQUAREAMERICAN FLAG WAVING AMERICAN

    President James Monroe

    JAMES MONROE, FOUNDING FATHER, PRESIDENT: BRIEF BIO

    JAMES MONROE, MENTORED by THOMAS JEFFERSON, NEIGHBORS

    JAMES MONROE: INTRO;

      James Monroe was among the youngest of the true American Founding Fathers. He was just 17, and a common foot-soldier in the Washington's army. Physically robust and athletic, he dropped out of college to join a local militia, buying his own gun and practicing like a kid at sport!

        For comparison, think of ANY KID, USA, signing up as a teen to fight in WW-2 - unnamed and unknown - to FDR, Douglas MacArthur, George Patton, Omar Bradley, Dwight David Eisenhower or V.P. Truman!

        James Monroe was completely unknown in the early days - a mere Grade-School boy during the great arguments over the Stamp Act, and eventually the Tea Tax, by the likes of Peyton Randolph, Franklin, Washington, John Hancock, the Lee Brothers, Patrick Henry, and the Sons of Liberty - Sam-&-John Adams.

        In fact, James Monroe was more contemporary with John Adams' son John Quincy, who followed Monroe in the US Presidency.

      But James Monroe was a dedicated and valiant Patriot, a courageous warrior in Battle, wounded and yet still warring, and he came to the attention of Washington and Jefferson as a young man going places!

      And they were right!


    GOLD DIVIDER WITH CROSS CENTER
    CHRISTIPEDIA

    PRESIDENT JAMES MONROE,

    Soldier Under George Washington, BRIEF BIO;

    (Always "INSPIRED-INERRANT!" View of Scripture!)

    AMERICAN FLAG DRAPE LEFT THESIS, TOPIC: James Monroe, age 17 when Revolutionary War began, was with Washington at valley Forge; was shot, became a Captain; Was mentored by Jefferson after the War, became a lawyer, Congressman, Cabinet Member, then President for two terms;

    CHRISTIAN FLAG WAVING JAMES-MONROE-PHOTO-OVAL-in-SQUAREAMERICAN FLAG WAVING AMERICAN

    President James Monroe

    JAMES MONROE, FOUNDING FATHER, PRESIDENT: BRIEF BIO

    JAMES MONROE, MENTORED by THOMAS JEFFERSON, NEIGHBORS

    JAMES MONROE: Beginning;

      James Monroe was born in the rainy season on April 28, 1758, when George Washington was 26 years old, and courting to marry.

      James Monroe - like Thomas Jefferson and John Adams before him, held on to life long enough to die on July 4th! The year was 1831.

      James Monroe was the fifth President of the United States (1817–1825), following Washington, John Adams, Jefferson and Madison.

      Monroe was next to the last president who was a Founding Father of the United States, and the last president from the Virginia dynasty and the Republican Generation.[1]

      His presidency was marked both by an "Era of Good Feelings" – a period of relatively little partisan strife – and later by the Panic of 1819 . . . and a fierce national debate over the admission of the Missouri Territory.

      Monroe is most noted for his proclamation of the "Monroe Doctrine" in 1823, which stated that the United States would not tolerate further European intervention in the Americas.

      James Monroe was born in Westmoreland County, Virginia, not all that far from Washington, Jefferson, Madison, Patricvk Henry and he went to school with JOhn Marshall,

      James Monroe fought in the American Revolutionary War. He was injured in the Battle of Trenton with a musket ball to his shoulder, but healed and returned to combat with Washington at Monmouth.

      James Monroe was with Washington at Valley Forge, and served with Alexander Hamilton.


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    CHRISTIPEDIA

    PRESIDENT JAMES MONROE,

    Soldier Under George Washington, BRIEF BIO;

    (Always "INSPIRED-INERRANT!" View of Scripture!)

    AMERICAN FLAG DRAPE LEFT THESIS, TOPIC: James Monroe, age 17 when Revolutionary War began, was with Washington at valley Forge; was shot, became a Captain; Was mentored by Jefferson after the War, became a lawyer, Congressman, Cabinet Member, then President for two terms;

    CHRISTIAN FLAG WAVING JAMES-MONROE-PHOTO-OVAL-in-SQUAREAMERICAN FLAG WAVING AMERICAN

    President James Monroe

    JAMES MONROE, FOUNDING FATHER, PRESIDENT: BRIEF BIO

    JAMES MONROE, MENTORED by THOMAS JEFFERSON, NEIGHBORS

    JAMES MONROE: After the War;

      After studying law at the recommendation of - and under Thomas Jefferson from 1780 to 1783 (who became his mentor SEE ABOVE), and he served as a delegate in the Continental Congress.

      As an anti-federalist delegate to the Virginia convention that considered ratification of the United States Constitution, Monroe opposed ratification, claiming it gave too much power to the central government and lacked a Bill of Rights".

      Nonetheless, Monroe took an active part in the new government and in 1790 he was elected to the Senate of the first United States Congress, where he joined the Jeffersonians.

      He gained experience as an executive as the Governor of Virginia and rose to national prominence when as a diplomat in France he helped negotiate the Louisiana Purchase in 1803.


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    CHRISTIPEDIA

    PRESIDENT JAMES MONROE,

    Soldier Under George Washington, BRIEF BIO;

    (Always "INSPIRED-INERRANT!" View of Scripture!)

    AMERICAN FLAG DRAPE LEFT THESIS, TOPIC: James Monroe, age 17 when Revolutionary War began, was with Washington at valley Forge; was shot, became a Captain; Was mentored by Jefferson after the War, became a lawyer, Congressman, Cabinet Member, then President for two terms;

    CHRISTIAN FLAG WAVING JAMES-MONROE-PHOTO-OVAL-in-SQUAREAMERICAN FLAG WAVING AMERICAN

    President James Monroe

    JAMES MONROE, FOUNDING FATHER, PRESIDENT: BRIEF BIO

    JAMES MONROE, MENTORED by THOMAS JEFFERSON, NEIGHBORS

    JAMES MONROE: Before Presidency;

      James Monroe was of French and Scottish descent.

      During the War of 1812, Monroe held the critical roles of Secretary of State and the Secretary of War under President James Madison.[2]

      Facing little opposition from the fractured Federalist Party, Monroe was easily elected president in 1816, winning over 80 percent of the electoral vote and becoming the last president during the First Party System era of American politics.

      As president, he sought to ease partisan tensions and embarked on a tour of the country and was well received everywhere.

      As nationalism surged, partisan fury subsided and the "Era of Good Feelings" ensued until the Money Panic of 1819 struck and dispute over the admission of Missouri embroiled the country in 1820.

      Nonetheless, Monroe won near-unanimous reelection.


    GOLD DIVIDER WITH CROSS CENTER
    CHRISTIPEDIA

    PRESIDENT JAMES MONROE,

    Soldier Under George Washington, BRIEF BIO;

    (Always "INSPIRED-INERRANT!" View of Scripture!)

    AMERICAN FLAG DRAPE LEFT THESIS, TOPIC: James Monroe, age 17 when Revolutionary War began, was with Washington at valley Forge; was shot, became a Captain; Was mentored by Jefferson after the War, became a lawyer, Congressman, Cabinet Member, then President for two terms;

    CHRISTIAN FLAG WAVING JAMES-MONROE-PHOTO-OVAL-in-SQUAREAMERICAN FLAG WAVING AMERICAN

    President James Monroe

    JAMES MONROE, FOUNDING FATHER, PRESIDENT: BRIEF BIO

    JAMES MONROE, MENTORED by THOMAS JEFFERSON, NEIGHBORS

    JAMES MONROE: Monroe Doctrine;

      In 1823, he announced the Monroe Doctrine, which became a landmark in American foreign policy.

      His presidency with that of John Quincy Adams concluded the first period of American presidential history before the beginning of Jacksonian democracy and the Second Party System era. Following his retirement in 1825, Monroe was plagued by financial difficulties.

      He died in New York City on July 4, 1831.

      A marker designates the site of James Monroe's birthplace in Monroe Hall, Virginia.

      James Monroe was born on April 28, 1758, in a wooded area of Westmoreland County, Virginia. The site is marked and is one mile from what is known today as Monroe Hall, Virginia.

      Monroe's father, Spence Monroe (1727–1774) was a moderately prosperous planter who also learned the carpentry trade. His mother, Elizabeth Jones Monroe (1730–1774), married Spence Monroe in 1752. Both parents died the same year while James was a teenager.

      His paternal great-grandfather emigrated to America from Scotland in the mid-17th century. In 1650 Andrew Monroe patented a large tract of land in Washington Parish, Westmoreland County, Virginia.[3]

      Education and military service

      James Monroe studied at Campbelltown Academy, a school run by the Reverend Archibald Campbell of Washington Parish (so named for George Washington's Minister Grandad, and Dad., between the ages of 11 and 16.

      There he excelled as a prodigious pupil and progressed through Latin and mathematics at a rate faster than that of most boys his age. John Marshall, later Chief Justice of the United States, was among his classmates.

      At the age of 16, Monroe inherited his father's fortune.

      He also began forming a close relationship with his uncle, the influential Judge Joseph Jones, who had been educated at the Inns of Court in London and was the executor of his father's estate.

      That same year, Monroe enrolled in the College of William and Mary. However in 1774 (age 16), the atmosphere on the Williamsburg campus was not conducive to study, and the prospect of rebellion against King George charged most of the students, including Monroe, with patriotic fervor.

      The following spring, Monroe dropped out of college and joined the 3rd Virginia Regiment in the Continental Army.[4]

      In June 1775, after the battles of Lexington and Concord, Monroe joined 24 older men in raiding the arsenal at the Governor's Palace. The 200 muskets and 300 swords they appropriated helped arm the Williamsburg militia.

      The following spring, Monroe dropped out of college and joined the Continental army.

      He never returned to earn a degree.


    GOLD DIVIDER WITH CROSS CENTER
    CHRISTIPEDIA

    PRESIDENT JAMES MONROE,

    Soldier Under George Washington, BRIEF BIO;

    (Always "INSPIRED-INERRANT!" View of Scripture!)

    AMERICAN FLAG DRAPE LEFT THESIS, TOPIC: James Monroe, age 17 when Revolutionary War began, was with Washington at valley Forge; was shot, became a Captain; Was mentored by Jefferson after the War, became a lawyer, Congressman, Cabinet Member, then President for two terms;

    CHRISTIAN FLAG WAVING JAMES-MONROE-PHOTO-OVAL-in-SQUAREAMERICAN FLAG WAVING AMERICAN

    President James Monroe

    JAMES MONROE, FOUNDING FATHER, PRESIDENT: BRIEF BIO

    JAMES MONROE, MENTORED by THOMAS JEFFERSON, NEIGHBORS

    JAMES MONROE: Monroe Doctrine;

      Between 1780 and 1783 - while injured from the War, Jame Monroe studied law under Thomas Jefferson.[5][6]

      Monroe was not particularly interested in legal theory or practice, but chose to take it up because he felt that it offered "the most immediate rewards" and that it would place him on a path to wealth, social standing, and political influence.[6]

      Although Andrew Jackson served as a courier in a militia unit at age thirteen and John Quincy Adams served in Government at age 14:

        >> Monroe is regarded as the last U.S. President who was a Revolutionary War hero,

        >> Since he served as an officer of the Continental Army, under Washington, was at valley Forge, personally was in combat, injured, etc.[7]

      Monroe served with distinction at the Battle of Trenton, where he was shot in his left shoulder. He spent three months recuperating from his wound.

      In John Trumbull's painting "Capture of the Hessians at the Battle of Trenton", Monroe can be seen lying wounded at left center of painting.

      In an even more famous painting - Washington Crossing the Delaware - James Monroe is shown holding the flag.

      Following his war service, he practiced law in Fredericksburg, Virginia.[8][9]


    GOLD DIVIDER WITH CROSS CENTER
    CHRISTIPEDIA

    PRESIDENT JAMES MONROE,

    Soldier Under George Washington, BRIEF BIO;

    (Always "INSPIRED-INERRANT!" View of Scripture!)

    AMERICAN FLAG DRAPE LEFT THESIS, TOPIC: James Monroe, age 17 when Revolutionary War began, was with Washington at valley Forge; was shot, became a Captain; Was mentored by Jefferson after the War, became a lawyer, Congressman, Cabinet Member, then President for two terms;

    CHRISTIAN FLAG WAVING JAMES-MONROE-PHOTO-OVAL-in-SQUAREAMERICAN FLAG WAVING AMERICAN

    President James Monroe

    JAMES MONROE, FOUNDING FATHER, PRESIDENT: BRIEF BIO

    JAMES MONROE, MENTORED by THOMAS JEFFERSON, NEIGHBORS

    JAMES MONROE: Marriage;

      James Monroe married Elizabeth Kortright (1768–1830), daughter of Laurence Kortright and Hannah Aspinwall Kortright, on February 16, 1786, in New York City. After a brief honeymoon on Long Island, the Monroes returned to New York to live with her father until Congress adjourned.

      The Monroes had the following children:

        • Eliza Monroe Hay (1786–1835) – married George Hay in 1808 and substituted as official White House host for her ailing mother.

        • James Spence Monroe (1799–1801) - his name is merely a speculation, as his grave reads "J.S. Monroe", and not this name.

        • Maria Hester Monroe Gouverneur (1803–1850) – married her cousin Samuel L. Gouverneur on March 8, 1820, in the first wedding of a president's child in the White House.[10][11]


      Monroe fulfilled his youthful dream of becoming the owner of a large plantation and wielding great political power, . . . but his efforts in agriculture were never profitable.

      He sold his small inherited Virginia plantation in 1783 to enter law and politics, and though he owned land and slaves and speculated in property he was rarely on-site to oversee the operation. Therefore the slaves were not treated as kindly as James Monroe treated them when at home.

      The plantations barely supported the livelihoods and homes of the slaves - if that. Monroe's lavish lifestyle often necessitated selling property to pay debts.[12]

    Early political career - Virginia politics

      Monroe was elected to the Virginia House of Delegates in 1782. After serving for the Continental legislature he was elected to the Fourth Continental Congress in November 1783.

      He was also elected to and served in the Fifth and Sixth Congresses, serving for a total of three years where he finally retired from that office by the rule of rotation.[13]


    GOLD DIVIDER WITH CROSS CENTER
    CHRISTIPEDIA

    PRESIDENT JAMES MONROE,

    Soldier Under George Washington, BRIEF BIO;

    (Always "INSPIRED-INERRANT!" View of Scripture!)

    AMERICAN FLAG DRAPE LEFT THESIS, TOPIC: James Monroe, age 17 when Revolutionary War began, was with Washington at valley Forge; was shot, became a Captain; Was mentored by Jefferson after the War, became a lawyer, Congressman, Cabinet Member, then President for two terms;

    CHRISTIAN FLAG WAVING JAMES-MONROE-PHOTO-OVAL-in-SQUAREAMERICAN FLAG WAVING AMERICAN

    President James Monroe

    JAMES MONROE, FOUNDING FATHER, PRESIDENT: BRIEF BIO

    JAMES MONROE, MENTORED by THOMAS JEFFERSON, NEIGHBORS

    JAMES MONROE: Opposed 1887 Constitution;

      In Virginia, the struggle in 1788 over the ratification of the proposed new Constitution involved far more than a simple clash between federalists and anti-federalists. Virginians held a full spectrum of opinions about the merits of the proposed change in national government.

        >> George Washington and James Madison were leading supporters;

        >> Patrick Henry and George Mason were leading opponents.

        >> Thomas Jefferson was in France;

        >> James Monroe and Edmund Pendleton were the central actors in the ratification fight were those who held the middle ground in the ideological struggle.


      Led by these "federalists who are for amendments," they criticized the absence of a "Bill of Rights" and . . . worried about surrendering taxation powers to the central government.

      Virginia ratified the Constitution in June 1788, largely because these Monroe and others suspended their reservations and vowed to press for changes after the new government had been established.[14]

      Virginia narrowly ratified the Constitution.

      Monroe ran for a House seat in the 1st Congress but was defeated by Madison.

      In 1790 he was elected United States Senator.

      He soon joined the "Democratic-Republican" faction led by Jefferson and Madison and by 1791 was the party leader in the Senate.[15]


    GOLD DIVIDER WITH CROSS CENTER
    CHRISTIPEDIA

    PRESIDENT JAMES MONROE,

    Soldier Under George Washington, BRIEF BIO;

    (Always "INSPIRED-INERRANT!" View of Scripture!)

    AMERICAN FLAG DRAPE LEFT THESIS, TOPIC: James Monroe, age 17 when Revolutionary War began, was with Washington at valley Forge; was shot, became a Captain; Was mentored by Jefferson after the War, became a lawyer, Congressman, Cabinet Member, then President for two terms;

    CHRISTIAN FLAG WAVING JAMES-MONROE-PHOTO-OVAL-in-SQUAREAMERICAN FLAG WAVING AMERICAN

    President James Monroe

    JAMES MONROE, FOUNDING FATHER, PRESIDENT: BRIEF BIO

    JAMES MONROE, MENTORED by THOMAS JEFFERSON, NEIGHBORS

    JAMES MONROE: Ambassador to France;

      Monroe resigned his Senate seat after being appointed Minister to France in 1794.[16]

      As ambassador, Monroe secured the release of Thomas Paine when he was arrested for his opposition to the execution of Louis XVI on the condition that he be sent to America.[17]

      He managed to free all the Americans held in French prisons, including Madame Lafayette.

      He issued American passports for the Lafayette family, (since they had been granted citizenship), before she traveled to Lafayette's place of imprisonment, in Olmutz.[18]

      A strong friend of the French Revolution, Monroe tried to assure France that Washington's policy of strict neutrality did not favor Britain, . . . but American policy had come to favor Britain, and Monroe was stunned by the signing of the Jay Treaty in London.

      With France and Britain at war, the Jay Treaty alarmed and angered the French.

      Washington discharged Monroe from his office as Minister to France due to inefficiency, disruptive maneuvers, and failure to safeguard the interests of his country.[19]

      Monroe had long been concerned about untoward foreign influence on the presidency. He was alarmed at Spanish diplomat Don Diego de Gardoqui who in 1785 tried to convince Congress to allow Spain to close the Mississippi River to American traffic for 30 years.

      Here Monroe saw Spain over-influencing the republic, which could have risked the loss of the Southwest or dominance of the Northeast.[20]

      Monroe placed faith in a strong presidency and the system of checks and balances. In the 1790s he fretted over an aging George Washington being too heavily influenced by close advisers like Alexander Hamilton who was too close to Britain.

      Monroe favored France and so opposed the Jay Treaty in 1795.

      He was humiliated when Washington criticized him for his support of revolutionary France while he was minister to France.[21]

      He saw foreign and Federalist elements in the genesis of the Quasi War of 1798–1800 and in efforts to keep Thomas Jefferson away from the presidency in 1801. As governor he considered using the Virginia militia to force the outcome in favor of Jefferson.[22]

      Federalists responded in kind, some few seeing Monroe as at best a French dupe and at worst a traitor.[23]


    GOLD DIVIDER WITH CROSS CENTER
    CHRISTIPEDIA

    PRESIDENT JAMES MONROE,

    Soldier Under George Washington, BRIEF BIO;

    (Always "INSPIRED-INERRANT!" View of Scripture!)

    AMERICAN FLAG DRAPE LEFT THESIS, TOPIC: James Monroe, age 17 when Revolutionary War began, was with Washington at valley Forge; was shot, became a Captain; Was mentored by Jefferson after the War, became a lawyer, Congressman, Cabinet Member, then President for two terms;

    CHRISTIAN FLAG WAVING JAMES-MONROE-PHOTO-OVAL-in-SQUAREAMERICAN FLAG WAVING AMERICAN

    President James Monroe

    JAMES MONROE, FOUNDING FATHER, PRESIDENT: BRIEF BIO

    JAMES MONROE, MENTORED by THOMAS JEFFERSON, NEIGHBORS

    JAMES MONROE: Governor of Virginia and Diplomat;

      Out of office, Monroe returned to practicing law in Virginia until elected governor there as a Republican, his first term serving from 1799 to 1802.

      He was reelected Virginia's governor four times.[24]

      He called out the state militia to suppress Gabriel's Rebellion. Gabriel and 26 other enslaved people who participated were all hanged for treason.

      President Jefferson sent Monroe to France to assist Robert R. Livingston to negotiate the Louisiana Purchase. Monroe was then appointed Minister to the Court of St. James (Britain) from 1803 to 1807.

      In 1806 he negotiated a treaty with Britain, known as the Monroe–Pinkney Treaty. It would extend the Jay Treaty of 1794 which had expired after ten years; Jefferson had fought the Jay Treaty intensely in 1794–95 because he felt it would allow the British to subvert American republicanism.

      The treaty had produced ten years of peace and highly lucrative trade for American merchants, but Jefferson was still hostile.

      When Monroe and the British signed a renewal in December 1806, Jefferson decided to reject it, and not submit it to the Senate.

      Although the new treaty called for ten more years of trade between the U.S. and the British Empire, and gave American merchants certain guarantees that would have been good for business, Jefferson refused to give up the potential weapon of commercial warfare against Britain and was unhappy that it did not end the hated British practice of impressment of American sailors.

      Jefferson did not attempt to obtain another treaty, and as a result, the two nations moved from peace toward the War of 1812.[25]


    GOLD DIVIDER WITH CROSS CENTER
    CHRISTIPEDIA

    PRESIDENT JAMES MONROE,

    Soldier Under George Washington, BRIEF BIO;

    (Always "INSPIRED-INERRANT!" View of Scripture!)

    AMERICAN FLAG DRAPE LEFT THESIS, TOPIC: James Monroe, age 17 when Revolutionary War began, was with Washington at valley Forge; was shot, became a Captain; Was mentored by Jefferson after the War, became a lawyer, Congressman, Cabinet Member, then President for two terms;

    CHRISTIAN FLAG WAVING JAMES-MONROE-PHOTO-OVAL-in-SQUAREAMERICAN FLAG WAVING AMERICAN

    President James Monroe

    JAMES MONROE, FOUNDING FATHER, PRESIDENT: BRIEF BIO

    JAMES MONROE, MENTORED by THOMAS JEFFERSON, NEIGHBORS

    JAMES MONROE: 1808 election and the Quids

      The Republican Party was increasingly factionalized with "Old Republicans" or "Quids" denouncing the Administration for abandoning true republican principles.

      The Quids, seeing that Monroe's foreign policy had been rejected by Jefferson, tried to enlist Monroe in their cause. The plan was to run Monroe for president in the 1808 election in cooperation with the Federalist Party, which had a strong base in New England.

      John Randolph of Roanoke led the Quid effort to stop Jefferson's choice of James Madison. However, the regular Republicans overcame the Quids, kept control of the party in Virginia, and protected Madison's base.

      Monroe did not run and Madison was elected president.[26]

      Secretary of State and Secretary of War

      Monroe returned to the Virginia House of Delegates and was elected to another term as governor in 1811, but only served four months. He became Secretary of State in April of that year.

      He had little to do with the War of 1812, as President Madison and the War Hawks in Congress were dominant. The war went very badly, and when the British burned the capitol building on August 24, 1814, Madison removed John Armstrong as Secretary of War and turned to Monroe for help, appointing him Secretary of War on September 27.[27]

      Monroe resigned as Secretary of State on October 1, but no successor was ever appointed, so he continued doing the work.

      Thus from October 1, 1814, to February 28, 1815, Monroe effectively held both cabinet posts. Monroe formulated plans for an offensive invasion of Canada to win the war, but a peace treaty was ratified in February 1815, before any armies moved north.

      Monroe therefore resigned as Secretary of War on March 15, 1815 and was formally reappointed Secretary of State. Monroe stayed on at State until March 4, 1817, when he began his term as the new President of the United States.[2]


    GOLD DIVIDER WITH CROSS CENTER
    CHRISTIPEDIA

    PRESIDENT JAMES MONROE,

    Soldier Under George Washington, BRIEF BIO;

    (Always "INSPIRED-INERRANT!" View of Scripture!)

    AMERICAN FLAG DRAPE LEFT THESIS, TOPIC: James Monroe, age 17 when Revolutionary War began, was with Washington at valley Forge; was shot, became a Captain; Was mentored by Jefferson after the War, became a lawyer, Congressman, Cabinet Member, then President for two terms;

    CHRISTIAN FLAG WAVING JAMES-MONROE-PHOTO-OVAL-in-SQUAREAMERICAN FLAG WAVING AMERICAN

    President James Monroe

    JAMES MONROE, FOUNDING FATHER, PRESIDENT: BRIEF BIO

    JAMES MONROE, MENTORED by THOMAS JEFFERSON, NEIGHBORS

    JAMES MONROE: Presidential elections of 1816 and 1820;

      The congressional nominating caucus experienced little opposition during the administrations of Jefferson and Madison, but this situation changed in the election year of 1816. An indeterminate number of anti-Virginia Republicans, led by the New York delegation, objected to the caucus system along with the Federalists.

      Disorganization and failure to agree on William H. Crawford, Daniel Tompkins, Henry Clay or another possible contender weakened opposition to Monroe. The boycott by Virginia delegates of the March 12 caucus removed the chances of Monroe's opponents, and he received the caucus nomination four days later.[28]

      With the Federalist Party in disarray due to the unpopularity of their opposition to the War of 1812, he was easily elected.[29]

      The Federalists did not even name a candidate, though Rufus King of New York did run in opposition to Monroe under the Federalist banner.[29] King carried only Connecticut, Delaware, and Massachusetts and won only 34 of 217 electoral votes cast.[29] (See United States presidential election, 1816.)

      The collapse of the Federalists left Monroe with no organized opposition at the end of his first term, and he ran for reelection unopposed,[29] the only president other than Washington to do so.

      A single elector from New Hampshire cast a vote for John Quincy Adams, preventing a unanimous vote in the electoral college.[29] (See United States presidential election, 1820.)

      Presidency

      Monroe as he appears in the National Portrait Gallery in Washington, D.C.

      Domestic politics, Republican party dominance

      Monroe largely ignored old party lines in making appointments to lower posts, which reduced political tensions and enabled the "Era of Good Feelings", which lasted through his administration.

      He made two long national tours in 1817 to build national trust.

      Frequent stops on these tours allowed innumerable ceremonies of welcome and expressions of good will. The Federalist Party continued to fade away during his administration; it maintained its vitality and organizational integrity in Delaware and a few localities, but was no longer a national factor.

      Lacking serious opposition, the Republican party's Congressional caucus stopped meeting, and for practical purposes the Republican Party stopped operating.[30]


    GOLD DIVIDER WITH CROSS CENTER
    CHRISTIPEDIA

    PRESIDENT JAMES MONROE,

    Soldier Under George Washington, BRIEF BIO;

    (Always "INSPIRED-INERRANT!" View of Scripture!)

    AMERICAN FLAG DRAPE LEFT THESIS, TOPIC: James Monroe, age 17 when Revolutionary War began, was with Washington at valley Forge; was shot, became a Captain; Was mentored by Jefferson after the War, became a lawyer, Congressman, Cabinet Member, then President for two terms;

    CHRISTIAN FLAG WAVING JAMES-MONROE-PHOTO-OVAL-in-SQUAREAMERICAN FLAG WAVING AMERICAN

    President James Monroe

    JAMES MONROE, FOUNDING FATHER, PRESIDENT: BRIEF BIO

    JAMES MONROE, MENTORED by THOMAS JEFFERSON, NEIGHBORS

    JAMES MONROE:m Domestic troubles

      Monroe's popularity was undiminished even when following difficult nationalist policies as the country's commitment to nationalism was starting to show serious fractures.

      The Panic of 1819 caused a painful economic depression.

      The application for statehood in 1819 by the Missouri Territory as a slave state failed.

      An amended bill for gradually eliminating slavery in Missouri precipitated two years of bitter debate in Congress.

      The Missouri Compromise bill resolved the struggle, pairing Missouri as a slave state with Maine, a free state, and barring slavery north of latitude 36/30' N forever.

      The Missouri Compromise lasted until 1857, when it was declared unconstitutional by the U.S. Supreme Court as part of the Dred Scott decision.

      Cumberland Road

      Congress demanded high subsidies for internal improvements, such as for the improvement of the Cumberland Road, during Monroe's presidency.[31]

      Monroe vetoed the Cumberland Road Bill, which provided for yearly improvements to the road, because he believed it to be unconstitutional for the government to have such a large hand in what was essentially a civics bill deserving of attention on a state by state basis.

      This defiance underlined Monroe's populist ideals and added credit to the local offices that he was so fond of visiting on his speech tours.[32]

      Native American Policies, Seminole Wars

      Monroe sparked a constitutional controversy when, in 1817, he sent General Andrew Jackson to move against Spanish Florida to pursue hostile Seminole Indians and punish the Spanish for aiding them.

      News of Jackson's exploits ignited a congressional investigation of the 1st Seminole War.

      Dominated by Democratic-Republicans, the 15th Congress was generally expansionist and more likely to support the popular Jackson. Ulterior political agendas of many congressmen dismantled partisan and sectional coalitions, so that Jackson's opponents argued weakly and became easily discredited.

      After much debate, the House of Representatives voted down all resolutions that condemned Jackson in any way, thus implicitly endorsing Monroe's actions and leaving the issue surrounding the role of the executive with respect to war powers unanswered.[33]

      Monroe believed that the Indians must progress from the hunting stage to become an agricultural people, noting in 1817, "A hunter or savage state requires a greater extent of territory to sustain it than is compatible with progress and just claims of civilised life."[34]

      His proposals to speed up the assimilation process were ignored by Congress.[35]


    GOLD DIVIDER WITH CROSS CENTER
    CHRISTIPEDIA

    PRESIDENT JAMES MONROE,

    Soldier Under George Washington, BRIEF BIO;

    (Always "INSPIRED-INERRANT!" View of Scripture!)

    AMERICAN FLAG DRAPE LEFT THESIS, TOPIC: James Monroe, age 17 when Revolutionary War began, was with Washington at valley Forge; was shot, became a Captain; Was mentored by Jefferson after the War, became a lawyer, Congressman, Cabinet Member, then President for two terms;

    CHRISTIAN FLAG WAVING JAMES-MONROE-PHOTO-OVAL-in-SQUAREAMERICAN FLAG WAVING AMERICAN

    President James Monroe

    JAMES MONROE, FOUNDING FATHER, PRESIDENT: BRIEF BIO

    JAMES MONROE, MENTORED by THOMAS JEFFERSON, NEIGHBORS

    JAMES MONROE: Foreign policy, Spanish Florida

      Relations with Spain over the purchase of Spanish Florida proved to be troublesome, especially after General Andrew Jackson invaded that territory on what he believed to be the president's authorization, which Monroe later denied giving.

      But largely through the skillful work of John Quincy Adams, a treaty was signed with Spain in 1819 that ceded Florida to the United States in return for the assumption of $5,000,000 in claims and the relinquishment of any claims to Texas.[36]

      Florida was ceded to the U.S. in 1821.

      Monroe Doctrine

      After the Napoleonic wars (which ended in 1815), almost all of Spain's and Portugal's colonies in Latin America revolted and declared independence. Americans welcomed this development as a validation of the spirit of Republicanism.

      Secretary of State John Quincy Adams suggested delaying formal recognition until Florida was secured. The problem of imperial invasion was intensified by a Russian claim to the Pacific coast down to the fifty-first parallel and simultaneous European pressure to have all of Latin America returned to its colonial status.

      Monroe informed Congress in March 1822 that permanent stable governments had been established in the United Provinces of La Plata (present-day Argentina), Chile, Peru, Colombia and Mexico.

      Adams, under Monroe's supervision, wrote the instructions for the ministers (ambassadors) to these new countries. They declared that the policy of the United States was to uphold republican institutions and to seek treaties of commerce on a most-favored-nation basis.

      The United States would support inter-American congresses dedicated to the development of economic and political institutions fundamentally differing from those prevailing in Europe. The articulation of an "American system" distinct from that of Europe was a basic tenet of Monroe's policy toward Latin America.

      Monroe took pride as the United States was the first nation to extend recognition and to set an example to the rest of the world for its support of the "cause of liberty and humanity".


    GOLD DIVIDER WITH CROSS CENTER
    CHRISTIPEDIA

    PRESIDENT JAMES MONROE,

    Soldier Under George Washington, BRIEF BIO;

    (Always "INSPIRED-INERRANT!" View of Scripture!)

    AMERICAN FLAG DRAPE LEFT THESIS, TOPIC: James Monroe, age 17 when Revolutionary War began, was with Washington at valley Forge; was shot, became a Captain; Was mentored by Jefferson after the War, became a lawyer, Congressman, Cabinet Member, then President for two terms;

    CHRISTIAN FLAG WAVING JAMES-MONROE-PHOTO-OVAL-in-SQUAREAMERICAN FLAG WAVING AMERICAN

    President James Monroe

    JAMES MONROE, FOUNDING FATHER, PRESIDENT: BRIEF BIO

    JAMES MONROE, MENTORED by THOMAS JEFFERSON, NEIGHBORS

    JAMES MONROE: MONROE DOCTRINE:

      Monroe formally announced in his message to Congress on December 2, 1823, what was later called the Monroe Doctrine.

      He proclaimed that the Americas should be free from future European colonization and free from European interference in sovereign countries' affairs.

      It further stated the United States' intention to stay neutral in European wars and wars between European powers and their colonies, but to consider new colonies or interference with independent countries in the Americas as hostile acts toward the United States.

      Although it is Monroe's most famous contribution to history, the speech was written by John Q. Adams, who designed the doctrine in cooperation with Britain.[37]

      Monroe and Adams realized that American recognition would not protect the new countries against military intervention to restore Spain's power.

      In October 1823, Richard Rush, the American minister in London, advised that Foreign Secretary George Canning was proposing that the U.S. and Britain jointly declare their opposition to European intervention.

      Britain, with its powerful navy, also opposed re-conquest of Latin America and suggested that the United States join in proclaiming a "hands off" policy. Galvanized by the British initiative, Monroe consulted with American leaders and then formulated a plan with Adams.

      Ex-Presidents Jefferson and Madison counseled Monroe to accept the offer, . . .

      . . . but John Q. Adams advised, "It would be more candid ... to avow our principles explicitly to Russia and France, than to come in as a cock-boat in the wake of the British man-of-war."

      Monroe accepted Adams' advice.

      Not only must Latin America be left alone, he warned, but also Russia must not encroach southward on the Pacific coast. "...the American continents," he stated, "by the free and independent condition which they have assumed and maintain, are henceforth not to be considered as subjects for future colonization by any European Power."

      The Monroe Doctrine at the time of its adoption thus pertained more to the Russians in North America than to the former Spanish colonies. The result was a system of American isolationism under the sponsorship of the British navy.

      The Monroe Doctrine held that the United States considered the Western Hemisphere as no longer a place for European colonization; that any future effort to gain further political control in the hemisphere or to violate the independence of existing states would be treated as an act of hostility; and finally that there existed two different and incompatible political systems in the world.

      The United States, therefore, promised to refrain from intervention in European affairs and demanded Europe to abstain from interfering with American matters. There were few serious European attempts at intervention.[37]

      Administration and Cabinet

      Monroe made balanced Cabinet choices, naming a southerner, John C. Calhoun, as Secretary of War, and a northerner, John Quincy Adams, as Secretary of State.

      Both proved outstanding, as Adams was a master diplomat[38] and Calhoun completely reorganized the War Department to overcome the serious deficiencies that hobbled it during the war of 1812.[39]

      Monroe decided on political grounds not to offer Henry Clay the State Department, and Clay turned down the War Department and remained Speaker of the House, so Monroe lacked an outstanding westerner in his cabinet.

      The Monroe Cabinet

      Office Name Term

      PresidentJames Monroe 1817–1825

      Vice President, Daniel D. Tompkins, 1817–1825

      Secretary of State, John Quincy Adams, 1817–1825

      Secretary of Treasury, William H. Crawford, 1817–1825

      Secretary of War, John C. Calhoun, 1817–1825

      Attorney General, Richard Rush, 1817-1825

      William Wirt, 1817–1825, Secretary of the Navy,

      Benjamin W. Crowninshield, 1817–1818

      Smith Thompson, 1819–1823

      Samuel L. Southard, 1823–1825


    GOLD DIVIDER WITH CROSS CENTER
    CHRISTIPEDIA

    PRESIDENT JAMES MONROE,

    Soldier Under George Washington, BRIEF BIO;

    (Always "INSPIRED-INERRANT!" View of Scripture!)

    AMERICAN FLAG DRAPE LEFT THESIS, TOPIC: James Monroe, age 17 when Revolutionary War began, was with Washington at valley Forge; was shot, became a Captain; Was mentored by Jefferson after the War, became a lawyer, Congressman, Cabinet Member, then President for two terms;

    CHRISTIAN FLAG WAVING JAMES-MONROE-PHOTO-OVAL-in-SQUAREAMERICAN FLAG WAVING AMERICAN

    President James Monroe

    JAMES MONROE, FOUNDING FATHER, PRESIDENT: BRIEF BIO

    JAMES MONROE, MENTORED by THOMAS JEFFERSON, NEIGHBORS

    JAMES MONROE: Judicial appointments;

      List of federal judges appointed by James Monroe

      Monroe appointed one Justice to the Supreme Court of the United States, Smith Thompson.

      He appointed 21 other federal judges, all to United States district courts, as no vacancies occurred on the one circuit court existing at the time.

      States admitted to the Union

      • Mississippi – December 10, 1817

      • Illinois – December 3, 1818

      • Alabama – December 14, 1819

      • Maine – March 15, 1820

      • Missouri – August 10, 1821


    GOLD DIVIDER WITH CROSS CENTER
    CHRISTIPEDIA

    PRESIDENT JAMES MONROE,

    Soldier Under George Washington, BRIEF BIO;

    (Always "INSPIRED-INERRANT!" View of Scripture!)

    AMERICAN FLAG DRAPE LEFT THESIS, TOPIC: James Monroe, age 17 when Revolutionary War began, was with Washington at valley Forge; was shot, became a Captain; Was mentored by Jefferson after the War, became a lawyer, Congressman, Cabinet Member, then President for two terms;

    CHRISTIAN FLAG WAVING JAMES-MONROE-PHOTO-OVAL-in-SQUAREAMERICAN FLAG WAVING AMERICAN

    President James Monroe

    JAMES MONROE, FOUNDING FATHER, PRESIDENT: BRIEF BIO

    JAMES MONROE, MENTORED by THOMAS JEFFERSON, NEIGHBORS

    JAMES MONROE: Post-presidency ;

      Monroe once owned a farm at the location of the University of Virginia in Charlottesville, literally a few hundred yards from Jefferson's Monticello.

      When his presidency ended on March 4, 1825, James Monroe resided at Monroe Hill on the grounds of the University of Virginia.

      This university's modern campus was Monroe's family farm from 1788 to 1817, but he had sold it in the first year of his presidency to the new college.

      He served on the college's Board of Visitors under Jefferson and then under the second rector and another former President James Madison, almost until his death.

      Monroe had racked up many debts during his years of public life.

      As a result, he was forced to sell off his Highland Plantation (now called Ash Lawn-Highland; it is owned by his alma mater, the College of William and Mary, which has opened it to the public).

      Throughout his life, he was not financially solvent, and his wife's poor health made matters worse.[40]

      For these reasons, he and his wife lived in Oak Hill, Virginia, until Elizabeth's death on September 23, 1830.

      In August 1825, the Marquis de Lafayette and President John Quincy Adams, were guests of the Monroes there.[41]

      Death

      Upon Elizabeth's death in 1830, Monroe moved to New York City to live with his daughter Maria Hester Monroe Gouverneur who had married Samuel L. Gouverneur in the White House.

      John Quincy Adams visited him there in April 1831.[42] Adams found him alert and eager to discuss the situation in Europe, but in ill health. Adams cut the visit short when he thought he was tiring Monroe.

      Monroe died there from heart failure and tuberculosis on July 4, 1831, thus becoming the third president in a row who died on Independence Day, July 4.

      His death came 55 years after the U.S. Declaration of Independence was proclaimed and 5 years after the death of two other Founding Fathers who became Presidents: John Adams and Thomas Jefferson.

      Monroe was originally buried in New York at the Gouverneur family's vault in the New York City Marble Cemetery.

      Twenty-seven years later in 1858 the body was re-interred to the President's Circle at the Hollywood Cemetery in Richmond, Virginia. The James Monroe Tomb is a U.S. National Historic Landmark.


    GOLD DIVIDER WITH CROSS CENTER
    CHRISTIPEDIA

    PRESIDENT JAMES MONROE,

    Soldier Under George Washington, BRIEF BIO;

    (Always "INSPIRED-INERRANT!" View of Scripture!)

    AMERICAN FLAG DRAPE LEFT THESIS, TOPIC: James Monroe, age 17 when Revolutionary War began, was with Washington at valley Forge; was shot, became a Captain; Was mentored by Jefferson after the War, became a lawyer, Congressman, Cabinet Member, then President for two terms;

    CHRISTIAN FLAG WAVING JAMES-MONROE-PHOTO-OVAL-in-SQUAREAMERICAN FLAG WAVING AMERICAN

    President James Monroe

    JAMES MONROE, FOUNDING FATHER, PRESIDENT: BRIEF BIO

    JAMES MONROE, MENTORED by THOMAS JEFFERSON, NEIGHBORS

    JAMES MONROE: Religious beliefs

      "When it comes to Monroe's thoughts on religion," Bliss Isely notes, "less is known than that of any other President."

      No letters survive in which he discussed his religious beliefs.

      Nor did his friends, family or associates comment on his beliefs. Letters that do survive, such as ones written after the death of his son, contain no discussion of religion.[43]

      Monroe was raised in a family that belonged to the Church of England when it was the state church in Virginia before the Revolution. As an adult frequently attended Episcopalian churches, though there is no record he ever took communion.

      Unlike Jefferson, Monroe was rarely attacked for his religious beliefs. An exception came in 1832 when James Renwick Willson, a Reformed Presbyterian minister in Albany, New York, criticized Monroe for having "lived and died like a second-rate Athenian philosopher."[45]

      As Secretary of State, Monroe dismissed Mordecai Manuel Noah from his post as consul to Tunis in 1815, for the apparent reason that he was Jewish.[46] Noah protested and gained letters from Adams, Jefferson, and Madison supporting church-state separation and tolerance for Jews.[47]


    GOLD DIVIDER WITH CROSS CENTER
    CHRISTIPEDIA

    PRESIDENT JAMES MONROE,

    Soldier Under George Washington, BRIEF BIO;

    (Always "INSPIRED-INERRANT!" View of Scripture!)

    AMERICAN FLAG DRAPE LEFT THESIS, TOPIC: James Monroe, age 17 when Revolutionary War began, was with Washington at valley Forge; was shot, became a Captain; Was mentored by Jefferson after the War, became a lawyer, Congressman, Cabinet Member, then President for two terms;

    CHRISTIAN FLAG WAVING JAMES-MONROE-PHOTO-OVAL-in-SQUAREAMERICAN FLAG WAVING AMERICAN

    President James Monroe

    JAMES MONROE, FOUNDING FATHER, PRESIDENT: BRIEF BIO

    JAMES MONROE, MENTORED by THOMAS JEFFERSON, NEIGHBORS

    JAMES MONROE: Slavery

      Monroe owned dozens of slaves, and according to William Seale, took some of his slaves to serve him when he resided at the White House from 1817 to 1825; this was not unique, as other slave owning presidents also had the custom of bringing their slaves to work for them since there was no domestic staff provided for the presidents at that time.[48]

      On October 15, 1799, in a slave dispute of some sort, Scheer's report was that Monroe (Governor of Virginia) "helped secure ... civil protection for slaves sentenced to death for capital crimes."[51]

    Gabriel's Conspiracy;
      While Monroe was Governor of Virginia in 1800, hundreds of slaves from Virginia intended to kidnap Governor Monroe, take Richmond, and negotiate for their freedom.

      However, on the day they were to kidnap Governor Monroe, a mighty storm arose August 30, 1800, and they were unable to attack. This is known as Gabriel's slave conspiracy[52]

      In response, Governor Monroe called out the militia; the slave patrols soon captured some slaves accused of involvement.

      Sidbury says some trials had a few measures to prevent abuses like an appointed attorney.[53] However, Governor Monroe again did what was fair and right and influenced the Executive Council to pardon and sell some slaves instead of hanging them.[54]

    Still Fighting Slavery Decades Later:
      Nearly 30 years later, as president of Virginia's constitutional convention in the fall of 1829, Monroe reiterated his belief that slavery was a blight which, even as a British colony, Virginia had attempted to eradicate.

      "What was the origin of our slave population?" he rhetorically asked. "The evil commenced when we were in our Colonial state, but acts were passed by our Colonial Legislature, prohibiting the importation, of more slaves, into the Colony.

      These were rejected by the Crown."

      To the extreme chagrin of states' rights proponents, Monroe was even willing to accept the federal government's financial assistance in emancipating and deporting the slaves.

      At the convention, Monroe made his final public statement on slavery, proposing that Virginia emancipate and deport its bondsmen with "the aid of the Union."[55]

      Monroe was part of the African Colonization Society formed in 1816, which included members like Henry Clay and Andrew Jackson.

      These men were not abolitionists, but they did find common ground with some abolitionists who supported colonization, and together they helped send several thousand freed slaves to Africa from 1820 to 1840.

      The concern slave owners like Monroe and Jackson had was to prevent free blacks from influencing slaves to rebel in southern states.

    LIBERIA!

      With about $100,000 in Federal grant money, the organization also bought land for those people in what is today Liberia.[56]

      Liberia is a thriving African nation today, with many American governmental policies and practices, with fond ties of its relationship to the USA.

      The capital of Liberia was named "Monrovia" after James Monroe.[57]


    GOLD DIVIDER WITH CROSS CENTER
    CHRISTIPEDIA

    PRESIDENT JAMES MONROE,

    Soldier Under George Washington, BRIEF BIO;

    (Always "INSPIRED-INERRANT!" View of Scripture!)

    AMERICAN FLAG DRAPE LEFT THESIS, TOPIC: James Monroe, age 17 when Revolutionary War began, was with Washington at valley Forge; was shot, became a Captain; Was mentored by Jefferson after the War, became a lawyer, Congressman, Cabinet Member, then President for two terms;

    CHRISTIAN FLAG WAVING JAMES-MONROE-PHOTO-OVAL-in-SQUAREAMERICAN FLAG WAVING AMERICAN

    President James Monroe

    JAMES MONROE, FOUNDING FATHER, PRESIDENT: BRIEF BIO

    JAMES MONROE, MENTORED by THOMAS JEFFERSON, NEIGHBORS

    JAMES MONROE: Famous Quotations;

      During his years of service in the U.S. Government James Monroe was noted for a number of famous quotes. Some of the more notable ones are listed below:

        • "It is only when the people become ignorant and corrupt, when they degenerate into a populace, that they are incapable of exercising their sovereignty. Usurpation is then an easy attainment, and an usurper soon found. The people themselves become the willing instruments of their own debasement and ruin." [58]

        • "Peace and good will have been, and will hereafter be, cultivated with all, and by the most faithful regard to justice.

        They have been dictated by a love of peace, of economy, and an earnest desire to save the lives of our fellow-citizens from that destruction and our country from that devastation which are inseparable from war when it finds us unprepared for it."[59]

        "The best form of government is that which is most likely to prevent the greatest sum of evil."[60]

        • "Never did a government commence under auspices so favorable, nor ever was success so complete. If we look to the history of other nations, ancient or modern, we find no example of a growth so rapid, so gigantic, of a people so prosperous and happy." [59]

        • "Such, then, being the highly favored condition of our country, it is in the interest of every citizen to maintain it. What are the dangers which menace us? If any exist, they ought to be ascertained and guarded against." [59]

        "The earth was given to mankind to support the greatest number of which it is capable, and no tribe or people have a right to withhold from the wants of others more than is necessary for their own support and comfort." [59]

        • "We must support our rights or lose our character, and with it, perhaps, our liberties. A people who fail to do it can scarcely be said to hold a place among independent nations.

        National honor is national property of the highest value.

        The sentiment in the mind of every citizen is national strength. It ought therefore to be cherished."


    GOLD DIVIDER WITH CROSS CENTER
    CHRISTIPEDIA

    PRESIDENT JAMES MONROE,

    Soldier Under George Washington, BRIEF BIO;

    (Always "INSPIRED-INERRANT!" View of Scripture!)

    AMERICAN FLAG DRAPE LEFT THESIS, TOPIC: James Monroe, age 17 when Revolutionary War began, was with Washington at valley Forge; was shot, became a Captain; Was mentored by Jefferson after the War, became a lawyer, Congressman, Cabinet Member, then President for two terms;

    CHRISTIAN FLAG WAVING JAMES-MONROE-PHOTO-OVAL-in-SQUAREAMERICAN FLAG WAVING AMERICAN

    President James Monroe

    JAMES MONROE, FOUNDING FATHER, PRESIDENT: BRIEF BIO

    JAMES MONROE, MENTORED by THOMAS JEFFERSON, NEIGHBORS

    JAMES MONROE: Legacy;

      • Since its 1824 renaming in his honor, the capital city of the West African country of Liberia has been named Monrovia. It is the only non-American capital city named after a U.S. President.

      • On December 12, 1954, the United States Postal Service released a 5¢ Liberty Issue postage stamp honoring Monroe.

      • The James Monroe Building in Richmond, Virginia, was named after him.

      • Monroe Hall, a freshman dormitory at the College of William and Mary is named after him

      • Monroe Hall, a freshman dormitory in Presidents Park at George Mason University is named after him

      • Monroe Hall, an academic building at the George Washington University is named after him

      • The City of Monroe, Michigan is also named for him.

      • James Monroe High School in Los Angeles, California is named after him.

      • Monroe County, PA, created in 1836, is named for him.

      • Monroe County, OH, is named for him.

      • The City of Monroe, Georgia, incorporated in 1821, is named for him.

      * Presidential Dollar of James Monroe

      * First Monroe Postage stamp, Issue of 1904

      * Statue of Monroe at Ash Lawn-Highland

      * Monroe Hall at the University of Virginia; Monroe once owned the land on which the university sits.


    GOLD DIVIDER WITH CROSS CENTER
    CHRISTIPEDIA

    PRESIDENT JAMES MONROE,

    Soldier Under George Washington, BRIEF BIO;

    (Always "INSPIRED-INERRANT!" View of Scripture!)

    AMERICAN FLAG DRAPE LEFT THESIS, TOPIC: James Monroe, age 17 when Revolutionary War began, was with Washington at valley Forge; was shot, became a Captain; Was mentored by Jefferson after the War, became a lawyer, Congressman, Cabinet Member, then President for two terms;

    CHRISTIAN FLAG WAVING JAMES-MONROE-PHOTO-OVAL-in-SQUAREAMERICAN FLAG WAVING AMERICAN

    President James Monroe

    JAMES MONROE, FOUNDING FATHER, PRESIDENT: BRIEF BIO

    JAMES MONROE, MENTORED by THOMAS JEFFERSON, NEIGHBORS

    JAMES MONROE: Trivia;

      • Monroe was the last U.S. President to wear a powdered wig tied in a queue, a tricorne and knee breeches according to the old fashioned style of the eighteenth century.[61][62]

      • Monroe served two full terms, succeeding James Madison who served two full terms, who succeeded Thomas Jefferson who served two full terms. He would be the last two-term President to succeed another two-term President until George W. Bush succeeded Bill Clinton nearly 200 years later.

      Moreover, Bush and Clinton belonged to rival political parties, whereas Jefferson, Madison and Monroe were in the same party, and Madison and Monroe had each served in their predecessors' cabinets, making Monroe the last two-term president to succeed a member of the same party.

      • Monroe was the last president who had never been photographed and whose portraits are preserved today only on paintings.[63]

      See also

      Book: Presidents of the United States (1789–1860)

      • Adams-Onís Treaty

      • List of United States political appointments that crossed party lines

      • Monrovia

      • List of Presidents of the United States

      • US Presidents on US postage stamps

    Bibliography

      • Ammon, Harry. James Monroe: The Quest for National Identity. (1971, 2nd ed. 1990). 706 pp. standard scholarly biography excerpt and text search

      • Ammon, Harry. "James Monroe" in Henry F. Graff ed., The Presidents: A Reference History (1997)

      • Bemis, Samuel Flagg. John Quincy Adams and the Foundations of American Foreign Policy (1949), the standard history of Monroe's foreign policy.

      • Cresson, William P. James Monroe (1946). 577 pp. good scholarly biography

      • Cunningham, Noble E., Jr. The Presidency of James Monroe. 1996. 246 pp. standard scholarly survey

      • Dangerfield, George. Era of Good Feelings (1953) excerpt and text search

      • Dangerfield, George. The Awakening of American Nationalism: 1815–1828 (1965) standard scholarly survey excerpt and text search

      • Elkins, Stanley M. and Eric McKitrick. The Age of Federalism (1995). most advanced analysis of the politics of the 1790s. online edition

      • Heidler, David S. "The Politics of National Aggression: Congress and the First Seminole War," Journal of the Early Republic 1993 13(4): 501–530. in JSTOR

      • Finkelman, Paul, ed. Encyclopedia of the New American Nation, 1754–1829 (2005), 1600 pp.

      • Gilman, Daniel Coit. James Monroe (1911) 312 pages; old barely adequate biography. online edition

      • Hart, Gary. James Monroe (2005) superficial, short, popular biography

      • Howe, Daniel Walker. What Hath God Wrought: The Transformation of America, 1815–1848 (2007), Pulitzer Prize; a sweeping interpretation of the entire era

      • Holmes, David L. The Faiths of the Founding Fathers, May 2006, online version

      • Kranish, Michael. "At Capitol, slavery's story turns full circle", The Boston GLobe, Boston, December 28, 2008.

      • May, Ernest R. The Making of the Monroe Doctrine (1975), argues it was issued to influence the outcome of the presidential election of 1824.

      • Morgan, George. The Life of James Monroe (1921) 484 pages; old and barely adequate biography. online edition

      • Perkins, Bradford. Castlereagh and Adams: England and the United States, 1812–1823 (1964)

      • Perkins, Dexter. The Monroe Doctrine, 1823–1826 (1927), the standard monograph about the origins of the doctrine.

      • Powell, Walter & Steinberg, Richard. The nonprofit sector: a research handbook, Yale, 2006, pg 40.

      • Renehan Edward J., Jr. The Monroe Doctrine: The Cornerstone of American Foreign Policy (2007)

      • Scherr, Arthur. "James Monroe and John Adams: An Unlikely 'Friendship'". The Historian 67#3 (2005) pp 405+. online edition

      • Skeen, Carl Edward. 1816: America Rising (1993) popular history

      • Scherr, Arthur. "James Monroe on the Presidency and 'Foreign Influence;: from the Virginia Ratifying Convention (1788) to Jefferson's Election (1801)." Mid-America 2002 84(1–3): 145–206. ISSN 0026-2927.

      • Scherr, Arthur. "Governor James Monroe and the Southampton Slave Resistance of 1799." Historian 1999 61(3): 557–578. ISSN 0018-2370 Fulltext online in SwetsWise and Ebsco.

      • Styron, Arthur. The Last of the Cocked Hats: James Monroe and the Virginia Dynasty (1945). 480 pp. thorough, scholarly treatment of the man and his times.

      • Unger, Harlow G.. "The Last Founding Father: James Monroe and a Nation's Call to Greatness" (2009), a new biography.

      • White, Leonard D. The Jeffersonians: A Study in Administrative History, 1801–1829 (1951), explains the operation and organization of federal administration

      • Whitaker, Arthur P. The United States and the Independence of Latin America (1941)

      • Wilmerding, Jr., Lucius, James Monroe: Public Claimant (1960) A study regarding Monroe's attempts to get reimbursement for personal expenses and losses from his years in public service after his Presidency ended.

      • Wood, Gordon S. Empire of Liberty: A history of the Early Republic, 1789–1815 (2009)


    GOLD DIVIDER WITH CROSS CENTER
    CHRISTIPEDIA

    PRESIDENT JAMES MONROE,

    Soldier Under George Washington, BRIEF BIO;

    (Always "INSPIRED-INERRANT!" View of Scripture!)

    AMERICAN FLAG DRAPE LEFT THESIS, TOPIC: James Monroe, age 17 when Revolutionary War began, was with Washington at valley Forge; was shot, became a Captain; Was mentored by Jefferson after the War, became a lawyer, Congressman, Cabinet Member, then President for two terms;

    CHRISTIAN FLAG WAVING JAMES-MONROE-PHOTO-OVAL-in-SQUAREAMERICAN FLAG WAVING AMERICAN

    President James Monroe

    JAMES MONROE, FOUNDING FATHER, PRESIDENT: BRIEF BIO

    JAMES MONROE, MENTORED by THOMAS JEFFERSON, NEIGHBORS

    JAMES MONROE: References

      • Monroe, James. The Political Writings of James Monroe. ed. by James P. Lucier, (2002). 863 pp.

      • Writings of James Monroe, edited by Stanislaus Murray Hamilton, ed., 7 vols. (1898–1903) online edition at books.google.com

      Notes

      1. ^ Harlow Unger, James Monroe: The Last Founding Father (2009).

      2. ^ a b Hart, Gary, 'James Monroe' (2005), p.68

      3. ^ Harry Ammon, James Monroe: the quest for national identity (1990) p. 577

      4. ^ Ammon, James Monroe pp 3-8

      5. ^ Holmes, David R. (2006). The faiths of the founding fathers. Oxford [Oxfordshire]: Oxford University Press. p. 104. ISBN 0-19-530092-0.

      6. ^ a b Pessen, Edward (1984). The Log Cabin Myth: The Social Backgrounds of the Presidents. Yale University Press. p.

      79. ISBN 0-300-03166-1.

      7. ^ "Presidential Trivia". Vernonkids.com. Retrieved 2011-12-05.

      8. ^ "James Monroe Museum and Memorial Library | James Monroe Museum and Memorial Library Home Page". Umw.edu. Retrieved April 20, 2010.

      9. ^ "Homes Of Virginia – Jame's Monroe's Law Office". Oldandsold.com. Retrieved April 20, 2010.

      10. ^ "How many wedding ceremonies have been held at the White House?". While House History web site. The White House Historical Association. Retrieved March 13, 2011.

      11. ^ Doug Wead (2008). "Murder at the Wedding Maria Hester Monroe". Retrieved March 13, 2011. Excerpt from All The President's Children: Triumph and Tragedy in the Lives of America's First Families. Simon and Schuster. 2004. ISBN 978-074344633-4.

      12. ^ Gerard W. Gawalt, "James Monroe, Presidential Planter," Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 1993 101(2): 251–272

      13. ^ Morgan, George, The life of James Monroe, (1921) p.94

      14. ^ Jon Kukla, "A Spectrum of Sentiments: Virginia's Federalists, Antifederalists, and 'Federalists Who Are for Amendments,' 1787–1788," Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 1988 96(3): 276–296.

      15. ^ Harry Ammon, James Monroe (1971) p. 89

      16. ^ "MONROE, James – Biographical Information". United States Congress. Retrieved July 24, 2009.

      17. ^ Morgan, George (1921), 'The life of James Monroe', p.75

      18. ^ Ammon, James Monroe pp 137–8

      19. ^ Herbert E. Klingelhofer, "George Washington Discharges Monroe for Incompetence," Manuscripts 1965 17(1): 26–34

      20. ^ Ammon, James Monroe pp 55–56

      21. ^ Ammon, James Monroe p. 151

      22. ^ Ammon, James Monroe p. 193

      23. ^ Arthur Scherr, "James Monroe on the Presidency and

      'Foreign Influence;: from the Virginia Ratifying Convention (1788) to Jefferson's Election (1801)." Mid-America 2002 84(1–3): 145–206

      24. ^ Morgan, George, 'The life of James Monroe', p.xvi

      25. ^ Alan Axelrod, Profiles in Folly: History's Worst Decisions and Why They Went Wrong (2008) p. 154

      26. ^ David A. Carson, "Quiddism and the Reluctant Candidacy of James Monroe in the Election of 1808," Mid-America 1988 70(2): 79–89

      27. ^ Hart, Gary, 'James Monroe' (2005), p.52

      28. ^ William G. Morgan, "The Congressional Nominating Caucus of 1816: the Struggle Against the Virginia Dynasty," Virginia Magazine of History & Biography 1972 80(4): 461–475

      29. ^ a b c d e "America President: James Monroe: Campaigns and Elections". Miller Center of Public Affairs. Retrieved January 8, 2010.

      30. ^ Arthur Meier Schlesinger, Jr., ed. History of U.S.

      political parties: Volume 1 (1973) pp. 24–25, 267

      31. ^ "The administration of James Monroe." Bancroft, Hubert H., ed. (1902). "The Great Republic by the Master Historians".

      32. ^ "Cumberland Road". Cyclopædia of Political Science, Political Economy, and the Political History of the United States by the Best American and European Writers. 1899.

      33. ^ David S. Heidler, "The Politics of National Aggression: Congress and the First Seminole War." Journal of the Early Republic 1993 13(4): 501–530.

      34. ^ Francis Paul Prucha, The great father: the United States government and the American Indians (1986) p. 65

      35. ^ Ammon, James Monroe, pp 536–40

      36. ^ Ammon, James Monroe, pp 409–48

      37. ^ a b Ammon, James Monroe, pp 476–92

      38. ^ Samuel Flagg Bemis, John Quincy Adams and the foundations of American foreign policy, (1944) pp 244–61

      39. ^ Charles Maurice Wiltse, John C. Calhoun: Nationalist, 1782–1828 (1944) pp 142–53

      40. ^ "Ashlawn website". Ashlawnhighland.org. Retrieved April 20, 2010.

      41. ^ Auguste Levasseur. Alan R. Hoffman. ed. Lafayette in America. p. 549.

      42. ^ Jon Meacham. American Lion. p. 181.

      43. ^ Bliss Isely, The Presidents: Men of Faith (2006) p 99-107, quote on p 105

      44. ^ Holmes, David L. (Autumn 2003). "The Religion of James Monroe". Virginia Quarterly Review 79 (4): 589–606. Retrieved 27 October 2011.

      45. ^ "Prince Messiah's Claims to Dominion Over All Governments". Covenanter.org. Retrieved April 20, 2010.

      46. ^ Bassett, Charles Walker; Maisel, Louis Sandy; Forman,

      Ira N.; Altschiller, Donald (2001). Jews in American politics. Lanham, Md: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. p. 30. ISBN 0-7425-0181-7.

      47. ^ Richard H. Popkin, "Thomas Jefferson's Letter to Mordecai Noah," American Book Collector 1987 8(6): 9–11

      48. ^ Kranish, Michael. "At Capitol, slavery's story turns full circle", The Boston GLobe, Boston, December 28, 2008.

      49. ^ a b Aptheker, Herbert (1993). American Negro Slave Revolts (6th ed.). New York: International Publishers. pp. 219–225. ISBN 978-0717806058.

      50. ^ Sidbury, James. "Ploughshares into swords: race, rebellion, and identity in Gabriel's Virginia, 1730–1810. ", Cambridge, 1997, pg 128.

      51. ^ Scheer, Arthur. "Governor James Monroe and Southampton Slave Resistance of 1799", The Historian, Vol. 61, 1999, available on Questia

      52. ^ Rodriguez, Junius. "Slavery in the United States: a social, political, and historical encyclopedia", , Santa Barbara, 2007, pg 428.

      53. ^ Sidbury, James. "Ploughshares into swords: race, rebellion, and identity in Gabriel's Virginia, 1730–1810. ", Cambridge, 1997, pg 127–128.

      54. ^ Morris, Thomas. " Southern Slavery and the Law, 1619–1860 ", 1996, pg 272.

      55. ^ Ammon, 1990, pp 563–66

      56. ^ Powell & Steinberg . "The nonprofit sector: a research handbook", Yale, 2006, pg 40.

      57. ^ Ammon, 1990, pp 522–23

      58. ^ Ammon, Harry, 'James Monroe, the quest for national identity', (1990), p.177

      59. ^ a b c d Great Presidential Quotes. "Great Presidential Quotes". Great Presidential Quotes. Retrieved 2011-12-05.

      60. ^ "James Monroe Quotes". Brainyquote.com. Retrieved April 20, 2010.

      61. ^ Digital History, Steven Mintz. "Digital History". Digitalhistory.uh.edu. Retrieved April 20, 2010.

      62. ^ Real Life at the White House: 200 ... – Google Knihy. Books.google.cz. May 3, 2002. ISBN 9780415939515. Retrieved April 20, 2010.

      63. ^ "Presidents of the United States (POTUS)". Ipl.org. Retrieved 2011-12-05.


    GOLD DIVIDER WITH CROSS CENTER
    CHRISTIPEDIA

    PRESIDENT JAMES MONROE,

    Soldier Under George Washington, BRIEF BIO;

    (Always "INSPIRED-INERRANT!" View of Scripture!)

    AMERICAN FLAG DRAPE LEFT THESIS, TOPIC: James Monroe, age 17 when Revolutionary War began, was with Washington at valley Forge; was shot, became a Captain; Was mentored by Jefferson after the War, became a lawyer, Congressman, Cabinet Member, then President for two terms;

    CHRISTIAN FLAG WAVING JAMES-MONROE-PHOTO-OVAL-in-SQUAREAMERICAN FLAG WAVING AMERICAN

    President James Monroe

    JAMES MONROE, FOUNDING FATHER, PRESIDENT: BRIEF BIO

    JAMES MONROE, MENTORED by THOMAS JEFFERSON, NEIGHBORS

    JAMES MONROE: External links & Textbooks;

      Find more about James Monroe on Wikipedia's sister projects:

      • James Monroe: A Resource Guide at the Library of Congress

      • James Monroe at the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress

      • James Monroe at Find a Grave

      • James Monroe at the White House

      • "James Monroe". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 1913.

      • American President: James Monroe (1758–1831) at the Miller Center of Public Affairs, University of Virginia

      • James Monroe Papers at the University of Mary Washington

      • A Guide to the Papers of James Monroe 1778-1831 at the University of Virginia Library

      • Monroe Doctrine; December 2, 1823 at the Avalon Project

      • Elections for candidate Monroe, James from "A New Nation Votes" at Tufts University

      • Ash Lawn-Highland, home of President James Monroe

      • The James Monroe Memorial Foundation

      o The James Monroe Birthplace

      • James Monroe Museum and Memorial Library

      • James Monroe at C-SPAN's American Presidents: Life Portraits

      • The Health and Medical History of President James Monroe at DoctorZebra

      • Works by James Monroe at Project Gutenberg


    GOLD DIVIDER WITH CROSS CENTER
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    PRESIDENT JAMES MONROE,

    Soldier Under George Washington, BRIEF BIO;

    (Always "INSPIRED-INERRANT!" View of Scripture!)

    AMERICAN FLAG DRAPE LEFT THESIS, TOPIC: James Monroe, age 17 when Revolutionary War began, was with Washington at valley Forge; was shot, became a Captain; Was mentored by Jefferson after the War, became a lawyer, Congressman, Cabinet Member, then President for two terms;

    CHRISTIAN FLAG WAVING JAMES-MONROE-PHOTO-OVAL-in-SQUAREAMERICAN FLAG WAVING AMERICAN

    President James Monroe

    JAMES MONROE, FOUNDING FATHER, PRESIDENT: BRIEF BIO

    JAMES MONROE, MENTORED by THOMAS JEFFERSON, NEIGHBORS

    JAMES MONROE: Legacy;


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