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CHRISTIPEDIA: PHILIP MELANCHTHON;

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PHILIP MELANCHTHON, BIO;
A FREE Online ALL Christian Encyclopedia!
Where God's Word...Is "STILL...INERRANT!"

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Browse Massive Evidence Below:
"AMERICAN DECLARATION of INDEPENDENCE"
Declares USA Recognizes: "SELF-EVIDENT TRUTHS!"
Declaring ALL are "CREATED" equal!
Endowed by Their "CREATOR"
With 'Certain', 'Inalienable', 'Rights';
1776 AMERICAN FLAG 1776 THOMAS-JEFFERSON-DECLARATION-of-INDEPENDENCE1776 AMERICAN FLAG 1776
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Statesman Thomas Jefferson
Author, Immortal USA Declaration of Independence'
AMERIPEDIA Thomas Jefferson: His Personal "TRIBUTE to DECLARATION of INDEPENDENCE

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U.S. Supreme Court Decision:
(Unanimous Decision!) "THIS IS A CHRISTIAN NATION!"
Trinity vs. New York, 143 US 457, 36 L ed 226,

Thomas Jefferson!
"Most Misunderstood" Founding Father!
Some say Non-Christian for REJECTING Christ's Divinity
(He believed like Jehovah's Witnesses: Not Mainstream but Christian!)
THOMAS-JEFFERSON-SIGNATURE

However, multitudes of Christians IN ALL AGES saw
Christ as "PERFECT MAN" the "SECOND ADAM" Rom 5:6-16
Worshipping Christ as SAVIOUR and KING, but not DIVINE!( Arianism)

FACT! President Jefferson STARTED Church in the US Capitol Building!

FACT! He JOINED it the same weekend he wrote SEPARATION CHURCH-STATE letter!

FACT! Jefferson ALLOWED several groups to have Church in the US Capitol!

FACT! He oversaw other Churches in the US TREASURY and SUPREME COURT!

FACT! Jefferson hired MARINE BAND to play each Lord's Day...

FACT! ... And paid them with TAX DOLLARS!

FACT! ... Likewise PAID the Ministers, Preachers!

FACT! Jefferson Translated Bible WHILE PRESIDENT - from Greek Language!

FACT! Wrote a book on LIFE of CHRIST for American Natives!

FACT! Gave FEDERAL LAND/MONEY for Missionaries to Natives in Illinois Territory!

FACT! Legislated land for Church-House in each Township of NORTHWEST ORDINANCE!

FACT! Legislated Federal land for Missionaries to Natives in Ohio Territory!
FACT! Wrote letter to Daughter on HOW TO BE READY for RETURN of CHRIST!

FACT! Wrote a GOVERNMENT PRAYER to be used EACH 4th of JULY CELEBRATION

FACT! Jefferson's US CAPITOL CHURCH became largest in the Nation for decades!

FACT! Jefferson NEVER drank, smoked, cussed, missed Church, HIS WHOLE LIFE!

FACT! FEW - WHO EVER LIVED - were better Disciples of Christ than Thomas Jefferson!

FACT! (George Washington, Abe Lincoln were TWO of those FEW!)

Jefferson, Joins, Supports, Leads Church in US Capitol: FOOTNOTES [1-43]

Capitol Church Photos on OFFICIAL US GOV WEBSITE

President James Madison Joined Jefferson's Capitol Church!
Jefferson, Madison Belong to Church in US Capitol: FOOTNOTE [14]
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Don't be Fooled by "Willfully Blind", Atheist, Anti-Christian, "Deceived-and-Deceiving" College Professors,

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First Prayer, First Congress, 1774;

George Washington, left, is KNEELING on Both Knees!
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George Washington: Kneeling while most others stood;

Willfully blind Scholars Debate whether or not the USA was established as a Christian Nation. President Barack Obama travels the world declaring:"USA is NOT a Christian nation!"

Sadly, most do not know the US SUPREME COURT;
Researched 1,000's of documents, VOTED UNANIMOUSLY:
The USA is unquestionably a CHRISTIAN NATION!

U.S. SUPREME COURT Declares USA A Christian Nation!

Legal Scholar Justice David Brewer on "Christian Nation Decision"

Abraham Lincoln Declares USA Founded on "SPIRIT of CHRISTIANITY!"

Abraham Lincoln: Proclaims USA A CHRISTIAN NATION in 1862

Isabella Potts-James Testifies Washington Prayed, Valley Forge;

Nathaniel R. Snowden: Recorded Washington's Valley Forge Prayer

Officer Muhlenberg Witnessed Washington Pray, Valley Forge;


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SKULL and BONESHomosexuality Shortens Lifespan Approximately 25 Years!SKULL and BONES

SELF-CONFESSED LISTS:

HOMO & PRO-HOMO SODOMITES: PASTORS, MINISTERS, LEADERS

LESBIAN and PRO-LESBIAN PASTORS, CHAPLAINS, LEADERS

(Has YOUR "Spiritual Leader" COME OUT?)

AMERIPEDIA: George Washington on HOMOSEXUALITY

Early Church OUTLAWS HOMOSEXUALITY in Roman Empire!

"DID YOU KNOW?
EVERY REVIVAL in Bible Began by Removing SODOMITES!

1 Kin 14:24, 1 Kin 15:15, 1 Kin 22:6, 2 Kin 23:7,
(OBEDIENCE, Deut 23:17, NOT PRAYER, Brings REVIVAL!)
SKULL and BONESSODOMITES: Tolerance is SIN, Acceptance is BLASPHEMY! SKULL and BONES

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"HAECKEL'S DRAWINGS" FRAUD In SCIENCE!

Haeckel's Imaginary Drawings: 100 Years of Error!

The 40-Year “Piltdown Man Hoax!”

The 'Nebraska Man' becomes a 'Pig's Tooth!'

10 Scientific Frauds that Rocked the World!

Global Warming Hoax (Hundreds of Articles!)

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"GENESIS-1" TRUTH In SCIENCE!

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FACT: Wiki Philosophy: ATHEIST, ANTI-CHRISTIAN, ANTI-BIBLE;
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URGE YOU NOT TO TRUST THEIR ANTI-CHRISTIAN BIAS!

Take a Moment and Check how OUTRAGEOUS!

WIKIPEDIA: ANTI-AMERICA, ANTI-BIBLE, ANTI-CHRIST!
WIKI “TRIPLE XXX-RATED For Your CHILDREN!”
WIKIPEDIA FOUNDER JIMMY WALES, CELEBRATED ATHEIST
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NOTICE! Wrapping up 2011 . . . NOTICE!
We are having a year of most amazing growth! (See moving marquee above).
As such, we are sorry to say that we may have missed someone:
Did We Miss Your Request for info in 2011?

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Rick Warren says about "Online Education"
"...we needed an innovative way to train people,
"...without sending them away to seminary for years,
...Seminary totally online provided the answer we needed."
Dr. Rick Warren, Sr. Pastor, 40,000 Member Saddleback Church, CA


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What Is
The WORD of GOD?
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Statement On The Holy Scriptures;
‘Lens’ Through Which ALL Knowledge Is Understood;

THE WORD of GOD, AXIOM-1:
    "IF" there exists any such thing as 'The Word of God'; [and ALL evidence proves such does exist:]

    "THEN" by inherent definition - it must be "GOD-BREATHED!"

      (Holy, Inspired, Inerrant, Intrepid, Infallible, Infinitive, Invincible, Indestructible, Inexhaustible, Inalienable, Immutable, Implacable, Impossible-to-Improve: Eternal and Indubitable - NEVER FAILING - and ALL CONQUERING!)

      DEDUCTING the above from the simple fact: That GOD EQUATES HIS WORD WITH HIMSELF!

        "In the Beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God, . . ." John 1:1 (and other Scriptures),
    Thus 'GOD'S WORD' can have no lesser standard than that stated;


    "GOD'S WORD MUST" THEREFORE BE:

      As true in history, archeology, geography, Earth science, medical science, nutrition, gerontology, agriculture, botany, astronomy, physics, chemistry, climatology, government, law, psychology, sociology - and every subject it touches - as in Theology, Divinity and Doctrine:

    And "IF IT BE NOT" - true in ALL subjects mentioned above; and And "IF IT BE NOT"

      Holy, Inspired, Inerrant, Intrepid, Infallible, Infinitive, Invincible, Indestructible, Inexhaustible, Inalienable, Immutable, Implacable, Impossible-to-Improve: Eternal and Indubitable in EVERY FIELD OF KNOWLEDGE:
    Whatever else such writing may be, it cannot be ‘The Incomparable Word’ of the Great Creator God!

God's Eternal Guarantee!
"Heaven and Earth Shall Pass Away;
But 'MY WORDS', SHALL NOT, PASS AWAY!"

-- Jesus of Nazareth, "The Messiah!" AD-33 (Matthew 5:18)

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Do You Qualify for
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If you believe God's Word as Stated Above:
Probably!
(Click for a Free Evaluation!)

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Please Visit Top Webpages

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[1] “BIBLIPEDIA™" - "GREAT COMMISSION MANDATE!” Sober Questions; (Brief!)

[2] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – "God’s Goals” v “Satan’s Goals” – WHO WINS? (Brief)

[3] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – Greatest PLAN of Evangelization: DO THE MATH, (Brief!)

[4] “BIBLIPEDIA™" –Jesus said: “I WILL Build MY Church!”
(But Did He Really Mean It?)

[5] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – Alarming Church News! USA! (Brief)

[6] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – Christ’s Commission: Does it Mean “Global Domination?”

[7] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – Can You Face The Truth? Part-1 (MESSAGE)

[8] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – Can You Face The Truth? Part-2 (MESSAGE)

[9] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – Jesus and Paul on the “End-of-the-World” by NewtonStein

[10] “BIBLIPEDIA™" - Conservative Activists: "Who's Who in Christian Politics?

[11] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – Is Our Modern Church Ignorant of Christ’s Purpose?

[12] "RAPTURE-READY™" Why Jesus didn't come back in 2009, '10, '11! (You Know?)

[13] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – Preachers’ Greatest Sin: (Are You guilty?)

[14] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – Christ Warns: A “Five-Fold-Question!”

[15] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – OPEN LETTER to Our Fellow Laborers

[16] “BIBLIPEDIA™" - "Are All Denominations Wrong? Mostly?

[17] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – Who Will save Christianity?

[18] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – A Workable Plan that would-Truly Revive Christianity!

[19] “BIBLIPEDIA™" - "American Christianity Rides The Titanic!

[20] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – Founding Fathers’ Kingdom, Now Dominion!

[21] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – Great Falling Away Prophesied by Apostle Paul!

[22] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – Biblical End of World, Basic Terms and Concepts

[23] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – Christianity Dying In Western Civilization: WHY?

[24] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – Christian Myths! Do You Believe Them?

[25] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – Church Growth Goals Priority Page

[26] "RAPTURE-READY™" – Modern Christianity Is A Mess!

[27] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – The “Anti-Christ Home Page

[28] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – TOP-TEN Messages To Maximize Your Ministry

[29] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – Calling All Christians Unite, Christ Commands!

[30] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – Christianity Is Confusing and Getting WORSE! WHY?

[31] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – Every- Minister A Hero!

[32] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – Legal Abortion: Is It Good for Christians?

[33] " CHRISTIPEDIA™" – Southern Baptists Dying: WHY?

[34] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – Satan’s TOP-TEN Greatest-Lies! Do You Believe Any?

[35] “BIBLIPEDIA™" –Truth Test-3 Questions For Christians

[36] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – Evangelicals Call for Government School Exodus!

[37] “BIBLIPEDIA™" - "Hall of Faith" Christian Activist Ministers, 20th Cent."

[38] “BIBLIPEDIA™" –The Early Christian-Church Outlaws Homosexuality!

[39] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – PREACHERS! Do You Know About PULPIT FREEDOM SUNDAY?

[40] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – GOD-GIVEN Rights, Guaranteed in Bible: Called “Civil & Human” Rights

[41] “BIBLIPEDIA™" - "Rush Limbaugh Quotes" on Christ and Christianity!

[42] “BIBLIPEDIA™" - "TALK-RADIO REPUBLICANS, "Republican Power and Catholics!"

[43] “BIBLIPEDIA™" - "GREAT COMMISSION MANDATE!" Some Sobering Questions;

[44] “BIBLIPEDIA™" - "Hall of Faith" Christian Activist Ministers 20th Century"

[45] “BIBLIPEDIA™" –The Early Christian-Church Outlaws Homosexuality!

[46] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – PREACHERS! Do You Know About PULPIT FREEDOM SUNDAY?

[47] “BIBLIPEDIA™" – GOD-GIVEN Rights Guaranteed in Bible: Called “Civil & Human” Rights

[48] “BIBLIPEDIA™" - "Rush Limbaugh Quotes" on Christ and Christianity!

[49] “BIBLIPEDIA™" - "TALK-RADIO REPUBLICANS, "Republican Power and Catholics!"

[50] “AMERIPEDIA™" - George Washington Used 30-THEOLOGICAL TERMS, 3000 Times!

[**] Why to UNINCORPORATE your Church BEFORE it's TOO LATE!

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        We are NOT asking your name - just "CLICK!" - But we DO want Legislators to KNOW. . .

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          >> I will Not knowingly 'VOTE' for,

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Many Fine Bible Scholars seem unaware,
Of Christ's Great Parable covering the whole Church Age,
From His Sowing First Seed to His Great End-Time Harvest of Souls!
And Final Judgment of the Unsaved and their Damnation;
To Christ’s Presence with us and The Eternal Kingdom!

(See Greatest Parable on End of Times!)

Christ’s Greatest Parable on End of Times: Brief Overview

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Dr. William Smith

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Smith-Cambridge Concise Bible Dictionary,

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Edited and Annotated by NewtonStein,
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Cambridge Smith-NewtonStein Concise Bible Dictionary "A thru Z"

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Cambridge-Cruden Complete Concordance

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Dr. Cruden Finished the First Complete Bible Concordance!

The "IDEA" of a concordance began in 1100's. Bible Scholars worked for 600 years;
Sometimes working in groups; some as lone Ministers;
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Alexander Cruden, an extremely dedicated Scholar,
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[NOTE: It would take one person - all day, six-days a week - 1500 YEARS,
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Cambridge-Cruden's Complete Bible CONCORDANCE

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Alexander Cruden 'Man of God' BRIEF-BIO, PART-1 - Completed First Concordance

Alexander Cruden 'Man of God' BRIEF-BIO, PART-2 - Bizarre Situation

Alexander Cruden: 200 Names and Titles of Jesus, 200 Names for God's People, with Scriptural References

Summary of Each Chapter of Each Bible Book by ALEXANDER CRUDEN


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Cambridge Orthodox™ Bible Dictionary

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INDEX OF CAMBRIDGE ORTHODOX BIBLE DICTIONARY ENTRIES

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Do you use a Bible with VULGAR LANGUAGE?

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SCRIPTIPEDIA!™ Noah Webster: Preface to His KJV REVISION, PART-1

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SCRIPTIPEDIA!™ Noah Webster: His Actual Changes to the KJV Bible, SUMMARY

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Webster's Great Treatise on Origins of Language: Preface to Dictionary

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Dictionary of the “King James Bible Era”

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"God's Goals"

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Does God Achieve His Goals?
OR, does Satan achieve his goals?

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The Adversary’s Goals:

    SCRIPTURE: "The ‘Devil’ ... walketh about seeking whom he may DEVOUR." I Pet 5:8

    SCRIPTURE: "The ‘Thief’ (Devil) cometh not, but for to steal, to kill and to DESTROY." John 10:10

      QUESTION: Do you Believe Satan the Devil Succeeds?___ Or Fails?___


God the Father’s Goals:

    SCRIPTURE: "For God sent NOT His Son into the world to condemn the world, but that the world though Him might be SAVED! See John 3:16 John 3:17

    SCRIPTURE: "Beloved, be not ignorant of this one thing, ... The Lord is ... NOT willing that any should perish, but that ALL should come to repentance. 2 Pet 3:9

      QUESTION: Do you Believe God the Father Succeeds?___ Or Fails?___


God the Son’s Goals:

    SCRIPTURE: "For the Son of Man is come to seek and to SAVE that which is lost!" Luk 19:10 "For I came NOT to judge the world, but to SAVE the world. John 12:47

    SCRIPTURE: "And I, if I be lifted up from the Earth, I WILL DRAW ALL men unto Me." Joh 12:32

      QUESTION: Do you Believe God the Son (Jesus Christ): Succeeds?___ Or Fails?___ center>


God the Spirit’s Goals:

    SCRIPTURE: Jesus declares: "'I ’WILL’' send Him (Holy Spirit) unto you, and when He is come 'He ’WILL’' testify of Me: John 14:26

    SCRIPTURE: "He ’WILL’ reprove the world [convict, convince, correct] of sin, of righteousness, and of judgment: John 16:7

    SCRIPTURE: (1) Of sin, because they believe not on me; ... (2) Of righteousness, because I go to my Father; ...(3) Of judgment, because the 'Prince of this World' IS JUDGED![A] John 16:8-10

      QUESTION: Do you think God the Spirit Succeeds?___ Or Fails?___


      ULTIMATELY, WHO, ACHIEVES THEIR STATED GOALS? GOD or Satan?

      If you believe







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    PHILIP MELANCHTHON;

    HERO of PROTESTANT REFORMATION!

    (All BIBLIPEDIA "INSPIRED-INERRANT!" View of Scripture!)

    AMERICAN FLAG DRAPE LEFT PHILIP MELANCHTHON, With Luther, Calvin, Zwingli and Muntzer was a great catalyst in the Reformation!
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    Phillip Melancthon
    (Click for Brief Bio)

    PHILIP MELANCHTHON: Beginning;

      Philipp Melanchthon (February 16, 1497 – April 19, 1560), born Philipp Schwartzerdt, was a German reformer and a collaborator with Martin Luther.

      Melanchthon was the first systematic theologian of the Protestant Reformation. It was Melanchthon who was the intellectual leader of the so-called Lutheran Reformation, and an influential designer of educational systems.

      He stands with Luther and Calvin as a reformer, theologian, and molder of Protestantism.

      As much as Luther, he is the primary founder of Lutheranism. . . . how ever he didn't have the "NAME" for the movement (Melanchthonians?) [1]

      They both denounced what they claimed was the exaggerated cult of the saints, justification by works, and the coercion of the conscience in the sacrament of penance that nevertheless could not offer certainty of salvation.

      Melanchthon made the distinction between law and gospel the central formula for Lutheran evangelical insight.

      By the "law" he meant God's requirements both in Old and New Testament; the "gospel" meant the free gift of grace through faith in Jesus Christ.


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    PHILIP MELANCHTHON;

    HERO of PROTESTANT REFORMATION!

    (All BIBLIPEDIA "INSPIRED-INERRANT!" View of Scripture!)

    AMERICAN FLAG DRAPE LEFT PHILIP MELANCHTHON, With Luther, Calvin, Zwingli and Muntzer was a great catalyst in the Reformation!
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    Phillip Melancthon
    (Click for Brief Bio)

    PHILIP MELANCHTHON: Early life and education;

      He was born Philipp Schwartzerdt (of which "Melanchthon" is a Greek translation) on 16 February 1497, at Bretten, near Karlsruhe, where his father Georg Schwarzerdt was armorer to Philip, Count Palatine of the Rhine.[2]

      His birthplace was demolished in 1689 and the town's Melanchthonhaus built on its site in 1897.

      In 1507 he was sent to the Latin school at Pforzheim, where the rector, Georg Simler of Wimpfen, introduced him to the Latin and Greek poets and Aristotle. He was influenced by his great-uncle Johann Reuchlin, brother of his maternal grandmother, a representative humanist. It was Reuchlin who suggested the change from Schwartzerdt (literally black earth), into the Greek equivalent Melanchthon.[3]

      Still young, he entered in 1509 - age 12 - the University of Heidelberg where he studied philosophy, rhetoric, and astronomy/astrology, and was known as a good Greek scholar. On being refused the degree of master in 1512 on account of his youth, he went to Tübingen, where he continued humanistic studies, but also worked on jurisprudence, mathematics, and medicine.

      While there, he was taught the technical aspects of astrology by Johannes Stöffler.[4]

      Having taken the degree of master in 1516 - age 19 - he began to study theology.

      Under the influence of men like Reuchlin and Erasmus he became convinced that true Christianity was something different from scholastic theology as it was taught at the university. He became a conventor (repentant) in the contubernium and instructed younger scholars. He also lectured on oratory, on Virgil and Livy.

      His first publications were an edition of Terence (1516) and his Greek grammar (1518), but he had written previously the preface to the Epistolae clarorum virorum of Reuchlin (1514).


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    PHILIP MELANCHTHON;

    HERO of PROTESTANT REFORMATION!

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    Phillip Melancthon
    (Click for Brief Bio)

    PHILIP MELANCHTHON: Professor at Wittenberg;

      Opposed as a reformer at Tübingen, he accepted a call to the University of Wittenberg by Martin Luther. He studied Scripture, especially of Paul, and Evangelical doctrine. He was present at the disputation of Leipzig (1519) as a spectator, but participated by his comments.

      Johann Eck having attacked his views, Melanchthon replied based on the authority of Scripture in his Defensio contra Johannem Eckium (Wittenberg, 1519).

      After lectures on the Gospel of Matthew and the Epistle to the Romans, together with his investigations into the doctrines of Paul, he was granted the degree of bachelor of theology, and was transferred to the theological faculty.[5]

      He married Katharina Krapp, daughter of Wittenberg's mayor, on 25 November 1520.

      Theological disputes, Loci Communes, 1521 edition

      In the beginning of 1521 in his Didymi Faventini versus Thomam Placentinum pro M. Luthero oratio (Wittenberg, n.d.), he defended Luther.

      He argued that Luther rejected only papal and ecclesiastical practises which were at variance with Scripture.[6] But while Luther was absent at Wartburg Castle, during the disturbances caused by the Zwickau prophets, Melanchthon wavered.

      The appearance of Melanchthon's Loci communes rerum theologicarum seu hypotyposes theologicae (Wittenberg and Basel, 1521) was of subsequent importance for Reformation. Melanchthon presented the new doctrine of Christianity under the form of a discussion of the "leading thoughts" of the Epistle to the Romans.

      Loci communes began the gradual rise of the Lutheran scholastic tradition, and the later theologians Martin Chemnitz,[7] Mathias Haffenreffer, and Leonhard Hutter expanded upon it.[8]

      Melanchthon continued to lecture on the classics. On a journey in 1524 to his native town, he encountered the papal legate, Cardinal Lorenzo Campeggio who tried to draw him from Luther's cause. In his Unterricht der Visitatorn an die Pfarherrn im Kurfürstentum zu Sachssen (1528) Melanchthon presented the evangelical doctrine of salvation as well as regulations for churches and schools.

      In 1529 he accompanied the elector to the Diet of Speyer. His hopes of inducing the Imperial party to a recognition of the Reformation were not fulfilled.

      A friendly attitude towards the Swiss at the Diet was something he later changed, calling Zwingli's doctrine of the Lord's Supper - that the Bread and wine were symbolic and NOT the body of Christ - "an impious dogma".


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    PHILIP MELANCHTHON;

    HERO of PROTESTANT REFORMATION!

    (All BIBLIPEDIA "INSPIRED-INERRANT!" View of Scripture!)

    AMERICAN FLAG DRAPE LEFT PHILIP MELANCHTHON, With Luther, Calvin, Zwingli and Muntzer was a great catalyst in the Reformation!
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    Phillip Melancthon
    (Click for Brief Bio)

    PHILIP MELANCHTHON: Augsburg Confession;

      The composition now known as the Augsburg Confession was laid before the Diet of Augsburg in 1530, and would come to be considered perhaps the most significant document of the Protestant Reformation.

      While the confession was based on Luther's Marburg and Schwabach articles, it was mainly the work of Melanchthon.

      Although commonly thought of as a unified statement of doctrine by the two reformers, Luther did not conceal his dissatisfaction with the irenic tone of the confession. Indeed, some would criticize Melanchthon's conduct at the Diet as unbecoming of the principle he promoted, implying that faith in the truth of his cause would logically have inspired Melanchthon to a more firm and dignified posture.

      Others point out that he had not sought the part of a political leader, suggesting that he seemed to lack the requisite energy and decision for such a role and may simply have been a lackluster judge of human nature.

      Melanchthon's subsequent Apology of the Augsburg Confession reveals further doctrinal strains with Luther.

      Melanchthon then settled into the comparative quiet of his academic and literary labors. His most important theological work of this period was the Commentarii in Epistolam Pauli ad Romanos (Wittenberg, 1532), noteworthy for introducing the idea that "to be justified" means "to be accounted just," whereas the Apology had placed side by side the meanings of "to be made just" and "to be accounted just."

      Melanchthon's increasing fame gave occasion for several honorable calls to Tübingen (Sept., 1534), to France, and to England, but consideration of the elector caused him to refuse them.


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    CHRISTIPEDIA

    PHILIP MELANCHTHON;

    HERO of PROTESTANT REFORMATION!

    (All BIBLIPEDIA "INSPIRED-INERRANT!" View of Scripture!)

    AMERICAN FLAG DRAPE LEFT PHILIP MELANCHTHON, With Luther, Calvin, Zwingli and Muntzer was a great catalyst in the Reformation!
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    Phillip Melancthon
    (Click for Brief Bio)

    PHILIP MELANCHTHON: Discussions on Lord's Supper and Justification;

      He took an important part in the discussions concerning the Lord's Supper which began in 1531. He approved fully of the Wittenberg Concord sent by Bucer to Wittenberg, and at the instigation of the Landgrave of Hesse discussed the question with Bucer in Kassel, at the end of 1534.

      He eagerly labored for an agreement, for his patristic studies and the Dialogue (1530) of Œcolampadius had made him doubt the correctness of Luther's doctrine.

      Moreover, after the death of Zwingli and the change of the political situation his earlier scruples in regard to a union lost their weight.

        ***Bucer did not go so far as to believe with Luther that the true body of Christ in the Lord's Supper is bitten by the teeth,

        ***but admitted the offering of the body and blood in the symbols of bread and wine.

      Melanchthon discussed Bucer's views with the most prominent adherents of Luther; but Luther himself would not agree to a mere veiling of the dispute. Melanchthon's relation to Luther was not disturbed by his work as a mediator, although Luther for a time suspected that Melanchthon was "almost of the opinion of Zwingli"; nevertheless he desired to "share his heart with him."


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    CHRISTIPEDIA

    PHILIP MELANCHTHON;

    HERO of PROTESTANT REFORMATION!

    (All BIBLIPEDIA "INSPIRED-INERRANT!" View of Scripture!)

    AMERICAN FLAG DRAPE LEFT PHILIP MELANCHTHON, With Luther, Calvin, Zwingli and Muntzer was a great catalyst in the Reformation!
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    Phillip Melancthon
    (Click for Brief Bio)

    PHILIP MELANCHTHON: Faith and Works?

      During his sojourn in Tübingen in 1536 Melanchthon was severely attacked by Cordatus, preacher in Niemeck, because he had taught that works are necessary for salvation.

      In the second edition of his Loci (1535) he abandoned his earlier strict doctrine of determinism which went even beyond that of Augustine, and in its place taught more clearly his so-called Synergism.

      He repulsed the attack of Cordatus in a letter to Luther and his other colleagues by stating that he had never departed from their common teachings on this subject, and in the Antinomian Controversy of 1537 Melanchthon was in harmony with Luther.

      Controversies with Flacius

      The last eventful and sorrowful period of his life began with controversies over the Interims and the Adiaphora (1547).

      It is true, Melanchthon rejected the Augsburg Interim, which the emperor tried to force upon the defeated Protestants; but in the negotiations concerning the so-called Leipzig Interim he made concessions which many feel can in no way be justified, even if one considers his difficult position, opposed as he was to the elector and the emperor.

      In agreeing to various Roman usages, Melanchthon started from the opinion that they are adiaphora if nothing is changed in the pure doctrine and the sacraments which Jesus instituted, but he disregarded the position that concessions made under such circumstances have to be regarded as a denial of Evangelical convictions.

      Melanchthon himself perceived his faults in the course of time and repented of them, perhaps having to suffer more than was just in the displeasure of his friends and the hatred of his enemies.

      From now on until his death he was full of trouble and suffering. After Luther's death he became the "theological leader of the German Reformation," not indisputably, however; for the Lutherans with Matthias Flacius at their head accused him and his followers of heresy and apostasy.

      Melanchthon bore all accusations and calumnies with admirable patience, dignity, and self-control.

      Disputes with Osiander and Flacius

      In his controversy on justification with Andreas Osiander Melanchthon satisfied all parties. Melanchthon took part also in a controversy with Stancari, who held that Christ was our justification only according to his human nature.

      He was also still a strong opponent of the Roman Catholics, for it was by his advice that the elector of Saxony declared himself ready to send deputies to a council to be convened at Trent, but only under the condition that the Protestants should have a share in the discussions, and that the Pope should not be considered as the presiding officer and judge.


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    PHILIP MELANCHTHON;

    HERO of PROTESTANT REFORMATION!

    (All BIBLIPEDIA "INSPIRED-INERRANT!" View of Scripture!)

    AMERICAN FLAG DRAPE LEFT PHILIP MELANCHTHON, With Luther, Calvin, Zwingli and Muntzer was a great catalyst in the Reformation!
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    Phillip Melancthon
    (Click for Brief Bio)

    PHILIP MELANCHTHON: Writing Confessions of Faith;

      As it was agreed upon to send a confession to Trent, Melanchthon drew up the Confessio Saxonica which is a repetition of the Augsburg Confession, discussing, however, in greater detail, but with moderation, the points of controversy with Rome.

      Melanchthon on his way to Trent at Dresden saw the military preparations of Maurice of Saxony, and after proceeding as far as Nuremberg, returned to Wittenberg in March 1552, for Maurice had turned against the emperor.

      Owing to his act, the condition of the Protestants became more favorable and were still more so at the Peace of Augsburg (1555), but Melanchthon's labors and sufferings increased from that time.

      The last years of his life were embittered by the disputes over the Interim and the freshly started controversy on the Lord's Supper.

      As the statement "good works are necessary for salvation" appeared in the Leipzig Interim, its Lutheran opponents attacked in 1551 Georg Major, the friend and disciple of Melanchthon, so Melanchthon dropped the formula altogether, seeing how easily it could be misunderstood.

      But all his caution and reservation did not hinder his opponents from continually working against him, accusing him of synergism and Zwinglianism.

      At the Colloquy of Worms in 1557 which he attended only reluctantly, the adherents of Flacius and the Saxon theologians tried to avenge themselves by thoroughly humiliating Melanchthon, in agreement with the malicious desire of the Roman Catholics to condemn all heretics, especially those who had departed from the Augsburg Confession, before the beginning of the conference.

      As this was directed against Melanchthon himself, he protested, so that his opponents left, greatly to the satisfaction of the Roman Catholics who now broke off the colloquy, throwing all blame upon the Protestants.

      The Reformation in the sixteenth century did not experience a greater insult, as Nietzsche says.

      Nevertheless, Melanchthon persevered in his efforts for the peace of the Church, suggesting a synod of the Evangelical party and drawing up for the same purpose the Frankfurt Recess, which he defended later against the attacks of his enemies.


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    CHRISTIPEDIA

    PHILIP MELANCHTHON;

    HERO of PROTESTANT REFORMATION!

    (All BIBLIPEDIA "INSPIRED-INERRANT!" View of Scripture!)

    AMERICAN FLAG DRAPE LEFT PHILIP MELANCHTHON, With Luther, Calvin, Zwingli and Muntzer was a great catalyst in the Reformation!
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    Phillip Melancthon
    (Click for Brief Bio)

    PHILIP MELANCHTHON: The Lord's Supper;

      More than anything else the controversies on the Lord's Supper embittered the last years of his life.

      The renewal of this dispute was due to the victory in the Reformed Church of the Calvinistic doctrine and its influence upon Germany.

      To its tenets Melanchthon never gave his assent, nor did he use its characteristic formulas.

      The personal presence and self-impartation of Christ in the Lord's Supper were especially important for Melanchthon; but he did not definitely state how body and blood are related to this.

      Although rejecting the physical act of mastication, he nevertheless assumed the real presence of the body of Christ and therefore also a real self-impartation.

      Melanchthon differed from Calvin also in emphasizing the relation of the Lord's Supper to justification.

      Marian views

      Melanchthon viewed any veneration of saints rather critically but developed positive commentaries about Mary. In his Annotations in Evangelia commenting on Luk 2:52, he discusses the faith of Mary, “she kept all things in her heart” which to Melanchton is a call to the Church to follow her example.[9]

      During the marriage at Cana, Melanchton points out that Mary went too far, asking for more wine, misusing her position. But she was not upset, when Jesus gently scolded her.[10]

      Mary was negligent, when she lost her son in the temple, but she did not sin.[10]

      Mary was conceived with original sin like every other human being, but she was spared the consequences of it. Consequently, Melanchton opposed the feast of the Immaculate Conception, which in his days, although not dogma, was celebrated in several cities and had been approved at the Council of Basel in 1439.[11]

      He declared that the Immaculate Conception was an invention of monks.[12]

      Mary is a representation (Typus) of the Church and in the Magnificat, Mary spoke for the whole Church. Standing under the cross, Mary suffered like no other human being. Consequently Christians have to unite with her under the Cross, in order to become Christ-like.[12]


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    PHILIP MELANCHTHON;

    HERO of PROTESTANT REFORMATION!

    (All BIBLIPEDIA "INSPIRED-INERRANT!" View of Scripture!)

    AMERICAN FLAG DRAPE LEFT PHILIP MELANCHTHON, With Luther, Calvin, Zwingli and Muntzer was a great catalyst in the Reformation!
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    Phillip Melancthon
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    PHILIP MELANCHTHON: Views on natural philosophy;

      In lecturing on the Librorum de judiciis astrologicis of Ptolemy in 1535–6, Melanchthon expressed to students his interest in Greek mathematics, astronomy and astrology.

      He considered that a purposeful God had reasons to exhibit comets and eclipses.[13]

      He was the first to print a paraphrased edition of Ptolemy's Tetrabiblos in Basel, 1554.[14]

      Natural philosophy, in his view, was directly linked to Providence, a point of view that was influential in curriculum change after the Protestant Reformation in Germany.[15]

      In the period 1536–9 he was involved in three academic innovations: the refoundation of Wittenberg along Protestant lines, the reorganisation at Tübingen, and the foundation of the University of Leipzig.[16]


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    PHILIP MELANCHTHON;

    HERO of PROTESTANT REFORMATION!

    (All BIBLIPEDIA "INSPIRED-INERRANT!" View of Scripture!)

    AMERICAN FLAG DRAPE LEFT PHILIP MELANCHTHON, With Luther, Calvin, Zwingli and Muntzer was a great catalyst in the Reformation!
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    Phillip Melancthon
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    PHILIP MELANCHTHON: Death;

      But before these and other theological dissensions were ended, he died; a few days before this event he committed to writing his reasons for not fearing it.

      On the left were the words,

        "Thou shalt be delivered from sins, and be freed from the acrimony and fury of theologians"; on the right, "Thou shalt go to the light, see God, look upon his Son, learn those wonderful mysteries which thou hast not been able to understand in this life."

      The immediate cause of death was a severe cold which he had contracted on a journey to Leipzig in March, 1560, followed by a fever that consumed his strength, weakened by many sufferings.

        ***The only care that occupied him until his last moment was the desolate condition of the Church.

        He strengthened himself in almost uninterrupted prayer, and in listening to passages of Scripture.


      Especially significant did the words seem to him, "His own received him not; but as many as received him, to them gave he power to become the sons of God." When Caspar Peucer, his son in-law, asked him if he wanted anything, he replied, "Nothing but heaven."

      His body was laid beside Luther's in the Schloßkirche in Wittenberg.

      He is commemorated in the Calendar of Saints of the Lutheran Church - Missouri Synod on February 16 and the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America on June 25 (The LCMS commemorates him on his date of birth, and the ELCA on the date of the presentation of the Augsburg Confession).


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    AMERICAN FLAG DRAPE LEFT PHILIP MELANCHTHON, With Luther, Calvin, Zwingli and Muntzer was a great catalyst in the Reformation!
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    Phillip Melancthon
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    PHILIP MELANCHTHON: Estimation of his works and character;

      Melanchthon's importance for the Reformation lay essentially in the fact that he systematized Luther's ideas, defended them in public, and made them the basis of a religious education. These two, by complementing each other, could be said to have harmoniously achieved the results of the Reformation.

      Melanchthon was impelled by Luther to work for the Reformation; his own inclinations would have kept him a student.

      Without Luther's influence Melanchthon would have been "a second Erasmus," although his heart was filled with a deep religious interest in the Reformation.

      While Luther scattered the sparks among the people, Melanchthon by his humanistic studies won the sympathy of educated people and scholars for the Reformation.

      Besides Luther's strength of faith, Melanchthon's many-sidedness and calmness, as well as his temperance and love of peace, had a share in the success of the movement.

      Both men had a clear consciousness of their mutual position and the divine necessity of their common calling.

      Melanchthon wrote in 1520, "I would rather die than be separated from Luther," whom he afterward compared to Elijah, and called "the man full of the Holy Ghost."

      In spite of the strained relations between them in the last years of Luther's life, Melanchthon exclaimed at Luther's death, "Dead is the horseman and chariot of Israel who ruled the Church in this last age of the world!"

      On the other hand, Luther wrote of Melanchthon, in the preface to Melanchthon's Commentary on the Galatians (1529),

        "I had to fight with rabble and devils, for which reason my books are very warlike."

        "I am the rough pioneer who must break the road; but Master Philipp comes along softly and gently, sows and waters heartily, since God has richly endowed him with gifts."


      Luther also did justice to Melanchthon's teachings, praising one year before his death in the preface to his own writings Melanchthon's revised Loci above them and calling Melanchthon "a divine instrument which has achieved the very best in the department of theology to the great rage of the devil and his scabby tribe."

      It is remarkable that Luther, who vehemently attacked men like Erasmus and Bucer, when he thought that truth was at stake, never spoke directly against Melanchthon, and even during his melancholy last years conquered his temper.

      The strained relation between these two men never came from external things, such as human rank and fame, much less from other advantages, but always from matters of Church and doctrine, and chiefly from the fundamental difference of their individualities; they repelled and attracted each other "because nature had not formed out of them one man."


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    AMERICAN FLAG DRAPE LEFT PHILIP MELANCHTHON, With Luther, Calvin, Zwingli and Muntzer was a great catalyst in the Reformation!
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    PHILIP MELANCHTHON: Life-long friend of Luther:

      However, it can not be denied that Luther was the more magnanimous, for however much he was at times dissatisfied with Melanchthon's actions, he never uttered a word against his private character; but Melanchthon, on the other hand, sometimes evinced a lack of confidence in Luther.

      In a letter to Carlowitz he complained that Luther on account of his polemical nature exercised a personally humiliating pressure upon him.

      His work as reformerAs a reformer, Melanchthon was characterized by moderation, conscientiousness, caution, and love of peace; but these qualities were sometimes said to only be lack of decision, consistence, and courage.

      Often, however, his actions are shown stemming not from anxiety for his own safety, but from regard for the welfare of the community and for the quiet development of the Church.

      Melanchthon was not said to lack personal courage, but rather he was said to be less of an aggressive than of a passive nature.

      When he was reminded how much power and strength Luther drew from his trust in God, he answered, "If I myself do not do my part, I can not expect anything from God in prayer."

      His nature was seen to be inclined to suffer with faith in God that he would be released from every evil rather than to act valiantly with his aid.

      The distinction between Luther and Melanchthon is well brought out in Luther's letters to the latter (June, 1530):

        "To your great anxiety by which you are made weak, I am a cordial foe;

        for the cause is not ours.

        It is your philosophy, and not your theology, which tortures you so,-- as though you could accomplish anything by your useless anxieties.

        So far as the public cause is concerned, I am well content and satisfied; for I know that it is right and true, and, what is more, it is the cause of Christ and God himself.

        For that reason, I am merely a spectator.

        If we fall, Christ will likewise fall;

        and if he fall, I would rather fall with Christ than stand with the emperor."


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    (All BIBLIPEDIA "INSPIRED-INERRANT!" View of Scripture!)

    AMERICAN FLAG DRAPE LEFT PHILIP MELANCHTHON, With Luther, Calvin, Zwingli and Muntzer was a great catalyst in the Reformation!
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    Phillip Melancthon
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    PHILIP MELANCHTHON: Man of Peace;

      Another trait of his character was his love of peace. He had an innate aversion to quarrels and discord; yet, often he was very irritable. His irenical character often led him to adapt himself to the views of others, as may be seen from his correspondence with Erasmus and from his public attitude from the Diet of Augsburg to the Interim.

      It was said not to be merely a personal desire for peace, but his conservative religious nature that guided him in his acts of conciliation.

      He never could forget that his father on his death-bed had besought his family "never to leave the Church."

      He stood toward the history of the Church in an attitude of piety and reverence that made it much more difficult for him than for Luther to be content with the thought of the impossibility of a reconciliation with the Roman Catholic Church.

      He laid stress upon the authority of the Fathers, not only of Augustine, but also of the Greeks.

      His attitude in matters of worship was conservative, and in the Leipsic Interim he was said by Cordatus and Schenk even to be Crypto-Catholic.

      He never strove for a reconciliation with Roman Catholicism at the price of pure doctrine. He attributed more value to the external appearance and organization of the Church than Luther did, as can be seen from his whole treatment of the "doctrine of the Church."

      The ideal conception of the Church, which the Reformers opposed to the organization of the Roman Church, which was expressed in his Loci of 1535, lost for him after 1537 its former prominence, . . .

      . . . when he began to emphasize the conception of the true visible Church as it may be found among the Evangelicals.

      The relation of the Church to God he found in the divinely ordered office, the ministry of the Gospel.


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    PHILIP MELANCHTHON;

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    (All BIBLIPEDIA "INSPIRED-INERRANT!" View of Scripture!)

    AMERICAN FLAG DRAPE LEFT PHILIP MELANCHTHON, With Luther, Calvin, Zwingli and Muntzer was a great catalyst in the Reformation!
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    PHILIP MELANCHTHON: The Church;

      The universal priesthood was for Melanchthon as for Luther no principle of an ecclesiastical constitution, . . . but a purely religious principle.

      In accordance with this idea Melanchthon tried to:

        (1) Keep the traditional church constitution and government, including the bishops. [BLASPHEMY! - What kind of reform was this?]

        (2) He did not want, however, a church altogether independent of the State, but rather, in agreement with Luther, [BLASPHEMY! Unequal yoking!]

        (3) He believed it the duty of the secular authorities to protect religion and the Church. [WORSE than BLASPHEMY! TO expect the Forces of Darkness to Protect the Light of Christ!]

        (4) He looked upon the consistories (Church leaders, Bishops, cardinals, denominational heads, etc.), as ecclesiastical courts which therefore should be composed of spiritual and secular judges, [BEYOND BLASPHEMY - God FORBIDS yoking of light and darkness, MUCH LESS requesting it!]

        (5) To him the official authority of the Church did not lie in a special class of priests, but rather in the whole congregation, to be represented therefore not only by ecclesiastics, but also by laymen. [EXCELLENT . . . EXCEPT, when the Lutherans organized, they REJECTED this aspect and went with top down papal-like dictatorship!]

      Melanchthon in advocating church union did not overlook differences in doctrine for the sake of common practical tasks.

      The older he grew, theless he distinguished between the Gospel as the announcement of the will of God, and right doctrine as the human knowledge of it.

      Therefore he took pains to safeguard unity in doctrine by theological formulas of union, but these were made as broad as possible and were restricted to the needs of practical religion.


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    PHILIP MELANCHTHON;

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    (All BIBLIPEDIA "INSPIRED-INERRANT!" View of Scripture!)

    AMERICAN FLAG DRAPE LEFT PHILIP MELANCHTHON, With Luther, Calvin, Zwingli and Muntzer was a great catalyst in the Reformation!
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    PHILIP MELANCHTHON: As scholar;

      As a scholar Melanchthon embodied the entire spiritual culture of his age.

      At the same time he found the simplest, clearest, and most suitable form for his knowledge; therefore his manuals, even if they were not always original, were quickly introduced into schools and kept their place for more than a century.

      Knowledge had for him no purpose of its own; it existed only for the service of moral and religious education, and so the teacher of Germany prepared the way for the religious thoughts of the Reformation.

      e is the father of Christian humanism, which has exerted a lasting influence upon scientific life in Germany. [But it is Erasmus who is called, "The Prince of the Humanists.]

      His works were not always new and original, but they were clear, intelligible, and answered their purpose.

      His style is natural and plain, better, however, in Latin and Greek than in German. He was not without natural eloquence, although his voice was weak.

      As theologian

      As a theologian, Melanchthon did not show so much creative ability, but rather a genius for collecting and systematizing the ideas of others, especially of Luther, for the purpose of instruction.

      He kept to the practical, and cared little for connection of the parts, so his Loci were in the form of isolated paragraphs.

      The fundamental difference between Luther and Melanchthon lies not so much in the latter's ethical conception, as in his humanistic mode of thought which formed the basis of his theology and made him ready not only to acknowledge moral and religious truths outside of Christianity, but also to bring Christian truth into closer contact with them, and thus to mediate between Christian revelation and ancient philosophy.

      Melanchthon's views differed from Luther's only in some modifications of ideas. Melanchthon looked upon the law as not only the correlate of the Gospel, by which its effect of salvation is prepared, but as the unchangeable order of the spiritual world which has its basis in God himself.


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    PHILIP MELANCHTHON;

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    (All BIBLIPEDIA "INSPIRED-INERRANT!" View of Scripture!)

    AMERICAN FLAG DRAPE LEFT PHILIP MELANCHTHON, With Luther, Calvin, Zwingli and Muntzer was a great catalyst in the Reformation!
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    PHILIP MELANCHTHON: Reason v. Mysticism;

      He furthermore reduced Luther's much richer view of redemption to that of legal satisfaction.

      He did not draw from the vein of mysticism running through Luther's theology, but emphasized the ethical and intellectual elements.

      After giving up determinism and absolute predestination and ascribing to man a certain moral freedom, he tried to ascertain the share of free will in conversion, naming three causes as concurring in the work of conversion:

        >> the Word,

        >> the Spirit,

        >> the human will, not passive, but resisting its own weakness.


      Since 1548 he used the definition of freedom formulated by Erasmus, "the capability of applying oneself to grace."

      His definition of faith lacks the mystical depth of Luther. In dividing faith into knowledge, assent, and trust, he made the participation of the heart subsequent to that of the intellect, and so gave rise to the view of the later orthodoxy that the establishment and acceptation of pure doctrine should precede the personal attitude of faith.

      ***To his intellectual conception of faith corresponded also his view that:

        >> "the Church also is only the communion of those who adhere to the true belief;

        >> and that her visible existence depends upon the consent of her unregenerated members to her teachings."


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    PHILIP MELANCHTHON;

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    AMERICAN FLAG DRAPE LEFT PHILIP MELANCHTHON, With Luther, Calvin, Zwingli and Muntzer was a great catalyst in the Reformation!
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    PHILIP MELANCHTHON: Communion;

      Finally, Melanchthon's doctrine of the Lord's Supper, lacking the profound mysticism of faith by which Luther united the sensual elements and supersensual realities, demanded at least their formal distinction.

      The development of Melanchthon's beliefs may be seen from the history of the Loci.

      In the beginning Melanchthon intended only a development of the leading ideas representing the Evangelical conception of salvation, while the later editions approach more and more the plan of a text-book of dogma.

      At first he uncompromisingly insisted on the necessity of every event, energetically rejected the philosophy of Aristotle, and had not fully developed his doctrine of the sacraments.

      In 1535 he treated for the first time the doctrine of God and that of the Trinity; rejected the doctrine of the necessity of every event and named free will as a concurring cause in conversion.

      The doctrine of justification received its forensic form and the necessity of good works was emphasized in the interest of moral discipline.

      The last editions are distinguished from the earlier ones by the prominence given to the theoretical and rational element.


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    PHILIP MELANCHTHON;

    HERO of PROTESTANT REFORMATION!

    (All BIBLIPEDIA "INSPIRED-INERRANT!" View of Scripture!)

    AMERICAN FLAG DRAPE LEFT PHILIP MELANCHTHON, With Luther, Calvin, Zwingli and Muntzer was a great catalyst in the Reformation!
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    PHILIP MELANCHTHON: As moralist;

      In ethics Melanchthon preserved and renewed the tradition of ancient morality and represented the Evangelical conception of life.

      His books bearing directly on morals were chiefly drawn from the classics, and were influenced not so much by Aristotle as by Cicero.

      His principal works in this line were Prolegomena to Cicero's De officiis (1525); Enarrationes librorum Ethicorum Aristotelis (1529); Epitome philosophiae moralis (1538); and Ethicae doctrinae elementa (1550).

      In his Epitome philosophiae moralis Melanchthon treats first the relation of philosophy to the law of God and the Gospel.

      Moral philosophy, it is true, does not know anything of the promise of grace as revealed in the Gospel, but it is the development of the natural law implanted by God in the heart of man, and therefore representing a part of the divine law.

      The revealed law, necessitated because of sin, is distinguished from natural law only by its greater completeness and clearness. The fundamental order of moral life can be grasped also by reason; therefore the development of moral philosophy from natural principles must not be neglected.

      Melanchthon therefore made no sharp distinction between natural and revealed morals.

      His contribution to Christian ethics in the proper sense must be sought in the Augsburg Confession and its Apology as well as in his Loci, where he followed Luther in depicting the Evangelical ideal of life, the free realization of the divine law by a personality blessed in faith and filled with the spirit of God.


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    PHILIP MELANCHTHON;

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    AMERICAN FLAG DRAPE LEFT PHILIP MELANCHTHON, With Luther, Calvin, Zwingli and Muntzer was a great catalyst in the Reformation!
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    PHILIP MELANCHTHON: As exegete;

      Melanchthon's formulation of the authority of Scripture became the norm for the following time. The principle of his hermeneutics is expressed in his words:

        "Every theologian and faithful interpreter of the heavenly doctrine must necessarily be first a grammarian, then a dialectician, and finally a witness."

      By "grammarian" he meant the philologist in the modern sense who is master of history, archaeology, and ancient geography.

      As to the method of interpretation, he insisted with great emphasis upon the unity of the sense, upon the literal sense in contrast to the four senses of the scholastics.

      He further stated that whatever is looked for in the words of Scripture, outside of the literal sense, is only dogmatic or practical application.

      His commentaries, however, are not grammatical, but are full of theological and practical matter, confirming the doctrines of the Reformation, and edifying believers.

      The most important of them are those on Genesis, Proverbs, Daniel, the Psalms, and especially those on the New Testament, on Romans (edited in 1522 against his will by Luther), Colossians (1527), and John (1523).

      Melanchthon was the constant assistant of Luther in his translation of the Bible, and both the books of the Maccabees in Luther's Bible are ascribed to him.

      A Latin Bible published in 1529 at Wittenberg is designated as a common work of Melanchthon and Luther.


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    AMERICAN FLAG DRAPE LEFT PHILIP MELANCHTHON, With Luther, Calvin, Zwingli and Muntzer was a great catalyst in the Reformation!
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    PHILIP MELANCHTHON: As historian and preacher;

      In the sphere of historical theology the influence of Melanchthon may be traced until the seventeenth century, especially in the method of treating church history in connection with political history.

      His was the first Protestant attempt at a history of dogma, Sententiae veterum aliquot patrum de caena domini (1530) and especially De ecclesia et auctoritate verbi Dei (1539).

      Melanchthon exerted a wide influence in the department of homiletics, and has been regarded as the author, in the Protestant Church, of the methodical style of preaching.

      He himself keeps entirely aloof from all mere dogmatizing or rhetoric in the Annotationes in Evangelia (1544), the Conciones in Evangelium Matthaei (1558), and in his German sermons prepared for George of Anhalt.

      He never preached from the pulpit; and his Latin sermons (Postilla) were prepared for the Hungarian students at Wittenberg who did not understand German. In this connection may be mentioned also his Catechesis puerilis (1532), a religious manual for younger students, and a German catechism (1549), following closely Luther's arrangement.

      From Melanchthon came also the first Protestant work on the method of theological study, so that it may safely be said that by his influence every department of theology was advanced even if he was not always a pioneer.

      As professor and philosopher

      As a philologist and pedagogue Melanchthon was the spiritual heir of the South German Humanists, of men like Reuchlin, Wimpheling, and Rodolphus Agricola, who represented an ethical conception of the humanities.

      The liberal arts and a classical education were for him only a means to an ethical and religious end. The ancient classics were for him in the first place the sources of a purer knowledge, but they were also the best means of educating the youth both by their beauty of form and by their ethical content.

      By his organizing activity in the sphere of educational institutions and by his compilations of Latin and Greek grammars and commentaries, Melanchthon became the founder of the learned schools of Evangelical Germany,

      a combination of humanistic and Christian ideals.


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    PHILIP MELANCHTHON;

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    AMERICAN FLAG DRAPE LEFT PHILIP MELANCHTHON, With Luther, Calvin, Zwingli and Muntzer was a great catalyst in the Reformation!
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    PHILIP MELANCHTHON: Leading German Philosopher;

      In philosophy also Melanchthon was the teacher of the whole German Protestant world.

      The influence of his philosophical compendia ended only with the rule of the Leibniz-Wolff school.

      He started from scholasticism; but with the contempt of an enthusiastic Humanist he turned away from it and came to Wittenberg with the plan of editing the complete works of Aristotle.

      Under the dominating religious influence of Luther his interest abated for a time, but in 1519 he edited the "Rhetoric" and in 1520 the "Dialectic."

      The relation of philosophy to theology is characterized, according to him, by the distinction between law and Gospel.

      The former, as a light of nature, is innate; it also contains the elements of the natural knowledge of God which, however, have been obscured and weakened by sin.

      Therefore, renewed promulgation of the law by revelation became necessary and was furnished in the Decalogue;

      and all law, including that in the scientific form of philosophy, contains only demands, shadowings;

      its fulfilment is given only in the Gospel, the object of certainty in theology, by which also the philosophical elements of knowledge — experience, principles of reason, and syllogism-- receive only their final confirmation.

      As the law is a divinely ordered pedagogue that leads to Christ, philosophy, its interpreter, is subject to revealed truth as the principal standard of opinions and life.

      Besides Aristotle's "Rhetoric" and "Dialectic" he published De dialecta libri iv (1528); Erotemata dialectices (1547); Liber de anima (1540); Initia doctrinae physicae (1549); and Ethicae doctrinae elementa (1550).


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    AMERICAN FLAG DRAPE LEFT PHILIP MELANCHTHON, With Luther, Calvin, Zwingli and Muntzer was a great catalyst in the Reformation!
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    PHILIP MELANCHTHON: Personal appearance and character;

      There have been preserved original portraits of Melanchthon by three famous painters of his time — by Holbein in various versions, one of them in the Royal Gallery of Hanover, by Albrecht Dürer (made in 1526, meant to convey a spiritual rather than physical likeness and said to be eminently successful in doing so), and by Lucas Cranach.

      Melanchthon was dwarfish, misshapen, and physically weak, although he is said to have had a bright and sparkling eye, which kept its color till the day of his death.

      He was never in perfectly sound health, and managed to perform as much work as he did only by reason of the extraordinary regularity of his habits and his great temperance.

    LIKE JOHN CALVIN:

      He set no great value on money and possessions;

      His liberality and hospitality were often misused in such a way that his old faithful Swabian servant had sometimes difficulty in managing the household.

      His domestic life was happy.

      He called his home "a little church of God," always found peace there, and showed a tender solicitude for his wife and children.

      To his great astonishment a French scholar found him rocking the cradle with one hand, and holding a book in the other.

      His noble soul showed itself also in his friendship for many of his contemporaries; "there is nothing sweeter nor lovelier than mutual conversation with friends," he used to say.

      His most intimate friend was Joachim Camerarius, whom he called the half of his soul.

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    PHILIP MELANCHTHON;

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    (All BIBLIPEDIA "INSPIRED-INERRANT!" View of Scripture!)

    AMERICAN FLAG DRAPE LEFT PHILIP MELANCHTHON, With Luther, Calvin, Zwingli and Muntzer was a great catalyst in the Reformation!
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    PHILIP MELANCHTHON: Sacrificing Friendship;

      His extensive correspondence was for him not only a duty, but a need and an enjoyment. His letters form a valuable commentary on his whole life, as he spoke out his mind in them more unreservedly than he was wont to do in public life.

      A peculiar example of his sacrificing friendship is furnished by the fact that he wrote speeches and scientific treatises for others, permitting them to use their own signature.

      But in the kindness of his heart he was said to be ready to serve and assist not only his friends, but everybody.

      He was an enemy to jealousy, envy, slander, and sarcasm.

      His whole nature adapted him especially to discussion with scholars and men of higher rank, while it was more difficult for him to deal with the people of lower station.

      He never allowed himself or others to exceed the bounds of nobility, honesty, and decency.

      He was very sincere in the judgment of his own person, acknowledging his faults even to opponents like Flacius, and was open to the criticism even of such as stood far below him. In his public career he sought not honor or fame, but earnestly endeavored to serve the Church and the cause of truth.

      His humility and modesty had their root in his personal piety. He laid great stress upon prayer, daily meditation on the Word, and attendance of public service.

      In Melanchthon is found not a great, impressive personality, winning its way by massive strength of resolution and energy, but a noble character hard to study without loving and respecting.


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    PHILIP MELANCHTHON: Bibliography;

      • Bagchi, David, and David C. Steinmetz, eds. The Cambridge Companion to Reformation Theology (2004) excerpt and text search

      • Estes, James M. "The Role of Godly Magistrates in the Church: Melanchthon as Luther's Interpreter and Collaborator," Church History Vol. 67, No. 3 (Sep., 1998), pp. 463–483 in JSTOR

      • Jung, Martin H. Philipp Melanchthon und seine Zeit (Goettingen, 2010).

      • Kien, O. "Melanchthon, Philipp," in New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge, (1911) online edition vol 7 pp 279-86; this is the base for most of this Wikipedia article

      • Maag, Karin Y. Melanchthon in Europe: His Work and Influence beyond Wittenberg (1999) excerpt and text search

      • Manschreck, Clyde L. Melanchthon: The Quiet Reformer (1958)

      • Rogness, Michael. Philip Melanchthon: Reformer without Honor. (1969).

      • Scheible, Heinz. "Melanchthon, Philipp" The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation. Ed. Hans J. Hillerbrand. (1996) online at OUP

      • Scheible, Heinz. "Luther and Melanchthon". Lutheran Quarterly 4 (1990), pp. 317–339

      • Smith, Preserved. The Life and Letters of Martin Luther. (1911) complete edition online free

      • Stupperich, Robert, and Robert H Fischer. Melanchthon: The Enigma of the Reformation (2006)

      [edit] See also

      • List of Erasmus's correspondents

      • Philippists

      • Ubiquitarians


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    PHILIP MELANCHTHON: References;

      1. ^ Richard, James William, Philip Melanchthon: The Protestant Preceptor of Germany 1898, pg. 379

      2. ^ Richard, pg. 3

      3. ^ Richard, pg. 11

      4. ^ Brosseder, Claudia. (2005) The Writing in the Wittenberg Sky: Astrology in Sixteenth-Century Germany. Journal of the History of Ideas. Vol. 66, No. 4 (Oct.), pp. 557-576.

      5. ^ Richard, pgs. 57-58

      6. ^ Richard, pg. 71

      7. ^ For an example of this from Chemnitz, see this chapter on almsgiving from his Loci Theologici.

      8. ^ Jacobs, Henry Eyster. “Scholasticism in the Luth. Church.” Lutheran Cyclopedia. New York: Scribner, 1899. pp. 434-5.

      9. ^ Remigius Bäumer, Reformation, in Marienlexikon, Eos,

      St. Ottilien 1992, 42410. ^ a b Bäumer 425

      11. ^ Bridget Heal, The Cult of the Virgin Mary in Early Modern Germany, Cambridge University Press, 2007, 25

      12. ^ a b Bäumer 424

      13. ^ Jens Andersen Sinning and Frederik Julius Billeskov Jansen, Oratio de Studiis (1991), pp. 107–8; Google Books.

      14. ^ Heilen, S., 'Ptolemy's Doctrine of the Terms and its Reception', in Jones, A., Ptolemy in Perspective, p.70 (Dordrecht; New York: Springer. ISBN 9789048127870.)

      15. ^ Sachiko Kusukawa, The Transformation of Natural Philosophy: the case of Philip Melanchthon (1995), pp. 185–6; Google Books.

      16. ^ Sachiko Kusukawa, Philip Melanchthon: orations on philosophy and education (1999), p. xxxiii.

      • This article incorporates text from an edition of the New International Encyclopedia that is in the public domain.

      • This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Jackson, Samuel Macauley, ed. (1914). "article name needed". New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of

      Religious Knowledge (third ed.). London and New York: Funk and Wagnalls.


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    PHILIP MELANCHTHON: Further reading;

      • Andreatta, Enrico, Lutero e Aristotele, Padova 1996.

      • Birnstein, Uwe, Der Humanist. Was Philipp Melanchthon Europa lehrte, Berlin, 2010.

      • Cuttini, Elisa, Unità e pluralità nella tradizione europea della filosofia pratica di Aristotele. Girolamo Savonarola, Pietro Pomponazzi e Filippo Melantone, Catanzaro: Rubbettino, 2005

      • DeCoursey, Matthew, "Continental European Rhetoricians, 1400-1600, and Their Influence in Renaissance England," British Rhetoricians and Logicians, 1500–1660, First Series, DLB 236, Detroit: Gale, 2001, pp. 309–343.

      • Fuchs, Thorsten, Philipp Melanchthon als neulateinischer Dichter in der Zeit der Reformation, Tübingen, Narr, 2008, 428 S.

      • Jung, Martin, Philipp Melanchthon und seine Zeit, Göttingen, 2010

      • Kusukawa, Sachiko, The Transformation of Natural Philosophy: the case of Philip Melanchthon, Ideas in Context. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995.

      • Meerhoff, Kees, "The Significance of Philip Melanchthon's Rhetoric in the Renaissance," Renaissance Rhetoric, Ed. Peter Mack, New York: St. Martin's Press, 1994, pp. 46–62.

      • Schofield, John, Philip Melanchthon and the English Reformation, Aldershot, Ashgate, 2006, 250 pp. (St Andrews Studies in Reformation History).

      • Wengert, Timothy, Human Freedom, Christian Righteousness: Philip Melanchthon's Exegetical Dispute with Erasmus of Rotterdam, New York: Oxford University Press, 1997.

      • Wengert, Timothy, Philip Melanchthon (1497–1560) and the Commentary, Sheffield Academic Press, 1997.


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    Phillip Melancthon
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    PHILIP MELANCHTHON: External links;

      • Works by Philipp Melanchthon at Project Gutenberg

      • James William Richard (1898). Philip Melanchthon, the Protestant preceptor of Germany, 1497-1560. Biography. From Internet Archive.

      • The Phillip Melanchthon Quinquennial

      • Article on Melanchthon, Philipp in the Christian Cyclopedia

      • Official site of Melanchthon's birthplace in Bretten

      • Melanchthon and Bucer (contains a translation of Melanchthon's Loci Communes Theologici)

      • Luther's Lives (includes a translation of Melanchthon's biography of Luther)

      • Philipp Melanchthon at the Mathematics Genealogy Project.

      • Examen eorum, qui oudiuntur ante ritum publicae ordinotionis, qua commendatur eis ministerium EVANGELLI: Traditum Vuitebergae, Anno 1554, at Opolska Biblioteka Cyfrowa

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