MUSLIM MALCOLM X, USA Islam
MUSLIM MALCOLM X, Brief Bio
MUSLIM MALCOLM X, USA Islam
MUSLIM MALCOLM X, Brief Bio

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PRESENTING
MALCOLM X, USA Islamic Leader 1960's

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Browse Massive Evidence Below:
"AMERICAN DECLARATION of INDEPENDENCE"
Declares USA Recognizes: "SELF-EVIDENT TRUTHS!"
Declaring ALL are "CREATED" equal!
Endowed by Their "CREATOR"
With 'Certain', 'Inalienable', 'Rights';
1776 AMERICAN FLAG 1776 THOMAS-JEFFERSON-DECLARATION-of-INDEPENDENCE1776 AMERICAN FLAG 1776
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Statesman Thomas Jefferson
Author, Immortal USA Declaration of Independence'
AMERIPEDIA Thomas Jefferson: His Personal "TRIBUTE to DECLARATION of INDEPENDENCE

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U.S. Supreme Court Decision:
(Unanimous Decision!) "THIS IS A CHRISTIAN NATION!"
Trinity vs. New York, 143 US 457, 36 L ed 226,

Thomas Jefferson!
"Most Misunderstood" Founding Father!
Some say Non-Christian for REJECTING Christ's Divinity
(He believed like Jehovah's Witnesses: Not Mainstream but Christian!)
THOMAS-JEFFERSON-SIGNATURE

However, multitudes of Christians IN ALL AGES saw
Christ as "PERFECT MAN" the "SECOND ADAM" Rom 5:6-16
Worshipping Christ as SAVIOUR and KING, but not DIVINE!( Arianism)

FACT! President Jefferson STARTED Church in the US Capitol Building!

FACT! He JOINED it the same weekend he wrote SEPARATION CHURCH-STATE letter!

FACT! Jefferson ALLOWED several groups to have Church in the US Capitol!

FACT! He oversaw other Churches in the US TREASURY and SUPREME COURT!

FACT! Jefferson hired MARINE BAND to play each Lord's Day...

FACT! ... And paid them with TAX DOLLARS!

FACT! ... Likewise PAID the Ministers, Preachers!

FACT! Jefferson Translated Bible WHILE PRESIDENT - from Greek Language!

FACT! Wrote a book on LIFE of CHRIST for American Natives!

FACT! Gave FEDERAL LAND/MONEY for Missionaries to Natives in Illinois Territory!

FACT! Legislated land for Church-House in each Township of NORTHWEST ORDINANCE!

FACT! Legislated Federal land for Missionaries to Natives in Ohio Territory!

FACT! Wrote letter to Daughter on HOW TO BE READY for RETURN of CHRIST!

FACT! Wrote a GOVERNMENT PRAYER to be used EACH 4th of JULY CELEBRATION

FACT! Jefferson's US CAPITOL CHURCH became largest in the Nation for decades!

FACT! Jefferson NEVER drank, smoked, cussed, missed Church, HIS WHOLE LIFE!

FACT! FEW - WHO EVER LIVED - were better Disciples of Christ than Thomas Jefferson!

FACT! (George Washington, Abe Lincoln were TWO of those FEW!)

Jefferson, Joins, Supports, Leads Church in US Capitol: FOOTNOTES [1-43]

Capitol Church Photos on OFFICIAL US GOV WEBSITE

"President-To-Be" James Madison;
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Joined President Jefferson's U.S. Capitol Church!

Jefferson, Madison Belong to Church in US Capitol: FOOTNOTE [14]

Don't be Fooled by "Willfully Blind", Atheist, Anti- Christian "Deceived-and-Deceiving" College Professors,

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First Prayer, First Congress, 1774;

George Washington, left, is KNEELING on Both Knees!
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George Washington: Kneeling while most others stood;

"Willfully-blind" Modern-Scholars declare the USA was NOT established as a Christian Nation. President Barack Obama travels the world declaring:
"The USA is NOT a Christian nation!"

Sadly, most do not know the US SUPREME COURT;
Researched 1,000's of documents, VOTED UNANIMOUSLY:
The USA is unquestionably a CHRISTIAN NATION!

U.S. SUPREME COURT Declares USA A Christian Nation!

Legal Scholar Justice David Brewer on "Christian Nation Decision"

Abraham Lincoln Declares USA Founded on "SPIRIT of CHRISTIANITY!"

Abraham Lincoln: Proclaims USA A CHRISTIAN NATION in 1862

Isabella Potts-James Testifies Washington Prayed, Valley Forge;

Nathaniel R. Snowden: Recorded Washington's Valley Forge Prayer

Officer Muhlenberg Witnessed Washington Pray, Valley Forge;

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LESBIAN and PRO-LESBIAN PASTORS, CHAPLAINS, LEADERS

(Has YOUR "Spiritual Leader" COME OUT?)

AMERIPEDIA: George Washington on HOMOSEXUALITY

Early Church OUTLAWS HOMOSEXUALITY in Roman Empire!

"DID YOU KNOW?
EVERY REVIVAL in Bible Began by Removing SODOMITES!

1 Kin 14:24, 1 Kin 15:15, 1 Kin 22:6, 2 Kin 23:7,
(OBEDIENCE, Deut 23:17, NOT PRAYER, Brings REVIVAL!)
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Haeckel's Imaginary Drawings: 100 Years of Error!

The 40-Year “Piltdown Man Hoax!”

The 'Nebraska Man' becomes a 'Pig's Tooth!'

10 Scientific Frauds that Rocked the World!

Global Warming Hoax (Hundreds of Articles!)

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The WORD of GOD?
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THE WORD of GOD, AXIOM-1:
    "IF" there exists any such thing as 'The Word of God'; [and ALL evidence proves such does exist:]

    "THEN" by inherent definition - it must be "GOD-BREATHED!"

      (Holy, Inspired, Inerrant, Intrepid, Infallible, Infinitive, Invincible, Indestructible, Inexhaustible, Inalienable, Immutable, Implacable, Impossible-to-Improve: Eternal and Indubitable - NEVER FAILING - and ALL CONQUERING!)

      DEDUCTING the above from the simple fact: That GOD EQUATES HIS WORD WITH HIMSELF!

        "In the Beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God, . . ." John 1:1 (and other Scriptures),
    Thus 'GOD'S WORD' can have no lesser standard than that stated;


    "GOD'S WORD MUST" THEREFORE BE:

      As true in history, archeology, geography, Earth science, medical science, nutrition, gerontology, agriculture, botany, astronomy, physics, chemistry, climatology, government, law, psychology, sociology - and every subject it touches - as in Theology, Divinity and Doctrine:

    And "IF IT BE NOT" - true in ALL subjects mentioned above; and And "IF IT BE NOT"

      Holy, Inspired, Inerrant, Intrepid, Infallible, Infinitive, Invincible, Indestructible, Inexhaustible, Inalienable, Immutable, Implacable, Impossible-to-Improve: Eternal and Indubitable in EVERY FIELD OF KNOWLEDGE:
    Whatever else such writing may be, it cannot be ‘The Incomparable Word’ of the Great Creator God!

God's Eternal Guarantee!
"Heaven and Earth Shall Pass Away;
But 'MY WORDS', SHALL NOT, PASS AWAY!"

-- Jesus of Nazareth, "The Messiah!" AD-33 (Matthew 5:18)

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[1] “BIBLIPEDIA™" - "GREAT COMMISSION MANDATE!” Sober Questions; (Brief!)

[2] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – "God’s Goals” v “Satan’s Goals” – WHO WINS? (Brief)

[3] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – Greatest PLAN of Evangelization: DO THE MATH, (Brief!)

[4] “BIBLIPEDIA™" –Jesus said: “I WILL Build MY Church!”
(But Did He Really Mean It?)

[5] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – Alarming Church News! USA! (Brief)

[6] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – Christ’s Commission: Does it Mean “Global Domination?”

[7] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – Can You Face The Truth? Part-1 (MESSAGE)

[8] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – Can You Face The Truth? Part-2 (MESSAGE)

[9] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – Jesus and Paul on the “End-of-the-World” by NewtonStein

[10] “BIBLIPEDIA™" - Conservative Activists: "Who's Who in Christian Politics?

[11] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – Is Our Modern Church Ignorant of Christ’s Purpose?

[12] "RAPTURE-READY™" Why Jesus didn't come back in 2009, '10, '11! (You Know?)

[13] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – Preachers’ Greatest Sin: (Are You guilty?)

[14] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – Christ Warns: A “Five-Fold-Question!”

[15] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – OPEN LETTER to Our Fellow Laborers

[16] “BIBLIPEDIA™" - "Are All Denominations Wrong? Mostly?

[17] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – Who Will save Christianity?

[18] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – A Workable Plan that would-Truly Revive Christianity!

[19] “BIBLIPEDIA™" - "American Christianity Rides The Titanic!

[20] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – Founding Fathers’ Kingdom, Now Dominion!

[21] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – Great Falling Away Prophesied by Apostle Paul!

[22] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – Biblical End of World, Basic Terms and Concepts

[23] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – Christianity Dying In Western Civilization: WHY?

[24] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – Christian Myths! Do You Believe Them?

[25] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – Church Growth Goals Priority Page

[26] "RAPTURE-READY™" – Modern Christianity Is A Mess!

[27] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – The “Anti-Christ Home Page

[28] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – TOP-TEN Messages To Maximize Your Ministry

[29] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – Calling All Christians Unite, Christ Commands!

[30] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – Christianity Is Confusing and Getting WORSE! WHY?

[31] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – Every- Minister A Hero!

[32] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – Legal Abortion: Is It Good for Christians?

[33] " CHRISTIPEDIA™" – Southern Baptists Dying: WHY?

[34] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – Satan’s TOP-TEN Greatest-Lies! Do You Believe Any?

[35] “BIBLIPEDIA™" –Truth Test-3 Questions For Christians

[36] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – Evangelicals Call for Government School Exodus!

[37] “BIBLIPEDIA™" - "Hall of Faith" Christian Activist Ministers, 20th Cent."

[38] “BIBLIPEDIA™" –The Early Christian-Church Outlaws Homosexuality!

[39] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – PREACHERS! Do You Know About PULPIT FREEDOM SUNDAY?

[40] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – GOD-GIVEN Rights, Guaranteed in Bible: Called “Civil & Human” Rights

[41] “BIBLIPEDIA™" - "Rush Limbaugh Quotes" on Christ and Christianity!

[42] “BIBLIPEDIA™" - "TALK-RADIO REPUBLICANS, "Republican Power and Catholics!"

[43] “BIBLIPEDIA™" - "GREAT COMMISSION MANDATE!" Some Sobering Questions;

[44] “BIBLIPEDIA™" - "Hall of Faith" Christian Activist Ministers 20th Century"

[45] “BIBLIPEDIA™" –The Early Christian-Church Outlaws Homosexuality!

[46] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – PREACHERS! Do You Know About PULPIT FREEDOM SUNDAY?

[47] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – GOD-GIVEN Rights Guaranteed in Bible: Called “Civil & Human” Rights

[48] “BIBLIPEDIA™" - "Rush Limbaugh Quotes" on Christ and Christianity!

[49] “BIBLIPEDIA™" - "TALK-RADIO REPUBLICANS, "Republican Power and Catholics!"

[50] “AMERIPEDIA™" - George Washington Used 30-THEOLOGICAL TERMS, 3000 Times!

[**] Why to UNINCORPORATE your Church BEFORE it's TOO LATE!

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Dr. William Smith

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Dr. William Smith

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LETTERS 'A-F' LETTERS 'G-J' LETTERS 'K-Q' LETTERS 'R-Z'

Dr. Smith’s Original Preface

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Smith-Cambridge Concise Bible Dictionary™
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Dr. William Smith

Edited and Annotated by NewtonStein,
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Cambridge-Cruden Complete Concordance
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Dr. Cruden Finished the First Complete Bible Concordance!

The "IDEA" of a concordance began in 1100's. Bible Scholars worked for 600 years;
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Alexander Cruden, an extremely dedicated Scholar,
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[NOTE: It would take one person - all day, six-days a week - 1500 YEARS,
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Cambridge-Cruden's Complete Bible CONCORDANCE

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Dr. Alexander Cruden

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Alexander Cruden 'Man of God' BRIEF-BIO, PART-1 - Completed First Concordance

Alexander Cruden 'Man of God' BRIEF-BIO, PART-2 - Bizarre Situation

Alexander Cruden: 200 Names and Titles of Jesus, 200 Names for God's People, with Scriptural References

Summary of Each Chapter of Each Bible Book by ALEXANDER CRUDEN


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SCRIPTIPEDIA!™ Noah Webster: Preface to His KJV REVISION, PART-1

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SCRIPTIPEDIA!™ Noah Webster: His Actual Changes to the KJV Bible, PART-4

SCRIPTIPEDIA!™ Noah Webster: His Actual Changes to the KJV Bible, PART-5

SCRIPTIPEDIA!™ Noah Webster: His Actual Changes to the KJV Bible, SUMMARY

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Read About "Founding Father" Noah Webster
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Dr. Noah Webster

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Webster's Great Treatise on Origins of Language: Preface to Dictionary

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Dictionary of William Shakespeare

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"God's Goals"

For This World!

Does God Achieve His Goals?
OR, does Satan achieve his goals?

(All NewtonStein from "INSPIRED-INERRANT" Scriptural View!)

The most IMPORTANT "3-QUESTION QUIZ" you'll ever Take?

The Adversary’s Goals:

    SCRIPTURE: "The ‘Devil’ ... walketh about seeking whom he may DEVOUR." I Pet 5:8

    SCRIPTURE: "The ‘Thief’ (Devil) cometh not, but for to steal, to kill and to DESTROY." John 10:10

      QUESTION: Do you Believe Satan the Devil Succeeds?___ Or Fails?___

God the Father’s Goals:

    SCRIPTURE: "For God sent NOT His Son into the world to condemn the world, but that the world though Him might be SAVED! See John 3:16 John 3:17

    SCRIPTURE: "Beloved, be not ignorant of this one thing, ... The Lord is ... NOT willing that any should perish, but that ALL should come to repentance. 2 Pet 3:9

      QUESTION: Do you Believe God the Father Succeeds?___ Or Fails?___

God the Son’s Goals:

    SCRIPTURE: "For the Son of Man is come to seek and to SAVE that which is lost!" Luk 19:10 "For I came NOT to judge the world, but to SAVE the world. John 12:47

    SCRIPTURE: "And I, if I be lifted up from the Earth, I WILL DRAW ALL men unto Me." Joh 12:32

      QUESTION: Do you Believe God the Son (Jesus Christ): Succeeds?___ Or Fails?___ center>

God the Spirit’s Goals:

    SCRIPTURE: Jesus declares: "'I ’WILL’' send Him (Holy Spirit) unto you, and when He is come 'He ’WILL’' testify of Me: John 14:26

    SCRIPTURE: "He ’WILL’ reprove the world [convict, convince, correct] of sin, of righteousness, and of judgment: John 16:7

    SCRIPTURE: (1) Of sin, because they believe not on me; ... (2) Of righteousness, because I go to my Father; ...(3) Of judgment, because the 'Prince of this World' IS JUDGED![A] John 16:8-10

      QUESTION: Do you think God the Spirit Succeeds?___ Or Fails?___

      ULTIMATELY, WHO, ACHIEVES THEIR STATED GOALS? GOD or Satan?

      If you believe:








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    CHRISTIPEDIA

    MUSLIM MALCOLM X;

    MUSLIM MALCOLM X, American Islamic Leader '60's;

    (All NewtonStein "INSPIRED-INERRANT" Bible View! )

    AMERICAN FLAG DRAPE LEFT THESIS, TOPIC: Malcolm X, an Islamic leader in the USA in the 1960's was assassinated in the era of JKF, RFK, and MLK;

    WHY?

    CHRISTIAN FLAG WAVING MALCOLM-X-PHOTOAMERICAN FLAG WAVING AMERICAN

    MUSLIM MALCOLM X
    CHRISTIPEDIA: MUSLIM MALCOLM-X, USA Islamic Leader in 1960's, BRIEF-BIO

    MUSLIM MALCOLM X: Overview;

      Malcolm X born May 19, 1925 – February 21, 1965), born Malcolm Little and after converting to radical Islam, was also known as El-Hajj Malik El-Shabazz[1] (Arabic: الحاجّ مالك الشباز‎).

      Malcolm X was an African American Muslim Leader and human rights activist. To his admirers, he was a courageous advocate for the rights of African Americans, a man who indicted white America in the harshest terms for its crimes against black Americans. Detractors accused him of preaching racism, black supremacy, antisemitism, and violence.

      He has been called one of the greatest and most influential African Americans in history.

      Malcolm X's father died—killed by white supremacists, it was rumored—when he was young, and at least one of his uncles was lynched.

      When he was thirteen, his mother was placed in a mental hospital, and he was placed in a series of foster homes.

      In 1946, at age 20, he went to prison for breaking and entering.

      In prison, Malcolm X became a member of the Nation of Islam and after his parole in 1952 he quickly rose to become one of its leaders.

      For a dozen years Malcolm X was the public face of the controversial group, but disillusionment with Nation of Islam head Elijah Muhammad led him to leave the Nation in March 1964.

      After a period of travel in Africa and the Middle East, he returned to the United States, where he founded Muslim Mosque, Inc. and the Organization of Afro-American Unity. In February 1965, less than a year after leaving the Nation of Islam, he was assassinated by three members of the group.

      Malcolm X's expressed beliefs changed substantially over time. As a spokesman for the Nation of Islam he taught black supremacy and advocated separation of black and white Americans—in contrast to the civil rights movement's emphasis on integration.

      After breaking with the Nation of Islam in 1964—saying of his association with it, "I was a zombie then ... pointed in a certain direction and told to march"—and becoming a Sunni Muslim, he disavowed racism and expressed willingness to work with civil rights leaders, though still emphasizing black self-determination and self defense.


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    CHRISTIPEDIA

    MUSLIM MALCOLM X;

    MUSLIM MALCOLM X, American Islamic Leader '60's;

    (All NewtonStein "INSPIRED-INERRANT" Bible View! )

    AMERICAN FLAG DRAPE LEFT THESIS, TOPIC: Malcolm X, an Islamic leader in the USA in the 1960's was assassinated in the era of JKF, RFK, and MLK;

    WHY?

    CHRISTIAN FLAG WAVING MALCOLM-X-PHOTOAMERICAN FLAG WAVING AMERICAN

    MUSLIM MALCOLM X
    CHRISTIPEDIA: MUSLIM MALCOLM-X, USA Islamic Leader in 1960's, BRIEF-BIO

    MUSLIM MALCOLM X: Early years

      1930 U.S. census listing that includes the Little family Malcolm Little was born on May 19, 1925, in Omaha, Nebraska, the fourth of seven children to Earl Little and Louise Norton.[2]

      His father was an outspoken Baptist lay speaker. He supported Pan-African activist Marcus Garvey and was a local leader of the Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA).[3]

      Malcolm never forgot the values of black pride and self-reliance that his father and other UNIA leaders preached.[4] Malcolm X later said that three of Earl Little's brothers, one of whom was lynched, died violently at the hands of white men.[5]

      Because of Ku Klux Klan threats, the family relocated in 1926 to Milwaukee, Wisconsin, and shortly thereafter to Lansing, Michigan.[6]

      Earl Little, who was dark-skinned, was born in Reynolds, Georgia.[7] He had three children from his first marriage: Ella, Mary, and Earl Jr.—and seven with his second wife, Louise: Wilfred, Hilda, Philbert, Malcolm, Reginald, Yvonne, and Wesley.[8]

      Louise Norton Little was born in Grenada. Because her father was Scottish, she was so light-skinned that she could have passed for white. Malcolm inherited his light complexion from his mother and maternal grandfather.[9]

      Initially he felt his light skin was a status symbol, but he later said he "hated every drop of that white rapist's blood that is in me."[10]

      Malcolm X later remembered feeling that his father favored him because he was the lightest-skinned child in the family; however, he thought his mother treated him harshly for the same reason.[11]

      One of Malcolm's nicknames, "Red", derived from the tinge of his hair. According to one biographer, at birth he had "ash-blonde hair ... tinged with cinnamon", and at age four, "reddish-blonde hair".[12]

      His hair darkened as he aged, yet he also resembled his paternal grandmother, whose hair "turned reddish in the summer sun."[2] The issue of skin and hair color took on very significant implications later in Malcolm's life.[7]

      In December 1924, Louise Little was threatened by klansmen while she was pregnant with Malcolm. She recalled that the klansmen warned the family to leave Omaha, because Earl Little's activities with UNIA were "spreading trouble".[13]

      After they moved to Lansing, their house was burned in 1929; however, the family escaped without physical injury. On September 8, 1931, Earl Little was fatally struck by a streetcar in Lansing. Authorities ruled his death an accident. The police reported that Earl Little was conscious when they arrived on the scene, and he told them he had slipped and fallen under the streetcar's wheels.[14]

      The black community in Lansing disputed the cause of death, believing there was circumstantial evidence of assault. His family had frequently been harassed by the Black Legion, a white supremacist group that his father accused of burning down their home in 1929. Some blacks believed the Black Legion was responsible for Earl Little's death.

      One of the adults at the funeral told eight-year-old Philbert Little that his father had been hit from behind and shoved under the streetcar.[15]

      Though Earl Little had two life insurance policies, his family received death benefits solely from the smaller policy. The insurance company of the larger policy claimed that his father had committed suicide and refused to issue the benefit.[16]

      The payout from the insurance policy was $1,000 (comparable to about $15,000 in 2010 dollars), and the probate court awarded Louise Little a monthly "widow's allowance" of $18. She rented space in the garden to raise more money, and her sons would hunt game for supper.[17]


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    CHRISTIPEDIA

    MUSLIM MALCOLM X;

    MUSLIM MALCOLM X, American Islamic Leader '60's;

    (All NewtonStein "INSPIRED-INERRANT" Bible View! )

    AMERICAN FLAG DRAPE LEFT THESIS, TOPIC: Malcolm X, an Islamic leader in the USA in the 1960's was assassinated in the era of JKF, RFK, and MLK;

    WHY?

    CHRISTIAN FLAG WAVING MALCOLM-X-PHOTOAMERICAN FLAG WAVING AMERICAN

    MUSLIM MALCOLM X
    CHRISTIPEDIA: MUSLIM MALCOLM-X, USA Islamic Leader in 1960's, BRIEF-BIO

    MUSLIM MALCOLM X: Broken Home;

      In 1935 or 1936, Louise Little began dating an African-American man. A marriage proposal seemed a possibility, but the man disappeared from their lives when Louise became pregnant with his child in late 1937.[18]

      In December 1938, Louise Little had a nervous breakdown and was declared legally insane. The Little siblings were split up and sent to different foster homes. The state formally committed Louise Little to the state mental hospital at Kalamazoo, Michigan, where she remained until Malcolm and his siblings secured her release 24 years later.[19][20]

      Malcolm Little was one of the best students in his junior high school, but he dropped out after a white eighth-grade teacher told him that his aspirations of being a lawyer were "no realistic goal for a nigger."[21]

      Years later, Malcolm X would laugh about the incident, but at the time it was humiliating. It made him feel that there was no place in the white world for a career-oriented black man, no matter how smart he was.[21] After living with a series of foster parents, Malcolm moved to Boston in February 1941 to live with his older half-sister, Ella Little Collins.[22][23]


    GOLD DIVIDER WITH CROSS CENTER
    CHRISTIPEDIA

    MUSLIM MALCOLM X;

    MUSLIM MALCOLM X, American Islamic Leader '60's;

    (All NewtonStein "INSPIRED-INERRANT" Bible View! )

    AMERICAN FLAG DRAPE LEFT THESIS, TOPIC: Malcolm X, an Islamic leader in the USA in the 1960's was assassinated in the era of JKF, RFK, and MLK;

    WHY?

    CHRISTIAN FLAG WAVING MALCOLM-X-PHOTOAMERICAN FLAG WAVING AMERICAN

    MUSLIM MALCOLM X
    CHRISTIPEDIA: MUSLIM MALCOLM-X, USA Islamic Leader in 1960's, BRIEF-BIO

    MUSLIM MALCOLM X: Young adult years

      Collins lived in Roxbury, a predominantly African-American middle-class neighborhood of Boston. It was the first time Little had seen so many black people. He was drawn to the cultural and social life of the neighborhood.[24]

      In Boston, Little held a variety of jobs and found intermittent employment with the New Haven Railroad. Between 1943 and 1946, he drifted from city to city and job to job. He left Boston to live for a short time in Flint, Michigan. He moved to New York City in 1943. Living in Harlem, he became involved in drug dealing, gambling, racketeering, robbery, and pimping.[25]

      During this period, Little became known as "Detroit Red" because he came from Michigan and because of the reddish color of his hair.[26] According to recent biographies, Little occasionally engaged in sex with other men, usually for money.[27][28]

      In 1943, the U.S. draft board ordered Little to register for military service.[29] He later recalled that he put on a display to avoid the draft by telling the examining officer that he could not wait to "steal us some guns, and kill us [some] crackers."[30]

      Military physicians classified him as "mentally disqualified for military service". He was issued a 4-F card, relieving him of his service obligations.[29]

      In late 1945, Little returned to Boston. With a group of associates, he began a series of elaborate burglaries targeting the residences of wealthy white families.[31] On January 12, 1946, Little was arrested for burglary while trying to pick up a stolen watch he had left for repairs at a jewelry shop.[32]

      The shop owner called the police because the watch was very expensive, and the police had alerted all Boston jewelers that it had been stolen. Little told the police that he had a gun on his person and surrendered so the police would treat him more leniently.[33]

      Three days later, Little was indicted for carrying firearms. On January 16, he was charged with larceny and breaking and entering, and eventually sentenced to eight to ten years in prison.[34] On February 27, Little began serving his sentence at the Charlestown State Prison in Charlestown, Boston. While in prison, Little earned the nickname of "Satan" for his hostility toward religion.[35]

      Little met a self-educated man in prison named John Elton Bembry (referred to as "Bimbi" in The Autobiography of Malcolm X).[36] Bembry was a well-regarded prisoner at Charlestown, and Malcolm X would later describe him as "the first man I had ever seen command total respect ... with words."[37]

      Gradually, the two men became friends and Bembry convinced Little to educate himself.[38] Little developed a voracious appetite for reading, and he frequently read after the prison lights had been turned off.[39]

      In 1948, Little's brother Philbert wrote, telling him about the Nation of Islam. Like the UNIA, the Nation preached black self-reliance and, ultimately, the unification of members of the African diaspora, free from white American and European domination.[40]

      Little was not interested in joining until his brother Reginald wrote, saying, "Malcolm, don't eat any more pork and don't smoke any more cigarettes. I'll show you how to get out of prison."[41]

      Little quit smoking, and the next time pork was served in the prison dining hall, he refused to eat it.[42]

      When Reginald came to visit Little, he described the group's teachings, including the belief that white people are devils. Afterward, Little thought about all the white people he had known, and he realized that he'd never had a relationship with a white person or social institution that wasn't based on dishonesty, injustice, greed, and hatred.

      Little began to reconsider his dismissal of all religion and he became receptive to the message of the Nation of Islam. Other family members who had joined the Nation wrote or visited and encouraged Little to join.[43]

      In February 1948, mostly through his sister's efforts, Little was transferred to the Norfolk Prison Colony, an experimental prison in Norfolk, Massachusetts, that had a much larger library.[44]

      In late 1948, he wrote a letter to Elijah Muhammad, the leader of the Nation of Islam. Muhammad advised him to atone for his crimes by renouncing his past and by humbly bowing in prayer to Allah and promising never to engage in destructive behavior again. Little, who always had been rebellious and deeply skeptical, found it very difficult to bow in prayer. It took him a week to bend his knees. Finally he prayed, and he became a member of the Nation of Islam.[45]

      For the remainder of his incarceration, Little maintained regular correspondence with Muhammad.[46] On August 7, 1952, Little was paroled and was released from prison.[47]

      He later reflected on the time he spent in prison after his conversion: "Between Mr. Muhammad's teachings, my correspondence, my visitors—usually Ella and Reginald—and my reading of books, months passed without my even thinking about being imprisoned. In fact, up to then, I had never been so truly free in my life."[48]


    GOLD DIVIDER WITH CROSS CENTER
    CHRISTIPEDIA

    MUSLIM MALCOLM X;

    MUSLIM MALCOLM X, American Islamic Leader '60's;

    (All NewtonStein "INSPIRED-INERRANT" Bible View! )

    AMERICAN FLAG DRAPE LEFT THESIS, TOPIC: Malcolm X, an Islamic leader in the USA in the 1960's was assassinated in the era of JKF, RFK, and MLK;

    WHY?

    CHRISTIAN FLAG WAVING MALCOLM-X-PHOTOAMERICAN FLAG WAVING AMERICAN

    MUSLIM MALCOLM X
    CHRISTIPEDIA: MUSLIM MALCOLM-X, USA Islamic Leader in 1960's, BRIEF-BIO

    MUSLIM MALCOLM X: Nation of Islam;

      Leaders

      Wallace Fard Muhammad

      Elijah Muhammad • Malcolm X

      Warith Deen Mohammed

      Louis Farrakhan

      Tynetta Muhammad

      Mustapha Farrakhan

      Ishmael Muhammad

      Ava Muhammad

      History and beliefs

      Saviours' Day

      Nation of Islam and antisemitism

      Tribe of Shabazz • Yakub

      Million Man March

      Publications

      A Torchlight for America

      The Final Call

      How to Eat to Live

      Message to the Blackman

      in America

      Muhammad Speaks

      Subsidiariesm and offshoots

      American Society of Muslims

      Fruit of Islam

      The Nation of Gods and Earths

      New Black Panther Party

      United Nation of Islam

      Your Black Muslim Bakery


    GOLD DIVIDER WITH CROSS CENTER
    CHRISTIPEDIA

    MUSLIM MALCOLM X;

    MUSLIM MALCOLM X, American Islamic Leader '60's;

    (All NewtonStein "INSPIRED-INERRANT" Bible View! )

    AMERICAN FLAG DRAPE LEFT THESIS, TOPIC: Malcolm X, an Islamic leader in the USA in the 1960's was assassinated in the era of JKF, RFK, and MLK;

    WHY?

    CHRISTIAN FLAG WAVING MALCOLM-X-PHOTOAMERICAN FLAG WAVING AMERICAN

    MUSLIM MALCOLM X
    CHRISTIPEDIA: MUSLIM MALCOLM-X, USA Islamic Leader in 1960's, BRIEF-BIO

    MUSLIM MALCOLM X: Further information: Nation of Islam

      When Little was released from prison in 1952, he had more than a new religion. He also had a new name. In a December 1950 letter to his brother Philbert, Little signed his name as Malcolm X for the first time.[49]

      In his autobiography, he explained why: "The Muslim's 'X' symbolized the true African family name that he never could know. For me, my 'X' replaced the white slavemaster name of 'Little' which some blue-eyed devil named Little had imposed upon my paternal forebears."[50]

      Shortly after his release from prison, Malcolm X visited Elijah Muhammad in Chicago, Illinois.[51] In June 1953, Malcolm X was named assistant minister of the Nation of Islam's Temple Number One in Detroit.[52][53] Soon, he became a full-time minister.[54] By late 1953, Malcolm X established Boston's Temple Number 11.[55]

      In March 1954, he expanded Temple Number 12 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.[56] Two months later Malcolm X was selected to lead Temple Number Seven in Harlem,[57] and he rapidly expanded its membership.[58]

      The FBI had opened a file on Malcolm X in 1950 after he wrote a letter to President Truman stating his opposition to the Korean War and declaring himself to be a communist.[59]

      It began surveillance of him in 1953, and soon the FBI turned its attention from concerns about possible Communist Party association to Malcolm X's rapid ascent in the Nation of Islam.[60]

      During 1955, Malcolm X continued his successful recruitment efforts on behalf of the organization. He established temples in Springfield, Massachusetts (Number 13); Hartford, Connecticut (Number 14); and Atlanta, Georgia (Number 15). Hundreds of African Americans were joining the Nation of Islam every month.[61]

      Beside his skill as a speaker, Malcolm X had an impressive physical presence. He stood 6 feet 3 inches (1.91 m) tall and weighed about 180 pounds (82 kg).[62] One writer described him as "powerfully built",[63] and another as "mesmerizingly handsome ... and always spotlessly well-groomed".[62]


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    MUSLIM MALCOLM X: Johnson Hinton incident;

      Malcolm X first came to the attention of the general public after the police beating of a Nation of Islam member named Johnson Hinton.[64][65] On April 26, 1957, two police officers were beating an African-American man with their nightsticks when three passersby who belonged to the Nation of Islam tried to intervene.[64] They shouted: "You're not in Alabama or Georgia. This is New York!"[65]

      One of the officers began to beat one of the passersby, Johnson Hinton. The blows were so severe, a surgeon later determined, that they caused brain contusions, subdural hemorrhaging, and scalp lacerations. All four men were arrested and taken to the police station.[64] A woman who had seen the assault ran to the Nation of Islam's restaurant.[64]

      Within a few hours, Malcolm X and a small group of Muslims went to the police station and demanded to see Hinton. The police captain initially said no Muslims were being held there, but as the crowd grew to about 500, he allowed Malcolm X to speak with Hinton.[66]

      After a short talk, Malcolm X demanded that Hinton be taken to the hospital, so an ambulance was called and Hinton was taken to Harlem Hospital.[67] Hinton was treated and released into the custody of the police, who returned him to the police station.[66]

      By this point, about 4,000 people had gathered; the police realized there was the potential for a riot and called for backup. Malcolm X went back into the police station with an attorney and made bail arrangements for the other two Muslims. The police said Hinton could not go back to the hospital until he was arraigned the following day.[67]

      Malcolm X realized things were at a stalemate. He stepped outside the station house and gave a hand signal.[67] The Nation of Islam members in the crowd silently walked away. The rest of the crowd dispersed minutes later. One police officer told the editor of the New York Amsterdam News: "No one man should have that much power."[67][68]

      The following month, the Bureau of Special Services and Investigation of the New York Police Department (NYPD) began its surveillance of Malcolm X. The NYPD's Chief Inspector asked for information from the police department in every city where Malcolm X had lived, and from the prisons where he had served his sentence.[69]

      In October, when a grand jury declined to indict the officers who had beaten Hinton, Malcolm X wrote an angry telegram to the police commissioner. In response, undercover NYPD officers were placed inside the Nation of Islam.[70]


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    MUSLIM MALCOLM X: Marriage and family

      Malcolm X met Betty Sanders in 1955. She had been invited to listen to his lecture, and she was very impressed by him. They met again at a dinner party. Soon Sanders was attending all of Malcolm X's lectures at Temple Number Seven. In mid 1956, she joined the Nation of Islam.[71]

      Malcolm X and Betty X did not have a conventional courtship. One-on-one dates were contrary to the teachings of the Nation of Islam. Instead, the couple shared their "dates" with dozens, or even hundreds of other members. Malcolm X frequently took groups to visit New York's museums and libraries, and he always invited Betty X.[72]

      Although they had never discussed the subject, Betty X suspected that Malcolm X was interested in marriage. On January 12, 1958, he called from Detroit and asked her to marry him, and they were married two days later in Lansing, Michigan.[73][74] The couple had six daughters. Their names were Attallah, born in 1958 and named after Attila the Hun;[75][76]

      Qubilah, born in 1960 and named after Kublai Khan;[77] Ilyasah, born in 1962 and named after Elijah Muhammad;[78] Gamilah Lumumba, born in 1964 and named after Patrice Lumumba;[79] and twins, Malikah and Malaak, born in 1965 after their father's assassination and named for him.[80]


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    MUSLIM MALCOLM X: The Hate That Hate Produced

      After a 1959 television broadcast in New York City about the Nation of Islam, The Hate That Hate Produced, Malcolm X became known to white Americans. Representatives of the print media, radio, and television frequently asked him for comments on issues.[81] By the late 1950s, Malcolm X had acquired a new name, Malcolm Shabazz or Malik el-Shabazz, although he was still widely referred to as Malcolm X.[82]

      In September 1960, Fidel Castro arrived in New York to attend the meeting of the United Nations General Assembly. He and his entourage stayed at the Hotel Theresa in Harlem. Malcolm X was a prominent member of a Harlem-based welcoming committee made up of community leaders who met with Castro.[83]

      Castro was so impressed by Malcolm X that he requested a private meeting with him. At the end of their two-hour meeting, Castro invited Malcolm X to visit him in Cuba.[84]

      During the General Assembly meeting, Malcolm X was also invited to many official embassy functions sponsored by African nations, where he met heads of state and other leaders, including Gamal Abdel Nasser of Egypt, Ahmed Sékou Touré of Guinea, and Kenneth Kaunda of the Zambian African National Congress.[85]

      From his adoption of the Nation of Islam in 1952 until he broke with it in 1964, Malcolm X promoted the Nation's teachings, including that black people are the original people of the world,[86]

      that white people are "devils",[87] that blacks are superior to whites, and that the demise of the white race is imminent.[88] While the civil rights movement fought against racial segregation, Malcolm X advocated the complete separation of African Americans from white people.

      He proposed the establishment of a separate country for black people[89] as an interim measure until African Americans could return to Africa.[90] Malcolm X also rejected the civil rights movement's strategy of nonviolence, and instead advocated that black people use any necessary means of self-defense to protect themselves.[91]

      Malcolm X's speeches had a powerful effect on his audiences, generally African Americans who lived in the Northern and Western cities, who were tired of being told to wait for freedom, justice, equality and respect.[92] Many blacks felt that he articulated their complaints better than the civil rights movement did.[93][94]

      Malcolm X has been widely considered the second most influential leader of the Nation of Islam after Elijah Muhammad.[95]

      He was largely credited with the group's dramatic increase in membership between the early 1950s and early 1960s (from 500 to 25,000 by one author's estimate,[96] or from 1,200 to 50,000 or 75,000 by another's).[97][98] He inspired the boxer Cassius Clay (later known as Muhammad Ali) to join the Nation of Islam.[99] (though like Malcolm X himself, Ali later left the group to become a Sunni Muslim).[100]

      Many white people, and even some blacks, were alarmed by Malcolm X and the things he said. He and the Nation of Islam were described as hatemongers, black supremacists, violence-seekers, and a threat to improved race relations.

      Civil rights organizations denounced Malcolm X and the Nation as irresponsible extremists whose views were not representative of African Americans.[101][102] Malcolm X was accused of being antisemitic.[103]

      Malcolm X was equally critical of the civil rights movement.[104] He described its leaders as "stooges" for the white establishment, and he once described Martin Luther King, Jr. as a "chump".[105][106]

      He criticized the 1963 March on Washington, which he called "the farce on Washington".[107] He said he did not know why black people were excited over a demonstration "run by whites in front of a statue of a president who has been dead for a hundred years and who didn't like us when he was alive".[108]


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    MUSLIM MALCOLM X: Leaving the Nation;

      On December 1, 1963, when he was asked for a comment about the assassination of President Kennedy, Malcolm X said that it was a case of "chickens coming home to roost". He added that "chickens coming home to roost never did make me sad; they've always made me glad."[109]

      The New York Times wrote, "in further criticism of Mr. Kennedy, the Muslim leader cited the murders of Patrice Lumumba, Congo leader, of Medgar Evers, civil rights leader, and of the Negro girls bombed earlier this year in a Birmingham church. These, he said, were instances of other 'chickens coming home to roost'."[109]

      The remarks prompted a widespread public outcry. The Nation of Islam, which had issued a message of condolence to the Kennedy family and ordered its ministers not to comment on the assassination, publicly censured their former shining star.[110]

      Although Malcolm X retained his post and rank as minister, he was prohibited from public speaking for 90 days.[111]

      Martin Luther King, Jr. (left) and Malcolm X, March 26, 1964 On March 8, 1964, Malcolm X publicly announced his break from the Nation of Islam. He said that he was still a Muslim, but he felt the Nation of Islam had "gone as far as it can" because of its rigid religious teachings.[112]

      Malcolm X said he was going to organize a black nationalist organization that would try to "heighten the political consciousness" of African Americans.[112] He also expressed his desire to work with other civil rights leaders and said that Elijah Muhammad had prevented him from doing so in the past.[112]

      One reason for the separation was growing tension between Malcolm X and Elijah Muhammad because of Malcolm X's dismay about rumors of Muhammad's extramarital affairs with young secretaries, actions that were against the teachings of the Nation. Although at first Malcolm X had ignored the rumors, after speaking with Muhammad's son Wallace and the women making the accusations, he came to believe that they were true.

      Muhammad confirmed the rumors in 1963 but tried to justify his actions by reference to precedents set by Biblical prophets.[113]

      Another reason for the separation was growing resentment by people within the Nation. As Malcolm X had become a favorite of the media, many in the Nation's Chicago headquarters felt that he was over-shadowing Muhammad.

      Louis Lomax's 1963 book about the Nation of Islam, When the Word Is Given, featured a picture of Malcolm X on its cover and included five of his speeches, but only one of Muhammad's, which greatly upset Muhammad. Muhammad was also envious that a publisher was interested in Malcolm X's autobiography.[114]

      After leaving the Nation of Islam, Malcolm X founded Muslim Mosque, Inc., a religious organization,[115][116] and the Organization of Afro-American Unity, a secular group that advocated Pan-Africanism.[117][118]

      On March 26, 1964, he met Martin Luther King, Jr. in Washington, D.C., after a press conference held when both men attended the Senate to hear the debate on the Civil Rights bill. This was the only time the two men ever met and their meeting lasted only one minute—just long enough for photographers to take a picture.[119][120]

      In April, Malcolm X made a speech titled "The Ballot or the Bullet" in which he advised African Americans to exercise their right to vote wisely.[121][122] Several Sunni Muslims encouraged Malcolm X to learn about Islam. Soon he converted to Sunni Islam, and decided to make his pilgrimage to Mecca (hajj).[123]


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    MUSLIM MALCOLM X: Pilgrimage to Mecca

      International travel

      On April 13, 1964, Malcolm X departed JFK Airport in New York for Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. His status as an authentic Muslim was questioned by Saudi authorities because of his United States passport and his inability to speak Arabic. Since only confessing Muslims are allowed into Mecca, he was separated from his group for about 20 hours.[124][125]

      According to his autobiography, Malcolm X saw a telephone and remembered the book The Eternal Message of Muhammad by Abdul Rahman Hassan Azzam, which had been presented to him with his visa approval. He called Azzam's son, who arranged for his release.

      At the younger Azzam's home, he met Azzam Pasha, who gave Malcolm his suite at the Jeddah Palace Hotel. The next morning, Muhammad Faisal, the son of Prince Faisal, visited and informed Malcolm X that he was to be a state guest. The deputy chief of protocol accompanied Malcolm X to the Hajj Court, where he was allowed to make his pilgrimage.[126]

      On April 19, Malcolm X completed the Hajj, making the seven circuits around the Kaaba, drinking from the Zamzam Well, and running between the hills of Safah and Marwah seven times.[127] After completing the Hajj, he was granted an audience with Prince Faisal.[128]

      Malcolm X said the trip allowed him to see Muslims of different races interacting as equals. He came to believe that Islam could be the means by which racial problems could be overcome.[129]


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    MUSLIM MALCOLM X: Africa;

      Malcolm X visited Africa on three separate occasions, once in 1959 and twice in 1964.

      During his visits, he met officials, gave interviews to newspapers, and spoke on television and radio in Egypt, Ethiopia, Tanganyika (now Tanzania), Nigeria, Ghana, Guinea, Sudan, Senegal, Liberia, Algeria, and Morocco.[130] Kwame Nkrumah of Ghana, Gamal Abdel Nasser of Egypt, and Ahmed Ben Bella of Algeria invited Malcolm X to serve in their governments.[131]

      In 1959, Malcolm X traveled to Egypt (then known as the United Arab Republic), Sudan, Nigeria, and Ghana to arrange a tour for Elijah Muhammad.[132] The first of the two trips Malcolm X made to Africa in 1964 lasted from April 13 until May 21, before and after his Hajj.[133]

      On May 8, following his speech at the University of Ibadan, Malcolm X was made an honorary member of the Nigerian Muslim Students' Association. During this reception the students bestowed upon him the name "Omowale", which means "the son who has come home" in the Yoruba language.[134] Malcolm X wrote in his autobiography that he "had never received a more treasured honor."[135]

      On July 9, 1964, Malcolm X returned to Africa.[136] On July 17, he was welcomed to the second meeting of the Organization of African Unity in Cairo as a representative of the Organization of Afro-American Unity. By the time he returned to the United States on November 24, 1964, Malcolm had met with every prominent African leader and established an international connection between Africans on the continent and those in the diaspora.[131]

      France and the United Kingdom

      On November 23, 1964, on his way home from Africa, Malcolm X stopped in Paris, where he spoke at the Salle de la Mutualité.[137][138] A week later, on November 30, Malcolm X flew to the United Kingdom, and on December 3 participated in a debate at the Oxford Union.

      The topic of the debate was "Extremism in the Defense of Liberty is No Vice; Moderation in the Pursuit of Justice is No Virtue", and Malcolm X argued the affirmative. Interest in the debate was so high that it was televised nationally by the BBC.[139][140]

      On February 5, 1965, Malcolm X went to Europe again.[141] On February 8, he spoke in London, before the first meeting of the Council of African Organizations.[142] The next day, Malcolm X tried to go to France, but he was refused entry.[143]

      On February 12, he visited Smethwick, near Birmingham, which had become a byword for racial division after the 1964 general election, when the Conservative Party won the parliamentary seat after rumors that their candidate's supporters had used the slogan "If you want a nigger for your neighbour, vote Labour."[144]


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    MUSLIM MALCOLM X: Return to United States

      After leaving the Nation of Islam, Malcolm X spoke before a wide variety of audiences in the United States. He spoke at regular meetings of Muslim Mosque, Inc., and the Organization of Afro-American Unity.

      He was one of the most sought-after speakers on college campuses,[145] and one of his top aides later wrote that he "welcomed every opportunity to speak to college students."[146] Malcolm X also spoke before political groups such as the Militant Labor Forum.[147]

      Tensions increased between Malcolm X and the Nation of Islam. As early as February 1964, a leader of Temple Number Seven ordered a member of the Fruit of Islam to wire explosives to Malcolm X's car.[148]

      In September 1964, Ebony published a photograph of Malcolm X holding an M1 Carbine and peering out a window. The photo was intended to illustrate his determination to defend himself and his family against the death threats he was receiving.[149][150]

      The Nation of Islam and its leaders began making both public and private threats against Malcolm X. On March 23, 1964, Elijah Muhammad told Boston minister Louis X (later known as Louis Farrakhan) that "hypocrites like Malcolm should have their heads cut off."[151] The April 10 edition of Muhammad Speaks featured a cartoon in which his severed head was shown bouncing.[152]

      On July 9, John Ali, a top aide to Muhammad, answered a question about Malcolm X by saying that "anyone who opposes the Honorable Elijah Muhammad puts their life in jeopardy."[153] The December 4 issue of Muhammad Speaks included an article by Louis X that railed against Malcolm X, saying "such a man as Malcolm is worthy of death."[154]

      Some threats were made anonymously. During the month of June 1964, FBI surveillance recorded two such threats. On June 8, a man called Malcolm X's home and told Betty Shabazz to "tell him he's as good as dead."[155]

      On June 12, an FBI informant reported getting an anonymous telephone call from somebody who said "Malcolm X is going to be bumped off."[156]

      In June 1964, the Nation of Islam sued to reclaim Malcolm X's residence in Queens, New York, which they claimed to own. The suit was successful, and Malcolm X was ordered to vacate.[157]

      On February 14, 1965, the night before a scheduled hearing to postpone the eviction date, the house burned to the ground. Malcolm X and his family survived. No one was charged with any crime.[158]


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    MUSLIM MALCOLM X: Assassination

      The Audubon Ballroom stage on which Malcolm X was attacked. Circles on the mural mark bullet holes. On February 21, 1965, as Malcolm X prepared to address the Organization of Afro-American Unity in Manhattan's Audubon Ballroom, a disturbance broke out in the 400-person audience[159]—a man yelled, "Nigger! Get your hand outta my pocket!"[160][161]

      As Malcolm X and his bodyguards moved to quiet the disturbance,[162] a man rushed forward and shot him in the chest with a sawed-off shotgun.[163] Two other men charged the stage and fired semi-automatic handguns, hitting Malcolm X several times.[161]

      He was pronounced dead at 3:30 pm, shortly after he arrived at Columbia Presbyterian Hospital.[159] According to the autopsy report, Malcolm X's body had 21 gunshot wounds, ten of them from the initial shotgun blast.[164]

      One gunman, Nation of Islam member Talmadge Hayer (also known as Thomas Hagan) was seized and beaten by the crowd before the police arrived minutes later;[165][166] witnesses identified the others as Norman 3X Butler and Thomas 15X Johnson, also Nation members.[167]

      Hayer confessed at trial to have been one of the handgun shooters, but refused to identify the other assailants except to assert that they were not Butler and Johnson.[168] All three were convicted.[169]

      Butler, now known as Muhammad Abdul Aziz, was paroled in 1985 and became the head of the Nation's Harlem mosque in 1998. He continues to maintain his innocence.[170] Johnson, who changed his name to Khalil Islam, rejected the Nation's teachings while in prison and converted to Sunni Islam. Released in 1987, he maintained his innocence until his death in August 2009.[171][172] Hayer, now known as Mujahid Halim,[173] was paroled in 2010.[174]


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    MUSLIM MALCOLM X: Funeral

      A public viewing was held at Harlem's Unity Funeral Home from February 23 through February 26, and it was estimated that between 14,000 and 30,000 mourners attended.[175]

      The funeral was held on February 27 at the Faith Temple Church of God in Christ in Harlem. The church was filled to capacity with more than 1,000 people.[176] Loudspeakers were set up outside the Temple so the overflowing crowd could listen[177] and a local television station broadcast the funeral live.[178]

      Among the civil rights leaders attending were John Lewis, Bayard Rustin, James Forman, James Farmer, Jesse Gray, and Andrew Young.[176][179] Actor and activist Ossie Davis delivered the eulogy, describing Malcolm X as "our shining black prince".

      There are those who will consider it their duty, as friends of the Negro people, to tell us to revile him, to flee, even from the presence of his memory, to save ourselves by writing him out of the history of our turbulent times. Many will ask what Harlem finds to honor in this stormy, controversial and bold young captain—and we will smile.

      Many will say turn away—away from this man, for he is not a man but a demon, a monster, a subverter and an enemy of the black man—and we will smile. They will say that he is of hate—a fanatic, a racist—who can only bring evil to the cause for which you struggle!

      And we will answer and say to them: Did you ever talk to Brother Malcolm? Did you ever touch him, or have him smile at you? Did you ever really listen to him? Did he ever do a mean thing? Was he ever himself associated with violence or any public disturbance? For if you did you would know him. And if you knew him you would know why we must honor him.[180]

      Malcolm X was buried at Ferncliff Cemetery in Hartsdale, New York.[178] At the gravesite after the ceremony, friends took the shovels from the waiting gravediggers and completed the burial themselves.[181] Actor and activist Ruby Dee (wife of Ossie Davis) and Juanita Poitier (wife of Sidney Poitier) established the Committee of Concerned Mothers to raise funds to buy a house and pay educational expenses for Malcolm X's family.[182]


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    MUSLIM MALCOLM X: Responses to assassination

      Reactions to Malcolm X's assassination were varied. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. sent a telegram to Betty Shabazz, expressing his sadness over "the shocking and tragic assassination of your husband."

      While we did not always see eye to eye on methods to solve the race problem, I always had a deep affection for Malcolm and felt that he had a great ability to put his finger on the existence and root of the problem. He was an eloquent spokesman for his point of view and no one can honestly doubt that Malcolm had a great concern for the problems that we face as a race.[183]

      Elijah Muhammad told the annual Savior's Day convention on February 26, "Malcolm X got just what he preached," while denying any involvement with the murder.[184] "We didn't want to kill Malcolm and didn't try to kill him," Muhammad said. "We know such ignorant, foolish teachings would bring him to his own end."[185]

      The New York Times wrote that Malcolm X was "an extraordinary and twisted man" who "turn[ed] many true gifts to evil purpose" and that his life was "strangely and pitifully wasted".[186] The New York Post wrote that "even his sharpest critics recognized his brilliance—often wild, unpredictable and eccentric, but nevertheless possessing promise that must now remain unrealized."[187]

      The international press, particularly that of Africa, was sympathetic. The Daily Times of Nigeria wrote that Malcolm X "will have a place in the palace of martyrs."[188] The Ghanaian Times likened him to John Brown and Patrice Lumumba among "a host of Africans and Americans who were martyred in freedom's cause".[189]

      Guangming Daily, published in Beijing, stated that "Malcolm was murdered because he fought for freedom and equal rights",[190] while in Cuba, El Mundo described the assassination as "another racist crime to eradicate by violence the struggle against discrimination".[191]


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    MUSLIM MALCOLM X: Allegations of conspiracy

      Within days of the assassination, questions were raised about who bore ultimate responsibility. On February 23, James Farmer, the leader of the Congress of Racial Equality, announced at a news conference that local drug dealers, and not the Nation of Islam, were to blame.[192]

      Others accused the NYPD, the FBI, or the CIA, citing the lack of police protection, the ease with which the assassins entered the Audubon Ballroom, and the failure of the police to preserve the crime scene.[193][194]

      In the 1970s, the public learned about COINTELPRO and other secret FBI programs directed towards infiltrating and disrupting civil rights organizations during the 1950s and 1960s.[195] John Ali, national secretary of the Nation of Islam, was identified as an FBI undercover agent.[196]

      Malcolm X had confided in a reporter that Ali exacerbated tensions between him and Elijah Muhammad. He considered Ali his "archenemy" within the Nation of Islam leadership.[196] On February 20, 1965, the night before the assassination, Ali met with Talmadge Hayer, one of the men convicted of killing Malcolm X.[197]

      In 1977 and 1978, Talmadge Hayer submitted two sworn affidavits re-asserting his claim that Butler and Johnson were not involved in the assassination. In his affidavits Hayer named four men, all members of the Nation of Islam's Newark Temple Number 25, as having participated with him in the crime. Hayer asserted that a man, later identified as Wilbur McKinley, was the one who shouted and threw a smoke bomb to create a diversion.

      Hayer said that another man, later identified as William Bradley, had a shotgun and was the first to fire on Malcolm X after the diversion.

      Hayer asserted that he and a man later identified as Leon Davis, both armed with pistols, fired on Malcolm X immediately after the shotgun blast. Hayer also said that a fifth man, later identified as Benjamin Thomas, was involved in the conspiracy.[198][199]

      Hayer's statements failed to convince authorities to reopen their investigation of the murder.[200] Some, including the Shabazz family, have accused Louis Farrakhan of being involved in the plot to assassinate Malcolm X.[201][202][203][204] In a 1993 speech, Farrakhan seemed to acknowledge the possibility that the Nation of Islam was responsible for the assassination:

      Was Malcolm your traitor or ours? And if we dealt with him like a nation deals with a traitor, what the hell business is it of yours? A nation has to be able to deal with traitors and cutthroats and turncoats.[205][206]

      In a 60 Minutes interview that aired during May 2000, Farrakhan stated that some of the things he said may have led to the assassination of Malcolm X. "I may have been complicit in words that I spoke", he said. "I acknowledge that and regret that any word that I have said caused the loss of life of a human being."[207]

      A few days later Farrakhan denied that he "ordered the assassination" of Malcolm X, although he again acknowledged that he "created the atmosphere that ultimately led to Malcolm X's assassination."[208] No consensus on who was responsible has been reached.[209]

      Philosophy Except for his autobiography, Malcolm X left no published writings. His philosophy is known almost entirely from the myriad speeches and interviews he gave from 1952 until his death in 1965.[210] Many of those speeches, especially from the last year of his life, were recorded and have been published.[211]


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    WHY?

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    MUSLIM MALCOLM X
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    MUSLIM MALCOLM X: Beliefs of the Nation of Islam

      Further information: Beliefs and theology of the Nation of Islam Before he left the Nation of Islam in 1964, Malcolm X taught its beliefs in his speeches. His speeches were peppered with the phrase "The Honorable Elijah Muhammad teaches us that...".[212]

      It is virtually impossible to discern whether Malcolm X's beliefs diverged from the teachings of the Nation of Islam.[213][214] Malcolm X once compared himself to a ventriloquist's dummy who could only say what Elijah Muhammad told him.[212] Malcolm X taught that black people were the original people of the world,[86] and that white people were a race of devils who were created by an evil scientist named Yakub.[87]

      The Nation of Islam believed that black people were superior to white people, and that the demise of the white race was imminent.[88] When he was questioned concerning his statements that white people were devils, Malcolm X said that "history proves the white man is a devil."[215]

      He enumerated some of the historical reasons that, he felt, supported his argument: "Anybody who rapes, and plunders, and enslaves, and steals, and drops hell bombs on people... anybody who does these things is nothing but a devil."[216]

      Malcolm X said that Islam was the "true religion of black mankind" and that Christianity was "the white man's religion" that had been imposed upon African Americans by their slave-masters.[217]

      He said that the Nation of Islam followed Islam as it was practiced around the world, but the Nation's teachings varied from those of other Muslims because they were adapted to the "uniquely pitiful" condition of black people in America.[218] He taught that Wallace Fard Muhammad, the founder of the Nation, was Allah incarnate,[219] and that Elijah Muhammad was his Messenger, or prophet.[220]

      While the civil rights movement fought against racial segregation, Malcolm X advocated the complete separation of African Americans from white people.

      The Nation of Islam proposed the establishment of a separate country for black people in the Southern[89] or Southwestern United States[221] as an interim measure until African Americans could return to Africa.[90] Malcolm X suggested the United States government owed reparations to black people for the unpaid labor of their enslaved ancestors.[222]

      He also rejected the civil rights movement's strategy of nonviolence and instead advocated that black people should protect themselves by any necessary means.[91]


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    MUSLIM MALCOLM X: Independent views

      After leaving the Nation of Islam, Malcolm X announced his willingness to work with leaders of the civil rights movement,[112]

      though he felt that it should change its focus to human rights. So long as the movement remained a fight for civil rights, its struggle would remain a domestic issue, but by framing the struggle as a fight for human rights, it would become an international issue, and the movement could bring its complaint before the United Nations. Malcolm X said the emerging nations of the world would add their support to the cause of African Americans.[223]

      Malcolm X declared that he and the other members of the Organization of Afro-American Unity were determined to defend themselves from aggressors, and to secure freedom, justice and equality "by whatever means necessary", arguing that if the government was unwilling or unable to protect black people, they should protect themselves.[224]

      Malcolm X stressed the global perspective he gained from his international travels. He emphasized the "direct connection" between the domestic struggle of African Americans for equal rights with the liberation struggles of Third World nations.[225]

      He said that African Americans were wrong when they thought of themselves as a minority; in a global context, black people were a majority, not a minority.[226]

      In his speeches at the Militant Labor Forum, which was sponsored by the Socialist Workers Party, Malcolm X criticized capitalism.[147] After one such speech, when he was asked what political and economic system he wanted, he said he didn't know, but that it was no coincidence the newly liberated countries in the Third World were turning toward socialism.[227]

      Malcolm X still was concerned primarily with the freedom struggle of African Americans. When a reporter asked him what he thought about socialism, Malcolm X asked whether it was good for black people. When the reporter told him it seemed to be, Malcolm X told him, "Then I'm for it."[227][228]

      Although he no longer called for the separation of black people from white people, Malcolm X continued to advocate black nationalism, which he defined as self-determination for the African-American community.[229]

      In the last months of his life, however, Malcolm X began to reconsider his support of black nationalism after meeting northern African revolutionaries who, to all appearances, were white.[230]

      After his Hajj, Malcolm X articulated a view of white people and racism that represented a deep change from the philosophy he had supported as a minister of the Nation of Islam. In a famous letter from Mecca, he wrote that his experiences with white people during his pilgrimage convinced him to "rearrange" his thinking about race and "toss aside some of [his] previous conclusions".[231] In a 1965 conversation with Gordon Parks, two days before his assassination, Malcolm said:

      [L]istening to leaders like Nasser, Ben Bella, and Nkrumah awakened me to the dangers of racism. I realized racism isn't just a black and white problem. It's brought bloodbaths to about every nation on earth at one time or another.

      Brother, remember the time that white college girl came into the restaurant—the one who wanted to help the [Black] Muslims and the whites get together—and I told her there wasn't a ghost of a chance and she went away crying? Well, I've lived to regret that incident.

      In many parts of the African continent I saw white students helping black people. Something like this kills a lot of argument. I did many things as a [Black] Muslim that I'm sorry for now.

      I was a zombie then—like all [Black] Muslims—I was hypnotized, pointed in a certain direction and told to march. Well, I guess a man's entitled to make a fool of himself if he's ready to pay the cost. It cost me 12 years. That was a bad scene, brother. The sickness and madness of those days—I'm glad to be free of them.[232]


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    MUSLIM MALCOLM X: Legacy;

      Malcolm X has been described as one of the greatest and most influential African Americans in history.[233][234][235]

      He is credited with raising the self-esteem of black Americans and reconnecting them with their African heritage.[236] He is largely responsible for the spread of Islam in the black community in the United States.[237][238][239]

      Many African Americans, especially those who lived in cities in the Northern and Western United States, felt that Malcolm X articulated their complaints concerning inequality better than the mainstream civil rights movement did.[93][94]

      One biographer says that by giving expression to their frustration, Malcolm X "made clear the price that white America would have to pay if it did not accede to black America's legitimate demands."[240]

      In the late 1960s, as black activists became more radical, Malcolm X and his teachings were part of the foundation on which they built their movements. The Black Power movement,[62][241] the Black Arts Movement,[62][242] and the widespread adoption of the slogan "Black is beautiful"[243] can all trace their roots to Malcolm X.

      During the late 1980s and early 1990s, there was a resurgence of interest in Malcolm X among young people, fueled in part by use of him as an icon by hip hop groups such as Public Enemy.[244][245] His image was on display in hundreds of thousands of homes, offices, and schools,[246] as well as on T-shirts and jackets.[247]

      This wave peaked in 1992 with the release of the film Malcolm X,[248] an adaptation of the The Autobiography of Malcolm X which Malcolm X began in 1963 in collaboration with Alex Haley on The Autobiography of Malcolm X.[114]

      (Malcolm X had told Haley, "If I'm alive when this book comes out, it will be a miracle";[249] indeed Haley completed and published it some months after the assassination).[250] In 1998 Time named The Autobiography of Malcolm X one of the ten most influential nonfiction books of the 20th century.[251]

      Portrayals in film and on stage

      Denzel Washington played the title role in Malcolm X[252]—named one of the ten best films of the 1990s by both critic Roger Ebert and director Martin Scorsese.[253] Washington had previously played the part of Malcolm X in the 1981 off-Broadway play When the Chickens Came Home to Roost.[254] Other portrayals include:

      • James Earl Jones, in the 1977 film The Greatest.[255]

      • Dick Anthony Williams, in the 1978 television miniseries King[256] and the 1989 American Playhouse production of the Jeff Stetson play The Meeting.[257]

      • Al Freeman, Jr., in the 1979 television miniseries Roots: The Next Generations.[258]

      • Morgan Freeman, in the 1981 television movie Death of a Prophet.[259]

      • Ben Holt, in the 1986 opera X, The Life and Times of Malcolm X at the New York City Opera.[260]

      • Gary Dourdan, in the 2000 television movie King of the World.[261]

      • Joe Morton, in the 2000 television movie Ali: An American Hero.[262]

      • Mario Van Peebles, in the 2001 film Ali.[263]

      Memorials and tributes

      The Malcolm X House Site, at 3448 Pinkney Street in North Omaha, Nebraska, marks the place where Malcolm Little first lived with his family. The house where the Little family lived was torn down in 1965 by owners who did not know of its connection with Malcolm X.[264]

      The site was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1984 and a historic marker identifies the site because of the importance of Malcolm X to American history and national culture.[265][266] In 1987 the site was added to the Nebraska register of historic sites and marked with a state plaque.[267]

      Lansing, Michigan, where Malcolm Little spent his early, formative years, is home to a Michigan Historical Marker erected in 1975 marking his homesite.[268] The city is also home to El-Hajj Malik El-Shabazz Academy, a public charter school with an Afrocentric focus. The Academy is located in the building where Little attended elementary school.[269]


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    WHY?

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    MUSLIM MALCOLM X
    CHRISTIPEDIA: MUSLIM MALCOLM-X, USA Islamic Leader in 1960's, BRIEF-BIO

    MUSLIM MALCOLM X: Malcolm X Boulevard in New York City

      In cities around the world, Malcolm X's birthday (May 19) is commemorated as Malcolm X Day. The first known celebration of Malcolm X Day took place in Washington, D.C., in 1971.[270] The city of Berkeley, California, has recognized Malcolm X's birthday as a citywide holiday since 1979.[271]

      Many cities have renamed streets after Malcolm X; in 1987, New York mayor Ed Koch proclaimed Lenox Avenue in Harlem to be Malcolm X Boulevard.[272] The name of Reid Avenue in Brooklyn, New York, was changed to Malcolm X Boulevard in 1985.[273][274]

      In 1997, Oakland Avenue in Dallas, Texas, was renamed Malcolm X Boulevard.[275] Main Street in Lansing, Michigan, was renamed Malcolm X Street in 2010.[276]

      There have been dozens of schools named after Malcolm X, including Malcolm X Shabazz High School in Newark, New Jersey,[277] Malcolm Shabazz City High School in Madison,

      Wisconsin,[278] and Malcolm X College in Chicago, Illinois.[279] Meanwhile, the Malcolm X Library and Performing Arts Center of the San Diego Public Library system opened in 1996. It is the first library named after Malcolm X.[280]

      The U.S. Postal Service issued a Malcolm X postage stamp in 1999.[281] In 2005, Columbia University announced the opening of the Malcolm X and Dr. Betty Shabazz Memorial and Educational Center.

      The memorial is located in the Audubon Ballroom, where Malcolm X was assassinated.[282] Collections of Malcolm X's papers are deposited at the Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture and the Robert W. Woodruff Library.[283][284][285]

      Recording found

      In February 2012, persons attending a Rhode Island Black Heritage Association event will have the opportunity to hear portions of a recording of Malcolm X's May 11, 1961 Brown University speech.

      The recording was stored for 50 years and discovered by Brown student Malcolm Burnley, who saw the recording mentioned in an old student newspaper and searched for it in university archives.

      Katharine Pierce had written an article about the Black Muslim movement for a Pembroke College class, which Richard Holbrooke, editor of the student newspaper, used to inform people about race relations on the overwhelmingly white campus. The article inspired Malcolm X to visit the campus, where he spoke to a mostly white audience, stating that black people should remain separate and not depend on white people to offer them equality.[286]


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    WHY?

    CHRISTIAN FLAG WAVING MALCOLM-X-PHOTOAMERICAN FLAG WAVING AMERICAN

    MUSLIM MALCOLM X
    CHRISTIPEDIA: MUSLIM MALCOLM-X, USA Islamic Leader in 1960's, BRIEF-BIO

    MUSLIM MALCOLM X: Published works

      • The Autobiography of Malcolm X. With the assistance of Alex Haley. New York: Grove Press, 1965. OCLC 219493184.

      • Malcolm X Speaks: Selected Speeches and Statements. George Breitman, ed. New York: Merit Publishers, 1965. OCLC 256095445.

      • Malcolm X Talks to Young People. New York: Young Socialist Alliance, 1965. OCLC 81990227.

      • Two Speeches by Malcolm X. New York: Pathfinder Press, 1965. OCLC 19464959.

      • Malcolm X on Afro-American History. New York: Merit Publishers, 1967. OCLC 78155009.

      • The Speeches of Malcolm X at Harvard. Archie Epps, ed. New York: Morrow, 1968. OCLC 185901618.

      • By Any Means Necessary: Speeches, Interviews, and a Letter by Malcolm X. George Breitman, ed. New York: Pathfinder Press, 1970. OCLC 249307.

      • The End of White World Supremacy: Four Speeches by Malcolm X. Benjamin Karim, ed. New York: Monthly Review Press, 1971. OCLC 149849.

      • The Last Speeches. Bruce Perry, ed. New York: Pathfinder Press, 1989. ISBN 978-0-87348-543-2.

      • Malcolm X Talks to Young People: Speeches in the United States, Britain, and Africa. Steve Clark, ed. New York: Pathfinder Press, 1991. ISBN 978-0-87348-962-1.

      • February 1965: The Final Speeches. Steve Clark, ed. New York: Pathfinder Press, 1992. ISBN 978-0-87348-749-8.

      See also

      • African American portal

      • Biography portal

      • Human rights portal

      • Islam portal

      • Politics portal

      References


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    MUSLIM MALCOLM X: Footnotes;

      1. ^ This name includes the honorific El-Hajj, given on completion of the Hajj to Mecca. Malise Ruthven (1997). Islam: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford University Press. p. 147. ISBN 978-0-19-285389-9.

      2. ^ a b Perry, p. 2.

      3. ^ Perry, p. 3.

      4. ^ Natambu, p. 7.

      5. ^ Malcolm X, Autobiography, pp. 3–4. There have been many editions of The Autobiography of Malcolm X. Page numbers cited in the notes refer to the One World trade paperback edition (1992). 6. ^ Natambu, p. 3.

      7. ^ a b Natambu, p. 6.

      8. ^ Perry, pp. 3–4.

      9. ^ Perry, pp. 2–3.

      10. ^ Malcolm X, Autobiography, p. 5.

      11. ^ Malcolm X, Autobiography, pp. 7, 10–11.

      12. ^ Perry, pp. 2, 4.

      13. ^ DeCaro, pp. 43–44.

      14. ^ Perry, p. 12.

      15. ^ Marable, Malcolm X, p. 29.

      16. ^ Natambu, p. 10.

      17. ^ Marable, Malcolm X, p. 32. 18. ^ Marable, Malcolm X, p. 35.

      19. ^ Marable, Malcolm X, pp. 35–36, 265.

      20. ^ Perry, pp. 33–34, 331.

      21. ^ a b Perry, p. 42.

      22. ^ Natambu, pp. 21–29.

      23. ^ Perry, pp. 32–48.

      24. ^ Natambu, pp. 30–31. 25. ^ Perry, pp. 58–81.

      26. ^ Marable, pp. 37, 51–52.

      27. ^ Marable, Malcolm X, pp. 65–66.

      28. ^ Perry, pp. 77, 82–83.

      29. ^ a b Carson, p. 108.

      30. ^ Malcolm X, Autobiography, p. 124.

      31. ^ Natambu, pp. 106–109.

      32. ^ Perry, p. 99.

      33. ^ Natambu, pp. 110–111.

      34. ^ Marable, Malcolm X, pp. 67–68.

      35. ^ Perry, pp. 104–106.

      36. ^ Natambu, p. 121.

      37. ^ Malcolm X, Autobiography, p. 178; ellipsis in original.

      38. ^ Perry, pp. 108–110.

      39. ^ Perry, p. 118.

      40. ^ Natambu, pp. 127–128.

      41. ^ Natambu, p. 128.

      42. ^ Perry, p. 113.

      43. ^ Natambu, pp. 132–138.

      44. ^ Perry, pp. 113–114.

      45. ^ Natambu, pp. 138–139.

      46. ^ Perry, p. 116.

      47. ^ Marable, Malcolm X, p. 98.

      48. ^ Malcolm X, Autobiography, p. 199.

      49. ^ Marable, Malcolm X, p. 96.

      50. ^ Malcolm X, Autobiography, p. 229.

      51. ^ Perry, pp. 142, 144–145.

      52. ^ Natambu, p. 168.

      53. ^ The Nation of Islam numbered its Temples according to the order in which they were established. Perry, pp. 141–142.

      54. ^ Marable, Malcolm X, p. 104.

      55. ^ Perry, p. 147.

      56. ^ Perry, p. 152.

      57. ^ Perry, p. 153.

      58. ^ Perry, pp. 161–164.

      59. ^ Marable, Malcolm X, p. 95.

      60. ^ Carson, p. 95.

      61. ^ Marable, Malcolm X, pp. 122–123.

      62. ^ a b c d Marable, "Rediscovering Malcolm's Life", p. 301.

      63. ^ Lincoln, p. 189.

      64. ^ a b c d Marable, Malcolm X, p. 127.

      65. ^ a b Perry, p. 164.

      66. ^ a b Perry, p. 165.

      67. ^ a b c d Marable, Malcolm X, p. 128.

      68. ^ Perry, p. 166.

      69. ^ Marable, Malcolm X, p. 132.

      70. ^ Marable, Malcolm X, pp. 134–135.

      71. ^ Rickford, pp. 36–45, 50–51.

      72. ^ Rickford, pp. 61–63.

      73. ^ Shabazz, Betty, "Malcolm X as a Husband and Father", Clarke, pp. 132–134.

      74. ^ Rickford, pp. 73–74.

      75. ^ Rickford, pp. 109–110.

      76. ^ In a 1992 interview, Attallah Shabazz said she was not named for Attila, rather her name was Arabic for "the gift of God". Miller, Russell (November 23, 1992). "X Patriot". New York. Retrieved November 17, 2011.

      77. ^ Rickford, p. 122.

      78. ^ Rickford, p. 123.

      79. ^ Rickford, p. 197.

      80. ^ Rickford, p. 286.

      81. ^ Perry, pp. 174–179.

      82. ^ Manning, Malcolm X, pp. 135, 193.

      83. ^ Marable, Malcolm X, p. 172.

      84. ^ Lincoln, p. 18.

      85. ^ Natambu, pp. 231–233.

      86. ^ a b Lomax, When the Word Is Given, p. 55.

      87. ^ a b Perry, p. 115.

      88. ^ a b Lomax, When the Word Is Given, p. 57.

      89. ^ a b Lomax, When the Word Is Given, pp. 149–152.

      90. ^ a b Malcolm X, End of White World Supremacy, p. 78.

      91. ^ a b Lomax, When the Word Is Given, pp. 173–174.

      92. ^ Natambu, p. 182.

      93. ^ a b Cone, pp. 99–100.

      94. ^ a b West, Cornel (1984). "The Paradox of the Afro-American Rebellion". In Sayres, Sohnya; Stephanson, Anders; Aronowitz, Stanley et al. The 60s Without Apology. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. p. 51. ISBN 978-0-8166-1336-6.

      95. ^ Cone, p. 91.

      96. ^ Lomax. When the Word Is Given. pp. 15–16. "Estimates of the Black Muslim membership vary from a quarter of a million down to fifty thousand. Available evidence indicates that about one hundred thousand Negroes have joined the movement at one time or another, but few objective observers believe that the Black Muslims can muster more than twenty or twenty-five thousand active temple people."

      97. ^ Marable, Malcolm X, p. 123.

      98. ^ Clegg. p. 115. "The common response of Malcolm X to questions about numbers—'Those who know aren't saying, and those who say don't know'—was typical of the attitude of the leadership."

      99. ^ Natambu, pp. 296–297

      100. ^ Ali, Muhammad (2004). The Soul of a Butterfly: Reflections on Life's Journey. with Hana Yasmeen Ali. New York: Simon & Schuster. p. 61. ISBN 978-0-7432-5569-1.

      101. ^ Natambu, pp. 215–216.

      102. ^ "The Black Supremacists". TIME. August 10, 1959. Retrieved July 28, 2009.

      103. ^ Lomax, When the Word Is Given, p. 172.

      104. ^ Lomax, When the Word Is Given, pp. 79–80. 105. ^ Perry, p. 203.

      106. ^ King expressed mixed feelings toward Malcolm X. "He is very articulate, ... but I totally disagree with many of his political and philosophical views... I don't want to seem to sound self-righteous, ... or that I think I have the only truth, the only way. Maybe he does have some of the answer... I have often wished that he would talk less of violence, because violence is not going to solve our problem. And in his litany of articulating the despair of the Negro without offering any positive, creative alternative, I feel that Malcolm has done himself and our people a great disservice... [U]rging Negroes to arm themselves and prepare to engage in violence, as he has done, can reap nothing but grief." Haley, Alex (January 1965). "The Playboy Interview: Martin Luther King". Playboy. Retrieved December 7, 2011.

      107. ^ Cone, p. 113.

      108. ^ "Timeline". Malcolm X: Make It Plain, American Experience. PBS. May 19, 2005. Retrieved July 27, 2008. 109. ^ a b "Malcolm X Scores U.S. and Kennedy". The New York Times. December 2, 1963. p. 21. Retrieved July 28, 2008. (subscription required)

      110. ^ Natambu, pp. 288–290.

      111. ^ Perry, p. 242.

      112. ^ a b c d Handler, M. S. (March 9, 1964). "Malcolm X Splits with Muhammad". The New York Times. Retrieved August 1, 2008. (subscription required)

      113. ^ Perry, pp. 230–234

      114. ^ a b Perry, p. 214.

      115. ^ Perry, pp. 251–252.

      116. ^ Malcolm X, Malcolm X Speaks, pp. 18–22.

      117. ^ Perry, pp. 294–296.

      118. ^ Malcolm X, By Any Means Necessary, pp. 33–67.

      119. ^ Cone. p. 2. "There was no time for substantive discussions between the two. They were photographed greeting each other warmly, smiling and shaking hands."

      120. ^ Perry. p. 255. "Camera shutters clicked. The next day, the Chicago Sun-Times, the New York World Telegram and Sun, and other dailies carried a picture of Malcolm and Martin shaking hands."

      121. ^ Perry, pp. 257–259.

      122. ^ Malcolm X, Malcolm X Speaks, pp. 23–44.

      123. ^ Perry, p. 261.

      124. ^ Perry, pp. 262–263.

      125. ^ DeCaro, p. 204.

      126. ^ Perry, pp. 263–265.

      127. ^ Perry, pp. 265–266.

      128. ^ Perry, p. 267.

      129. ^ Malcolm X, Autobiography, pp. 388–393.

      130. ^ Natambu, pp. 304–305.

      131. ^ a b Natambu, p. 308.

      132. ^ Lomax, When the Word Is Given, p. 62.

      133. ^ Natambu, p. 303.

      134. ^ Perry, p. 269.

      135. ^ Malcolm X, Autobiography, p. 403.

      136. ^ Carson, p. 305.

      137. ^ Bethune, Lebert, "Malcolm X in Europe", Clarke, pp. 226–231.

      138. ^ Malcolm X, By Any Means Necessary, pp. 113–126.

      139. ^ Bethune, "Malcolm X in Europe", Clarke, pp. 231–233.

      140. ^ Malcolm X (December 3, 1964). "Malcolm X Oxford Debate". Malcolm X: A Research Site. Retrieved July 30, 2008.

      141. ^ Carson, p. 349.

      142. ^ Perry, p. 351.

      143. ^ Natambu, p. 312.

      144. ^ Kundnani, Arun (February 10, 2005). "Black British History: Remembering Malcolm's Visit to Smethwick". Independent Race and Refugee News Network. Institute of Race Relations. Retrieved July 30, 2008.

      145. ^ Terrill, p. 9.

      146. ^ Karim, p. 128.

      147. ^ a b Perry, pp. 277–278.

      148. ^ Karim, pp. 159–160.

      149. ^ Massaquoi, Hans J. (September 1964). "Mystery of Malcolm X". Ebony.

      150. ^ Lord, Lewis; Thornton, Jeannye; Bodipo-Memba, Alejandro (November 15, 1992). "The Legacy of Malcolm X". U.S. News & World Report. p. 3. Retrieved June 2, 2010. 151. ^ Kondo, p. 170.

      152. ^ Majied, Eugene (April 10, 1964). "On My Own". Muhammad Speaks. [[|Nation of Islam]]. Retrieved August 1, 2008.

      153. ^ Evanzz, p. 248.

      154. ^ Evanzz, p. 264.

      155. ^ Carson, p. 473.

      156. ^ Carson, p. 324.

      157. ^ Perry, pp. 290–292.

      158. ^ Perry, pp. 352–356.

      159. ^ a b Kihss, Peter (February 22, 1965). "Malcolm X Shot to Death at Rally Here". The New York Times. Retrieved August 1, 2008. (subscription required)

      160. ^ Karim, p. 191.

      161. ^ a b Evanzz, p. 295.

      162. ^ In his Epilogue to The Autobiography of Malcolm X, Alex Haley wrote that Malcolm said, "Hold it! Hold it! Don't get excited. Let's cool it brothers." (p. 499.) According to a transcription of a recording of the shooting, Malcolm's only words were, "Hold it!", which he repeated 10 times. (DeCaro, p. 274.)

      163. ^ Perry, p. 366.

      164. ^ Marable, Malcolm X, p. 450.

      165. ^ Perry, pp. 366–367.

      166. ^ Talese, Gay (February 22, 1965). "Police Save Suspect From the Crowd". The New York Times. Retrieved August 1, 2008. (subscription required) 167. ^ Kondo, p. 97.

      168. ^ Kondo, p. 110.

      169. ^ Rickford, p. 289.

      170. ^ "Malcolm X Killer Heads Mosque". BBC News. March 31, 1998. Retrieved August 1, 2008.

      171. ^ Jacobson, Mark (October 1, 2007). "The Man Who Didn't Shoot Malcolm X". New York. Retrieved August 1, 2008.

      172. ^ Marable, Malcolm X, p. 474.

      173. ^ Rickford, p. 489

      174. ^ Marable, Malcolm X, pp. 474–475.

      175. ^ Perry, p. 374. Alex Haley, in his Epilogue to The Autobiography of Malcolm X, says 22,000 (p. 519).

      176. ^ a b Rickford, p. 252.

      177. ^ DeCaro, p. 291

      178. ^ a b Arnold, Martin (February 28, 1965). "Harlem Is Quiet as Crowds Watch Malcolm X Rites". The New York Times. Retrieved August 2, 2008. (subscription required)

      179. ^ DeCaro, p. 290.

      180. ^ Davis, Ossie (February 27, 1965). "Malcolm X's Eulogy". The Official Website of Malcolm X. Retrieved September 6, 2009.

      181. ^ Rickford, p. 255

      182. ^ Rickford, pp. 261–262.

      183. ^ King, Jr., Martin Luther (February 26, 1965). "Telegram from Martin Luther King, Jr. to Betty al-Shabazz". The Martin Luther King, Jr. Research and Education Institute. Retrieved March 21, 2010.

      184. ^ Evanzz, p. 301.

      185. ^ Clegg, p. 232.

      186. ^ "Malcolm X". The New York Times. February 22, 1965. Retrieved August 2, 2008. (subscription required)

      187. ^ Rickford, p. 247.

      188. ^ Evanzz, p. 305.

      189. ^ Kenworthy, E. W. (February 26, 1965). "Malcolm Called a Martyr Abroad". The New York Times. Retrieved August 2, 2008. (subscription required)

      190. ^ Evanzz, p. 306.

      191. ^ Rickford, p. 248.

      192. ^ Perry, p. 371.

      193. ^ Marable, "Rediscovering Malcolm's Life", pp. 305–306.

      194. ^ Perry, p. 372.

      195. ^ Kondo, pp. 7–39.

      196. ^ a b Lomax, To Kill a Black Man, p. 198.

      197. ^ Evanzz, p. 294.

      198. ^ Bush, Roderick (1999). We Are Not What We Seem: Black Nationalism and Class Struggle in the American Century. New York: New York University Press. p. 179. ISBN 978-0-8147-1317-4.

      199. ^ Friedly, Michael (1992). Malcolm X: The Assassination. New York: Carroll & Graf. ISBN 978-0-88184-922-6.

      200. ^ Gardell, Mattias (1996). In the Name of Elijah Muhammad: Louis Farrakhan and the Nation of Islam. Durham, N. C.: Duke University Press. p. 81. ISBN 978-0-8223-1845-3.

      201. ^ Rickford, pp. 437, 492–495.

      202. ^ Evanzz, pp. 298–299.

      203. ^ Kondo, pp. 182–183, 193–194.

      204. ^ Marable, "Rediscovering Malcolm's Life", p. 305.

      205. ^ Rickford, p. 492.

      206. ^ Wartofsky, Alona (February 17, 1995). "'Brother Minister: The Martyrdom of Malcolm X'". The Washington Post. Retrieved August 1, 2008.

      207. ^ "Farrakhan Admission on Malcolm X". 60 Minutes. CBS News. May 14, 2000. Retrieved August 2, 2008.

      208. ^ "Farrakhan Responds to Media Attacks". The Final Call. May 15, 2000. Retrieved August 2, 2008.

      209. ^ Natambu, pp. 315–316.

      210. ^ Kelley, Robin D. G. (1999). "Malcolm X". Africana: The Encyclopedia of the African and African American Experience. New York: Basic Civitas Books. p. 1233.

      211. ^ Terrill, pp. 15–16.

      212. ^ a b Lomax, When the Word Is Given, pp. 80–81.

      213. ^ Terrill, p. 184.

      214. ^ Lomax. When the Word Is Given. p. 91. "'I'll be honest with you,' Malcolm X said to me. 'Everybody is talking about differences between the Messenger and me. It is absolutely impossible for us to differ.'"

      215. ^ Lomax, When the Word Is Given, p. 67.

      216. ^ Lomax, When the Word Is Given, p. 171.

      217. ^ Lomax, When the Word Is Given, pp. 24, 137–138.

      218. ^ Malcolm X, Speeches at Harvard, p. 119.

      219. ^ DeCaro, pp. 166–167.

      220. ^ Malcolm X told Lewis Lomax that "The Messenger is the Prophet of Allah" (Lomax, When the Word Is Given, p. 80). On another occasion, he said "We never refer to the Honorable Elijah Muhammad as a prophet" (Malcolm X, Last Speeches, p. 46).

      221. ^ Lincoln, p. 95.

      222. ^ Lincoln, p. 96.

      223. ^ Malcolm X, Malcolm X Speaks, pp. 33–35.

      224. ^ Malcolm X, By Any Means Necessary, pp. 43, 47.

      225. ^ Malcolm X, Malcolm X Speaks, p. 90.

      226. ^ Malcolm X, Malcolm X Speaks, p. 117.

      227. ^ a b Cone, p. 284.

      228. ^ Perry, p. 277.

      229. ^ Malcolm X, Malcolm X Speaks, pp. 38–41.

      230. ^ Malcolm X, Malcolm X Speaks, pp. 212–213.

      231. ^ Malcolm X, Autobiography, p. 391.

      232. ^ Parks, Gordon, "Malcolm X: The Minutes of Our Last Meeting", Clarke, p. 122.

      233. ^ Asante, Molefi Kete (2002). 100 Greatest African Americans: A Biographical Encyclopedia. Amhert, N.Y.: Prometheus Books. p. 333. ISBN 978-1-57392-963-9.

      234. ^ Marable, Manning; Nishani Frazier, John Campbell McMillian (2003). Freedom on My Mind: The Columbia Documentary History of the African American Experience. New York: Columbia University Press. p. 251. ISBN 978-0-231-10890-4.

      235. ^ Salley, Columbus (1999). The Black 100: A Ranking of the Most Influential African-Americans, Past and Present. New York: Citadel Press. p. 88. ISBN 978-0-8065-2048-3.

      236. ^ Cone, pp. 291–292.

      237. ^ Nasr, Seyyed Hossein (2002). The Heart of Islam: Enduring Values for Humanity. New York: HarperCollins. p. 97. ISBN 978-0-06-073064-2.

      238. ^ Perry, p. 379.

      239. ^ Turner, Richard Brent (2004). "Islam in the African- American Experience". In Bobo, Jacqueline; Hudley, Cynthia; Michel, Claudine. The Black Studies Reader. New York: Routledge. p. 445. ISBN 978-0-415-94554-7.

      240. ^ Perry, p. 380.

      241. ^ Sales, p. 187

      242. ^ Woodard, Komozi (1999). A Nation Within a Nation: Amiri Baraka (LeRoi Jones) & Black Power Politics. Chapel Hill, N.C.: University of North Carolina Press. p. 62. ISBN 978-0-8078-4761-9.

      243. ^ Cone, p. 291.

      244. ^ Marable, "Rediscovering Malcolm's Life", pp. 301–302.

      245. ^ Sales, p. 5.

      246. ^ Marable, "Rediscovering Malcolm's Life", p. 302.

      247. ^ Sales, p. 3.

      248. ^ Sales, p. 4

      249. ^ Haley, "Epilogue", Autobiography, p. 471.

      250. ^ Perry, p. 375.

      251. ^ Gray, Paul (June 8, 1998). "Required Reading: Nonfiction Books". TIME. Retrieved April 25, 2010.

      252. ^ "Malcolm X". Internet Movie Database. Retrieved February 26, 2009.

      253. ^ Anderson, Jeffrey M. "The Best Films of the 1990s". Combustible Celluloid. Retrieved August 2, 2008.

      254. ^ Rich, Frank (July 15, 1981). "The Stage: Malcolm X and Elijah Muhammad". The New York Times. Retrieved August 2, 2008.

      255. ^ "The Greatest". Internet Movie Database. Retrieved February 26, 2009.

      256. ^ "King". Internet Movie Database. Retrieved February 26, 2009.

      257. ^ Goodman, Walter (May 3, 1989). "An Imaginary Meeting of Dr. King and Malcolm X". The New York Times. Retrieved August 2, 2008.

      258. ^ "Roots: The Next Generations". Internet Movie Database. Retrieved February 26, 2009.

      259. ^ "Death of a Prophet". Internet Movie Database. Retrieved February 26, 2009.

      260. ^ Henahan, Donal (September 29, 1986). "Opera: Anthony Davis's 'X (The Life and Times of Malcolm X)'". The New York Times. Retrieved August 9, 2008.

      261. ^ "King of the World". Internet Movie Database. Retrieved February 26, 2009.

      262. ^ "Ali: An American Hero". Internet Movie Database. Retrieved February 26, 2009.

      263. ^ "Ali". Internet Movie Database. Retrieved February 26, 2009.

      264. ^ McMorris, Robert (March 11, 1989). "Empty Lot Holds Dreams for Rowena Moore". Omaha World-Herald. Retrieved August 2, 2008.

      265. ^ "National Register of Historic Places – Nebraska, Douglas County". National Register of Historic Places. Retrieved August 2, 2008.

      266. ^ "More Nebraska National Register Sites in Douglas County". Nebraska State Historical Society. Retrieved August 2, 2008.

      267. ^ "Nebraska Historical Marker". Malcolm X: A Research Site. Retrieved August 2, 2008.

      268. ^ "Malcolm X Homesite". Michigan Historical Markers. Retrieved August 30, 2009.

      269. ^ Yancey, Patty (2000). "We Hold on to Our Kids, We Hold on Tight: Tandem Charters in Michigan". In Fuller, Bruce. Inside Charter Schools: The Paradox of Radical Decentralization.

      Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press. p. 67. ISBN 978-0-674-00325-5.

      270. ^ Gay, Kathlyn (2007). African-American Holidays, Festivals and Celebrations. Detroit: Omnigraphics. p. 284. ISBN 978-0-7808-0779-2.

      271. ^ Thaai, Walker (May 20, 2005). "Berkeley Honors Controversial Civil Rights Figure". San Jose Mercury News. Retrieved August 28, 2009. (subscription required)

      272. ^ Rickford, p. 443.

      273. ^ Rickford, p. 419.

      274. ^ Barron, James (January 18, 2009). "'Not Much of a Block,' but It's Named for a King". The New York Times. Retrieved August 22, 2011.

      275. ^ Scoville, Jen (December 1997). "The Big Beat". Texas Monthly. Archived from the original on December 29, 2004. Retrieved October 5, 2009.

      276. ^ Vela, Susan (September 14, 2010). "Malcolm X, Cesar Chavez Get Nods for Lansing Street, Plaza Names". Lansing State Journal. Retrieved April 23, 2011. (subscription required)

      277. ^ Lee, Felicia R. (May 15, 1993). "Newark Students, Both Good and Bad, Make Do". The New York Times. Retrieved August 8, 2008.

      278. ^ Hunt, Lori Bona (February 26, 1991). "Malcolm X's Widow Sees Signs of Hope". Milwaukee Journal. Retrieved March 21, 2010.

      279. ^ Witkowsky, Kathy (Spring 2000). "A Day in the Life". National CrossTalk. Retrieved August 8, 2008.

      280. ^ Flynn, Pat (January 7, 1996). "Big Crowd Welcomes New Library Warmly". The San Diego Union-Tribune. Retrieved August 25, 2010. (subscription required)

      281. ^ Marable, "Rediscovering Malcolm's Life", pp. 303–304.

      282. ^ "Malcolm X and Dr. Betty Shabazz Memorial and Educational Center Launches". Columbia University. May 17, 2005. Retrieved August 8, 2008.

      283. ^ Marable, Malcolm X, p. 564.

      284. ^ Hendrick, Bill (September 2, 1999). "A Revelation in Letters: Educated, Tender Malcolm X". The Atlanta Journal- Constitution. Retrieved January 15, 2012. (subscription required)

      285. ^ Eakin, Emily (January 8, 2003). "Malcolm X Trove to Schomburg Center". The New York Times. Retrieved January 15, 2012.

      286. ^ Klepper, David (February 5, 2012). "Student uncovers Malcolm X speech lost for 50 years". The Sun News. Associated Press. Retrieved February 5, 2012.


    GOLD DIVIDER WITH CROSS CENTER
    CHRISTIPEDIA

    MUSLIM MALCOLM X;

    MUSLIM MALCOLM X, American Islamic Leader '60's;

    (All NewtonStein "INSPIRED-INERRANT" Bible View! )

    AMERICAN FLAG DRAPE LEFT THESIS, TOPIC: Malcolm X, an Islamic leader in the USA in the 1960's was assassinated in the era of JKF, RFK, and MLK;

    WHY?

    CHRISTIAN FLAG WAVING MALCOLM-X-PHOTOAMERICAN FLAG WAVING AMERICAN

    MUSLIM MALCOLM X
    CHRISTIPEDIA: MUSLIM MALCOLM-X, USA Islamic Leader in 1960's, BRIEF-BIO

    MUSLIM MALCOLM X: Works cited;

      • Carson, Clayborne (1991). Malcolm X: The FBI File. New York: Carroll & Graf. ISBN 978-0-88184-758-1.

      • Clarke, John Henrik, ed. (1990) [1969]. Malcolm X: The Man and His Times. Trenton, N.J.: Africa World Press. ISBN 978-0-86543-201-7.

      • Clegg III, Claude Andrew (1997). An Original Man: The Life and Times of Elijah Muhammad. New York: St. Martin's Griffin. ISBN 978-0-312-18153-6.

      • Cone, James H. (1991). Martin & Malcolm & America: A Dream or a Nightmare. Maryknoll, N.Y.: Orbis Books. ISBN 978-0-88344-721-5.

      • DeCaro, Jr., Louis A. (1996). On the Side of My People: A Religious Life of Malcolm X. New York: New York University Press. ISBN 978-0-8147-1864-3.

      • Dyson, Michael Eric (1995). Making Malcolm: The Myth and Meaning of Malcolm X. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-509235-6.

      • Evanzz, Karl (1992). The Judas Factor: The Plot to Kill Malcolm X. New York: Thunder's Mouth Press. ISBN 978-1-56025-049-4.

      • Karim, Benjamin; with Peter Skutches and David Gallen (1992). Remembering Malcolm. New York: Carroll & Graf. ISBN 978-0-88184-881-6.

      • Kondo, Zak A. (1993). Conspiracys: Unravelling the Assassination of Malcolm X. Washington, D.C.: Nubia Press. OCLC 28837295.

      • Lincoln, C. Eric (1961). The Black Muslims in America. Boston: Beacon Press. OCLC 422580.

      • Lomax, Louis E. (1987) [1968]. To Kill a Black Man: The Shocking Parallel in the Lives of Malcolm X and Martin Luther King Jr. Los Angeles: Holloway House. ISBN 978-0-87067-731-1.

      • Lomax, Louis E. (1963). When the Word Is Given: A Report on Elijah Muhammad, Malcolm X, and the Black Muslim World. Cleveland: World Publishing. OCLC 1071204.

      • Malcolm X; with the assistance of Alex Haley (1992) [1965]. The Autobiography of Malcolm X. New York: One World. ISBN 978-0-345-37671-8.

      • Malcolm X (1989) [1970]. By Any Means Necessary: Speeches, Interviews, and a Letter by Malcolm X. George Breitman, ed. New York: Pathfinder Press. ISBN 978-0-87348-150-2.

      • Malcolm X (1989) [1971]. The End of White World Supremacy: Four Speeches by Malcolm X. Benjamin Karim, ed. New York: Arcade. ISBN 978-1-55970-006-1.

      • Malcolm X (1990) [1965]. Malcolm X Speaks: Selected Speeches and Statements. George Breitman, ed. New York: Grove Weidenfeld. ISBN 978-0-8021-3213-0.

      • Malcolm X (1991) [1968]. The Speeches of Malcolm X at Harvard. Archie Epps, ed. New York: Paragon House. ISBN 978-1-55778-479-7.

      • Marable, Manning (2011). Malcolm X: A Life of Reinvention. New York: Viking. ISBN 978-0-670-02220-5.

      • Marable, Manning (2009). "Rediscovering Malcolm's Life: A Historian's Adventures in Living History". In Marable, Manning; Aidi, Hishaam D. Black Routes to Islam. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-1-4039-8400-5.

      • Natambu, Kofi (2002). The Life and Work of Malcolm X. Indianapolis: Alpha Books. ISBN 978-0-02-864218-5.

      • Perry, Bruce (1991). Malcolm: The Life of a Man Who Changed Black America. Barrytown, N.Y.: Station Hill. ISBN 978-0-88268-103-0.

      • Rickford, Russell J. (2003). Betty Shabazz: A Remarkable Story of Survival and Faith Before and After Malcolm X. Naperville, Ill.: Sourcebooks. ISBN 978-1-4022-0171-4.

      • Sales, Jr., William W. (1994). From Civil Rights to Black Liberation: Malcolm X and the Organization of Afro-American Unity. Boston: South End Press. ISBN 978-0-89608-480-3.

      • Terrill, Robert (2004). Malcolm X: Inventing Radical Judgment. Lansing, Mich.: Michigan State University Press. ISBN 978-0-87013-730-3.

      • Wood, Joe, ed. (1992). Malcolm X: In Our Image. New York: St. Martin's Press. ISBN 978-0-312-06609-3.

      Further reading

      • Baldwin, James (2007) [1973]. One Day, When I Was Lost: A Scenario Based on Alex Haley's "The Autobiography of Malcolm X". New York: Vintage. ISBN 978-0-307-27594-3.

      • Boyd, Herb; Daniels, Ron; Karenga, Maulana et al, eds. (2012). By Any Means Necessary: Malcolm X: Real, Not Reinvented. Chicago: Third World Press. ISBN 978-0-88378-336-8.

      • Breitman, George (1967). The Last Year of Malcolm X: The Evolution of a Revolutionary. New York: Pathfinder Press. ISBN 978-0-87348-004-8.

      • Breitman, George; Porter, Herman; Smith, Baxter (1991) [1976]. The Assassination of Malcolm X. New York: Pathfinder Press. ISBN 978-0-87348-632-3.

      • Cleage, Albert B.; Breitman, George (1968). Myths About Malcolm X: Two Views. New York: Merit. OCLC 615819.

      • Collins, Rodnell P. (1998). Seventh Child: A Family Memoir of Malcolm X. Secaucus, N.J.: Birch Lane Press. ISBN 978-1-55972-491-3.

      • Conyers, Jr., James L.; Smallwood, Andrew P., eds. (2008). Malcolm X: A Historical Reader. Durham, N.C.: Carolina Academic Press. ISBN 978-0-89089-228-2.

      • DeCaro, Louis A. (1998). Malcolm and the Cross: The Nation of Islam, Malcolm X, and Christianity. New York: New York University Press. ISBN 978-0-8147-1932-9.

      • Friedly, Michael (1995). Malcolm X: The Assassination. New York: One World. ISBN 978-0-345-40010-9.

      • Gallen, David, ed. (1992). Malcolm X: As They Knew Him. New York: Carroll & Graf. ISBN 978-0-88184-850-2.

      • Goldman, Peter (1979) [1973]. The Death and Life of Malcolm X. Urbana, Ill.: University of Illinois Press. ISBN 978-0-252-00774-3.

      • Jamal, Hakim A. (1972). From The Dead Level: Malcolm X and Me. New York: Random House. ISBN 978-0-394-46234-9.

      • Jenkins, Robert L. (2002). The Malcolm X Encyclopedia. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press. ISBN 978-0-313-29264-4.

      • Kly, Yussuf Naim, ed. (1986). The Black Book: The True Political Philosophy of Malcolm X (El Hajj Malik El Shabazz). Atlanta: Clarity Press. ISBN 978-0-932863-03-4.

      • Leader, Edward Roland (1993). Understanding Malcolm X: The Controversial Changes in His Political Philosophy. New York: Vantage Press. ISBN 978-0-533-09520-9.

      • Lee, Spike; with Ralph Wiley (1992). By Any Means Necessary: The Trials and Tribulations of the Making of Malcolm X. New York: Hyperion. ISBN 978-1-56282-913-1.

      • Shabazz, Ilyasah; with Kim McLarin (2002). Growing Up X: A Memoir by the Daughter of Malcolm X. New York: One World. ISBN 978-0-345-44495-0.

      • Strickland, William; et al. (1994). Malcolm X: Make It Plain. New York: Penguin Books. ISBN 978-0-14-017713-8.

      • Terrill, Robert, ed. (2010). The Cambridge Companion to Malcolm X. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-73157-7.

      • T'Shaka, Oba (1983). The Political Legacy of Malcolm X. Richmond, Calif.: Pan Afrikan Publications. ISBN 978-1-878557-01-8.

      • Wolfenstein, Eugene Victor (1989). The Victims of Democracy: Malcolm X and the Black Revolution. London: Free Association Books. ISBN 978-1-85343-111-1.


    GOLD DIVIDER WITH CROSS CENTER
    CHRISTIPEDIA

    MUSLIM MALCOLM X;

    MUSLIM MALCOLM X, American Islamic Leader '60's;

    (All NewtonStein "INSPIRED-INERRANT" Bible View! )

    AMERICAN FLAG DRAPE LEFT THESIS, TOPIC: Malcolm X, an Islamic leader in the USA in the 1960's was assassinated in the era of JKF, RFK, and MLK;

    WHY?

    CHRISTIAN FLAG WAVING MALCOLM-X-PHOTOAMERICAN FLAG WAVING AMERICAN

    MUSLIM MALCOLM X
    CHRISTIPEDIA: MUSLIM MALCOLM-X, USA Islamic Leader in 1960's, BRIEF-BIO

    MUSLIM MALCOLM X:External links

      • The Official Web Site of Malcolm X

      • Malcolm X: Make It Plain

      • malcolm-x.org

      • Malcolm X: A Profile

      • The Malcolm X Project at Columbia University

      • Malcolm X Reference Archive

      • Malcolm X: A Research Site

      • Works by or about Malcolm X in libraries (WorldCat catalog)

      Interviews

      • Interview with Dr. Kenneth Clark, Spring 1963

      • Video interview with Herman Blake, October 1963

      • Interview with Louis Lomax, from When the Word Is Given (December 1963)

      • Interview with A.B. Spellman, May 1964

      • CBC television interview, January 1965

      • The short film OPEN MIND Special: Race Relations in Crisis 6/12/63 - 11/13/92 (1963/1992) is available for free download at the Internet Archive [more]

      Speeches

      • "By Any Means Necessary", June 1964 (Video)

      Other links

      • Malcolm X's FBI file: Part 1, Part 2

      • The Smoking Gun: The Malcolm X Files


    GOLD DIVIDER WITH CROSS CENTER
    CHRISTIPEDIA

    MUSLIM MALCOLM X;

    MUSLIM MALCOLM X, American Islamic Leader '60's;

    (All NewtonStein "INSPIRED-INERRANT" Bible View! )

    AMERICAN FLAG DRAPE LEFT THESIS, TOPIC: Malcolm X, an Islamic leader in the USA in the 1960's was assassinated in the era of JKF, RFK, and MLK;

    WHY?

    CHRISTIAN FLAG WAVING MALCOLM-X-PHOTOAMERICAN FLAG WAVING AMERICAN

    MUSLIM MALCOLM X
    CHRISTIPEDIA: MUSLIM MALCOLM-X, USA Islamic Leader in 1960's, BRIEF-BIO

    MUSLIM MALCOLM X:


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    AMERICAN FLAG WAVING AMERICANIs PATRIOTISM Sinful?AMERICAN FLAG WAVING AMERICAN

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    "God's Goals"

    For This World!

    Does God Achieve His Goals?
    OR, does Satan achieve his goals?

    (All NewtonStein from "INSPIRED-INERRANT" Scriptural View!)

    The most IMPORTANT "3-QUESTION QUIZ" you'll ever Take?

    The Adversary’s Goals:

      SCRIPTURE: "The ‘Devil’ ... walketh about seeking whom he may DEVOUR." I Pet 5:8

      SCRIPTURE: "The ‘Thief’ (Devil) cometh not, but for to steal, to kill and to DESTROY." John 10:10

        QUESTION: Do you Believe Satan the Devil Succeeds?___ Or Fails?___


    God the Father’s Goals:

      SCRIPTURE: "For God sent NOT His Son into the world to condemn the world, but that the world though Him might be SAVED! See John 3:16 John 3:17

      SCRIPTURE: "Beloved, be not ignorant of this one thing, ... The Lord is ... NOT willing that any should perish, but that ALL should come to repentance. 2 Pet 3:9

        QUESTION: Do you Believe God the Father Succeeds?___ Or Fails?___


    God the Son’s Goals:

      SCRIPTURE: "For the Son of Man is come to seek and to SAVE that which is lost!" Luk 19:10 "For I came NOT to judge the world, but to SAVE the world. John 12:47

      SCRIPTURE: "And I, if I be lifted up from the Earth, I WILL DRAW ALL men unto Me." Joh 12:32

        QUESTION: Do you Believe God the Son (Jesus Christ): Succeeds?___ Or Fails?___ center>


    God the Spirit’s Goals:

      SCRIPTURE: Jesus declares: "'I ’WILL’' send Him (Holy Spirit) unto you, and when He is come 'He ’WILL’' testify of Me: John 14:26

      SCRIPTURE: "He ’WILL’ reprove the world [convict, convince, correct] of sin, of righteousness, and of judgment: John 16:7

      SCRIPTURE: (1) Of sin, because they believe not on me; ... (2) Of righteousness, because I go to my Father; ...(3) Of judgment, because the 'Prince of this World' IS JUDGED![A] John 16:8-10

        QUESTION: Do you think God the Spirit Succeeds?___ Or Fails?___


        ULTIMATELY, WHO, ACHIEVES THEIR STATED GOALS? GOD or Satan?

        If you believe

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