How to start a Church:

"WHY" you should NOT Incorporate!

How to start a Church: Today!
"WHY" your Church should NOT Incorporate!












Check Bible!
Put Arrow On
Scripture Ref
KJV Appears &
Youngs Literal








Encyclopedia with American, Biblical, Christian World-View!
Where The Word of God Is: "STILL...INERRANT!"


flag divider



By Cambridge Theological Seminary

For “Students-N-Scholars”



Understanding Future, According to "HIS WORD!"
Understanding History, Providentially, as "HIS-STORY!"
And Today, From Where We've Been, To Where "HE'S LEADING!"

Download yours for FREE! Here! In two Minutes! The Best!

NewtonStein: Web's Largest Bible-Based Resource;




Haeckel's Imaginary Drawings: 100 Years of Error

The 40-Year “Piltdown Man Hoax!”

The 'Nebraska Man' becomes a 'Pig's Tooth!'

10 Scientific Frauds that Rocked the World!

Global Warming Hoax (Hundreds of Articles!)





Web’s Largest and Most,

Comprehensive, Christian Website!


(Over 600,000 Pages – 1-1-2012)
The Web



The World's Greatest Encyclopedia, By Worldly Standards!
Also the Most Dangerous, by Christian-Patriotic Standards!


FACT: We Recognize Wikipedia's Great Success . . . BUT



"CHRISTIPEDIA™ Recommendation!

Use Ameripedia, Conservapedia, Theopedia, Biblipedia, Islamipedia, Judaeopedia;
Christipedia, Medipedia, Musicipedia, Preacherpedia, Scriptipedia, Histipedia, etc;
We plead for support toChristian Researchers, Scholars

"CHRISTIPEDIA™" is a “Trademark” Of NewtonStein Academy,
Of Cambridge Theological Seminary™, American Bible Church;
What Is
The WORD of GOD?

Statement On The Holy Scriptures;

The ‘Lens’ Through Which All Knowledge Is Understood;


"IF" there exists any such thing as 'The Word of God'; [and ALL evidence proves such does exist:]

"THEN" by inherent definition - it must be:

    Holy, Inspired, Inerrant, Intrepid, Infallible, Infinitive, Invincible, Indestructible, Inexhaustible, Inalienable, Immutable, Implacable, Impossible-to-Improve: Eternal and Indubitable NEVER FAILING and ALL CONQUERING!

    DEDUCTING from the simple fact - that God equates His Word with Himself:

      "In the Beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God, . . ." John 1:1 (and other Scriptures),
Thus 'GOD'S WORD' can have no lesser standard than stated above;


    As true in history, archeology, geography, Earth science, medical science, nutrition, gerontology, agriculture, botany, astronomy, physics, chemistry, climatology, government, law, psychology, sociology - and every subject it touches - as in Theology, Divinity and Doctrine:

And "IF IT BE NOT" - true in all subjects mentioned above; and And "IF IT BE NOT"

    Holy, Inspired, Inerrant, Intrepid, Infallible, Infinitive, Invincible, Indestructible, Inexhaustible, Inalienable, Immutable, Implacable, Impossible-to-Improve: Eternal and Indubitable in EVERY FIELD OF KNOWLEDGE:
Whatever else it may be, it cannot be ‘The Incomparable Word’ of the Great Creator God!

God's Eternal Guarantee!

"Heaven and Earth Shall Pass Away;
But GOD'S WORDS Shall NOT Pass Away!"

--Jesus the Messiah, AD-33 (Matthew 5:18)


Do You Qualify for
An Honorary "Doctor of Divinity" from Cambridge Theological Seminary?
If you believe God's Word as Stated Above:
(Click for a Free Evaluation:)



Please Visit Top Webpages


[1] “CHRISTIPEDIA™" - "GREAT COMMISSION MANDATE!” Some Sobering Questions; (Very Brief!)

[2] “CHRISTIPEDIA™" – "God’s Goals” v. “Satan’s Goals” – WHO WINS? (Very Brief!)

[3] “CHRISTIPEDIA™" – Greatest PLAN of Evangelization DO THE MATH, Part-1 (Very Brief!)

[4] “CHRISTIPEDIA™" –Jesus said: “I WILL Build MY Church!”
(But Did He Really Mean It?)

[5] “CHRISTIPEDIA™" – Alarming Church News! USA! (Brief)

[6] “CHRISTIPEDIA™" – Christ’s Commission: Does it Mean “Global Domination?”

[7] “CHRISTIPEDIA™" – Can You Face The Truth? Part-1 (MESSAGE)

[8] “CHRISTIPEDIA™" – Can You Face The Truth? Part-2 (MESSAGE)

[9] “CHRISTIPEDIA™" – Jesus and Paul on the “End-of-the-World” by-NewtonStein

[10] “CHRISTIPEDIA™" - Conservative Activists: "Who's Who in Christian Conservative Politics?

[11] “CHRISTIPEDIA™" – Is Our Modern Church Ignorant of Christ’s Purpose?

[12] "RAPTURE-READY™" – Why Jesus did not come back in 2010! (Do you Know?)

[13] “CHRISTIPEDIA™" – Preachers’ Greatest Sin: (Are You guilty?)

[14] “CHRISTIPEDIA™" – Christ Warns: A “Five-Fold-Question!”

[15] “CHRISTIPEDIA™" – OPEN LETTER to Our Fellow Laborers

[16] “CHRISTIPEDIA™" - "Are All Denominations Wrong? Mostly?

[17] “CHRISTIPEDIA™" – Who Will save Christianity?

[18] “CHRISTIPEDIA™" – A Workable Plan that would-Truly Revive Christianity!

[19] “CHRISTIPEDIA™" - "American Christianity Rides The Titanic!

[20] “CHRISTIPEDIA™" – Founding Fathers’ Kingdom, Now Dominion!

[21] “CHRISTIPEDIA™" – Great Falling Away Prophesied by Apostle Paul!

[22] “CHRISTIPEDIA™" – Biblical End of World, Basic Terms and Concepts

[23] “CHRISTIPEDIA™" – Christianity Is Dying In Western Civilization: WHY?

[24] “CHRISTIPEDIA™" – Christian Myths! Do You Believe Them?

[25] “CHRISTIPEDIA™" – Church Growth Goals Priority Page

[26] "RAPTURE-READY™" – Modern Christianity Is A Mess!

[27] “CHRISTIPEDIA™" – The “Anti-Christ Home Page”

[28] “CHRISTIPEDIA™" – TOP-TEN Messages To Maximize Your Ministry

[29] “CHRISTIPEDIA™" – Calling All Christians Unite, Christ Commands!

[30] “CHRISTIPEDIA™" – Christianity Is Confusing and Getting WORSE! WHY?

[31] “CHRISTIPEDIA™" – Every-Minister A Hero

[32] “CHRISTIPEDIA™" – Legal Abortion: Is It Good for Christians?

[33] " CHRISTIPEDIA™" – Southern Baptists Dying: WHY?

[34] “CHRISTIPEDIA™" – Satan’s TOP-TEN Greatest-Lies! Do You Believe Any?

[35] “CHRISTIPEDIA™" –Truth Test-3 Questions For Christians

[36] “CHRISTIPEDIA™" – Evangelicals Call for Government School Exodus!

[37] “CHRISTIPEDIA™" - "Hall of Faith Christian Activist Ministers, 2nd-half 20th Century "

[38] “CHRISTIPEDIA™" –The Early Christian-Church Outlaws Homosexuality!


[40] “CHRISTIPEDIA™" – Our GOD-GIVEN Rights, Guaranteed in the Bible: Called “Civil” and “Human” Rights

[41] “CHRISTIPEDIA™" - "Rush Limbaugh Quotes" on Christ and Christianity!

[42] “CHRISTIPEDIA™" - "TALK-RADIO REPUBLICANS, "Republican Power and Catholics!"

[43] “CHRISTIPEDIA™" - "GREAT COMMISSION MANDATE!" Some Sobering Questions;

[44] “CHRISTIPEDIA™" - "Hall of Faith Christian Activist Ministers, 2nd-half 20th Century "

[45] “CHRISTIPEDIA™" –The Early Christian-Church Outlaws Homosexuality!


[47] “CHRISTIPEDIA™" – Our GOD-GIVEN Rights, Guaranteed in the Bible: Called “Civil” and “Human” Rights

[48] “CHRISTIPEDIA™" - "Rush Limbaugh Quotes" on Christ and Christianity!

[49] “CHRISTIPEDIA™" - "TALK-RADIO REPUBLICANS, "Republican Power and Catholics!"

[50] “AMERIPEDIA™" - George Washington Used 30-THEOLOGICAL TERMS, 3000 Times!

flag divider


flag divider


Do You Qualify for
An Honorary "Doctor of Divinity" from Cambridge Theological Seminary?
If you believe God's Word as Stated Above:
(Click for a Free Evaluation:)



How to start a Church, TODAY!

Why You Definitely Should NOT INCORPORATE!

DO NOT SPEND ONE PENNY... to start Your Church!

(All CHRISTIPEDIA with "INSPIRED-INERRANT!" View of Scripture!)





Do You Qualify for
An Honorary "Doctor of Divinity" from Cambridge Theological Seminary?
If you believe God's Word as Stated Above:
(Click for a Free Evaluation:)




(Christians Sending a "Message" to ALL Elected Officials!)

Many Thousands Already Have: And GOD is "Keeping Track!"!

      (Please don't be Apathetic about God's Authority. We are NOT asking your name - just a "CLICK!" - But we DO want Legislators to KNOW . . .

      . . . that Scores of Thousands of Bible Ministers . . . WILL NOT VOTE for Politicians . . .who are AGAINST the AUTHORITY of GOD'S WORD!)

      Please read pledge and "CLICK!" THAT'S IT!

        In 5-seconds you'll be right back here reading this page as you were.

      Thank you tremendously, and we will publish results of Legislators' Response for 2012 Election!


      "The BIBLE is the WORD of GOD!


        *HOLY and UNCHANGING!

        *HIGHEST AUTHORITY on Earth!


        >> I will Not knowingly 'VOTE' for,

        >> Those who are AGAINST the Authority of God's Word;,

        >> Those who do not want to Base Our Laws upon God's Word!

        >> For me, "BIBLE is more important than PARTY!


    Please "CLICK" the following to Affirm your Commitment as a CHRISTIAN AMERICAN to the Word of God upon the Earth!

This Christian American BELIEVES in the WORD OF GOD!

Many Fine Bible Scholars seem unaware,
Of Christ's Great Parable covering the whole Church Age,
From His Sowing First Seed and His Great End-Time Harvest of Souls!
To Final Judgment of the Unsaved and their Damnation;
To Christ’s Presence and Eternal Kingdom!

(See Greatest Parable on End of Times!)
Christ’s Greatest Parable on End of Times: Brief Overview





By Webster-NewtonStein;

With Cambridge Theological Seminary™, AD-2000;

Translation Axiom: God's Word! "INSPIRED-INERRANT!"




(See Cambridge Concise Bible COMMENTARY)

(See Cambridge Concise Bible CONCORDANCE)

(See Cambridge Concise Bible DICTIONARY)

(See Cambridge Comprehensive Bible DICTIONARY)

(See Cambridge Comprehensive Bible ENCYCLOPEDIA)

(See Cambridge Comprehensive Bible COMMENTARY)

flag divider


flag divider


Self-Confessed List: GAY & PRO-GAY Ministers!




How To Use This Page

** To SEARCH for any word, subject or Scripture on this website, use the GOLD-BOX SITE SEARCH near top of page: over 600,000 pages available from Cambridge Theological Seminary Archives;

** To SEARCH for anyword, subject or Scripture on this SINGULAR-WEB-PAGE you are now on, (which may be from 100-3,000 regular notebook sized pages);

    [1] Go to the TOP TOOLBAR of your Monitor and find EDIT

    [3] Click EDIT and menu drops down: "Click FIND

    [3] Type in word, Scripture or whatever you are looking for;

    [4] Then Click "MATCH CASE" if you need it;

    [5] Then Click "NEXT" or "PREVIOUS" to search as much as you desire!



    Mitt Romney:


      Perhaps the most important factor in Mitt Romney's bid to be President of the USA, is that he is NOT just a "regular Mormon like Donny and Marie Osmond . . .

      . . . and NOT just a Mormon Missionary like those young men in your neighborhood, . . .

      . . . and NOT just that he even achieved: Mormon Priesthood.

      It is more than ALL of that: MUCH MORE!

      FACT: Mitt Romney, candidate for President of the USA, is a deeply dedicated Mormon, a radical Mormon;

      FACT: Mitt Romney, candidate for President of the USA, is SUCH a deeply dedicated Mormon, THAT he gives (and has given), millions of dollars EVERY YEAR to the Mormon cause, as revealed the $7.2 million in his released Tax returns of 1-23-2012.

      FACT: Mitt Romney, candidate for President of the USA, is SUCH a deeply dedicated Mormon, THAT his total giving to the Mormon Church in all probability EXCEEDS 100 million dollars;

      FACT: Mitt Romney, candidate for President of the USA, is SUCH a deeply dedicated Mormon, THAT he was not content to be a "Mormon Missionary in the Neighborhood" - but took the Mormon Message to distant lands, serving in France for some years.

      FACT: Mitt Romney, candidate for President of the USA, is SUCH a deeply dedicated Mormon, THAT he was not content with STANFORD and HARVARD Universities, but sought and achieve a degree from the largest Mormon University in the world: Brigham Young University.

      FACT: Mitt Romney, candidate for President of the USA, is SUCH a deeply dedicated Mormon, THAT he was not content to be MARRIED in a "Local Mormon Church" . . but had to fly out to the Mormon Tabernacle in Salt Lake City Utah for a mystical-secret ceremony . . .

        . . . that would set him on the path to having his own harem of women in the afterlife;

      FACT: Mitt Romney, candidate for President of the USA, is SUCH a deeply dedicated Mormon, THAT he was not content to be a "Mormon Leader in the Local Mormon Church" . . . but became a Mormon Priest . . .

      . . . then a Mormon High Priest!

        Please don't think this was "Back-in-the-Day" when he was young BEFORE he became wealthy with political aspirations.

        FACT: Mitt Romney was a Mormon High Priest through 1996!

      FACT: In 1966, the sixth generation Mormon Mitt Romney went to France for the Mormon Cause as a missionary.

      FACT: Mitt Romney performed so well as a Mormon Missionary, that within three years, he was officially made president of the Mormon mission and led his Mormon Missionary team to baptize a record 200 French souls into Mormonism.

      FACT: Mitt Romney, candidate for President of the USA, is SUCH a deeply dedicated Mormon, THAT from 1981 to 1986, he was the High Priest (also called "Ward Bishop") of the Mormon Church in a Boston suburb called Belmont, Massachusetts.

      FACT: Mitt Romney, candidate for President of the USA, is SUCH a deeply dedicated Mormon, THAT in 1986, he was promoted in the Mormon Church ed to become the Presiding High Priest (also called "Stake President") . . .

      . . . being the High Priest over twelve Mormon congregations in and around Boston until 1996.

    Mitt Romney: Mormon Questions:

      We have to ask, for the sake of the nation:

      With Mitt Romney's deep dedication to Mormonism, we have to

        QUESTION: Is Mitt Romney's dedication to Mormonism, stronger than his dedication ti the USA?

        QUESTION: If Mitt Romney's becomes president of the USA, does his dedication to Mormonism, mean that the LIVING APOSTLES of the Mormon Church will have sway over his decisions as President of the USA?

        QUESTION: If Mitt Romney's becomes president of the USA, does his dedication to Mormonism mean that he WILL BE TEMPTED to use his vast influence as president to promote Mormonism at home and abroad, more than to solve the problems of the USA?

        QUESTION: If Mitt Romney's becomes president of the USA, does his dedication to Mormonism mean that he MAY USE his vast influence as president to promote Mormonism at home and abroad, more than to solve the problems of the USA?

        QUESTION: IF your answers (or Mitt Romney's) are "NO!" . . . how can we average Americans KNOW THIS for SURE?

      Willard "Mitt" Romney;

        Willard Mitt Romney is a "sixth-generation Mormon, whose father was born in Mexico, where his dad (Mitt's granddad) helped lead a polygamist community for generations.

        Mitt himself is thoroughly Mormon, having graduated from Brigham Young University, done missionary work some years overseas - very successfully - attained Mormon Priesthood . . .

        . . . and even the "High Priest" and "Bishop" (Ward Bishop) titles, whereby he oversaw - "bishoped" 12 congregations in the Greater Boston area . . . while giving millions to the Mormon Church every year!

        Mitt Romney is also a very successful American venture capitalist (some call that "vulture capitalist") whereby he has made hundreds-of-millions of dollars - and still makes upwards of $20 million dollars annually, according to his released tax returns January 23ed 2012.

        Mitt Romney is a politician. He was the 70th Governor of Massachusetts from 2003 to 2007 - but was unable to attain a second term. He then was a candidate for the 2008 Republican Party presidential nomination and again in 2012.

        Mitt Romney is the son of George W. Romney (the former Governor of Michigan) and Lenore Romney, Mitt Romney was born in Detroit and raised in Bloomfield Hills, Michigan and later served as a Mormon missionary in France.

        After Mitt Romney received his undergraduate degree from Brigham Young University, he thereafter earned Juris Doctor/Master of Business Administration joint degrees from Harvard's law and business schools.

        Mitt Romney entered the management consulting business, which led to a position at Bain & Company, where he eventually served as CEO and brought the company out of crisis. He was co-founder and head of the spin-off company Bain Capital, a private equity investment firm that became highly profitable and one of the largest such firms in the nation.

        The wealth Romney accumulated there would help fund his future political campaigns.

        Very active in his church, he served as ward bishop and later stake president in his area.

      Mitt Romney Loses to Ted Kennedy;

        He ran as the Republican candidate in the 1994 U.S. Senate election in Massachusetts, losing to incumbent Ted Kennedy. Romney organized and steered the 2002 Winter Olympics as head of the Salt Lake Organizing Committee, and helped turn the troubled games into a financial success.

        Romney was elected Governor of Massachusetts in 2002, but did not seek re-election in 2006. He presided over a series of spending cuts and increases in taxes-fees that eliminated a projected $3 billion deficit.

        He also signed into law the Massachusetts health care reform legislation, which provided near-universal health insurance access via subsidies and state-level mandates and was the first of its kind in the nation.

        During the course of his political career, his positions or rhetorical emphasis have shifted more towards American conservatism in several areas.

        Romney ran for the Republican nomination in the 2008 U.S. presidential election, winning several primaries and caucuses, but eventually losing the nomination to John McCain.

        In the following years, he gave speeches and raised campaign funds on behalf of fellow Republicans.

        On June 2, 2011, Romney announced that he would seek the 2012 Republican presidential nomination. Political observers, public opinion polls, and the results of the early caucuses and primaries consistently place him among the front-runners in the race.

      Mitt Romney: Early life and education, Heritage and youth;

        Romney was born March 12, 1947, in Detroit, Michigan.[1] He was the youngest child of George W. Romney, who by 1948 had become an automobile executive, and Lenore Romney (née LaFount).

        His mother was a native of Logan, Utah, and his father had been born in a Mormon colony in Chihuahua, Mexico, to American parents.[2] Romney's ancestry is predominantly English, as well as Scottish and German.[3]

        As a sixth-generation member of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints,[4][5] Romney is descended from a genealogically interconnected political family sometimes known as the Pratt–Romneys.

        The three siblings before him were Margo Lynn, Jane LaFount, and G. Scott,[6] followed by Mitt after a gap of six years.[7]

        Romney was named after hotel magnate J. Willard Marriott, his father's best friend, and his father's cousin Milton "Mitt" Romney, 1925–1929 quarterback for the Chicago Bears.[8][nb 1]

        When he was five, the family moved from Detroit to the affluent suburb of Bloomfield Hills.[10] His father became CEO of American Motors and turned the company around from the brink of bankruptcy; by the time he was twelve, his father had become a nationally known figure in print and on television.[11]

        Mitt Romney idolized his father, read automotive trade magazines, kept abreast of automotive developments, and aspired to be an executive in the industry.[10][12][13]

        Mitt's father also presided over the Detroit Stake of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints to which the family belonged.[14]

        Mitt Romney attended public elementary schools[9] and then from seventh grade on, attended Cranbrook School in Bloomfield Hills, a private boys preparatory school of the classic mold where he was the lone Mormon and where many students came from even more privileged backgrounds.[10][15][16][17]

        He was not particularly athletic and at first did not excel at academics.[10]

      Mitt Romney: His father Runs for President;

        While a sophomore, he participated in the campaign in which his father was elected Governor of Michigan.[nb 2] George Romney was re-elected twice; Mitt worked for him as an intern in the governor's office, and was present at the 1964 Republican National Convention when his moderate father battled conservative party nominee Barry Goldwater over issues of civil rights and ideological extremism.[10][12]

        Mitt Romney had a steady set of chores and worked summer jobs, including being a security guard at a Chrysler plant.[15]Initially a manager for the ice hockey team and a pep squad member,[15][18] during his final year at Cranbook, Romney joined the cross country running team[9] and improved academically, but was still not a star pupil.[10][16]

        His social skills were strong, however, and he won an award for those "whose contributions to school life are often not fully recognized through already existing channels".[16] Romney was an energetic child who enjoyed pranks.[nb 3]

        In March of his senior year, he began dating Ann Davies, two years behind him, whom he had once known in elementary school;[20][21] she attended the private Kingswood School, the sister school to Cranbrook.[16]

        The two informally agreed to marriage around the time of his June 1965 graduation.[10][21]

        University, France mission, marriage and children: 1965–1975Romneyattended Stanford University for a year,[10] where he worked as a security guard again to fund secret trips home to see Ann.[22]

        Although the campus was becoming radicalized with the beginnings of 1960s social and political movements, Romney kept a well-groomed appearance and enjoyed traditional campus events.[10]

        In May 1966, he was part of a counter-protest against a group staging a sit-in in the university administration building in opposition to draft status tests.[10][23]

        In July 1966, Romney left for 30 months in France as a Mormon missionary, a traditional duty that his father and other relatives had done.[10][24][25] He arrived in Le Havre with ideas about how to change and promote the French Mission, while facing physical and economic deprivation in their cramped quarters.[25][26]

        Rules against drinking, smoking, and dating were strictly enforced.[26]

        Like most individual Mormon missionaries, he did not gain many converts - at first - with the nominally Catholic but secular, wine-loving French people proving especially resistant to a religion that prohibits alcohol.[10][25][26][27]

        He was demoralized at first, and later recalled it as the only time when "most of what I was trying to do was rejected."[25]

        In Nantes, Romney was bruised-up while defending two female missionaries against a horde of local rugby players.[26] He continued to work hard; having grown up in Michigan rather than the more insular Utah world. Thus Romney was better able to interact with the French.[17][26]

        He was promoted to zone leader in Bordeaux in early 1968, then in the spring of that year became assistant to the mission president in Paris, the highest position for a missionary. He was very successful in making converts, setting records by baptizing over 200 french souls into the Mormon Church[25][26][28]

        In the Mission Home in Paris he enjoyed palace-like accommodations.[28] Romney's support for the U.S. role in the Vietnam War was only reinforced when the French greeted him with hostility over the matter and he debated them in return.[25][26] He also witnessed the May 1968 general strike and student uprisings.[25]

      Mitt Romney: Tragedy;

        In June 1968, an automobile Romney was driving in southern France was hit by another vehicle, seriously injuring him and killing one of his passengers, the wife of the mission president.[nb 4]

        Romney, who was not at fault in the accident,[nb 4] became co-acting president of a mission demoralized and disorganized by the May civil disturbances and by the car accident.[17]

        Romney rallied and motivated the others and they met an ambitious goal of 200 baptisms for the year, the most for the mission in a decade.[17]

        By the end of his stint in December 1968, Romney was overseeing the work of 175 fellow members.[25][29] Romney developed a lifelong affection for France and its people, and speaks French to this day.[31]

        The experience in the country also changed him. It instilled in him a belief that life is fragile and that he needed seriousness of purpose. He gained organizational experience and a record of success that he had theretofore lacked.[10][17][26][29]

        It also represented a crucible, after having been only a half-hearted Mormon growing up: "On a mission, your faith in Jesus Christ either evaporates or it becomes much deeper. For me it became much deeper."[25]

        While he was away, Ann Davies had converted to the LDS Church, guided by George Romney, and had begun attending Brigham Young University (BYU).[10][21]

        Mitt was nervous that she had been wooed by others while he was away, and indeed she had dated others, but at their first meeting following his return they reconnected and decided to get married in two weeks but agreed to wait three months to appease their parents.[21][32]

        They were married on March 21, 1969, in a Bloomfield Hills civil ceremony presided over by a church elder; the following day the couple flew to Utah for a wedding ceremony at the Salt Lake Temple.[32][33]

        Both Mitt and Ann Romney went to college at Brigham Young, where Mitt gave the commencement address at graduation.[9][nb 5] He had missed much of the tumultuous American anti-Vietnam War movement while away, and was surprised to learn that his father had turned against the war during his unsuccessful 1968 presidential campaign.[25]

      Mitt Romney Avoids the Draft:

        Regarding the military draft, Romney had initially received a student deferment, then like most other Mormon missionaries a ministerial deferment while in France, then another student deferment.[25][35]

        When those ran out, his high number in the December 1969 draft lottery (300) ensured he would not be selected.[13][25][35][36]

        At culturally conservative BYU, Romney continued to be separated from much of the upheaval of the era, and did not join in the few protests against the war or the LDS Church's policy at the time of denying full membership to blacks.[13][25]

        He became president and successful fundraiser for the all-male Cougar Club and showed a new-found discipline in his studies.[25] In his senior year he took leave to work as driver and advance man for his mother Lenore Romney's eventually unsuccessful 1970 campaign for U.S. Senator from Michigan.[13][32]

        He graduated from Brigham Young in 1971, earning a Bachelor of Arts in English and giving commencement addresses to both his own College of Humanities and to the whole university.[nb 6]

        The Romneys' first son, Tagg, was born in 1970[32] while both were undergraduates at Brigham Young[38] and living in a basement apartment. [25] Ann subsequently gave birth to Matt (1971), Josh (1975), Ben (1978), and Craig (1981).[32]

        Ann Romney's work as a stay-at-home mom would enable her husband to pursue his career.[39]

        Romney still wanted to pursue a business path, but his father, by now serving in President Richard Nixon's cabinet as U.S. Secretary of Housing and Urban Development, advised that a law degree would be valuable.[40][41]

        Thus Romney became one of only fifteen students to enroll at the recently created joint Juris Doctor/Master of Business Administration four-year program coordinated between Harvard Law School and Harvard Business School.[42]

        Fellow students considered Romney guilelessly optimistic, noting his strong work ethic along with a buttoned-down demeanor and appearance.[42][43]

        He readily adapted to the business school's pragmatic, data-driven case study method of teaching, excelled in classroom participation there, and led a study group whom he pushed to get all A's.[41]

        He had a different social experience than most of his classmates, since he lived in a Belmont, Massachusetts, house with Ann and two children; he was non-ideological and did not involve himself in the political or social issues of the day.[32][41]

        He graduated in 1975 cum laude from the law school, in the top third of that class,

        and was named a Baker Scholar for graduating in the top five percent of his business school class.[37][42]

      Business career

        Romney was heavily recruited, and after graduation, chose to remain in Massachusetts to work for Boston Consulting Group (BCG), thinking that working as a management consultant to a variety of companies would prepare him for a future job as a chief executive.[15][40][44][nb 7]

        Romney was part of a 1970's wave of top graduates who chose to go into consulting rather than join a major company directly.[46] Romney's legal and business education proved useful in his job, and he became a rising star[40] while applying BCG principles such as the growth-share matrix.[4]

        In 1977, he was hired away by Bain & Company, a management consulting firm in Boston that had been formed a few years earlier by Bill Bain and other former BCG employees.[4][40][47] Bain would later say of the thirty-year-old Romney,

        "He had the appearance of confidence of a guy who was maybe ten years older."[48]

        With Bain & Company, Romney learned the "Bain way", which consisted of immersing the firm in each client's business,[40][48] and not simply to issue recommendations, but to stay with the company until they were changed for the better.[4][47][49]

        With a record of helping clients such as the Monsanto Company, Outboard Marine Corporation, Burlington Industries, and Corning Incorporated, Romney became a vice president of the firm in 1978 and within a few years one of its best consultants and one sought after by clients over more senior partners.[9][40][44][50]

        Romney became a believer in Bain's methods; he later said, "The idea that consultancies should not measure themselves by the thickness of their reports, or even the elegance of their writing, but rather by whether or not the report was effectively implemented was an inflection point in the history of consulting." [47]

      Mitt Romney: Co-founds Bain Capital;

        Romney was restless for a company of his own to run, and in 1983, Bill Bain offered him the chance to head a new venture that would buy into companies, have them benefit from Bain techniques, and then reap higher rewards than just consulting fees.[4][40]

        Romney initially refrained from accepting the offer, and Bain re-arranged the terms in a complicated partnership structure so that there was no financial or professional risk to Romney.[40][48][51]

        Thus, in 1984, Romney left Bain & Company to co-found the spin-off private equity investment firm, Bain Capital.[49] In the face of skepticism from potential investors, Bain and Romney spent a year raising the $37 million in funds needed to start the new operation, which had fewer than ten employees.[44][48][52][53]

        As general partner of the new firm, Romney spent little money on costs such as office appearance, and saw weak spots in so many potential deals that by 1986, very few had been done.[40]

        At first, Bain Capital focused on venture capital opportunities.[40]

        Their first big success came with a 1986 investment to help start Staples Inc., after founder Thomas G. Stemberg convinced Romney of the market size for office supplies and Romney convinced others; Bain Capital eventually reaped a nearly sevenfold return on its investment, and Romney sat on the Staples board of directors for over a decade.[40][52][53]

        Romney soon switched Bain Capital's focus from startups to the relatively new business of leveraged buyouts: buying existing firms with money mostly borrowed against their assets, partnering with existing management to apply the "Bain way" to their operations (rather than the hostile takeovers practiced in other leverage buyout scenarios), and then selling them off in a few years.[40][48]

        Existing CEOs were offered large equity stakes in the process, as part of Bain Capital's belief in the emerging agency theory notion that CEOs should be bound to maximizing shareholder value rather than other goals.[53]

        Bain Capital lost most of its money in many of its early leveraged buyouts, but then started finding deals that made large returns.[40]

        Some of the highest were a 34-fold return on Calumet Coach and a 16-fold return on the Gartner Group.[54]

        The firm invested in or acquired many well-known companies such as Accuride, Brookstone, Domino's Pizza, Sealy Corporation, Sports Authority, and Artisan Entertainment, as well as lesser-known companies in the industrial and medical sectors.[40][48][55]

        During the 14 years Romney headed the company, Bain Capital's average annual internal rate of return on realized investments was 113 percent.[44]

        Much of this profit was earned from a relatively small number of deals, with Bain Capital's overall success and failure rate being about even.[nb 8]

      Mitt Romney: Less an Entrepreneur than Manager;

        Less an entrepreneur than an executive running an investment operation,[50][56] Romney excelled at presenting and selling the deals the company made.[51] The firm initially gave a cut of its profits to Bain & Company, but Romney later persuaded Bain to give that up.[51]

        Within Bain Capital, Romney spread profits from deals widely within the firm to keep people motivated, often keeping less than ten percent for himself. [57] He was viewed as a very fair manager and received considerable loyalty from the firm's members.[53]

        Romney's wary instincts were in force at all times, and he was generally data-driven, averse to risk, and quick to cut losses.[40][53]

      Mitt Romney: Almost Blew it!

        In fact, Mitt really wanted to "cut-losses" and drop a Bain Capital hedge fund that initially lost money, but other partners prevailed against him. . . and it eventually gained billions.[40]

        He also personally opted out of the Artisan Entertainment deal, not wanting to profit from a studio that produced R-rated films.[40]

        Romney was on the board of directors of Damon Corporation, a medical testing company later found guilty of defrauding the government; Bain Capital tripled its investment before selling off the company, and the fraud was discovered by the new owners (Romney was never implicated).[40]

        In some cases Romney had little involvement with a company once acquired.[52]

      Mitt Romney: Job Losses;

        Bain Capital's leveraged buyouts sometimes led to layoffs, either soon after acquisition or later after the firm had left.[4][40][51][52] How jobs added compared to those lost due to these investments and buyouts is unknown, due to a lack of records and Bain Capital's penchant for privacy on behalf of itself and its investors.[54][58][59]

        In any case, maximizing the value of acquired companies and the return to Bain's investors, not job creation, was the firm's fundamental goal, as it was for most private equity operations.[52][60]

        Regarding job losses, Romney later said, "Sometimes the medicine is a little bitter but it is necessary to save the life of the patient. My job was to try and make the enterprise successful, and in my view the best security a family can have is that the business they work for is strong."[51]

      Mitt Romney: Ampad, Dade Behring,

        Bain Capital's acquisition of Ampad exemplified a deal where it profited handsomely from early payments and management fees, even though the subject company itself ended up going into bankruptcy.[40][53][60]

        Dade Behring was another case where Bain Capital received an eightfold return on its investment, but the company itself was saddled with debt and laid off over a thousand employees before Bain Capital exited (the company subsequently went into bankruptcy, with more layoffs, before recovering and prospering).[54]

        ***Bain was among the private equity firms that took the most fees in such cases.[48][53] Romney said in retrospect:

          "It is one thing that if I had a chance to go back I would be more sensitive to. It is always a balance.

          Great care has got to be taken not to take a dividend or a distribution from a company that puts that company at risk.

          [Having taken a big payment from a company that later failed] would make me sick, sick at heart."[48]

        In 1990, Romney was asked to return to Bain & Company, which was facing financial collapse.[49] He was announced as its new CEO in January 1991[61][62] (but drew only a symbolic salary of one dollar).[49]

        Romney managed an effort to restructure the firm's employee stock-ownership plan, real-estate deals and bank loans, while rallying the firm's thousand employees, imposing a new governing structure that included Bain and the other founding partners giving up control, and increasing fiscal transparency.

        [40][44][49] Within about a year, he had led Bain & Company through a turnaround and returned the firm to profitability without further layoffs or partner defections.[44]

        He turned Bain & Company over to new leadership and returned to Bain Capital in December 1992.[40][62][63]

      Mitt Romney: Success at Bain;

        It had made between 100 and 150 deals where it acquired and then sold a company.[50][54][56] Bain Capital's approach of applying consulting expertise to the companies it invested in became widely copied within the private equity industry.[18][52]

        University of Chicago Booth School of Business economist Steven Kaplan would later say, "[Romney] came up with a model that was very successful and very innovative and that now everybody uses."[53]

        His experience at Bain & Company and Bain Capital gave Romney a business-oriented world view – centering on a hate of waste and inefficiency, a love for data and charts and analysis and presentation, and a belief in keeping an open mind and seeking opposing points of view – that he would take with him to the public sector.[15][49]

        At the time of his departure, Romney negotiated an agreement with Bain Capital that allowed him to receive a passive profit share as a retired partner in some Bain Capital entities, including buyout and investment funds.[57][64]

        Because the private equity business continued to thrive, this deal brought him millions of dollars in income each year.[57] As a result of his business career, by 2007, Romney and his wife had a net worth of between $190 and $250 million, most of it held in blind trusts.[64]

      Mitt Romney: Family Fortune;

        An additional blind trust existed in the name of the Romneys' children and grandchildren that was valued at between $70 and $100 million as of 2007.[65]

        The couple's net worth remained in the same range as of 2011, and was still held in blind trusts.[66] A substantial portion of these assets – between $20.7 million and $101.6 million, as of 2011 – are held in an individual retirement account (IRA).[67]

        In January 2012 Romney revealed that he received $42.5 million in income during 2010 and 2011 and paid $6.2 million in taxes.[68]

      Mitt Romney: Mormon Church Leadership;

        During his years in business, Romney also served in the local lay clergy and tithed,[26] over time donating millions of dollars to the church, including stock from Bain Capital holdings.[26][69][70]

        Around 1977 he became as a counselor to an area leader, an unusual post for someone that young.[50] He then served as ward bishop for Belmont, Massachusetts from 1981 to 1986, acting as the ecclesiastical and administrative head of his congregation.[71][72]

        As such he formulated Sunday services and classes, using the Bible and the Book of Mormon to guide the congregation, and also did home teaching.[73]

        He forged bonds with other religious institutions in the area when the Belmont Meeting House was hit by a fire of suspicious origins in 1984; the congregation rotated its meetings at other churches while theirs was rebuilt.[69][72]

        From 1986 to 1994, Romney presided as Bishop over the Boston Stake, which included more than a dozen congregations in eastern Massachusetts with a total of about 4,000 church members.[26][50][71][73][74]

        He organized a team to handle financial and management issues, sought to counter anti-Mormon sentiments, and tried to solve social problems among poor Southeast Asian converts.[69][72]

        An unpaid position,Romney's local church leadership often took 30 or more hours a week of his time,[73] and he became known for his unflagging energy in the role.[50]

        Due to his responsibilities, he generally refrained from overnight business travel.[73]

        Romney took a hands-on role in general matters, helping in maintenance efforts in and outside homes, visiting the sick, and counseling troubled or burdened church members.[71][72][73]

        A number of local church members later credited Romney with turning their lives around or helping them through difficult times.[69][71][72][73]

        Some others were rankled by his heavy-handed leadership style and desired a more consensus-based approach.[72] Romney tried to balance the conservative dogma insisted upon by the church leadership in Utah with the desire by some Massachusetts members to have a more flexible application of doctrine.[50]

        He agreed with some modest requests from the liberal women's group Exponent II for changes in the way the church dealt with women, but clashed with women who he felt were departing too much from doctrine.[50]

        In particular, he counseled women not to have abortions except in the rare cases allowed by LDS doctrine, and also in accordance with doctrine encouraged prospective mothers to give up children for adoption when a successful marriage was not present.[50]

          Romney later said that the years spent as pastor gave him direct exposure to people struggling in economically difficult circumstances different from his own affluent upbringing, and empathy for those going through problematic family situations.[75]

      Mitt Romney: 1994 U.S. Senatorial campaign;

        Romney had been thinking about entering politics for a while.[32] He decided to take on longtime incumbent Democratic Senator Ted Kennedy, who was more vulnerable than usual in 1994 – in part because of the unpopularity of the Democratic Congress as a whole and also because this was Kennedy's first election since the William Kennedy Smith trial in Florida, in which Kennedy had taken some public relations hits regarding his character.[76][77][78]

        Romney changed his affiliation from Independent to Republican in October 1993 and formally announced his candidacy in February 1994.[32]

        He stepped down from his position at Bain Capital, and from his church leadership role, during the run.[9][73]

        Romney came from behind to win the Massachusetts Republican Party's nomination for U.S. Senate after buying substantial television time to get out his message and gaining overwhelming support in the state party convention.[79]

        He then defeated businessman John Lakian in the September 1994 primary with over 80 percent of the vote.[9][80]

        In the general election, Kennedy faced the first serious re-election challenger of his career in the young, telegenic, and very well-funded Romney.[76] Romney ran as a fresh face, as a successful entrepreneur who stated he had created ten thousand jobs, and as a Washington outsider with a strong family image and moderate stands on social issues.[76][81]

      Mitt Romney denies Ronald Reagan;

        When Kennedy tried to tie Romney's policies to those of Ronald Reagan and George H. W. Bush, Romney responded, "Look, I was an independent during the time of Reagan-Bush. I'm not trying to take us back to Reagan-Bush."[82] Romney stated: "Ultimately, this is a campaign about change."[83]

        After two decades out of public view, his father George re-emerged during the campaign as well.[84][85]

        Romney's campaign was effective in portraying Kennedy as soft on crime, but had trouble establishing its own positions in a consistent manner.[86]

        By mid-September 1994, polls showed the race to be approximately even.[76][87][88] Kennedy responded with a series of attack ads, which focused both on Romney's seemingly shifting political views on issues such as abortion and on the treatment of workers at the Ampad plant owned by Romney's Bain Capital.[76][89][90]

        The latter was effective in blunting Romney's momentum.[53]

        Kennedy and Romney held a widely watched late October debate without a clear winner, but by then Kennedy had pulled ahead in polls and stayed ahead afterward.[91]

        Romney spent over $7 million of his own money, and Kennedy spent more than $10 million from his campaign fund, mostly in the last weeks of the campaign (this was the second-most expensive race of the 1994 election cycle, after the Dianne Feinstein–Michael Huffington Senate race in California).[92]

        In the November general election, despite a disastrous showing for Democrats overall, Kennedy won the election with 58 percent of the vote to Romney's 41 percent,[40] the smallest margin in Kennedy's eight re-election campaigns for the Senate.

      Mitt Romney: Father Dies, wife Sick;

        Romney returned to Bain Capital the day after the election, but still smarted from the loss, and told his brother, "I never want to run for something again unless I can win."[32][93]

        His father died in 1995 (Mitt donated his inheritance to BYU's George W. Romney Institute of Public Management and joined the board and was vice chair of the Points of Light Foundation, which had incorporated his father's National Volunteer Center)[34][94] and his mother in 1998.

        Romney felt restless as the decade neared a close; the goal of just making more money was losing its appeal to him.[32][93] He no longer had a church leadership position, although he still taught Sunday School.[71]

        Fearing he would be a focal point for opposition, he had a limited, behind-the-scenes role in trying to ease tensions between the church and local residents during the long and controversial approval and construction process for a Mormon temple in Belmont (nevertheless, it still was sometimes referred to as "Mitt's Temple" by locals).[69][71][72][73]

        Ann Romney was diagnosed with multiple sclerosis in 1998; Romney described watching her fail a series of neurological tests as the worst day of his life.[32]

        After two years of severe difficulties with the disease, she found in Park City, Utah (where the couple had built a vacation home) a mixture of mainstream, alternative, and equestrian therapies that gave her a lifestyle mostly without limitations.[39]

      Mitt Romney: 2002 Winter Olympics;

        When the offer came for Romney to take over the troubled 2002 Olympic Winter Games, to be held in Salt Lake City in Utah, she urged him to take it, and eager for a new challenge, he did.[93][95]

        On February 11, 1999, Romney was hired as the president and CEO of the Salt Lake Organizing Committee.[96]

        Romney left Bain Capital in February 1999 to serve as the President and CEO of the 2002 Salt Lake City Olympic Games Organizing Committee.[40] By that time, Bain Capital was on its way to being one of the top private equity firms in the nation,[51] having increased its number of partners from 5 to 18, having 115 employees overall, and having $4 billion under its management.[48][52]

        Before Romney came on, the event was running $379 million short of its revenue benchmarks.[96] Plans were being made to scale back the games to compensate for the fiscal crisis and there were fears the games might be moved away entirely.[97]

        The Games had also been damaged by allegations of bribery involving top officials, including prior Salt Lake Olympic Committee president and CEO Frank Joklik. Joklik and committee vice president Dave Johnson were forced to resign.[98]

        Romney's appointment faced some initial criticism from non-Mormons, and fears from Mormons, that it represented cronyism or gave the games too Mormon an image.[27]

        Romney revamped the organization's leadership and policies, reduced budgets, and boosted fund raising. He soothed worried corporate sponsors and recruited many new ones.[93][99]

        He admitted past problems, listened to local critics, and rallied Utah's citizenry with a sense of optimism.[93] Romney worked to ensure the safety of the Games following the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks by ignoring those who suggested the games be called off and coordinating a $300 million security budget.[95][100]

        He became the public face of the Olympic effort, appearing in countless photographs and news stories and even on Olympics souvenir pins.[93]

        Romney's omnipresence irked those who thought he was taking too much of the credit for the success, or had exaggerated the state of initial distress, or was primarily looking to improve his own image.[93][99]

        Overall he oversaw a $1.32 billion budget, 700 employees, and 26,000 volunteers.[96]

        Despite the initial fiscal shortfall, the Games ended up clearing a profit of $100 million,[101] not counting the $224.5 million in security costs contributed by outside sources.[102]

        Romney broke the record for most private money raised by any individual for an Olympics games, summer or winter.[95] His performance as Olympics head was rated positively by 87 percent of Utahns.[103]

        Romney and his wife contributed $1 million to the Olympics, and he donated to charity the $1.4 million in salary and severance payments he received for his three years as president and CEO.[104]

        Romney was widely praised for his successful efforts with the 2002 Winter Olympics[95] including by President George W. Bush,[18] and it solidified his reputation as a turnaround artist.[99]

        Harvard Business School taught a case study based around Romney's successful actions.[4]

        Romney wrote a book about his experience titled Turnaround: Crisis, Leadership, and the Olympic Games, published in 2004.

        The role gave Romney experience in dealing with federal, state, and local entities, a public persona he had previously lacked, and the chance to re-launch his political aspirations.[93]

        He was mentioned as a possible candidate for statewide office in both Massachusetts and Utah, and also as possibly joining the Bush administration.[95][105][106]Governor of Massachusetts

      Mitt Romney: 2002 Mass Gubernatorial Campaign:

        Main article: Massachusetts gubernatorial election, 2002In 2002, Republican Acting Governor Jane Swift's administration was plagued by political missteps and personal scandals.[103] Many Republicans viewed her as a liability and considered her unable to win a general election.[107] Prominent GOP activists campaigned to persuade Romney to run for governor.[105] One poll taken at that time showed Republicans favoring Romney over Swift by more than 50 percentage points.[108] In March 2002, Swift decided not to seek her party's nomination, and so Romney was unopposed in the Republican party primary.[103][109]Massachusetts Democratic Party officials contested Romney's eligibility to run for governor, citing residency issues involving Romney's time in Utah as president of the Salt Lake City Olympic Committee.[110] In June 2002, the Massachusetts State Ballot Law Commission unanimously ruled that Romney was eligible to run.[110]Romney ran as a political outsider again,[103] saying he was "not a partisan Republican" but rather a "moderate" with "progressive" views[111] (although John W. Sears and several other state Republicans would later say Romney was from the more conservative side of the Massachusetts party).[112] Supporters of Romney hailed his business record, especially his success with the 2002 Olympics, as the record of someone who would be able to bring a new era of efficiency into Massachusetts politics.[109] The campaign was the first to use microtargeting techniques, in which fine-grained groups of voters were reached with narrowly tailored messaging.[113] Romney contributed over $6 million to his own campaign during the election, a state record at the time.[103][114] Romney was elected Governor in November 2002 with 50 percent of the vote over his Democratic opponent, Massachusetts State Treasurer Shannon O'Brien, who received 45 percent.[115]Tenure, 2003–2007Main article: Governorship of Mitt RomneyRomney was sworn in as the 70th governor of Massachusetts on January 2, 2003. Both houses of the Massachusetts state legislature held large Democratic majorities.[116] He picked his cabinet and advisors more on managerial abilities than partisan affiliation.[15] Upon entering office in the middle of a fiscal year, Romney faced an immediate $650 million shortfall and a projected $3 billion deficit for the next year.[106] Unexpected revenue of $1.0–1.3 billion from a previously enacted capital gains tax increase and $500 million in unanticipated federal grants decreased the deficit to $1.2–1.5 billion.[117][118] Through a combination of spending cuts, increased fees, and removal of corporate tax loopholes, by 2006 the state had a $600–700 million surplus.[106][117][119]

        Official Massachusetts State House portrait of Governor Mitt Romney, by artist Richard WhitneyRomney supported raising various fees by more than $300 million, including those for driver's licenses, marriage licenses, and gun licenses.[106][117] He increased a special gasoline retailer fee by two cents per gallon, generating about $60 million per year in additional revenue.[106][117] (Opponents said the reliance on fees sometimes imposed a hardship on those who could least afford them.)[117] Romney also closed tax loopholes that brought in another $181 million from businesses over the next two years and over $300 million for his term.[106][120] These initial loophole actions, fueled by Romney's sense of rectitude and in the face of conservative and corporate critics that considered them tax increases, won plaudits from legislators as an example of political courage.[120]The state legislature, with Romney's support, also cut spending by $1.6 billion, including $700 million in reductions in state aid to cities and towns.[121] The cuts also included a $140 million reduction in state funding for higher education, which led state-run colleges and universities to increase tuition by 63 percent over four years.[106][117] Romney sought additional cuts in his last year as Massachusetts governor by vetoing nearly 250 items in the state budget, but all of them were overridden by the Democratic-dominated legislature.[122]The cuts in state spending put added pressure on local property taxes; the share of town and city revenues coming from property taxes rose from 49 percent to 53 percent.[106][117]The combined state and local tax burden in Massachusetts increased during Romney's governorship but still was below the national average.[106] According to the Tax Foundation, that per capita burden was 9.8 percent in 2002 (below the national average of 10.3 percent), and 10.5 percent in 2006 (below the national average of 10.8 percent).[123]Romney was at the forefront of a movement to bring near-universal health insurance coverage to the state, after Staples founder Stemberg told him at the start of his term that doing so would be the best way he could help people[124][125][126] and after the federal government, due to the rules of Medicaid funding, threatened to cut $385 million in those payments to Massachusetts if the state did not reduce the number of uninsured recipients of health care services.[15][124][127] Despite not having campaigned on the idea of universal health insurance,[126] Romney decided that because people without insurance still received expensive health care, the money spent by the state for such care could be better used to subsidize insurance for the poor.[125][126]After positing that any measure adopted not raise taxes and not resemble the previous decade's failed "Hillarycare" proposal, Romney formed a team of consultants from different political backgrounds that beginning in late 2004 came up with a set of innovative proposals more ambitious than an incremental one from the Massachusetts Senate and more acceptable to him than one from the Massachusetts House of Representatives that incorporated a new payroll tax.[15][124][127] In particular, Romney successfully pushed for incorporating an individual mandate at the state level.[7] Past rival Ted Kennedy, who had made universal heath coverage his life's work and who, over time, had developed a warm relationship with Romney,[128] gave Romney's plan a positive reception, which encouraged Democratic legislators to cooperate.[124][127] The effort eventually gained the support of all major stakeholders within the state, and Romney helped break a logjam between rival Democratic leaders in the legislature.[124][127]

        Romney receiving the 2006 Secretary of Defense Employer Support Freedom Award on behalf of the Commonwealth of MassachusettsOn April 12, 2006, Romney signed the resulting Massachusetts health reform law, which requires nearly all Massachusetts residents to buy health insurance coverage or face escalating tax penalties such as the loss of their personal income tax exemption.[129] The bill also establishes means-tested state subsidies for people who do not have adequate employer insurance and who make below an income threshold, by using funds previously designated to compensate for the health costs of the uninsured.[130][131][132] He vetoed eight sections of the health care legislation, including a controversial $295-per-employee assessment on businesses that do not offer health insurance and provisions guaranteeing dental benefits to Medicaid recipients.[129][133] The legislature overrode all eight vetoes; Romney's communications director Eric Fehrnstrom responded by saying, "These differences with the Legislature are not essential to the goal of getting everyone covered with insurance."[133] Romney said of the measure overall, "There really wasn't Republican or Democrat in this. People ask me if this is conservative or liberal, and my answer is yes. It's liberal in the sense that we're getting our citizens health insurance. It's conservative in that we're not getting a government takeover."[124] The law was the first of its kind in the nation and became the signature achievement of Romney's term in office.[127][nb 9]At the beginning of his governorship, Romney opposed same-sex marriage and civil unions, but advocated tolerance and supported some domestic partnership benefits.[127][135][136] Faced with the dilemma of choosing between same-sex marriage or civil unions after the November 2003 Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court decision legalizing same-sex marriages (Goodridge v. Department of Public Health), Romney reluctantly backed a state constitutional amendment in February 2004 that would have banned same-sex marriage but still allow civil unions, viewing it as the only feasible way to ban same-sex marriage in Massachusetts.[137] In May 2004, Romney instructed town clerks to begin issuing marriage licenses to same-sex couples, but citing a 1913 law that barred out-of-state residents from getting married in Massachusetts if their union would be illegal in their home state, no marriage licenses were to be issued to out-of-state same-sex couples not planning to move to Massachusetts.[135][138] In June 2005, Romney abandoned his support for the compromise amendment, stating that the amendment confused voters who oppose both same-sex marriage and civil unions.[135] Instead, Romney endorsed a petition effort led by the Coalition for Marriage & Family that would have banned same-sex marriage and made no provisions for civil unions.[135] In 2004 and 2006, he urged the U.S. Senate to vote in favor of the Federal Marriage Amendment.[139][140]In 2005, Romney revealed a change of view regarding abortion, moving from an "unequivocal" pro-choice position expressed during his 2002 campaign to a pro-life one where he opposed Roe v. Wade.[127] He vetoed a bill on pro-life grounds that would expand access to emergency contraception in hospitals and pharmacies[141] (the veto was overridden by the legislature).[142]Romney generally used the bully pulpit approach towards promoting his agenda, staging well-organized media events to appeal directly to the public rather than pushing his proposals in behind-doors sessions with the state legislature.[127] Romney was especially effective in dealing with a crisis of confidence in Boston's Big Dig project following a fatal ceiling collapse in 2006, wresting control of the project from the Massachusetts Turnpike Authority and helping ensure that it would eventually complete.[127]During 2004, Romney spent considerable effort trying to bolster the state Republican Party, but it failed to gain any seats in the state legislative elections that year.[106][143] Given a prime-time appearance at the 2004 Republican National Convention, Romney was already being discussed as a potential 2008 presidential candidate.[144] Midway through his term, Romney decided that he wanted to stage a full-time run for president,[145] and on December 14, 2005, Romney announced that he would not seek re-election for a second term as governor.[146][147] As chair of the Republican Governors Association, Romney traveled around the country, meeting prominent Republicans and building a national political network;[145] he spent part or all of more than 200 days out of state during 2006, preparing for his run.[148] Romney's frequent out-of-state travel contributed towards his approval rating declining in public polls towards the end of his term.[149] He conceded that 2006 would be a difficult year for Republicans and that they would likely lose gubernatorial seats, including possibly his own.[149] The weak condition of the Republican state party was one of several factors that led to Democrat Deval Patrick's lopsided win over Republican Kerry Healey in the 2006 Massachusetts gubernatorial election.[149]Romney filed to register a presidential campaign committee with the Federal Election Commission on his penultimate day in office as governor.[150] Romney's term ended January 4, 2007.2008 presidential campaignMain article: Mitt Romney presidential campaign, 2008See also: Republican Party presidential primaries, 2008

        Romney holding an "Ask Mitt Anything" session in Ames, Iowa, in May 2007

        Romneys on Mackinac Island at the 2007 Republican Convention

        Romney at a rally in Battle Creek, Michigan, in mid-January 2008Romney formally announced his candidacy for the 2008 Republican nomination for president on February 13, 2007, at the Henry Ford Museum in Dearborn, Michigan.[151] In his speech, Romney frequently invoked his father and his own family and stressed experiences in the private, public, and voluntary sectors that had brought him to this point.[151][152] He said, "Throughout my life, I have pursued innovation and transformation,"[152] and casting himself as a political outsider, said, "I do not believe Washington can be transformed from within by a lifelong politician."[153]The assets that Romney's campaign began with included his résumé of success in the business world and his rescuing of the Salt Lake Olympics,[145][154] which matched the commonly held notion that American industry had star players who could straighten out what was wrong in the nation's capital.[155] Romney also had solid political experience as governor together with a political pedigree courtesy of his father, a strong work ethic and energy level, and a large, wholesome-looking family that seemed so perfect as to be off-putting to some voters.[145][154][156] Ann Romney, who had become an outspoken advocate for those with multiple sclerosis,[157] was in remission and would be an active participant in his campaign,[158] helping to soften his political personality.[156] Moreover, with his square jaw, handsome face, and ample hair graying at the temples, Mitt Romney matched one of the common images of what a president should look like.[49][119][159][160] Romney's liabilities included having run for senator and served as governor in one of the nation's most liberal states, having taken some positions there that were opposed by the party's conservative base, and subsequently shifting those positions.[145][154][158] His religion was also viewed with suspicion and skepticism by some in the Evangelical portion of the party.[161]Romney assembled for his campaign a veteran group of Republican staffers, consultants, and pollsters.[154][162] He was little-known nationally, though, and stayed around the ten percent range in Republican preference polls for the first half of 2007.[145] Romney's strategy was to win the first two big contests, the Iowa caucuses and the New Hampshire primary, and carry the momentum and visibility gained through the big Super Tuesday primaries and on to the nomination.[162] He proved the most effective fundraiser of any of the Republican candidates;[163] his Olympics ties helped him with fundraising from Utahns and from sponsors and trustees of the games.[104] He also partly financed his campaign with his own personal fortune.[154] These resources, combined with his August 2007 win in the Iowa Straw Poll and the mid-year near-collapse of nominal front-runner John McCain's campaign, made Romney a threat to win the nomination and the focus of the other candidates' attacks.[164] Romney's staff suffered from internal strife and the candidate himself was indecisive at times, constantly asking for more data before making a decision.[154][165]During all of his political campaigns, Romney has generally avoided speaking publicly about specific Mormon doctrines, referring to the U.S. Constitution prohibition of religious tests for public office.[166] But persistent questions about the role of religion in Romney's life in this race, as well as Southern Baptist minister and former Governor of Arkansas Mike Huckabee's rise in the polls based upon an explicitly Christian-themed campaign, led to the December 6, 2007, "Faith in America" speech.[167] Introduced by former President George H. W. Bush, Romney discussed the role of religion in American society and politics. Romney said he should neither be elected nor rejected based upon his religion,[168] and echoed Senator John F. Kennedy's famous speech during his 1960 presidential campaign in saying "I will put no doctrine of any church above the plain duties of the office and the sovereign authority of the law."[167] Instead of discussing the specific tenets of his faith, he said that he would be informed by it and that, "Freedom requires religion just as religion requires freedom. Freedom and religion endure together, or perish alone."[167][168] Academics would later study the role religion had played in the campaign.[nb 10]In the January 3, 2008, Iowa Republican caucuses, the first contest of the primary season, Romney received 25 percent of the vote and placed second to the vastly outspent Huckabee, who received 34 percent.[171][172] Of the 60 percent of caucus-goers who were evangelical Christians, Huckabee was supported by about half of them while Romney by only a fifth.[171] A couple of days later, Romney won the lightly contested Wyoming Republican caucuses.[173]At a Saint Anselm College debate, Huckabee and McCain pounded away at Romney's image as a flip flopper.[171] Indeed, this label would stick to Romney through the campaign[154] (but was one that Romney rejected as unfair and inaccurate, except for his acknowledged change of mind on abortion).[156] Romney seemed to approach the campaign as a management consulting exercise, and showed a lack of personal warmth and political feel; journalist Evan Thomas wrote that Romney "came off as a phony, even when he was perfectly sincere."[156][174] Romney's staff would conclude that competing as a candidate of social conservatism and ideological purity rather than of pragmatic competence had been a mistake.[156][175]Romney finished in second place by five percentage points to the resurgent McCain in the next-door-to-his-home-state New Hampshire primary on January 8.[171] Romney rebounded to win the January 15 Michigan primary over McCain by a solid margin, capitalizing on his childhood ties to the state and his vow to bring back lost automotive industry jobs which was seen by several commentators as unrealistic.[nb 11] On January 19, Romney won the lightly contested Nevada caucuses, but placed fourth in the intense South Carolina primary, where he had effectively ceded the contest to his rivals.[180] McCain gained further momentum with his win in South Carolina, leading to a showdown between him and Romney in the Florida primary.[181][182]For ten days, Romney campaigned intensively on economic issues and the burgeoning subprime mortgage crisis, while McCain repeatedly, and inaccurately, asserted that Romney favored a premature withdrawal of U.S. forces from Iraq.[nb 12] McCain won key last-minute endorsements from Florida Senator Mel Martinez and Governor Charlie Crist, which helped push him to a five percentage point victory on January 29.[181][182] Although many Republican officials were now lining up behind McCain,[182] Romney persisted through the nationwide Super Tuesday contests on February 5. There he won primaries or caucuses in several states, including Massachusetts, Alaska, Minnesota, Colorado and Utah, but McCain won more, including large states such as California and New York.[184] Trailing McCain in delegates by a more than two-to-one margin, Romney announced the end of his campaign on February 7 during a speech before the Conservative Political Action Conference in Washington.[184]Altogether, Romney had won 11 primaries and caucuses,[185] received about 4.7 million total votes,[186] and garnered about 280 delegates.[187] Romney spent $110 million during the campaign, including $45 million of his own money.[188]Romney endorsed McCain for president a week later.[187] He soon founded the Free and Strong America PAC, a political action committee whose stated mission was to raise money for other Republican candidates and to promote Republican policies.[189] Romney became one of the McCain campaign's most visible surrogates, appearing on behalf of the GOP nominee at fundraisers, state Republican party conventions, and on cable news programs.[190] His efforts earned McCain's respect and the two developed a warmer relationship; he was on the nominee's short list for the vice presidential running mate slot, where his economic expertise would have balanced one of McCain's weaknesses.[191] McCain, behind in the polls, opted instead for a high-risk, high-reward "game changer" and selected Alaska Governor Sarah Palin.[192] Romney continued to work for McCain's eventually unsuccessful general election campaign.Activism between presidential campaigns

        Both Mitt Romney and his wife Ann (pictured) spoke at the Conservative Political Action Conference in 2011Following the election, Romney paved the way for a possible 2012 presidential campaign by keeping much of his PAC's money to pay for salaries and consulting fees for his existing political staff[189] and to build a political infrastructure for what might become a $1 billion campaign three years hence.[175] He also had a network of former staff and supporters around the nation who were eager for him to run again.[193] He continued to give speeches and raise campaign funds on behalf of fellow Republicans,[194] but turned down many potential media appearances so as not to become overexposed.[175] He earned over $374,000 in fees for speeches before business, educational, and motivational groups.[195] He served on the board of directors of Marriott International in 2010, earning over $113,000, then stepped down from it in early 2011.[195]The Romneys sold their main home in Belmont and their ski house in Utah, leaving them an estate along Lake Winnipesaukee in Wolfeboro, New Hampshire, and an oceanfront home in the La Jolla district of San Diego, California, which they had bought the year before.[175][196][197] Both locations were near some of the Romneys' grandchildren,[196] who by 2011 numbered sixteen.[198] The San Diego location was also ideal for Ann Romney's multiple sclerosis therapies and for recovering from her late 2008 diagnosis and lumpectomy for mammary ductal carcinoma in situ.[196][199][200] Romney maintained his voting registration in Massachusetts, however, and bought a smaller condominium in Belmont during 2010.[199][201] Following the August 2009 death of his past rival and sometime ally Senator Edward M. Kennedy, Romney declared that he had no interest in running in the special January 2010 election to replace him.[202] Romney was an early supporter of Scott Brown, the successful Republican candidate in that race. Some of Romney's former aides were used by Brown's campaign and Romney raised funds for Brown.[203][204] In February 2010, Romney had a minor altercation with LMFAO musical group member Skyler Gordy, known as Sky Blu, on an airplane flight.[nb 13]Romney's book, No Apology: The Case for American Greatness, was released on March 2, 2010; an 18-state book tour was undertaken.[208] The book, which debuted atop The New York Times Best Seller list,[209] avoided anecdotes about Romney's personal or political life and focused on a presentation of his economic and geopolitical views.[210][211] Earnings from the book were donated to charity.[66]Polls of various kinds showed Romney remaining in the forefront of possible 2012 presidential contenders. In nationwide opinion polling for the 2012 Republican Presidential primaries, he led polls or placed in the top three with Palin and Huckabee. He finished first in the CPAC straw poll in 2009[212] and second in 2010 and 2011 behind Ron Paul,[213][214] won the Southern Republican Leadership Conference straw poll in 2010,[215] and won the New Hampshire Straw Poll in 2011.[216] A January 2010, National Journal poll of political insiders found that a majority of Republican insiders, and a plurality of Democratic insiders, predicted Romney would become the party's 2012 nominee.[217] Pew Research Center and Gallup Poll results showed that during 2009 and 2010, more in the general public were viewing him favorably (36 to 40 percent) than unfavorably (28 to 29 percent); this was a marked improvement from the days of his 2008 presidential campaign, when the reverse had been true.[218][219]Romney campaigned heavily for Republican candidates around the nation in the 2010 midterm elections,[220] and raised the most funds of any of the prospective 2012 Republican presidential candidates.[221] Appearances during early 2011 found Romney emphasizing how his experience could be applied towards solving the nation's economic problems and presenting a more relaxed visual image.[222][223]2012 presidential campaignMain article: Mitt Romney presidential campaign, 2012See also: Republican Party presidential primaries, 2012

        Romney making an appearance in Livonia, Michigan, days after his June 2011 formal campaign announcement

        Romney giving an interview at a rally in Paradise Valley, Arizona in December 2011

        Romney's candidacy being endorsed by 44th Vice President of the United States Dan Quayle in December 2011On April 11, 2011, Romney announced in a video taped outdoors at the University of New Hampshire that he had formed an exploratory committee as a first step for a potential run for the Republican presidential nomination, saying, "It is time that we put America back on a course of greatness, with a growing economy, good jobs and fiscal discipline in Washington."[224][225] A Quinnipiac University political science professor stated, "We all knew that he was going to run. He's really been running for president ever since the day after the 2008 election."[225]Romney stood to possibly gain from the Republican electorate's tendency to nominate candidates who had previously run for president and appeared to be "next in line" to be chosen.[193][223][226][227][228][229] Perhaps his greatest hurdle in gaining the Republican nomination was party opposition to the Massachusetts health care reform law that he had signed five years earlier.[223][225][229] The early stages of the race found Romney as the apparent front-runner in a weak field, especially in terms of fundraising prowess and organization.[230][231][232] As many potential Republican candidates decided not to run (including Mike Pence, John Thune, Haley Barbour, Mike Huckabee, and Mitch Daniels), Republican party figures searched for plausible alternatives to Romney.[230][232]On June 2, 2011, Romney formally announced the start of his campaign. Speaking on a farm in Stratham, New Hampshire, he stressed economic issues and said that the nation was suffering from "President Obama's own misery index".[233] He said, "In the campaign to come, the American ideals of economic freedom and opportunity need a clear and unapologetic defense, and I intend to make it – because I have lived it."[229]Romney raised $56 million during 2011, far more than any of his Republican opponents,[234] and refrained from spending any of his own money on his campaign.[235][236] He initially ran a low-key, low-profile campaign, avoiding statements about the ongoing U.S. debt ceiling crisis until the final days, when he said he opposed the Budget Control Act of 2011 as a resolution to the crisis.[237][238] Michele Bachmann staged a brief surge, then by September 2011, Romney's chief rival in polls was a recent entrant, Texas Governor Rick Perry, and the two exchanged sharp criticisms of each other during a series of debates among the Republican candidates.[239] The October 2011 decisions of Chris Christie and Sarah Palin not to run finally settled the field.[240][241] Perry faded due to poor performances in those debates, while Herman Cain staged a long-shot surge until allegations of sexual misconduct derailed him.Romney continued to seek support from a wary Republican electorate, with his poll numbers relatively flat and at a historically low level for a Republican frontrunner at this point in the race.[240][242] (A Time magazine cover picturing Romney and captioned "Why Don't They Like Me?" exemplified the phenomenon.)[243][244] For a while, Romney did not face the charges of flip flopping that marked his 2008 campaign,[245] but then such comments by critics and opponents mounted, especially surrounding his views on the certainty of human causes for global warming.[246][247] In response, Romney declared in November 2011 that "I've been as consistent as human beings can be."[246] In the final month before voting began, Newt Gingrich enjoyed a major surge, taking a solid lead in national polls and in most of the early caucus and primary states[244] before settling back into parity or worse with Romney following a barrage of negative ads from a pro-Romney Super PAC.[248]In the initial 2012 Iowa caucuses of January 3, Romney was announced as the victor on election night with 25 percent of the vote, edging out a late-surging Rick Santorum by eight votes (with an also-surging Ron Paul finishing third),[249] but sixteen days later, Santorum was certified as the winner by a 34-vote margin.[250] Romney decidedly won the New Hampshire primary the following week with a total of 39 percent; Paul finished second with 23 percent and Jon Huntsman third with 17 percent.[251]In the run-up to the South Carolina Republican primary, Gingrich launched attack ads criticizing Romney for causing job losses while at Bain Capital, Perry referred to Romney's role there as "vulture capitalism", and Sarah Palin questioned whether Romney could prove his claim that 100,000 jobs were created during that time.[252][253] Many conservatives rallied in defense of Romney and the implied criticism of free-market capitalism.[252] However, during two debates, Romney fumbled questions about releasing his income tax returns while Gingrich surged with audience-rousing attacks on the debate moderators.[254][255] Combined with the delayed loss in Iowa, Romney's admitted bad week resulted a previous double-digit lead in polls, and chance to end the race early, turn into a 13-point loss to Gingrich in the primary and a decision afterward to release his returns quickly.[254][256]The Florida Presidential primary is scheduled for Tuesday, January 31.[257] Polls taken since the South Carolina primary show Romney in second place behind Newt Gingrich.[258] However, approximately 200,000 Floridians have already voted through absentee ballots or early voting, and it is believed that the early voting favors Romney who aggressively campaigned in Florida in early January.[259] There will be two Republican Presidential debates in Florida -- one hosted by NBC on Monday, January 23, and one sponsored by CNN on Thursday, January 26.[260]Political positionsFor more details on specific Romney positions on many issues, see Political positions of Mitt Romney.

        Romney speaking in October 2007 before the Values Voter Summit in Washington, D.C.

        Romney speaking at CPAC 2011For much of his business career, Romney did not take public political positions.[261][262] He followed national politics avidly in college,[25] and the circumstances of his father's presidential campaign loss would grate on him for decades,[13] but his early philosophical influences were often non-political, such as in his missionary days when he read and absorbed Napoleon Hill's pioneering self-help tome Think and Grow Rich and encouraged his colleagues to do the same.[4][26] Until his 1994 U.S. Senate campaign, he was registered as an Independent.[32] In the 1992 Democratic Party presidential primaries, he had voted for the Democratic former senator from the state, Paul Tsongas.[261][263]In the 1994 Senate race, Romney aligned himself with Republican Massachusetts Governor William Weld, who believed in fiscal conservatism and supported abortion rights and gay rights, saying "I think Bill Weld's fiscal conservatism, his focus on creating jobs and employment and his efforts to fight discrimination and assure civil rights for all is a model that I identify with and aspire to."[264]As a gubernatorial candidate, and then as Governor of Massachusetts, Romney again generally operated in the mold established by Weld and followed by Weld's two other Republican successors, Paul Cellucci and Jane Swift: restrain spending and taxing, be tolerant or permissive on social issues, protect the environment, be tough on crime, try to appear post-partisan.[263][265]During his time as governor, Romney's position on abortion changed in conjunction with a similar change of position on stem cell research.[127][nb 14] Also during that time, his position or choice of emphasis on some aspects of gay rights,[nb 15] and some aspects of abstinence-only sex education,[nb 16] evolved in a more conservative direction. The change in 2005 on abortion was the result of what Romney described as an epiphany experienced while investigating stem cell research issues.[127] He later said, "Changing my position was in line with an ongoing struggle that anyone has that is opposed to abortion personally, vehemently opposed to it, and yet says, 'Well, I'll let other people make that decision.' And you say to yourself, but if you believe that you're taking innocent life, it's hard to justify letting other people make that decision."[127]This increased alignment with traditional conservatives on social issues coincided with Romney's becoming a candidate for the 2008 Republican nomination for President.[272][273] He displayed a new-found admiration for the National Rifle Association and portrayed himself as a lifelong hunter.[nb 17] He downplayed the Massachusetts health care law,[7][263][273] became a convert on signing an anti-tax pledge,[4][7] and backed away from further closings of corporate tax loopholes.[120] He also displayed aggressiveness on foreign policy matters such as wanting to double the number of detainees at the Guantanamo Bay detention camp.[273] Skeptics, including some Republicans, charged Romney with opportunism and having a lack of core principles.[127][154][263][277] The fervor with which Romney adopted his new stances and attitudes contributed to the perception of inauthenticity which hampered that campaign.[4][222]While there have been many biographical parallels between the lives of George Romney and his son Mitt,[nb 18] one particular difference is that while George was willing to defy political trends, Mitt has been much more willing to adapt to them.[7][15] Mitt Romney has said that learning from experience and changing views accordingly is a virtue, and that, "If you're looking for someone who's never changed any positions on any policies, then I'm not your guy."[277] Romney responded to criticisms of ideological pandering with the explanation that "The older I get, the smarter Ronald Reagan gets."[158]Journalist and author Daniel Gross sees Romney as approaching politics in the same terms as a business competing in markets, in that successful executives do not hold firm to public stances over long periods of time, but rather constantly devise new strategies and plans to deal with new geographical regions and ever-changing market conditions.[263] Political profiler Ryan Lizza sees the same question regarding whether Romney's business skills can be adapted to politics, saying that "while giving customers exactly what they want may be normal in the corporate world, it can be costly in politics".[4] Writer Robert Draper holds a somewhat similar perspective: "The Romney curse was this: His strength lay in his adaptability. In governance, this was a virtue; in a political race, it was an invitation to be called a phony."[156] Writer Benjamin Wallace-Wells sees Romney as a detached problem solver rather than one who approaches political issues from a humanistic or philosophical perspective.[53] Political writer Joe Klein sees Romney as actually more conservative on social issues than he portrayed himself during his Massachusetts campaigns and less conservative on other issues than his presidential campaigns have represented, and concludes that Romney "has always campaigned as something he probably is not."[279]Immediately following the March 2010 passage of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, Romney attacked the landmark legislation as "an unconscionable abuse of power" and said the act should be repealed.[280] The hostile attention it held among Republicans created a potential problem for the former governor, since the new federal law was in many ways similar to the Massachusetts health care reform passed during Romney's term; as one Associated Press article stated, "Obamacare ... looks a lot like Romneycare."[280] While acknowledging that his plan was not perfect and still was a work in progress, Romney did not back away from it, and has consistently defended the state-level health insurance mandate that underpins it.[280][281] He has focused on its having had bipartisan support in the state legislature, while the Obama plan received no Republican support at all in Congress,[280] and upon it being the right answer to Massachusetts' specific problems at the time.[280][282] A Romney spokesperson has stated: "Mitt Romney has been very clear in all his public statements that he is opposed to a national individual mandate. He believes those decisions should be left to the states."[283] While Romney has not explicitly argued for a federally-imposed mandate, during his 1994 Senate campaign he indicated he would vote for an overall health insurance proposal that contained one, and he suggested during his time as governor and during his 2008 presidential campaign that the Massachusetts plan was a model for the nation and that, over time, mandate plans might be adopted by most or all of the nation.[284][285][286][287]Throughout his business, Olympics, and political career, Romney's instinct has been to apply the "Bain way" towards problems.[156][273][288] Romney has said, "There were two key things I learned at Bain. One was a series of concepts for approaching tough problems and a problem-solving methodology; the other was an enormous respect for data, analysis, and debate."[288] He has written, "There are answers in numbers – gold in numbers. Pile the budgets on my desk and let me wallow."[4] Romney believes the Bain approach is not only effective in the business realm but also in running for office and, once there, in solving political conundrums such as proper Pentagon spending levels and the future of Social Security.[273][288] Former Bain and Olympics colleague Fraser Bullock has said of Romney, "He's not an ideologue. He makes decisions based on researching data more deeply than anyone I know."[18] Romney's technocratic instincts have thus always been with him; in his public appearances during the 2002 gubernatorial campaign he sometimes gave PowerPoint presentations rather than conventional speeches.[289] Upon taking office he became, in the words of The Boston Globe, "the state's first self-styled CEO governor".[106] During his 2008 presidential campaign, he was constantly asking for data, analysis, and opposing arguments,[273] and has been viewed as a potential "CEO president".[263]Awards and honorsRomney has received four honorary doctorates: an Honorary Doctor of Business from the University of Utah in 1999,[290] an Honorary Doctor of Law from Bentley College in 2002,[291] an Honorary Doctor of Public Administration from Suffolk University Law School in 2004,[292] and an Honorary Doctor of Public Service from Hillsdale College in 2007.[293]People magazine included Romney in its 50 Most Beautiful People list for 2002.[294] In 2004, Romney received the inaugural Truce Ideal Award for his role in the 2002 Winter Olympics.[295] In 2006, he received the Secretary of Defense Employer Support Freedom Award, the highest recognition given by the U.S. Government to employers for their support of their employees who serve in the National Guard and Reserve, on behalf of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts.[296] In 2008, he shared with his wife Ann the Canterbury Medal from The Becket Fund for Religious Liberty, for "refus[ing] to compromise their principles and faith" during the presidential campaign.[297]Writings• With Timothy Robinson (2004). Turnaround: Crisis, Leadership, and the Olympic Games. Washington: Regnery Publishing. ISBN 0-89526-084-0.• No Apology: The Case for American Greatness. New York: St. Martin's Press. 2010. ISBN 0-312-60980-9.See also

        Massachusetts portal

        • Public image of Mitt Romney• Electoral history of Mitt Romney• Mitt Romney presidential campaign, 2012• List of JD/MBAs


        1. ^ He was called "Billy" until kindergarten, when he indicated a preference for "Mitt".[9]

        2. ^ Mitt's campaigning for his father included working the phone banks and appearing at county fairs; at the latter, he manned a booth and exclaimed over a loudspeaker, "You should vote for my father for Governor. He's a truly great person. You've got to support him. He's going to make things better."[7]

        3. ^ Such pranks included sliding down golf courses on large ice cubes, dressing as a police officer and tapping on the car windows of teenage friends who were making out, and staging an elaborate formal dinner on the median of a busy street.[10][16] The golf course escapade apparently got Romney and Ann Davies arrested, or otherwise detained, by the local police.[13][18] Romney was also arrested in 1981 while at a family outing at Lake Cochituate in Massachusetts. According to Romney, a ranger from Cochituate State Park told him his motorboat had an insufficiently visible license number and he would face a $50 fine if he took the boat onto the lake. Disagreeing about the license and wanting to continue the outing, Romney took it out anyway, saying he would pay the fine. The angry officer then

        arrested him for disorderly conduct. The charges were dropped several days later after Romney threatened to sue the officer and the state for false arrest.[19]

        4. ^ a b On June 16, 1968, Romney was driving fellow missionaries on dangerous roads in southern France.[10][17][29] As they drove through the village of Bernos-Beaulac, a Mercedes that was passing a truck missed a curve and suddenly swerved into the opposite lane and hit the Citroën DS Romney was driving in a head-on collision.[10][30] Trapped between the steering wheel and door, the unconscious and seriously injured Romney had to be pried from the car; a French police officer mistakenly wrote Il est mort in his passport.[10][13][29] The wife of the mission president was killed and other passengers were seriously injured as well.[29] George Romney relied on his friend Sargent Shriver, the U.S. Ambassador to France, to go to the local hospital and discover that Mitt had survived.[13] Romney, who was not at fault in the accident,[25][29] had suffered broken ribs, a fractured arm, a concussion, and facial injuries, but recovered quickly without needing surgery.[17][29] The French police say that they have no records of the incident because such records are routinely destroyed after 10 years.[29]

        5. ^ Romney later recounted that he had planned to attend BYU to convince Anny to marry him, then the couple planned to transfer together back to Stanford, but in the end, they enjoyed BYU and decided to stay.[34]

        6. ^ Some sources incorrectly report that Romney graduated BYU as valedictorian. Romney himself has corrected this notion, saying that he was not. While he believes he did have the highest grade point average for his BYU years in the College of Humanities, he did not if his Stanford year was factored in, and

        he did not among the graduating class university-wide.[37][34]7. ^ Romney sat for the bar exam in his home state of Michigan[45] but never worked as a lawyer or seriously considered it as a career.[41]

        8. ^ One study of 68 deals that Bain Capital made during Romney's time there found that the firm lost money or broke even on 33 of them.[50] Another study that looked at the eight-year period following 77 deals during Romney's time found that in 17 cases the company went bankrupt or out of business, and in 6 cases Bain Capital lost all its investment. But 10 deals were very successful and represented 70 percent of the total profits.[56]

        9. ^ Within four years, the Massachusetts law had achieved its primary goal of expanding coverage: in 2010, 98.1 percent of state residents had coverage, compared to a national average of 83.3 percent. Among children and seniors the 2010 coverage rate was even higher, 99.8 percent and 99.6 percent respectively. Approximately two-thirds of residents received coverage through employers; one-sixth each received it through Medicare or public plans.[134]

        10. ^ Regarding the role of Romney's religion in the 2008 campaign, one academic study, based upon research conducted throughout the 2008 primaries, showed that a negative perception of Mormonism was widespread during the election, and that perception was often resistant to factual information that would correct mistaken notions about the religion or Romney's relationship to it.[169] The authors concluded that, "For Romney ... religion is the central story."[169] Another study, analyzing a survey conducted during January 2008 (when an African American, a woman, and a Mormon all had realistic chances of becoming the first president from that group), found that voters had internally accepted the notion of black equality, paving the way for Barack Obama's election; had partially established but not fully internalized the notion of gender equality, making Hillary Rodham Clinton's task somewhat more difficult; but had only selectively internalized the notion of religious equality, and in particular not extended it to Mormons, thus making Romney's run significantly more difficult.[170] Those authors concluded that, "for a Mormon candidate, the road to the presidency remains very rough ... The bias against a Mormon candidate is substantial."[170]

        11. ^ Romney proposed a $20 billion "workout, not a bailout" of the U.S. auto industry. It was termed unrealistic or "pandering" by several news reports.[176][177][178][179]

        12. ^ Previously, Romney had proposed a private timetable for gradually reducing U.S. forces. McCain's statements regarding this were termed dishonest or misleading by several news reports.[181][182][183]

        13. ^ After having attended the 2010 Winter Olympics, Romney and wife were on board an Air Canada plane waiting to take off on a flight from Vancouver to Los Angeles when he got into a physical altercation with Sky Blu, sitting in front of him, over Sky Blu's seat not being in the upright position. Romney said that Sky Blu became physically violent and that he did not retaliate, while Sky Blu said that Romney gave him a "Vulcan grip" first and that he responded physically to that. Sky Blu was escorted off the aircraft by Canadian police but Romney did not press charges and Sky Blu was released.[205][206][207]

        14. ^ During his 2002 campaign, Romney expressed support for embryonic stem cell research, and said he would lobby President Bush (who had banned most federal funding for such research) to support it. In early 2005, Romney announced his position on therapeutic cloning, saying he was against it – and vetoing a funding bill for stem cell research because it allowed it – but still in favor of research on unused embryos from fertility treatments. In early 2007, Romney said he was now against expanded federal funding for such excess embryo research (but still thought private funding for such research was ethical, to the dismay of some conservative Republicans).[266]

        15. ^ As described. While Romney has consistently rejected same-sex marriage throughout his political career, there was a rhetorical shift in emphasis during his time as governor. The shift culminated in Romney avoiding discussions about the protection of gays from bias and instead characterizing himself as a conservative stalwart in the battle against same-sex marriage and in support of heterosexual families. The shift is even greater if compared to Romney's pledges from his 1994 senatorial campaign.[267][268]

        16. ^ During his 2002 campaign, Romney said he backed age-appropriate, comprehensive sex education in public schools. In 2005, he accepted federal funding to a faith-based organization to teach abstinence-only education in public schools. Romney said such programs would supplement rather than replace existing ones, while opponents feared that funding pressure would lead to schools dropping comprehensive programs for the freely available abstinence-only ones.[269][270][271]

        17. ^ Romney joined the National Rifle Association as a life member in August 2006. In December 2007, he cited a past endorsement from them, which he later said was unofficial support.[7][161][274][275] In April 2007, he said, "I've been a hunter pretty much all my life," but then said he had only gone hunting twice and did not own guns, and "I'm not a big-game hunter. I've made that very clear. I've always been a rodent and rabbit hunter. Small varmints, if you will. I began when I was 15 or so and I have hunted those kinds of varmints since then. More than two times."[276]

        18. ^ Biographical parallels between George and Mitt Romney include: Both served as Mormon missionaries in Europe and considered the experiences formative. Both pursued high school sweethearts singlemindedly until the women agreed to marry them several years later, then had families with four or five children. Both had very successful careers in business and became known for turning around failing companies or organizations. Both presided over a stake in the LDS Church. Both achieved their first elected position at age 55, as Republican governor of a Democratic-leaning state. The two bear a close physical resemblance at similar ages and both have been said to "look like a president". Both staged their first presidential run in the year they turned 60. Both were considered suspect by ideological conservatives within the Republican Party.[7][278] There are also obvious differences in their paths, including that George had a hardscrabble upbringing while Mitt's was affluent, and that Mitt far exceeded George's accomplishments in formal education.


        1. ^ Halperin, Mark (2007). The Undecided Voter's Guide to the Next President: Who the Candidates Are, Where They Come from, and How You Can Choose. Harper Perennial. p. 93. ISBN 978-0061537301.

        2. ^ Miroff, Nick (July 21, 2011). "In besieged Mormon colony, Mitt Romney's Mexican roots". The Washington Post.

        3. ^ Reitwiesner, William Addams. "The Ancestors of Mitt Romney". Retrieved October 29, 2011.

        4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Lizza, Ryan (October 29, 2007). "The Mission: Mitt Romney's strategies for success". The New Yorker.

        5. ^ Feldmann, Linda (August 9, 2007). "Mitt Romney: proudly, quietly Mormon". The Christian Science Monitor.

        6. ^ Mahoney, Tom (1960). The Story of George Romney: Builder, Salesman, Crusader (1st ed.). New York: Harper & Brothers. pp. 104, 113.

        7. ^ a b c d e f g h Tumulty, Karen (May 10, 2007). "What Romney Believes". Time.

        8. ^ Sammon, Bill (2007). Meet the Next President. Threshold Editions. p. 4. ISBN 978-1-4165-5489-9.

        9. ^ a b c d e f g Gell, Jeffrey N. (October 21, 1994). "Romney Gains Momentum As He Keeps On Running". The Harvard Crimson.

        10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Swidey, Neil; Paulson, Michael (June 24, 2007). "The Making of Mitt Romney: Part 1: Privilege, tragedy, and a young leader". The Boston Globe. Archived from the original on September 18, 2007. Also available as "Mitt Romney: the beginning", Deseret Morning News, July 1, 2007 (archived from the original on September 18, 2007).

        11. ^ Candee, Marjorie Dent (ed.) (1958). Current Biography Yearbook 1958. New York: H. W. Wilson Company. p. 368. ISBN 978-0-8242-0124-1.

        12. ^ a b Martelle, Scott (December 25, 2007). "Romney's running mate". Los Angeles Times.

        13. ^ a b c d e f g h LeBlanc, Steve (December 16, 2007). "Fortunate Son: Mitt Romney's life is his father's legacy". Deseret Morning News. Associated Press (Salt Lake City). Archived from the original on June 26, 2008.

        14. ^ Raskin, A.H. (February 28, 1960). "A Maverick Starts a New 'Crusade'". The New York Times Magazine.

        15. ^ a b c d e f g h i Cohn, Jonathan (July 2, 2007). "Parent Trap: How Mitt Romney un-became his father". The New Republic.

        16. ^ a b c d e Greenberger, Scott S. (June 12, 2005). "From prankster to politician, Romney deemed a class act". The Boston Globe.

        17. ^ a b c d e f g Saslow, Eli (December 10, 2007). "A Mission Accepted". The Washington Post.

        18. ^ a b c d e Vickers, Marcia (June 27, 2007). "The Republicans' Mr. Fix-it". Fortune.

        19. ^ Phillips, Frank (May 5, 1994). "GOP hopeful arrested in 1981; Charge dismissed in boating case". The Boston Globe: p. 37.

        20. ^ Jill Lawrence (March 12, 2007). "Will Mormon faith hurt bid for White House?". USA Today.

        21. ^ a b c d Kessler, Ronald (May 23, 2007). "Ann Romney: Mitt Has Always Been Pro-Life".

        22. ^ Rodeffer, Mark H. (October 2, 2002). "Romney And Wife Open Up". National Journal.

        23. ^ "Draft Deferment Exams Today For 250,000 College Students". The Norwalk Hour. Associated Press: p. 1. May 21, 1966.

        24. ^ "The Making of Mitt Romney: Part 2: Photo 3". The Boston Globe. June 18, 2007. Retrieved March 17, 2011.

        25. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Kirkpatrick, David D. (November 15, 2007). "Romney, Searching and Earnest, Set His Path in '60s". The New York Times: p. A1.

        26. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Kranish, Michael; Paulson, Michael (June 25, 2007). "The Making of Mitt Romney: Part 2: Centered in faith, a family emerges". The Boston Globe. Also available as "Mitt's LDS roots run deep", Deseret Morning News, July 2, 2007.

        27. ^ a b Wright, Lawrence (January 21, 2002). "Lives of the Saints". The New Yorker.28. ^ a b Samuel, Henry; Swaine, Jon (December 15, 2011). "Mitt Romney's life as a poor Mormon missionary in France questioned". The Daily Telegraph.

        29. ^ a b c d e f g h Paulson, Michael (June 24, 2007). "The Making of Mitt Romney: Survivors recall tragic car crash in France with Romney at the wheel". The Boston Globe. Also available as "Survivors recall tragic car crash in France with Romney", The New York Times, same date.

        30. ^ "La jeunesse française de Mitt Romney" (in French). L'Express. January 23, 2008. Archived from the original on January 30, 2008.

        31. ^ Wangsness, Lisa (July 26, 2007). "Romney to France: Je t'aime!". The Boston Globe.

        32. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Swidey, Neil; Ebbert, Stephanie (June 27, 2007). "The Making of Mitt Romney: Part 4: Journeys of a shared life: Raising sons, rising expectations bring unexpected turns". The Boston Globe. Also available as "Romney determined to make mark early", Deseret Morning News, July 4, 2007.

        33. ^ "Mitt Romney Marries Ann Davies". The New York Times: p. 37. March 22, 1969.

        34. ^ a b c Romney, Mitt (March 19, 2006). Gov. Mitt Romney (R-Massachusetts). Interview with Brian Lamb. Q&A. C-SPAN.

        35. ^ a b Kranish, Michael (June 24, 2007). "The Making of Mitt Romney: Mormon church obtained Vietnam draft deferrals for Romney, other missionaries". The Boston Globe.

        36. ^ "Results from Lottery Drawing – Vietnam Era – 1970". Selective Service System. Retrieved March 13, 2011.

        37. ^ a b Hewitt, A Mormon in the White House?, p. 46.

        38. ^ Jill Radsken, "Ann Romney on her choices, family, health and future", Boston Herald, December 8, 2002.

        39. ^ a b "Ann Romney: From the Saddle to the Campaign Trail". ABC News. August 14, 2007.

        40. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x Gavin, Robert; Pfeiffer, Sacha (June 26, 2007). "The Making of Mitt Romney: Part 3: Reaping profit in study, sweat". The Boston Globe. Also available as "Plenty of 'pitting' preceded Romney's profits", Deseret Morning News, July 3, 2007.

        41. ^ a b c d Kantor, Jodi (December 25, 2011). "At Harvard, a Master's in Problem Solving". The New York Times: p. A1.

        42. ^ a b c Pfeiffer, Sacha (June 26, 2007). "The Making of Mitt Romney: Romney's Harvard classmates recall his quick mind, positive attitude". The Boston Globe.

        43. ^ Pfeiffer, Sacha (November 22, 2011). "Romney's Harvard Years: An Earnest Traditionalist". WBUR.

        44. ^ a b c d e f Rees, Matthew (December 1, 2006). "Mister PowerPoint Goes to Washington". The American.

        45. ^ Heinlein, Gary (February 14, 2007). "Native son Romney targets 'values vote'". The Detroit News.

        46. ^ Leonhardt, David (December 11, 2011). "Consultant Nation". The New York Times.

        47. ^ a b c Hewitt, A Mormon in the White House?, pp. 48–49.

        48. ^ a b c d e f g h i Kirkpatrick, David D. (June 4, 2007). "Romney's Fortunes Tied to Business Riches". The New York Times.

        49. ^ a b c d e f g Pappu, Sridhar (September 2005). "The Holy Cow! Candidate". The Atlantic Monthly.

        50. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Kranish, Michael; Helman, Scott (February 2012). "The Meaning of Mitt". Vanity Fair.

        51. ^ a b c d e f Sorkin, Andrew Ross (June 4, 2007). "Romney's Presidential Run Puts Spotlight on Bain Capital". The New York Times.

        52. ^ a b c d e f g Blum, Justin; Lerer, Lisa (July 20, 2011). "Romney's Record Defies Image as Job-Creator". Bloomberg News.

        53. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Wallace-Wells, Benjamin (October 23, 2011). "Mitt Romney and the 1% Economy". New York.

        54. ^ a b c d Barbaro, Michael (November 13, 2011). "After a Romney Deal, Profits and Then Layoffs". The New York Times: p. A1.

        55. ^ "Bain Capital's Romney aiming for politics after Olympics". Boston Business Journal. August 23, 2001.

        56. ^ a b c Maremont, Mark (January 9, 2012). "Romney at Bain: Big Gains, Some Busts". The Wall Street Journal.

        57. ^ a b c Confessore, Nicholas; Drew, Christopher; Creswell, Julie (December 18, 2011). "Buyout Profits Keep Flowing to Romney". The New York Times.

        58. ^ Hicks, Josh (November 2, 2011). "Romney’s claims about Bain Capital job creation". The Washington Post.

        59. ^ Hagey, Keach (January 11, 2012). "Mitt Romney’s Bain Capital days: A black box". Politico.

        60. ^ a b Gavin, Robert (January 27, 2008). "As Bain slashed jobs, Romney stayed to side". The Boston Globe.

        61. ^ Fabrikant, Geraldine (January 30, 1991). "Bain Names Chief Executive And Begins a Reorganization". The New York Times.

        62. ^ a b Johnson, Glen (February 24, 2007). "Romney urges states to divest from Iran despite links to business interests there". Telegram & Gazette. Associated Press (Worcester).

        63. ^ Hewitt, A Mormon in the White House, p. 51.

        64. ^ a b Kuhnhenn, Jim (August 14, 2007). "Romney Worth As Much As $250 Million". The Washington Post. Associated Press.

        65. ^ Luo, Michael (May 12, 2007). "Romney Aides Say His Worth Is at Least $260 Million". The New York Times.

        66. ^ a b Viser, Matt (August 12, 2011). "Romney's net worth pegged at $190–$250M". The Boston Globe.

        67. ^ Maremont, Mark (2012-01-19). "Romney's Unorthodox IRA". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 2012-01-20.

        68. ^ "Romney reports tax bill of $6.2 million for 2010-11" Reuters 24 January 2012

        69. ^ a b c d e Brady-Myerov, Monica (December 6, 2011). "At Belmont Temple, Romney Was An Influential Leader". WBUR.

        70. ^ Mosk, Matthew; Ross, Brian (January 18, 2012). "Mitt Romney Sent Millions to Mormon Church". ABC News.

        71. ^ a b c d e f Pappu, Sridhar (December 15, 2007). "In Mitt Romney's Neighborhood, A Mormon Temple Casts a Shadow". The

        Washington Post.

        72. ^ a b c d e f g Stolberg, Sheryl Gay (October 15, 2011). "For Romney, a Role of Faith and Authority". The New York Times: p. 1.

        73. ^ a b c d e f g h Semuels, Alana (December 7, 2011). "Romney, an active man of faith". Los Angeles Times.

        74. ^ Hersh, The Shadow President, p. 123.

        75. ^ Parker, Ashley (December 13, 2011). "As Rivalry Tightens, Romney Is Reflective". The New York Times.

        76. ^ a b c d e Kahn, Joseph P. (February 19, 2009). "Ted Kennedy: Chapter 5: Trials & Redemptions: An untidy private life, then a turn to stability". The Boston Globe.

        77. ^ Marcus, Ruth (October 21, 1994). "Clinton Gets a Sense of the Real Thing; Kennedy and Massachusetts Democrats Put on a Campaign Rally". The Washington Post.

        78. ^ Trott, Robert W. (July 17, 1994). "Ted Kennedy lacks luster as he seeks re-election". Daily News. Associated Press (Bowling Green, Kentucky): p. 12C.

        79. ^ Hersh, The Shadow President, pp. 124, 126–127.

        80. ^ "Romney will oppose Sen. Kennedy in Nov.". Providence Journal. Associated Press: p. B1. September 21, 1994.

        81. ^ Clymer, Edward M. Kennedy, p. 549.

        82. ^ "DNC calls out Romney’s evolving affection for Reagan". November 29, 2011.

        83. ^ Clymer, Edward M. Kennedy, p. 553.

        84. ^ Rimer, Sara (September 29, 1994). "Religion Is Latest Volatile Issue to Ignite Kennedy Contest". The New York Times: p. A22.

        85. ^ Cooper, Michael (November 6, 1994). "Massachusetts The Last Weekend: Senate Races Where the Battle Has Been Intense; Romney Eclectic In Final Sprint". The New York Times: p. 26.

        86. ^ Hersh, The Shadow President, pp. 128–129, 139.

        87. ^ Rimer, Sarah (September 24, 1994). "Kennedy's Wife Is Giving Him a Political Advantage in a Difficult Contest". The New York Times.

        88. ^ Gordon, Al. "Kennedy in Fight of His Political Life" Newsday (Nassau and Suffolk edition), p. A4, October 2, 1994.

        89. ^ Hersh, The Shadow President, pp. 141–142.

        90. ^ Apple Jr., R. W. (October 26, 1994). "Kennedy and Romney Meet, and the Rancor Flows Freely". The New York Times.

        91. ^ Clymer, Adam (October 27, 1994). "Kennedy and Romney Look to Round 2". The New York Times.

        92. ^ Miller, Jerry (April 24, 2000). "Record Fund raising". CNS News. Archived from the original on December 12, 2007. Retrieved April 20, 2007. According to figures in The Almanac of American Politics 1996, which relies on official campaign finance reports.

        93. ^ a b c d e f g h Johnson, Kirk (September 19, 2007). "In Olympics Success, Romney Found New Edge". The New York Times.

        94. ^ Roche, Lisa Riley; Bernick Jr., Bob (August 20, 2001). "Public service for Romney". Deseret News.

        95. ^ a b c d e Zernike, Kate (February 12, 2002). "Olympics: The Man in Charge: Romney's Future After Salt Lake A Guessing Game". The New York Times.

        96. ^ a b c Call, Jeff (Winter 2002). "The Fire Within". BYU Magazine.

        97. ^ "Officials deny Salt Lake could lose 2002 Olympics". The Bryan Times. Associated Press: p. 13. January 12, 1999.

        98. ^ "Man who led Salt Lake's Olympic bid denies wrongdoing". CNN. January 10, 1999.

        99. ^ a b c Hohler, Bob (June 28, 2007). "The Making of Mitt Romney: Part 5: In Games, a showcase for future races". The Boston Globe. Also available as "Mitt used Games role for political impetus", Deseret Morning News, July 5, 2007 (archived from the original on August 19, 2007).

        100. ^ Rice, Lewis. "Games Saver" Harvard Law Bulletin, Spring 2002.

        101. ^ "SLOC plotting how to dole out Olympics profits". Associated Press. ESPN. September 17, 2002.

        102. ^ Jensen, Derek (October 22, 2001). "SLOC has plenty to fund security, organizers say". Deseret News (Salt Lake City).

        103. ^ a b c d e Barone and Cohen, The Almanac of American Politics 2004, p. 772.

        104. ^ a b Hohler, Bob (June 28, 2007). "The Making of Mitt Romney: Romney's Olympic ties helped him reap campaign funds". The Boston Globe.

        105. ^ a b Berwick Jr., Bob; Roche, Lisa Riley. "Boston GOP beseeching Mitt: But hero of S.L. Games is coy about his future" Deseret News, February 22, 2002.

        106. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Mooney, Brian (June 29, 2007). "The Making of Mitt Romney: Part 6: Taking office, remaining an outsider". The Boston Globe. Also available as "Romney took on 'outsider' role at helm of Bay State", Deseret Morning News, July 6, 2007.

        107. ^ Frank, Mitch."Jane Swift Takes One For the Team" Time, March 21, 2002.

        108. ^ "Swift exits, Romney joins Mass. governor's race". CNN. March 19, 2002. Archived from the original on October 12, 2007.

        109. ^ a b "Vote 2002: Massachusetts Governor's Race". Online News Hour. PBS. Retrieved November 1, 2006.

        110. ^ a b Belluck, Pam (June 26, 2002). "Massachusetts Ballot Panel Allows Race By Republican". The New York Times: p. A17.

        111. ^ Killough, Ashley (December 13, 2011). "Democrats rail against Romney over decade-old comments". CNN. See "Romney in

        2002: I'm 'Moderate,' 'Progressive,' and 'Not a Partisan Republican' [VIDEO]" for video.

        112. ^ "‘Mass. moderate’ insult has local Republicans wincing". The Boston Globe. January 10, 2012.

        113. ^ Cillizza, Chris (July 5, 2007). "Romney's Data Cruncher". The Washington Post.

        114. ^ Mooney, Brian C. (August 22, 2006). "Gabrieli surpasses spending record". The Boston Globe.

        115. ^ Barone and Cohen, Almanac of American Politics 2004, p. 773.

        116. ^ Barone and Cohen, Almanac of American Politics 2008, p. 789.

        117. ^ a b c d e f g Landrigan, Kevin (December 13, 2007). "Taxing Matter". The Telegraph (Nashua, New Hampshire). Archived from the original on December 21, 2007.

        118. ^ "More Mitt Missteps". FactCheck. July 9, 2007.

        119. ^ a b "Mr Smooth of Massachusetts". The Economist. July 5, 2007.

        120. ^ a b c Barbaro, Michael (October 1, 2011). "Seeking Taxes, Romney Went After Business". The New York Times.

        121. ^ Viser, Matt (December 18, 2005). "Property taxes still on rise in Mass.". The Boston Globe.

        122. ^ Barrick, Daniel (May 3, 2007). "Romney's vetoes seldom stood". Concord Monitor.

        123. ^ "Massachusetts' State and Local Tax Burden, 1970–2007". Tax Foundation. August 7, 2008.

        124. ^ a b c d e f Belluck, Pam (April 6, 2006). "On Health Care, Massachusetts Leaders Invoke Action, Not Talk". The New York Times.

        125. ^ a b Knox, Richard (April 8, 2006). "Romney's Mission: Massachusetts Health Care". NPR.

        126. ^ a b c Mooney, Brian C. (May 30, 2011). "Romney and health care: In the thick of history". The Boston Globe.

        127. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Mooney, Brian C.; Ebbert, Stephanie; Helman, Scott (June 30, 2007). "The Making of Mitt Romney: Part 7: Ambitious goals; shifting stances". The Boston


        128. ^ Canellos, The Last Lion, p. 300.

        129. ^ a b LeBlanc, Steve (April 13, 2006). "Mass. governor signs health bill, with vetoes". The Beaufort Gazette. Associated Press: p. 4A.

        130. ^ Crook, Clive (June 2006). "The Massachusetts Experiment". The Atlantic.

        131. ^ "An Act Providing Access to Affordable, Quality, Accountable Health Care" Commonwealth of Massachusetts, Acts of 2006 (Session Laws), Chapter 58. Retrieved January 2, 2007.

        132. ^ Dembner, Alice (January 19, 2007). "Outline for new insurance plan proposed". The Boston Globe.

        133. ^ a b LeBlanc, Steve (April 26, 2006). "Mass. House Overrides Gov. Romney Veto of Health Care Fee". Insurance Journal. Associated Press.

        134. ^ Geisel, Jerry (December 14, 2010). "Massachusetts' insured rate hits 98.1%: Analysis". Business Insurance.

        135. ^ a b c d Mehren, Elizabeth (June 17, 2005). "Massachusetts ballot initiative could halt same-sex marriages". Los Angeles Times for Sarasota Herald-Tribune. p. 4A.

        136. ^ "Mitt Romney on the Issues". Romney for Governor 2002. Archived from the original on December 18, 2002. Retrieved December 11, 2006.

        137. ^ Phillips, Frank (February 23, 2005). "Romney's stance on civil unions draws fire". The Boston Globe.

        138. ^ Grossman, Joanna. "Will the State of Massachusetts Ever Permit Same-Sex Out-of-Staters to Marry?". FindLaw.

        139. ^ Romney, Mitt (June 2, 2006). "Letter to the US Senate" (PDF). Commonwealth of Massachusetts. Archived from the original on November 17, 2006.

        140. ^ "Testimony of Honorable Mitt Romney, Governor, Massachusetts". United States Senate Committee on the Judiciary. June 22, 2004. Archived from the original on December 27, 2006.

        141. ^ "Romney Vetoes Emergency Contraception Bill". WMUR-TV. July 25, 2005.

        142. ^ Greenberger, Scott S. (September 16, 2005). "Lawmakers override governor's contraception veto: Move will ease morning-after pill's availability". The Boston Globe.

        143. ^ Barone and Cohen, The Almanac of American Politics 2006, p. 809.

        144. ^ Bradley, Nina (August 29, 2004). "Is Romney ready for the big time?: Mass. Gov. gets plum prime-time speaking spot during convention".

        145. ^ a b c d e f Balz and Johnson, The Battle for America 2008, p. 238.

        146. ^ Phillips, Frank (December 14, 2005). "Romney to announce he won't seek re-election". The Boston Globe.

        147. ^ Phillips, Frank; Helman, Scott. "It's 1 term for Romney; he says 'future is open'" The Boston Globe, December 15, 2005.

        148. ^ "Romney out of state 212 days so far in 2006". Associated Press. December 26, 2006.

        149. ^ a b c Barone and Cohen, Almanac of American Politics 2008, p. 790.

        150. ^ "Romney Takes Step Toward an '08 Run". The New York Times. January 4, 2007.

        151. ^ a b Helman, Scott; Ryan, Andrew (February 13, 2007). "Romney formally announces run for president". The Boston Globe.

        152. ^ a b Struglinski, Suzanne (February 13, 2007). "Romney officially enters presidential race". Deseret Morning News (Salt Lake City).

        153. ^ Balz and Johnson, The Battle for America 2008, p. 239.

        154. ^ a b c d e f g h Heilemann and Halperin, Game Change, pp. 293–294.

        155. ^ Libert, Barry; Faulk, Rick (2009). Barack, Inc.: Winning Business Lessons of the Obama Campaign. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: FT Press. p. 7. ISBN 978-0-13-702207-6.

        156. ^ a b c d e f g Draper, Robert (February 1, 2008). "Almost Human". GQ.

        157. ^ Melanson, Mike (September 13, 2003). "Ann Romney tackles multiple sclerosis head-on". The Boston Globe.

        158. ^ a b c Fiore, Fay (November 24, 2007). "Working to break his own storybook spell". Los Angeles Times.

        159. ^ Balz and Johnson, The Battle for America 2008, p. 11.

        160. ^ "Politico's Simon: Romney "up close ... is almost overpowering. He radiates vigor"". Media Matters for America. February 13, 2007. Retrieved March 20, 2010.

        161. ^ a b Heilemann and Halperin, Game Change, pp. 294–295.

        162. ^ a b Balz and Johnson, The Battle for America 2008, pp. 251–252.

        163. ^ Balz and Johnson, The Battle for America 2008, p. 247.

        164. ^ Balz and Johnson, The Battle for America 2008, pp. 261–263.

        165. ^ Balz and Johnson, The Battle for America 2008, p. 276.

        166. ^ Feldmann, Linda (December 11, 2007). "Romney moves to allay Mormon concerns directly". The Christian Science Monitor.

        167. ^ a b c "Mitt Romney Pledges to Serve No One Religion in

        Faith Speech". Fox News. December 6, 2007.

        168. ^ a b McPike, Erin (December 6, 2007). "On the Ground at Romney Speech".

        169. ^ a b Campbell, David; Green, John Green; Monson, J. Quin (2009). "Framing Faith: How Voters Responded to Candidates' Religions in the 2008 Presidential Campaign". Annual meeting of the American Political Science Association. Toronto.

        170. ^ a b Monson, J. Quin; Riding, Scott (2009). "Social Equality Norms for Race, Gender and Religion in the American Public During the 2008 Presidential Primaries". The Transformative Election of 2008. Mershon Center for International Security Studies, Ohio State University.

        171. ^ a b c d Balz and Johnson, The Battle for America 2008, pp. 280–281.

        172. ^ "Huckabee, Obama have huge night in Iowa". CNN. January 4, 2008.

        173. ^ Clymer, Adam (January 5, 2008). "First G.O.P. Delegate Goes to Romney". The New York Times.

        174. ^ Thomas, "A Long Time Coming", p. 45.

        175. ^ a b c d Issenberg, Sasha (August 30, 2009). "The Long-Distance Runner". The Boston Globe Sunday Magazine.

        176. ^ Fournier, Ron (January 15, 2008). "Mitt Won, Authenticity Lost". The Seattle Times. Associated Press.

        177. ^ Dickerson, John (January 15, 2008). "Mitt's Not Over". Slate.

        178. ^ Thomas, "A Long Time Coming", p. 46

        179. ^ Balz and Johnson, The Battle for America 2008, pp. 281–282.

        180. ^ "Clinton Wins Nevada Democratic Caucuses". CBS News. January 19, 2008.

        181. ^ a b c Balz and Johnson, The Battle for America 2008, pp. 283–285.

        182. ^ a b c d Heilemann and Halperin, Game Change, pp. 312–313.

        183. ^ Dobbs, Michael (January 28, 2008). "McCain attacks Romney on Iraq". The Washington Post.

        184. ^ a b "Romney suspends presidential campaign". CNN. February 7, 2008.

        185. ^ "Election Center 2008: Delegate Scorecard". CNN. Retrieved April 11, 2010.

        186. ^ "2008 Republican Popular Vote". RealClearPolitics. Retrieved April 13, 2010.

        187. ^ a b Sidoti, Liz (February 14, 2008). "Ex-GOP Candidate Romney Endorses McCain". Associated Press. Fox News.

        188. ^ Kranish, Michael (July 17, 2008). "Romney not getting his $45m back: Says he won't seek gifts to repay campaign loans". The Boston Globe.

        189. ^ a b Phillips, Frank (December 8, 2008). "Romney paves way for possible '12 run". The Boston Globe.

        190. ^ Wangsness, Lisa (June 8, 2008). "Once a rival now a Champion: Romney returns to promote McCain". The Boston Globe.

        191. ^ Balz and Johnson, The Battle for America 2008, pp. 328, 331.

        192. ^ Balz and Johnson, The Battle for America 2008, pp. 334–335.

        193. ^ a b Martin, Jonathan (June 29, 2009). "Mitt Romney's team awaits 2012". The Politico.

        194. ^ Cannon, Carl M. (June 2, 2009). "Mitt's Makeover: Channeling Reagan for 2012 Run". Politics Daily.

        195. ^ a b Confessore, Nicholas (August 12, 2011). "Romney Reports Net Assets Of as Much as $264 Million". The New York Times: p. A12.

        196. ^ a b c McPike, Erin; Barnes, James A. (May 6, 2009). "A Granite State Home Base For Romney?". The Hotline.

        197. ^ Abel, David (February 17, 2009). "2 Romney estates hit the market". The Boston Globe.

        198. ^ "Factbox: Romney kicks off White House campaign". Reuters. June 2, 2011.

        199. ^ a b Johnson, Glen (April 19, 2010). "GOP's Romney takes to life in new California home". The Boston Globe. Associated Press.

        200. ^ Levenson, Michael (December 6, 2008). "Ann Romney has surgery to remove precancerous lump". The Boston Globe.

        201. ^ Issenberg, Sasha (August 24, 2010). "A 25-state midterm swing for Romney". The Boston Globe.

        202. ^ Barr, Andy (August 27, 2009). "Mitt Romney won't run for Ted Kennedy's seat". The Politico.

        203. ^ Hand, Jim (October 31, 2009). "Romney goes to bat for Brown". The Sun Chronicle (Attleboro, Massachusetts).

        204. ^ Dumcius, Gintautas (September 14, 2009). "Brown launches Senate bid". The Arlington Advocate. State House News Service. Retrieved December 13, 2010.

        205. ^ "Romney Assaulted on Flight Leaving Olympics", Fox News, February 16, 2010

        206. ^ "Is 'Vulcan Grip' Rapper Sky Blu, Who Tussled With Mitt Romney, the Nerdiest Hip-Hop Artist Ever?", The Wall Street Journal, February 19, 2010

        207. ^ "Sky Blu of LMFAO claims Mitt Romney got physical first on flight from Vancouver", New York Daily News, February 19, 2010.

        208. ^ Barr, Andy (January 4, 2010). "Mitt Romney headed to Iowa". The Politico.

        209. ^ Zimmermann, Eric (March 13, 2010). "Romney tops bestseller list, but with an asterisk". The Hill.

        210. ^ Altman, Alex (March 3, 2010). "The Skimmer: Mitt Romney's 'No Apology'". Time.

        211. ^ Issenberg, Sasha (March 2, 2010). "In book, Romney styles himself wonk, not warrior". The Boston Globe.

        212. ^ "Romney picked as 2012 GOP front-runner". CNN. February 28, 2009.

        213. ^ "Ron Paul Wins Presidential Straw Poll at CPAC". Fox News. February 20, 2010.

        214. ^ "Ron Paul Wins Presidential Straw Poll at CPAC – Again". Fox News. February 12, 2011.

        215. ^ "Mitt Romney Wins Presidential Straw Poll at Republican Leadership Conference". Associated Press. Fox News. April 10, 2010.

        216. ^ "Romney Wins New Hampshire Republican Straw Poll". Fox News. January 22, 2011.

        217. ^ "GOP Insiders Sour On Palin". The Hotline. January 7, 2010.

        218. ^ "Romney's Image Improves; Palin Well Regarded by Republican Base". Pew Research Center. June 24, 2009. Retrieved June 26, 2009.

        219. ^ "Favorability: People in the News: Mitt Romney". The Gallup Organization. Retrieved December 29, 2010.

        220. ^ Burns, Alexander (October 13, 2010). "Mitt Romney's plan: Go big, go everywhere". Politico.

        221. ^ Vogel, Kenneth P. (October 14, 2010). "Romney's $1.7 million tops field". Politico.

        222. ^ a b Zeleny, Jeff (March 5, 2011). "To Quiet Critics, Romney Puts 2012 Focus on Jobs". The New York Times.

        223. ^ a b c Martin, Jonathan; Burns, Alexander (April 12, 2011). "5 challenges for front-runner Mitt Romney". Politico.

        224. ^ "Romney forms presidential exploratory committee". CNN. April 11, 2011.

        225. ^ a b c Viser, Matt (April 12, 2011). "Romney takes next big step toward run for president". The Boston Globe.

        226. ^ Lewis, Matt (October 20, 2009). "Palin or Romney: Republicans Weigh Passion vs. Principle". Politics Daily.

        227. ^ McPike, Erin (November 22, 2010). "Romney's Strategy: Stay in Medal Contention". RealClearPolitics.

        228. ^ Bai, Matt (December 29, 2010). "For G.O.P., End of the Preordained Candidate". The New York Times.

        229. ^ a b c Shear, Michael D. (June 2, 2011). "Romney, Opening Race, Presents Himself as the Candidate to Face Obama". The New York Times.

        230. ^ a b Burns, Alexander (May 17, 2011). "X factor: 5 questions for the GOP race". Politico.

        231. ^ Green, Joshua (May 5, 2011). "The Do-Nothing Frontrunner". The Atlantic.

        232. ^ a b Martin, Jonathan (May 22, 2011). "With Mitch Daniels out, GOP looking for new 2012 option". Politico.

        233. ^ Condon, Stephanie (June 2, 2011). "Romney launches presidential bid with Obama "misery index" attack". CBS News.

        234. ^ Shear, Michael D. (January 13, 2012). "Obama Raised $42 Million in Last Quarter of '11". The New York Times.

        235. ^ Beckel, Michael (October 16, 2011). "Third-Quarter Campaign Finance Reports Show Barack Obama Winning Presidential Money Race". OpenSecretsBlog. Center for Responsive Politics.

        236. ^ Viser, Matt (September 27, 2011). "Romney expects to raise much less money this quarter". The Boston Globe.

        237. ^ Smith, Ben (August 1, 2011). "Mitt Romney's low-profile strategy". Politico.

        238. ^ Muskal, Michael (August 1, 2011). "Mitt Romney comes out against debt-ceiling deal". Los Angeles Times.

        239. ^ Kucinich, Jackie (September 25, 2011). "GOP debates signal a race between Romney and Perry". USA Today.

        240. ^ a b Babington, Charles (October 5, 2011). "With GOP Field Set, Romney Woos The Unconvinced". The Seattle Times. Associated Press.

        241. ^ Tulumello, Jennifer Skalka (November 11, 2011). "Newt Gingrich: Will his mini-surge in the polls last?". The Christian Science Monitor.

        242. ^ "Cain Surges, Nearly Ties Romney for Lead in GOP Preferences". The Gallup Organization. October 10, 2011.

        243. ^ Klein, Joe (December 1, 2011). "Why Don’t They Like Mitt?". Time.

        244. ^ a b Allen, Mike (December 12, 2011). "Mitt Romney on Newt Gingrich: He's the front-runner". Politico.

        245. ^ Elliot, Philip (October 9, 2011). "Romney rivals may go after him for flip-flops". The Boston Globe. Associated Press.

        246. ^ a b Wallsten, Peter (November 3, 2011). "Romney says he's been consistent". The Washington Post.

        247. ^ Coral Davenport (October 28, 2011). "Mitt Romney's shifting views on climate change". CBS News.

        248. ^ Montopoli, Brian (December 19, 2011). "Poll: Newt Gingrich's lead over Romney is gone". CBS News.

        249. ^ "Romney defeats Santorum by 8 votes in Iowa". CNN. January 4, 2012.

        250. ^ Silver, Nate (January 19, 2012). "The Semantics and Statistics of Santorum’s Win in Iowa". The New York Times.

        251. ^ "Romney secures front-runner status with New Hampshire win, looks to take momentum into South Carolina". Fox News. January 11, 2012.

        252. ^ a b "Romney, Gingrich tangle over ads in South Carolina". Fox News. January 13, 2012.

        253. ^ Lee, MJ (January 12, 2012). "Sarah Palin: Mitt Romney needs Bain show & tell".

        254. ^ a b "Gingrich wins huge come-from-behind victory in South Carolina". The Kansas City Star. McClatchy Newspapers. January 21, 2012.

        255. ^ Dickerson, John (January 20, 2012). "The Brawl". Slate.

        256. ^ "Romney to release taxes after bad week, Gingrich wants to take on Obama, Santorum still in". The Washington Post. Associated Press. January 22, 2012.

        257. ^ "2012 Primary Schedule".

        258. ^ Nate Silver (January 23, 2012). "New Florida Polls Show Big Swing to Gingrich". New York Times.

        259. ^ Marc Caputo (January 21, 2012). "Nearly 200,000 Republicans have voted early, by mail". Miami Herald.

        260. ^ "2012 Primary Debate Schedule".

        261. ^ a b Hersh, The Shadow President, p. 139.

        262. ^ Canellos, The Last Lion, p. 295.

        263. ^ a b c d e f Gross, Daniel (February 26, 2007). "The CEO Candidate". Slate.

        264. ^ Zeller, Shawn (December 11, 2007). "Romney haunted by liberal past".

        265. ^ Barone and Cohen, Almanac of American Politics 2004, p. 769.

        266. ^ Helman, Scott (February 11, 2007). "Romney's stem cell view may upset the right". The Boston Globe.

        267. ^ Nagourney, Adam; Kirkpatrick David D. (December 9, 2006). "Romney's Gay Rights Stance Draws Ire". The New York Times.

        268. ^ "Run touts success, dodges shifts". USA Today. June 15, 2007. Retrieved February 17, 2011.

        269. ^ Martin, Jonathan (July 19, 2007). "Romney also once backed 'age-appropriate' sex ed". The Politico.270. ^ Donald, Brooke (April 21, 2006). "Romney promotes abstinence classes". Bangor Daily News. Associated Press: p. B8.

        271. ^ "Romney Announces Abstinence Education Program". WCVB-TV. April 20, 2006.

        272. ^ "Profile: Mitt Romney". BBC News. February 15, 2007 (updated February 7, 2008).

        273. ^ a b c d e f Luo, Michael (November 24, 2007). "For Romney & Company, Campaign Is All Business". The New York Times.

        274. ^ McPike, Erin (December 17, 2007). "Romney's tough day on the trail".

        275. ^ Shear, Michael D. (December 16, 2007). "Romney Claims NRA Endorsement He Didn't Receive". The Washington Post.

        276. ^ Udell, Emily (April 5, 2007). "Romney Aims Again to Explain Hunting". The Huffington Post.

        277. ^ a b "Romney: I'll keep campaign promises". Associated Press. December 16, 2007.

        278. ^ Glass, Andrew (January 13, 2008). "Romney plays nostalgia card in Michigan". The Politico.

        279. ^ Klein, Joe (December 12, 2011). "Where is the Love?". Time: p. 31.

        280. ^ a b c d e Johnson, Glen (March 26, 2010). "Romneycare may come back to haunt Mitt on health issue". Deseret News. Associated Press (Salt Lake City).281. ^ Johnson, Glen (December 15, 2010). "Health Mandate Cases to Loom Over 2012 Romney Run". Associated Press. ABC News.

        282. ^ Issenberg, Sasha (March 30, 2010). "Romney defends Mass. health care law". The Boston Globe.

        283. ^ Smith, Ben (April 19, 2010). "Blogger: Romney wants repeal, but not of mandate". Politico.

        284. ^ Viser, Matt (May 12, 2011). "Romney support for individual mandate complicates health care politics". The Boston Globe.

        285. ^ Appleby, Julie (July 5, 2005). "Mass. Gov. Romney's health care plan says everyone pays". USA Today.

        286. ^ Romano, Andrew (April 16, 2010). "If the Mitt Fits". Newsweek.

        287. ^ Sargent, Greg (May 11, 2011). "Flashback: Mitt Romney hoped for 'a nation that's taken a mandate approach'". The Washington Post.

        288. ^ a b c Hewitt, A Mormon in the White House?, pp. 56–58.

        289. ^ Barone and Cohen, Almanac of American Politics 2004, p. 772.

        290. ^ Egan, Dan (April 9, 1999). "SLOC Boss Romney Will Give U. Commencement Address". The Salt Lake Tribune: p. B3.

        291. ^ "Mitt Romney Calls for Bentley College Graduates to 'Be American Heroes'" (Press release). Bentley College. May 1, 2002.

        292. ^ "Suffolk University to Award Eight Honorary Degrees" (Press release). Suffolk University. May 24, 2004.

        293. ^ "Commencement 2007". Hillsdale College. Retrieved June 9, 2011.

        294. ^ "Mitt Romney: Politician". People. May 13, 2002.

        295. ^ Pane, Lisa Marie (February 13, 2006). "Romney looks ahead, back in Olympics visit". The Boston Globe. Associated Press.

        296. ^ Quigley, Samantha L. (September 20, 2006). "Massachusetts Recognized for Guard, Reserve Support". American Forces Press Service.

        297. ^ Roche, Lisa Riley (May 10, 2008). "Romney honored for 'Defense of Religious Liberty'". Deseret News (Salt Lake City).


        • Balz, Dan; Johnson, Haynes (2009). The Battle for America, 2008: The Story of an Extraordinary Election. New York: Viking Penguin. ISBN 0-670-02111-3.

        • Barone, Michael; Cohen, Richard E. (2004) (paperback). The Almanac of American Politics 2004. Washington: National Journal Group. ISBN 0-89234-106-8.

        • Barone, Michael; Cohen, Richard E. (2006). The Almanac of American Politics 2006. Washington: National Journal Group. ISBN 0-89234-111-4.

        • Barone, Michael; Cohen, Richard E. (2008) (paperback). The Almanac of American Politics 2008. Washington: National Journal Group. ISBN 9780-89234-116-0.

        • Canellos, Peter S. (ed.) and The Team at The Boston Globe (2009). The Last Lion: The Fall and Rise of Ted Kennedy. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 1-4391-3817-6.

        • Clymer, Adam (1999). Edward M. Kennedy: A Biography. New York: Wm. Morrow & Company. ISBN 0-688-14285-0.

        • Foster, Craig (2008). A Different God?: Mitt Romney, the Religious Right, and the Mormon Question. Draper, Utah: Greg Kofford Books. ISBN 1-58958-117-2.

        • Heilemann, John; Halperin, Mark (2010). Game Change: Obama and the Clintons, McCain and Palin, and the Race of a Lifetime. New York: HarperCollins. ISBN 0-06-173363-6.

        • Hersh, Burton (1997). The Shadow President: Ted Kennedy in Opposition. South Royalton, Vermont: Steerforth Press. ISBN 1-883642-30-2.

        • Hewitt, Hugh (2007). A Mormon in the White House?: 10 Things Every American Should Know About Mitt Romney. Washington: Regnery Publishing. ISBN 1-59698-502-X.

        • Thomas, Evan (2009). "A Long Time Coming": The Inspiring, Combative 2008 Campaign and the Historic Election of Barack Obama. New York: PublicAffairs. ISBN 1-58648-607-1.

        • Turner, Lisa Ray; Field, Kimberly (2007). Mitt Romney: The Man, His Values, and His Vision. Silverton, Idaho: Mapletree Publishing. ISBN 1-60065-109-7.

        • Wolffe, Richard (2009). Renegade: The Making of a President. New York: Crown Publishers. ISBN 0-307-46312-5.

        External links

        Find more about Mitt Romney on Wikipedia's sister projects:

        Definitions and translations from Wiktionary

        Images and media from Commons

        Learning resources from Wikiversity




        • Biography at at The Washington Post

        • Issue positions and quotes at On The Issues

        • Financial information at

        • Campaign finance reports and data at the Federal Election Commission

        • Appearances on C-SPAN programs

        • Appearances on Charlie Rose

        • Appearances at the Internet Movie Database

        • Collected news and commentary at The New York Times

        • Collected news and commentary at The Wall Street Journal

        • Collected news and commentary at The Guardian

        • Works by or about Mitt Romney in libraries (WorldCat catalog)

        • Biography at the National Governors Association


      flag divider


      flag divider

    "God's Goals"

    For This World!

    Does God Achieve His Goals?
    OR, does Satan achieve his goals?

    (All Teaching- and Commentary is from "INSPIRED-INERRANT!" View of Scripture!)

    The most IMPORTANT "3-QUESTION QUIZ" you'll ever Take?

    The Adversary’s Goals:

      SCRIPTURE: "The ‘Devil’ ... walketh about seeking whom he may DEVOUR." I Pet 5:8

      SCRIPTURE:"The ‘Thief’ (Devil) cometh not, but for to steal, to kill and to DESTROY." John 10:10

        QUESTION: Do you Believe Satan the Adversary Succeeds?___ Or Fails?___

    God the Father’s Goals:

      SCRIPTURE: "For God sent NOT His Son into the world to condemn the world, but that the world though Him might be SAVED! See John 3:16 John 3:17

      SCRIPTURE: "Beloved, be not ignorant of this one thing, ... The Lord is ... NOT willing that any should perish, but that ALL should come to repentance. 2 Pet 3:9

        QUESTION: Do you Believe God the Father Succeeds?___ Or Fails?___

    God the Son’s Goals:

      SCRIPTURE: "For the Son of Man is come to seek and to SAVE that which is lost!" Luk 19:10 "For I came NOT to judge the world, but to SAVE the world. John 12:47

      SCRIPTURE: "And I, if I be lifted up from the Earth, I WILL DRAW ALL men unto Me." Joh 12:32

        QUESTION: Do you Believe God the Son (Jesus Christ): Succeeds?___ Or Fails?___ center>

    God the Spirit’s Goals:

      SCRIPTURE: Jesus declares: "'I ’WILL’' send Him (Holy Spirit) unto you, and when He is come 'He ’WILL’' testify of Me: John 14:26

      SCRIPTURE: "He ’WILL’ reprove the world [convict, convince, correct] of sin, of righteousness, and of judgment: John 16:7

      SCRIPTURE: (1) Of sin, because they believe not on me; ... (2) Of righteousness, because I go to my Father; ...(3) Of judgment, because the 'Prince of this World' IS JUDGED![A] John 16:8-10

        QUESTION: Do you think God the Spirit Succeeds?___ Or Fails?___


        If you believe




      COPYRIGHT (c) 1977 Cambridge Theological Seminary
      COPYRIGHT (c) 1965 Cambridge Bible Institute, NewtonStein


      In accordance with Title 17 U.S.C. Section 107, any copyrighted work in the NewtonStein, Cambridge Theological Seminary is archived here under fair use without profit or payment to those who have expressed a prior interest in reviewing the included information for personal use, non-profit research, and educational purposes only.


      flag divider

      "CHURCH USA!



      Will You Take "THE BIBLE PLEDGE?"

      (Christians Sending a "Message" to ALL Elected Officials!)

      Many Thousands Already Have: And GOD is "Keeping Track!"!

          (Please don't be Apathetic about God's Authority. We are NOT asking your name - just a "CLICK!" - But we DO want Legislators to KNOW . . .

          . . . that Scores of Thousands of Bible Ministers . . . WILL NOT VOTE for Politicians . . .who are AGAINST the AUTHORITY of GOD'S WORD!)

          Please read pledge and "CLICK!" THAT'S IT!

            In 5-seconds you'll be right back here reading this page as you were.

          Thank you tremendously, and we will publish results of Legislators' Response for 2012 Election!


          "The BIBLE is the WORD of GOD!

            *HIS ULTIMATE TRUTH!

            *HOLY and UNCHANGING!

            *HIGHEST AUTHORITY on Earth!

          As I UNDERSTAND the BIBLE,

            >> I will Not knowingly 'VOTE' for,

            >> Those who are AGAINST the Authority of God's Word;,

            >> Those who do not want to Base Our Laws upon God's Word!

            >> For me, "BIBLE is more important than PARTY!


        Please "CLICK" the following to Affirm your Commitment as a CHRISTIAN AMERICAN to the Word of God upon the Earth!

      This Christian American BELIEVES in the WORD OF GOD!

      FROM: Cambridge Theological Seminary, TO: Dr. D. James Kennedy: Can you be as Bold as Him?

      FROM: Cambridge Theological Seminary, TO: Cambridge Theological Seminary Office, USA

      FROM: Cambridge Theological Seminary, TO: Free Ordination-1 by Cambridge Theological Seminary

      FROM: Cambridge Theological Seminary, TO: Religious Degrees, Bachelor's, Master's and Doctorate

      FROM: IAIA Accreditation, TO: A few Recent Ministry Partners

      FROM: Cambridge Theological Seminary,

      FROM: Cambridge Theological Seminary, TO: Ministers Main Page

      FROM: Cambridge Theological Seminary, TO: Home-Based-Ministry: Serve God, Make Money, Save Taxes

      FROM: Cambridge Theological Seminary, TO GENERAL HOME PAGE

      FROM: Cambridge Theological Seminary, TO MINISTERS HOME PAGE

      Most Important Questions You'll Ever Answer?

      Do you understand "Eternal Life as God's FREE GIFT" - Unearned and Undeserved?
      "Eternal Life as God's FREE GIFT!"

      Do you know FOR SURE that you have Eternal Life: Here & Now?

      "Eternal Life: Here & Now FOR SURE!"

      In 'VERY FEW MINUTES' ... you can Know for Certain if you're saved ... or not!
      In 'TWO MINUTES' - Know if you're Saved or not!

      Red-White-and-Blue In-God-We-Trust

      Search Web's Most Comprehensive Christian Site

      All-Things-Bible, Church, History, Leadership, Psychology, Politics, Science, Health,
      Sermon Resources, "Starters", Illustrations & Stories, Humor, Quotes, Sermons (Audio & Print)
      From Ancient Rome, Greece & Jewish History to Latest News Headlines!

      The Web Ministers-Best-Friend


      flag divider

      Could you share your State of Salvation that we may better serve our readers?

      At this time, I do not believe Jesus is the Saviour!

      I do believe Jesus is the Saviour and I know I have eternal Life!

      I do not believe it is possible to 'Know in this life' if one has Eternal Life.

      god bless bar

      A Christian Family in Every House, in YOUR Community, in YOUR Lifetime!

      Worth Giving For? Worth Living For? Worth Working For?

      Please name "" aloud in Prayer Daily? PLEASE?

      DOCTRINAL DISCLAIMER: is an Absolute, Bible-Believing, Conservative Christian Ministry, seeking to serve the Ministers who serve the LORD JESUS. As such, we provides web-space to a number of Ministries, notably NewtonStein (a Creation-Science-Based Research Group), as well as AMERIPEDIA, BIBLIPEDIA, CHRISTIPEDIA, CATHOLIPEDIA, ISLAMIPEDIA, JUDAEOPEDIA, TEA-PARTY-UNITED, TALK-RADIO-REPUBLICANS, ETC., – seeking to be an outlet for many CHRISTIAN CONSERVATIVE VOICES who love the LORD JESUS CHRIST ABOVE ALL!

      Obviously, all phases of Christianity do not agree doctrinally or politically and sometimes even disagree on the actual facts concerning a particular leader, nation or situation, hence there are well over 10,000 denominations extant.

      We neither claim nor present ourselves as having perfect knowledge in all things. Thus views and articles posted on this website are those of their authors – who often insist their identities, denominational, and/or doctrinal persuasion be made known for various reasons – offered to you as wise people of God - Christian Patriots, whatever your nation - to discern for your own judgement and edification.

      In the NAME of Jesus Christ Our Lord and Saviour:

      Be Blessed!


      Do You Qualify for
      An Honorary "Doctor of Divinity" from Cambridge Theological Seminary?
      If you believe God's Word as Stated Above:
      (Click for a Free Evaluation!)


      "HOW TO"

      Start a Church, HomeSchooling, Bible School, Get Accredited, etc;

      How to Start a Church Legally: PART-1

      How to Start a Church Legally: PART-2 (Background)

      How to Start a Church Spiritually: PART-3

      How to Start a Local Church Ministry: PART-4

      How to Start a Church Legally: PART-5

      How to Name a Church: PART-6

      How to Write a Statement of Faith: Part-7

      How to Name a Church: PART-8

      How to Start a Church TODAY with immediate Tax-Exemption!
      Just TEN-SURE-&-SIMPLE STEPS! PART-9 (Most Popular!)

      HOW TO DO Church Planting, Part-10

      How to do Church Minutes for Business Meetings: Part-11

      How to know if you are being called to Minister: Part-12

      How to make your Ministry Sales Tax Exempt: TODAY Part-13

      EKKLESIA ARCHIVES: Who Started Your Church? History, Part-14

      HOME-SCHOOLING: How to get Started! TODAY! Part-15

      What Is A "FREE-CHURCH!" - General Background;

      What is a "FREE-CHURCH?" 33-Questions and Answers

      You MUST Understand this Teaching! EYE-OPENING! (Most Important!)


      Pulpit Freedom Sunday! Freedom of Speech and Preachers!


      Home School Your Children: 20-Great-Resaons!

      How To Get Your Christian School or Bible School Accredited By;
      Cambridge Theological Seminary: "CAMBRIDGE! Greatest Name in Education"

      Free Ordination-1 by Cambridge Theological Seminary

      Cambridge Theological Seminary: Religious Degrees, Bachelor's, Master's and Doctorate


      rotating star  BRIGHT BLUE & RED rotating star


      Please Visit TOP-TWENTY-FIVE AMERIPEDIA™ Pages

      flag divider


      [2] "AMERIPEDIA™" – Potential President Marsha Blackburn: TEA-PARTY SUPER-HERO!

      [3] "AMERIPEDIA™" - Ronald-Reagan Files: The Great Communicator

      [4] "AMERIPEDIA™" – Kristi Noem, The New TEA-PARTY-PRINCESS!

      [5] "AMERIPEDIA™" – REAGAN REPUBLICAN Michelle Bachmann for President: 2012 or 2020?


      [7] "AMERIPEDIA™" - Barack Obama Files: His Muslim Connections



      [10] "AMERIPEDIA™" - Conservative Activists: "Who's Who in Christian Conservative Politics?

      [11] "AMERIPEDIA™" - SARAH PALIN HOME PAGE: "Winning Big Winning Easy in 2012!"

      [12] "AMERIPEDIA™" - TALK-RADIO-CONSERVATIVES Home Page: For a Judaeo-Christian America


      [14] "AMERIPEDIA™" - Sarah Palin Blog: The Webs Largest "Pro Sarah Palin Site!"

      [15] "AMERIPEDIA™" - The "Rush-Recommended Republican Blueprint!"

      [16] "AMERIPEDIA™" - "Rush Limbaugh Quotes" on Christ and Christianity!

      [17] "AMERIPEDIA™" - PNN, "PALIN NEWS-NETWORK”: Her Book Sales Set Records!

      [18] "AMERIPEDIA™" - "TALK-RADIO REPUBLICANS, Michele Bachmann, BRIEF-BIO!"

      [19] "AMERIPEDIA™" - "TALK-RADIO REPUBLICANS, "Republican Power and Catholics!"

      [20] "AMERIPEDIA™" - "Hall of Faith Christian Activist Ministers, 2nd-half 20th Century "

      [21] "AMERIPEDIA™" - "TALK-RADIO REPUBLICANS, "American Bible Catholics!"


      [23] "AMERIPEDIA™" - Reagan Republicans Home Page

      [24] "AMERIPEDIA™" - PRO-LIFE Page

      [25] "AMERIPEDIA™" - Michele-Bachmann, TEA PARTY DARLING Causing “Hysteria-on-the-Left!”

      flag divider


      "Fair Use" Notice:

      Contributions from the best scholars in numerous fields are added to website daily. Such research papers and articles:

        * May not represent the views of Cambridge Theological Seminary;

        * Have not been peer-reviewed by Cambridge Theological Seminary;

        * Being a global ministry of huge proportions - yet of mostly retired volunteers (locally) - it is not possible to "verify" every piece that is submitted to us.

        * There is not - and never has been - any money, checking or savings account, or any other such fund associated with or Cambridge Theological Seminary.

        * The 600,000-plus page archive (1-1-2012) of may or may not contain a tiny amount copyrighted news/political reporting material whose use may or may not have been authorized by the copyright owners;

        * To the best of our knowledge we believe that this not-for-profit, educational use on the web constitutes a "fair use" of the copyrighted material (as provided for in section 107 of the US Copyright Law).

        * If readers wish to use this copyrighted material for purposes that go beyond "fair use", you must obtain permission from the copyright owner.

        * "Fair use" notwithstanding, we will immediately comply with any copyright owner who can show our use of such material is not in compliance with the fair Use law.

        Thank You for your part in the Global Ministry of - as of 1-1-2011 - in nearly 200 nations, approaching 40,000 associated Bible Believing Ministers and over 30,000 Ministries.

        Editor: NewtonStein


      * Cambridge Theological Seminary USA & Global has no connection or relationship to Cambridge University in England, EXCEPT . . . we in the USA are carrying on their "Christian Values of Hundreds of Years" . . . as they have long since become secular humanists, agnostics and atheists: "Anti-Christ" in almost every way and contrary to every Scripture.

      flag divider

      JCSM's Top 1000 Christian Sites - Free Traffic Sharing Service!The


      RETURN TO TEXT; Last term before footnote