SECOND GREAT AWAKENING, BRIEF OVERVIEW,
FINNEY, STONE, CAMPBELL, DOW, MILLER
SECOND GREAT AWAKENING, BRIEF OVERVIEW,
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    Make no mistake about it: 'YOU!" The BIBLE-BELIEVING CHRISTIAN - whether Preacher, Teacher, Elder, Deacon, Lay Leader, or spouse thereof; Whether Counselor, Christian School Teacher, Children-Youth Worker, Singer-Musician and/or Political Activist VOTING AMERICAN!

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[1] Full-&-Legal ORDINATION for all phases of Ministry:

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[10] Website for your Ministry, free website instruction, for Bible Believers only; Website for your Ministry,

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[15] "Certified Scholar of the Bible" in several basic programs, where you take an OPEN BIBLE - SELF-ADMINISTERED TEST.

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Browse Massive Evidence Below:
"AMERICAN DECLARATION of INDEPENDENCE"
Declares USA Recognizes: "SELF-EVIDENT TRUTHS!"
Declaring ALL are "CREATED" equal!
Endowed by Their "CREATOR"
With 'Certain', 'Inalienable', 'Rights';
1776 AMERICAN FLAG 1776 THOMAS-JEFFERSON-DECLARATION-of-INDEPENDENCE1776 AMERICAN FLAG 1776
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Statesman Thomas Jefferson
Author, Immortal USA Declaration of Independence'
AMERIPEDIA Thomas Jefferson: His Personal "TRIBUTE to DECLARATION of INDEPENDENCE

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U.S. Supreme Court Decision:
(Unanimous Decision!) "THIS IS A CHRISTIAN NATION!"
Trinity vs. New York, 143 US 457, 36 L ed 226,

Thomas Jefferson!
"Most Misunderstood" Founding Father!
Some say Non-Christian for REJECTING Christ's Divinity
(He believed like Jehovah's Witnesses: Not Mainstream but Christian!)
THOMAS-JEFFERSON-SIGNATURE

However, multitudes of Christians IN ALL AGES saw
Christ as "PERFECT MAN" the "SECOND ADAM" Rom 5:6-16
Worshipping Christ as SAVIOUR and KING, but not DIVINE!( Arianism)

    FACT! President Jefferson STARTED Church in the US Capitol Building!

    FACT! He JOINED it the same weekend he wrote SEPARATION CHURCH-STATE letter!

    FACT! Jefferson ALLOWED several groups to have Church in the US Capitol!

    FACT! He oversaw other Churches in the US TREASURY and SUPREME COURT!

    FACT! Jefferson hired MARINE BAND to play each Lord's Day...

    FACT! ... And paid them with TAX DOLLARS!

    FACT! FEW - WHO EVER LIVED - were better Disciples of Christ than Thomas Jefferson!

For Many More, See this THOMAS JEFFERSON "FACT SHEET!"

Jefferson, Joins, Supports, Leads Church in US Capitol: FOOTNOTES [1-43]

Capitol Church Photos on OFFICIAL US GOV WEBSITE

President James Madison Joined Jefferson's Capitol Church!
Jefferson, Madison Belong to Church in US Capitol: FOOTNOTE [14]
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Don't be Fooled by "Willfully Blind", Atheist, Anti-Christian, "Deceived-and-Deceiving" College Professors,


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BRIEFS: MODERN MARTYRS (COLUMBINE!)
These Girls Shot/Died for Faith in Christ!
(CLICK PICS FOR STORY)

PERPETUA-PHOTO.jpg KACEY-RUEGSEGGER-COLUMBINE-VICTIM CASSIE-BERNALL-COLUMBINE-MARTYR-PHOTO Anna-Charboniere-Tortured-LARGE RACHEL-JOY-SCOTT-COLUMBINE-MARTYR-Book-PHOTO VALEEN-SCHNURR-COLUMBINE-VICTIM-PHOTO CASSIE-BERNALL-COLUMBINE-GRADUATE-PHOTO
Perpetua, K. Rueggsegger, C. Bernall, A. Charboniere,R. Scott, V. Schnurr, Cassie!

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BRIEFS: AMERICAN CHRISTIAN EDUCATORS:
These Men Founded Christian Universities!
(CLICK PICS FOR STORY)

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B. Jones, O. Roberts, L. Roberson, J. Falwell, J. Hyles, A. Horton, P. Robertson

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BRIEFS: AMERICAN CHRISTIAN PASTORS:
These Men Founded Great Churches-Ministries!
(CLICK PICS FOR STORY)

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Tony Evans, T.D. Jakes, Creflo Dollar, Fred Price, "HUTCH!", Charles Blake

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BRIEFS: AMERICA'S HISPANIC LEADERS!
These Leaders Are Changing Your World!
(CLICK PICS FOR STORY)

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M. Rubio....S. Martinez...L. Palau...G. Maldonado...K. Guilfoyle...W. de Jesus

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These People Want to be Your New President!
(CLICK PICS FOR STORY)

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Newt Gingrich...Rick Santorum...Michele Bachmann...Mitt Romney...Ron Paul

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BRIEFS: AFRICAN-AMERICAN FEMALE LEADERS!
These Leaders Are Changing Your World!
(CLICK PICS FOR STORY)

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S. Parker...G. Brigitte...A McGlowan...H. Faulkner...A. Holmes...K. Watts;

SKULL and BONES Homosexuality Shortens Lifespan 20 to 25 Years!SKULL and BONES

SELF-CONFESSED LISTS:

HOMO & PRO-HOMO SODOMITES: PASTORS, MINISTERS, LEADERS

LESBIAN and PRO-LESBIAN PASTORS, CHAPLAINS, LEADERS

(Has YOUR "Spiritual Leader" COME OUT?)

AMERIPEDIA: George Washington on HOMOSEXUALITY

Early Church OUTLAWS HOMOSEXUALITY in Roman Empire!

"DID YOU KNOW?
EVERY REVIVAL in Bible Began by Removing SODOMITES!
1 Kin 14:24, 1 Kin 15:15, 1 Kin 22:6, 2 Kin 23:7,
(OBEDIENCE, Deut 23:17, NOT PRAYER, Brings REVIVAL!)
SKULL and BONESSODOMITES: Acceptance is SIN, Approval is BLASPHEMY! SKULL and BONES

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These People Decide What's Happening!
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Rick Warren...Miss Home School...Charles Payne...H. L. Gates Jr....Carrie Prejean;

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NewtonStein:
 Web's Largest "INSPIRED-INERRANT" Bible Resource;
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"HAECKEL'S DRAWINGS" FRAUD In SCIENCE!

Haeckel's Imaginary Drawings: 100 Years of Error!

The 40-Year “Piltdown Man Hoax!”

The "Nebraska Man" becomes a "Pig's Tooth!"

10 Scientific Frauds that Rocked the World!

Global Warming Hoax (Hundreds of Articles!)

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"GENESIS-1" TRUTH In SCIENCE!

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The Greatest Encyclopedia, By Worldly Standards!
The Most Dangerous Encyclopedia, by Christian-Patriotic Standards!

"WIKIPEDIA (WIKED-PEDIA?) WARNING!"

FACT: Wiki Philosophy: ATHEIST, ANTI-CHRISTIAN, ANTI-BIBLE;
FACT: We Recognize Wikipedia's Great Success . . . BUT
URGE YOU NOT TO TRUST THEIR ANTI-CHRISTIAN BIAS!

Take a Moment and Check how OUTRAGEOUS!

WIKIPEDIA: ANTI-AMERICA, ANTI-BIBLE, ANTI-CHRIST!
WIKI “TRIPLE XXX-RATED For Your CHILDREN!”
WIKIPEDIA FOUNDER JIMMY WALES, CELEBRATED ATHEIST

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What Is
The WORD of GOD?
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Statement On The Holy Scriptures;
‘Lens’ Through Which ALL Knowledge Is Understood;

THE WORD of GOD, AXIOM-1:
    "IF" there exists any such thing as 'The Word of God'; [and ALL evidence proves such does exist:]

    "THEN" by inherent definition - it must be "GOD-BREATHED!"

      (Holy, Inspired, Inerrant, Intrepid, Infallible, Infinitive, Invincible, Indestructible, Inexhaustible, Inalienable, Immutable, Implacable, Impossible-to-Improve: Eternal and Indubitable - NEVER FAILING - and ALL CONQUERING!)

      DEDUCTING the above from the simple fact: That GOD EQUATES HIS WORD WITH HIMSELF!

        "In the Beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God, . . ." John 1:1 (and other Scriptures),
    Thus 'GOD'S WORD' can have no lesser standard than that stated;


    "GOD'S WORD MUST" THEREFORE BE:

      As true in history, archeology, geography, Earth science, medical science, nutrition, gerontology, agriculture, botany, astronomy, physics, chemistry, climatology, government, law, psychology, sociology - and every subject it touches - as in Theology, Divinity and Doctrine:

    And "IF IT BE NOT" - true in ALL subjects mentioned above; and And "IF IT BE NOT"

      Holy, Inspired, Inerrant, Intrepid, Infallible, Infinitive, Invincible, Indestructible, Inexhaustible, Inalienable, Immutable, Implacable, Impossible-to-Improve: Eternal and Indubitable in EVERY FIELD OF KNOWLEDGE:
    Whatever else such writing may be, it cannot be ‘The Incomparable Word’ of the Great Creator God!

God's Eternal Guarantee!
"Heaven and Earth Shall Pass Away;
But 'MY WORDS', SHALL NOT, PASS AWAY!"

-- Jesus of Nazareth, "The Messiah!" AD-33 (Matthew 5:18)

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"God's Goals"

For This World! Right Now! Today!

(Christ taught us to Pray! Matt 6:10, Luke 11:2)

Does God Achieve His Goals?
OR, does Satan achieve his goals?

(All Teaching and Commentary from "INSPIRED-INERRANT!" View of Scripture!)

THE MOST IMPORTANT "3-QUESTION QUIZ" - EVER!

    The Adversary’s Goals:

    SCRIPTURE: "The ‘Devil’ ... walketh about seeking whom he may DEVOUR."   1 Pet 5:8

    SCRIPTURE: "The ‘Thief’ (Devil) cometh not, but for to steal, to kill and to DESTROY." John 10:10

      QUESTION: Do you Believe the Devil Succeeds?___ Or Fails?___

    God the Father’s Goals:

    SCRIPTURE: "For God sent NOT His Son into the world TO CONDEMN the world, but that THE WORLD though Him might BE SAVED! John 3:16 John 3:17

    SCRIPTURE: "Beloved, be NOT ignorant of this ONE THING, ...The Lord is... NOT WILLING that ANYshould perish, but that ALL should come to REPENTANCE. 2 Pet 3:9

      QUESTION: Do you Believe Father God Succeeds?___ Or Fails?___

    God the Son’s Goals:

    SCRIPTURE: "For the Son of Man is come to seek and to SAVE that which is lost!" Luk 19:10 "For I came NOT to judge the world, but to SAVE the world. John 12:47

    SCRIPTURE: "And I, if I be lifted up from the Earth, I WILL DRAW ALL men unto Me." John 12:32

      QUESTION: Do you Believe God the Son (Jesus Christ): Succeeds?___ Or Fails?___ center>

    God the Spirit’s Goals:

    SCRIPTURE: Jesus declares: "'I ’WILL’' send Him (Holy Spirit) unto you, and when He is come 'He ’WILL’' testify of Me: John 14:26

    SCRIPTURE: "He ’WILL’ reprove the world [convict, convince, correct] of sin, of righteousness, and of judgment: John 16:7

    SCRIPTURE: (1)Of Sin, because they believe not on me; ... (2) Of Righteousness, because I go to my Father; ...(3)Of Judgment, because the 'Prince of this World' IS JUDGED![A] John 16:8-10

      QUESTION: Do you believe God the Spirit Succeeds?___ Or Fails?___

      Who Achieves STATED GOALS? GODHEAD or Satan?

      If you believe

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    The "Inerrant Word of God!" Declares

    "These things have I WRITTEN unto you who BELIEVE,
    THAT YE MAY KNOW that ye have Eternal Life." 1 John 5:13

    So How Can We Know?

    Dearest Visitor!
    People PRAY 'ROUND-THE-CLOCK' for ALL who VISIT THIS PAGE!
    We BEG of YOU - TODAY - to "M-E-M-O-R-I-Z-E!" this SCRIPTURE!

    "These things have I written unto you who BELIEVE,
    THAT YE MAY KNOW That ye HAVEETERNAL LIFE!" 1 John 5:13

    Let's Break it Down!
    "These things have I WRITTEN (Absolute, Unchangable Forever!)
    Unto You who BELIEVE, (BELIEVE! Plus Nothing! Minus Nothing!)
    THAT YE MAY K-N-O-W! (NOT 'Hope', 'Wish', 'Think', 'Suppose', etc.,)
    That ye HAVE! (NOT "WILL HAVE"...SOMEDAY! But HAVE NOW!)
    Eternal Life!"(You "Receive" Christ, He comes into Your HEART PROMISING!
    "I WILL NEVER LEAVE YOU NOR FORSAKE YOU!" Heb 13:5

    YOU invite Christ in; HE GUARANTEES: "I WILL NEVER LEAVE'!" IT'S SETTLED!

    FACT!
    You know "IF" you believe that Jesus Christ died on the Cross:
    For the sins of all humanity! (Including your own!);

    FACT!
    "IF" You DO BELIEVE, You have, ETERNAL LIFE NOW! For SURE! For EVER!

    PLEASE CLICK IF YOU BELIEVE
    I DO BELIEVE!
    ETERNAL LIFE KNOWN FOR SURE IN THIS LIFE! 1 John 5:13

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    Many Fine Bible Scholars seem unaware,
    Of Christ's Great Parable covering the whole Church Age,
    From His Sowing First Seed to His Great End-Time Harvest of Souls!
    And Final Judgment of the Unsaved and their Damnation;
    To Christ’s Presence with us and The Eternal Kingdom!

    (See Greatest Parable on End of Times!)

    Christ’s Greatest Parable on End of Times: Brief Overview

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      To Use Page EFFICIENTLY;

    ** To SEARCH for any Word, Topic or Scripture ON THIS WEBSITE, use the GOLD-BOX SITE SEARCH near top of page: 600,000 pages available 1-1-2012, from Cambridge Theological Seminary Archives;

    ** To SEARCH for any word, subject or Scripture on this SINGULAR-WEB-PAGE you are now on, (which may be from 100-3,000 regular notebook sized pages), do as follows:

      [1] At TOP TOOLBAR on Monitor, "CLICK EDIT" then "FIND"

      [2] Type in SEARCH WORD, Phrase, Scripture, etc.,

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    DEAR FRIEND!
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    Switch to "MASTER PAGE" 1,000 GRAPHICS
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    CHRISTIPEDIA

    SECOND GREAT AWAKENING;

    BRIEF OVERVIEW, SUPER-CONDENSED;

    (All NewtonStein "INSPIRED-INERRANT" Bible View!)

    AMERICAN FLAG DRAPE LEFT THESIS, TOPIC: The Second Great Awakening, was from roughly 1820 to 1860. What is known for sure is that the many splinters of it spotlighted the evils of slavery to be INTOLERABLE . . .

    . . . and led to the Civil War that ended slavery in the USA!

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    Inspired, Inerrant Word of God!

    THREE REASONS TO HOME SCHOOL: VIOLENCE, SEX-DISEASE, DRUGS!

    SECOND GREAT AWAKENING, BRIEF OVERVIEW;

    NEWT-NOTE: INTRO;

      [NEWT-NOTE: Please realize in all such "Historical Periods" . . . they are rarely ever "clean-cut" eras. Often there is overlap, and always disagreement as to:

        >> WHEN an era begins?

        >> WHEN did it end?

        >> HOW do you know?

        >> BASED on what definitions?

        >> WITH WHAT reasons and logic?

        >> WITH WHAT ABSOLUTE EVIDENCE?

      This is true of the Ten Roman persecutions, as some NOT so-named martryred very few less than some named!

      This is true of the extremely popular but totally lacking in evidence the SEVEN CHURCH AGES! (EVERYONE since it's inception has believed their generation was the wicked, cold dead backslidden Laodicean Era of the Last Age - EVEN THOSE OF THE REFORMATION, FIRST and SECOND GREAT AWAKENINGS!

      Today in the 21st century we look back and consider those eras the times of GREAT REVIVAL and moving of God!

      NO one agrees . . . when any era begins and ends . . . or even how to decide or define such eras!~

        ALWAYS remember this when reading any historian's description of anything . . . secular or spiritual . . . from the Revolutionary War and Civil War eras of the USA to the rise and fall of Communism, etc.

      A great example of in accuracy, why was the REFORMATION not called the FIRST GREAT AWAKENING? (1500's) And the Puritan-Pilgrim Era the SECOND (1600's)

      Then the Wesley-Whitefield-Edwards era the THIRD (1700's), with Finney-Campbell-Spurgeon the FOURTH (1800's), . . . and as some consider the pentecostal-charismatic (1900's) and some say we are in a GREAT AWAKENING EVEN AS WE WITNESS THE GREAT AMERICAN DECLINE . . .

        . . .as Christianity becomes predominately THIRD-WORLD, NON-WHITE, NON-ENGLISH (More Christians Speak Spanish natively than any other language - 2,000's)

        In the USA this awakening - as EVERY established denomination suffers stagnation or decline and the nation becomes rabidly secular and sinful - would be Independent-Bible-Community Churches with the TEA-PARTY GOD-&-COUNTRY PATRIOTS Politically!

      Keep in mind in the Reformation and great awakenings, the activists DID NOT KNOW they were the leaders-founders of a particular movement, not knowing the full effects of their lives, ministries, or martyrdoms.

      The Reformation DID NOT begin on a "particular day or event - neither with a particular person." The Reformers or Wakening Leaders did not know they were the leaders of something huge.

      Martin Luther was little different from his mentor Karlstadt, who had 151 these which he posted for the Catholic Church to explain (from which it seems Luther plagiarized!!!).

      LIKEWISE, George Whitefield and John Wesley DID NOT KNOW they were precipitating the FIRST GREAT AWAKENING

      In fact, as Wesley was stoned, beaten hated, despised and rejected - HE HAD NO IDEA he was having a tremendous effect on the whole of Britain and Christendom!

        By the time of Wesley's death, 0ne-of-six Briton's were members of Wesley's organization. This would be like a modern movement in the USA starting at ZERO and gaining 52 MILLION MEMBERS IN THE FIRST GENERATION!

        This makes our GREATEST SUCCESS STORIES - say a Joel Osteen with 50,000 members, Rick Warrne with 30,000, or even Paul David Yonggi Cho of South Korea with 750,000 members VERY SMALL INDEED . . .

        . . .considering that Wesley had NONE of the modern ministry magnifiers. Wesley has NO RADIO, TV, COMPUTER-INTERNET, ELECTRICITY, GAS-HEATED-AIR-CONDITIONED BUILDINGS; NO P.A. SYSTEMS, MAIL was super slow and EXPENSIVE, NO LARGE TENTS . . . and NO AUTO TRAVEL, AIR TRAVEL, BUS-TRAINS, ETC.,

        Instead, Wesley rode on a HORSE several hours a day . . . Wesley READ while riding his horse, and WROTE books and letters while riding his horse . . . and even SLEPT while riding his horse!


      Wesley wrote over 300 books, thousands of sermons, and ordained over 500 new ministers, oversaw care for thousands of orphans and literally millions of new converts!

      MOST AMAZINGLY . . . Wesley did NOT believe in LOSING PERSONAL SALVATION . . . DID Believe in immediate KNOW-SO-SALVATION based on Scripture . . . and DID NOT preach the doctrine for which he is famous - CHRISTIAN PERFECTION of HEART until in his 80's . . .

      . . . did NOT consider it a major concept at all and said there might only be a half-dozen such person with a perfect heart (not head-mind-tongue!) toward God!

      See Three Wesley Quotes FOR Absolute Eternal Security!

      Similarly, Whitefield traveling the small towns and rural venues of America's 13 Colonies never ever heard the words "FIRST GREAT AWAKENING!"

      Furthermore, names given to any historic era are rarely accurate.

      EXAMPLE: Why was the Reformation not called the FIRST Great Awakening!

      EXAMPLE: The second Great Awakening gave Birth to Mormons, Jehovah's Witnesses, 7th Day Adventists, Christin Scientists, Churches of Christ Baptismal Regeneration, plus "Millerites", "Campbellites", "Russellites" "Darbyites"

      Furthermore, in most any era, the leading figures WOULD NOT EVEN SPEAK TO EACH OTHER . . .

      . . . from Martin Luther-Thomas Muntzer-John Calvin-Jacob Arminius . . . to Wesley and Whitefield . . . to Finney-Spurgeon . . .Moody-Sunday . . . to Oral Roberts-Billy Graham . . . Jerry Falwell-Jack Hyles . . . and many, many more.

      Keeping these things in mind, here is ONE ACCOUNT of what is called the Second Great Awakening!

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    SECOND GREAT AWAKENING;

    BRIEF OVERVIEW, SUPER-CONDENSED;

    (All NewtonStein "INSPIRED-INERRANT" Bible View!)

    AMERICAN FLAG DRAPE LEFT THESIS, TOPIC: The Second Great Awakening, was from roughly 1820 to 1860. What is known for sure is that the many splinters of it spotlighted the evils of slavery to be INTOLERABLE . . .

    . . . and led to the Civil War that ended slavery in the USA!

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    SECOND GREAT AWAKENING, BRIEF OVERVIEW;

      The Second Great Awakening was a Christian revival movement during the early 19th century in the United States with a somewhat counterpart followed by Charles Spurgeon in England.

      The movement began around 1800, had begun to gain full momentum by 1820, and was in decline by 1870 after Civil War ended slavery[1]

      The Second Great Awakening expressed Arminian theology - that NO ONE was predestined to Hell-fire -

      The millions of new members, and led to the formation of new denominations.

      Many converts believed that the Awakening heralded a new millennial age. The Second Great Awakening stimulated the establishment of many reform movements designed to remedy the evils of society before the Second Coming of Jesus Christ.[2]

      During the Second Great Awakening, church membership rose sharply.

      Spread of revivals

      Burned-over districtUpstate New York was called the "Burned-over district" because of the numerous revivals that crisscrossed the region.[3][4]On the frontier the Awakening supported growth of the Methodists and Baptists.

      Baptists and Methodist revivals were also successful in some parts of the Tidewater, where an increasing number of plain folk (and slaves) were converted. Revivalists techniques were based on the camp meeting, with its Scottish Presbyterian roots.[5]

      AdventismThe Advent Movement emerged in the 1830s and 1840s in North America, and was preached by ministers such as William Miller, whose followers became known as Millerites. The name refers to belief in the soon Second Advent of Jesus (popularly known as the Second coming) and resulted in several major religious denominations, including Seventh-day Adventists and Advent Christians.[6]

    GOLD DIVIDER WITH CROSS CENTER
    CHRISTIPEDIA

    SECOND GREAT AWAKENING;

    BRIEF OVERVIEW, SUPER-CONDENSED;

    (All NewtonStein "INSPIRED-INERRANT" Bible View!)

    AMERICAN FLAG DRAPE LEFT THESIS, TOPIC: The Second Great Awakening, was from roughly 1820 to 1860. What is known for sure is that the many splinters of it spotlighted the evils of slavery to be INTOLERABLE . . .

    . . . and led to the Civil War that ended slavery in the USA!

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    SECOND GREAT AWAKENING, BRIEF OVERVIEW;

      Church membership soars

      1839 Methodist camp meetingThe Methodist circuit riders and local Baptist preachers made enormous gains; to a lesser extent the Presbyterians gained members.

      Among the new denominations that were rooted in the religious ferment of the Second Great Awakening are the Churches of Christ, Christian Church (Disciples of Christ), The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (nicknamed the Mormons), the Seventh-day Adventist Church, the Cumberland Presbyterian Church and the Evangelical Christian Church in Canada.[7][8]

      Frontier

      In the newly settled frontier regions, the revival was implemented through camp meetings, which often was the first contact the settlers had with organized religion. The camp meeting was a religious service of several days' length with multiple preachers. Settlers in thinly populated areas gathered at the camp meeting for fellowship.

      The sheer exhilaration of participating in a religious revival with crowds of hundreds and perhaps thousands of people inspired the dancing, shouting, and singing associated with these events.

      The revivals followed an arc of great emotional power, with an emphasis of the individual's sins and need to turn to Christ, restored by a sense of personal salvation. Upon their return home, most converts joined or created small local churches, which grew rapidly.[9]

      One of the early camp meetings took place in July 1800 at Gasper River Church in southwestern Kentucky. A much larger gathering was held at Cane Ridge, Kentucky, in 1801, attracting perhaps as many as 20,000 people. Numerous Presbyterian, Baptist and Methodist ministers participated in the services.

      Thanks to such leaders as Barton W. Stone (1772–1844) and Alexander Campbell (1788–1866), the camp meeting revival became a major mode of church expansion for denominations such as the Methodists and Baptists.

      The Cumberland Presbyterian Church emerged in Kentucky. Cane Ridge was also instrumental in fostering what became known as the Restoration Movement. This was made up of non-denominational churches committed to what they saw as the original, fundamental Christianity of the New Testament.

      They were committed to individuals' achieving a personal relationship with Christ. Churches with roots in this movement include the Churches of Christ, Christian Church (Disciples of Christ), Evangelical Christian Church in Canada[7] and the Christian churches and churches of Christ.[10]

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    SECOND GREAT AWAKENING;

    BRIEF OVERVIEW, SUPER-CONDENSED;

    (All NewtonStein "INSPIRED-INERRANT" Bible View!)

    AMERICAN FLAG DRAPE LEFT THESIS, TOPIC: The Second Great Awakening, was from roughly 1820 to 1860. What is known for sure is that the many splinters of it spotlighted the evils of slavery to be INTOLERABLE . . .

    . . . and led to the Civil War that ended slavery in the USA!

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    SECOND GREAT AWAKENING, BRIEF OVERVIEW;

      Restoration Movement

      Further information: Restorationism (Christian primitivism)The idea of restoring a "primitive" form of Christianity grew in popularity in the U.S. after the American Revolution.[11]:89–94 This desire to restore a purer form of Christianity played a role in the development of many groups during the Second Great Awakening, including the Mormons, Baptists and Shakers.[11]:89

      Several factors made the restoration sentiment particularly appealing during this time period.[11]:90–94

      • To immigrants in the early 19th century, the land in America seemed pristine, edenic and undefiled – "the perfect place to recover pure, uncorrupted and original Christianity" – and the tradition-bound European churches seemed out of place in this new setting.[11]:90

      • A primitive faith based on the Bible alone promised a way to sidestep the competing claims of all the many denominations available and find assurance of being right without the security of an established national church.[11]:93The Restoration Movement began during, and was greatly influenced by, the Second Great Awakening.[12]:368

      While the leaders of one of the two primary groups making up this movement, Thomas Campbell and Alexander Campbell, resisted what they saw as the spiritual manipulation of the camp meetings, it was an important factor in the development of the other major branch, led by Barton W. Stone.[12]:368

      The Southern phase of the Awakening "was an important matrix of Barton Stone's reform movement" and shaped the evangelistic techniques used by both Stone and the Campbells.[12]:368

      Culture and society

      Congregationalists set up missionary societies to evangelize the western territory of the northern tier. Members of these groups acted as apostles for the faith and also as educators and exponents of northeastern urban culture. Publication and education societies promoted Christian education; most notable among them was the American Bible Society, founded in 1816.

      Social activism influence abolition groups and supporters of the Temperance movement. They began efforts to reform prisons and care for the handicapped and mentally ill. They believed in the perfectibility of people and were highly moralistic in their endeavors.

      The Second Great Awakening served as an "organizing process" that created "a religious and educational infrastructure" across the western frontier that encompassed social networks, a religious journalism that provided mass communication, and church related colleges.[12]:368

    GOLD DIVIDER WITH CROSS CENTER
    CHRISTIPEDIA

    SECOND GREAT AWAKENING;

    BRIEF OVERVIEW, SUPER-CONDENSED;

    (All NewtonStein "INSPIRED-INERRANT" Bible View!)

    AMERICAN FLAG DRAPE LEFT THESIS, TOPIC: The Second Great Awakening, was from roughly 1820 to 1860. What is known for sure is that the many splinters of it spotlighted the evils of slavery to be INTOLERABLE . . .

    . . . and led to the Civil War that ended slavery in the USA!

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    THREE REASONS TO HOME SCHOOL: VIOLENCE, SEX-DISEASE, DRUGS!

    SECOND GREAT AWAKENING, BRIEF OVERVIEW;

      Ritual and theology

      Long (2002) notes that since the 1980s, scholars have connected American religious camp meetings to Scottish holy fairs of the 17th–18th centuries. Formerly they were thought to have originated in the unique conditions of the American frontier experience. The great wave of Scots-Irish immigrants to the colonies before the American Revolution brought such traditions with them.

      Long examines the sacramental theology in communion sermons given by James McGready in Kentucky during the first decade of the 19th century. McGready's sermons demonstrated adherence to reformed theology, a Calvinist understanding of salvation, and a sacramental emphasis. A central theme of McGready's sermons was that of believers' meeting Christ at the communion table.

    "Black Revival" (African American Slaves)
      Baptists and Methodists in the South preached to slaveholders and slaves alike.

      Conversions and congregations started with the First Great Awakening, resulting in Baptist and Methodist preachers being authorized among slaves and free blacks more than a decade before 1800. Early congregations were formed among slaves and free blacks in South Carolina and Virginia.

      Especially in the Baptist Church, blacks were welcomed in multiple roles. By the early 19th century, there were independent black congregations numbering in the several hundred in some cities of the South, such as Charleston, South Carolina Richmond and Petersburg, Virginia.[13]

      With the growth in congregations and churches, Baptist associations formed in Virginia, for instance, as well as Kentucky and other states.

      The revival also inspired slaves to demand freedom. In 1800, out of black revival meetings in Virginia, a plan for slave rebellion was devised by Gabriel Prosser, although the rebellion was discovered and crushed before it started. [14]

      Despite white attempts to control independent black congregations, especially after the Nat Turner Uprising of 1831, a number of black congregations managed to maintain their separation, even when laws passed requiring them always to have a white man present at their worship meetings.[15]

    GOLD DIVIDER WITH CROSS CENTER
    CHRISTIPEDIA

    SECOND GREAT AWAKENING;

    BRIEF OVERVIEW, SUPER-CONDENSED;

    (All NewtonStein "INSPIRED-INERRANT" Bible View!)

    AMERICAN FLAG DRAPE LEFT THESIS, TOPIC: The Second Great Awakening, was from roughly 1820 to 1860. What is known for sure is that the many splinters of it spotlighted the evils of slavery to be INTOLERABLE . . .

    . . . and led to the Civil War that ended slavery in the USA!

    CHRISTIAN FLAG WAVING   AMERICAN-FLAG-WHITE-BIBLE AMERICAN FLAG WAVING AMERICAN

    Inspired, Inerrant Word of God!

    THREE REASONS TO HOME SCHOOL: VIOLENCE, SEX-DISEASE, DRUGS!

    SECOND GREAT AWAKENING, BRIEF OVERVIEW;

      Prominent figures

      • Richard Allen, African Methodist Episcopal Church

      • Lyman Beecher, Presbyterian

      • Alexander Campbell, Presbyterian, then early leader of the Restoration Movement

      • Thomas Campbell Presbyterian, then early leader of the Restoration Movement (Father of Alexander, wee Barton Stone below)

      • Peter Cartwright, Methodist

      • Lorenzo Dow, Methodist

      • Timothy Dwight IV, Congregationalist

      • Charles Finney, Presbyterian, but anti-Calvinist

      • William Miller, Millerism, forerunner of Adventism

      • Asahel Nettleton, Reformed

      • Barton Stone, Presbyterian non-Calvinist, then early leader of the Restoration Movement (Joined Alexander Campbell to form the Church of Christ, non-instrumental; with Disciples of Christ and the "Christian Church" movement)

      • James Brainerd Taylor (no relation to Nathaniel William Taylor), Reformed, mentored by Asahel Nettleton

      • Nathaniel William Taylor, heterodox Calvinist

      • Ellen G. White, Seventh-day Adventist Church

      The great revival quickly spread throughout Kentucky, Tennessee and southern Ohio.

      Each denomination had assets that allowed it to thrive on the frontier. The Methodists had an efficient organization that depended on ministers known as circuit riders, who sought out people in remote frontier locations. The circuit riders came from among the common people, which helped them establish rapport with the frontier families they hoped to convert.

      The Second Great Awakening exercised a profound impact on American religious history. The numerical strength of the Baptists and Methodists rose relative to that of the denominations dominant in the colonial period—the Anglicans, Presbyterians, Congregationalists, and Reformed. Efforts to apply Christian teaching to the resolution of social problems presaged the Social Gospel of the late 19th century.

      The United States was becoming a more culturally diverse nation in the early-to-mid-19th century, and the growing differences within American Protestantism reflected and contributed to this diversity. The Awakening influenced numerous reform movements, especially abolitionists.

      Political implications

      In the midst of shifts in theology and church polity, American Christians took it upon themselves to reform society during this period. Known commonly as antebellum reform, this phenomenon included reforms in temperance, womens' rights, abolitionism, and a multitude of other questions faced by society.[16]

      The religious enthusiasm of the Second Great Awakening was echoed by the new political enthusiasm of the Second Party System .[17]

      Historians stress the understanding common among participants of reform as being a part of God's plan. As a result, local churches saw their roles in society in purifying the world through the individuals to whom they could bring salvation, and through changes in the law and the creation of institutions.

      Interest in transforming the world was applied to mainstream political action, as temperance activists, antislavery advocates, and proponents of other variations of reform sought to implement their beliefs into national politics.

      While religion had previously played an important role on the American political scene, the Second Great Awakening highlighted the important role which individual beliefs would play.[2]

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    SECOND GREAT AWAKENING;

    BRIEF OVERVIEW, SUPER-CONDENSED;

    (All NewtonStein "INSPIRED-INERRANT" Bible View!)

    AMERICAN FLAG DRAPE LEFT THESIS, TOPIC: The Second Great Awakening, was from roughly 1820 to 1860. What is known for sure is that the many splinters of it spotlighted the evils of slavery to be INTOLERABLE . . .

    . . . and led to the Civil War that ended slavery in the USA!

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    SECOND GREAT AWAKENING, BRIEF OVERVIEW;

      See also

      • Abolitionism

      • Adventist

      • Advent Christian Church

      • Seventh-day Adventist Church

      • Burned-over district

      • Christian revival

      • Christianity in the 19th century

      • First Great Awakening

      • William Miller (preacher)

      • Millerites

      • Restoration Movement

      • Temperance movement

      • Third Great Awakening

      • Fourth Great Awakening

      Background

      Four Marks of the Church

      Early Christianity • Timeline

      History of Christianity

      Theology

      Ecclesiastical polity

      Trinitarianism

      Nontrinitarianism

      Christian primitivism

      Christology • Mariology

      Biblical Canon - (Deuterocanonical and Apocryphal books)

      Creeds

      Apostles' • Nicene

      Chalcedonian • Athanasian

      Patristic theology and Councils

      Church Fathers • Augustine

      Nicaea • Chalcedon

      Ephesus

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    SECOND GREAT AWAKENING;

    BRIEF OVERVIEW, SUPER-CONDENSED;

    (All NewtonStein "INSPIRED-INERRANT" Bible View!)

    AMERICAN FLAG DRAPE LEFT THESIS, TOPIC: The Second Great Awakening, was from roughly 1820 to 1860. What is known for sure is that the many splinters of it spotlighted the evils of slavery to be INTOLERABLE . . .

    . . . and led to the Civil War that ended slavery in the USA!

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    SECOND GREAT AWAKENING, BRIEF OVERVIEW;

    Post-Nicene development, POST AD-325;

    Heresy • Monophysitism

    Monothelitism

    Iconoclasm • Gregory I

    Alcuin • Photios

    East-West Schism

    Scholasticism

    Aquinas • Anselm

    William of Ockham

    Gregory Palamas

    Old Believers

    Reformation, 1500-1700

    Protestant Reformation

    Luther • Melanchthon

    Indulgences • Justification

    Sola fide • 95 Theses

    Book of Concord

    Predestination • Calvinism

    Arminianism

    English Reformation

    Counter-Reformation

    Trent

    Since the Reformation

    Pietism • Revivalism

    John Wesley

    Great Awakenings

    Holiness movement

    Restoration Movement

    Existentialism • Liberalism

    Modernism (Roman Catholicism)

    Postmodernism • Vatican II

    Radical orthodoxy

    Jean-Luc Marion

    Hermeneutics

    Deconstruction and religion

    Liberation Theology

    Christian Anarchism

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    CHRISTIPEDIA

    SECOND GREAT AWAKENING;

    BRIEF OVERVIEW, SUPER-CONDENSED;

    (All NewtonStein "INSPIRED-INERRANT" Bible View!)

    AMERICAN FLAG DRAPE LEFT THESIS, TOPIC: The Second Great Awakening, was from roughly 1820 to 1860. What is known for sure is that the many splinters of it spotlighted the evils of slavery to be INTOLERABLE . . .

    . . . and led to the Civil War that ended slavery in the USA!

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    Inspired, Inerrant Word of God!

    THREE REASONS TO HOME SCHOOL: VIOLENCE, SEX-DISEASE, DRUGS!

    SECOND GREAT AWAKENING, BRIEF OVERVIEW;

      References

      1. ^ http://encyclopedia.farlex.com/Second+Great+Awakening

      2. ^ a b Timothy L. Smith, Revivalism and Social Reform: American Protestantism on the Eve of the Civil War (1957)

      3. ^ Whitney R. Cross, The Burned-over District: The Social and Intellectual History of Enthusiastic Religion in Western New York, 1800-1850 (1951)

      4. ^ Judith Wellman, Grassroots Reform in the Burned-over District of Upstate New York: Religion, Abolitionism, and Democracy (2000) excerpt and text search

      5. ^ On Scottish influences see Long (2002) and Elizabeth Semancik, "Backcountry Religious Ways" at [1]

      6. ^ Gary Land, Adventism in America: A History (1998)

      7. ^ a b Sydney E. Ahlstrom, A Religious History of the American People (2004)

      8. ^ Melton's Encyclopedia of American Religions (2009)

      9. ^ Dickson D. Bruce, Jr., And They All Sang Hallelujah: Plain Folk Camp-Meeting Religion, 1800–1845, (1974)

      10. ^ Douglas Foster, et al., he Encyclopedia of the Stone-Campbell Movement (2005)

      11. ^ a b c d e C. Leonard Allen and Richard T. Hughes, "Discovering Our Roots: The Ancestry of the Churches of Christ," Abilene Christian University Press, 1988, ISBN 0-89112-006-8

      12. ^ a b c d Douglas Allen Foster and Anthony L. Dunnavant, The Encyclopedia of the Stone-Campbell Movement: Christian Church (Disciples of Christ), Christian Churches/Churches of Christ, Churches of Christ, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 2004, ISBN 0-8028-3898-7, 9780802838988, 854 pages, entry on Great Awakenings

      13. ^ Albert J. Raboteau, Slave Religion: The 'Invisible Institution' in the Antebellum South, New York: Oxford University Press, 2004, p. 137, accessed 27 Dec 2008

      14. ^ Alan Brinkley, The Unfinished Nation, p 168

      15. ^ Albert J. Raboteau, Slave Religion: The 'Invisible Institution' in the Antebellum South, New York: Oxford University Press, 2004, accessed 27 Dec 2008

      16. ^ Alice Felt Tyler, Freedom's Ferment: Phases of American Social History from the Colonial Period to the Outbreak of the Civil War (1944)

      17. ^ Stephen Meardon, "From Religious Revivals to Tariff Rancor: Preaching Free Trade and Protection during the Second American Party System," History of Political Economy, Winter 2008 Supplement, Vol. 40, pp 265-298

    GOLD DIVIDER WITH CROSS CENTER
    CHRISTIPEDIA

    SECOND GREAT AWAKENING;

    BRIEF OVERVIEW, SUPER-CONDENSED;

    (All NewtonStein "INSPIRED-INERRANT" Bible View!)

    AMERICAN FLAG DRAPE LEFT THESIS, TOPIC: The Second Great Awakening, was from roughly 1820 to 1860. What is known for sure is that the many splinters of it spotlighted the evils of slavery to be INTOLERABLE . . .

    . . . and led to the Civil War that ended slavery in the USA!

    CHRISTIAN FLAG WAVING   AMERICAN-FLAG-WHITE-BIBLE AMERICAN FLAG WAVING AMERICAN

    Inspired, Inerrant Word of God!

    THREE REASONS TO HOME SCHOOL: VIOLENCE, SEX-DISEASE, DRUGS!

    SECOND GREAT AWAKENING, BRIEF OVERVIEW;

    Further reading

    • Abzug, Robert H. Cosmos Crumbling: American Reform and the Religious Imagination (1994) (ISBN 0-195-04568-8)

    • Ahlstrom, Sydney. A Religious History of the American People (1972) (ISBN 0-385-11164-9)

    • Billington, Ray A. The Protestant Crusade. New York: The MacMillian Company, 1938.

    • Birdsall Richard D. "The Second Great Awakening and the New England Social Order", Church History 39 (1970): 345–364. in JSTOR

    • Bratt, James D. "Religious Anti-revivalism in Antebellum America", Journal of the Early Republic (2004) 24(1): 65–106. ISSN 0275–1275 Fulltext: in Ebsco.

    • Brown, Kenneth O. Holy Ground; a Study on the American Camp Meeting. Garland Publishing, Inc., 1992.

    • Brown, Kenneth O. Holy Ground, Too, the Camp Meeting Family Tree. Hazleton: Holiness Archives, (1997).

    • Bruce, Dickson D., Jr. And They All Sang Hallelujah: Plain Folk Camp-Meeting Religion, 1800–1845 (1974)

    • Butler Jon. "Enthusiasm Described and Decried: The Great Awakening as Interpretative Fiction", Journal of American History 69 (1982): 305–325. in JSTOR, highly influential essay• Butler Jon. Awash in a Sea of Faith: Christianizing the American People. 1990.

    • Carwardine, Richard J. Evangelicals and Politics in Antebellum America. Yale University Press, 1993.

    • Carwardine, Richard J. "The Second Great Awakening in the Urban Centers: An Examination of Methodism and the 'New Measures'", Journal of American History 59 (1972): 327–340. in JSTOR

    • Conforti; Joseph A. Jonathan Edwards, Religious Tradition and American Culture, (1995).

    • Cott, Nancy F. "Young Women in the Second Great Awakening in New England," Feminist Studies, Vol. 3, No. 1/2 (Autumn, 1975), pp. 15–29 in JSTOR

    • Cross, Whitney, R. The Burned-Over District: The Social and Intellectual History of Enthusiastic Religion in Western New York, 1800–1850, (1950).

    • Foster, Charles I. An Errand of Mercy: The Evangelical United Front, 1790–1837, University of North Carolina Press, 1960.

    • Griffin, Clifford S. "Religious Benevolence as Social Control, 1815–1860", The Mississippi Valley Historical Review, Vol. 44, No. 3. (Dec., 1957), pp. 423–444. in JSTOR

    • Hambrick-Stowe, Charles. Charles G. Finney and the Spirit of American Evangelicalism. (1996).

    • Hankins, Barry. The Second Great Awakening and the Transcendentalists. Greenwood, 2004.

    • Hatch Nathan O. The Democratization of American Christianity (1989).

    • Johnson, Charles A. "The Frontier Camp Meeting: Contemporary and Historical Appraisals, 1805–1840", The Mississippi Valley Historical Review, Vol. 37, No. 1. (Jun., 1950), pp. 91–110. in JSTOR

    • Kyle III, I. Francis. An Uncommon Christian: James Brainerd Taylor, Forgotten Evangelist in America's Second Great Awakening (2008). See Uncommon Christian Ministries

    • Long, Kimberly Bracken. "The Communion Sermons of James Mcgready: Sacramental Theology and Scots-Irish Piety on the Kentucky Frontier", Journal of Presbyterian History, 2002 80(1): 3–16. Issn: 0022-3883

    • Loveland Anne C. Southern Evangelicals and the Social Order, 1800–1860, (1980)

    • Marsden George M. The Evangelical Mind and the New School Presbyterian Experience: A Case Study of Thought and Theology in Nineteenth-Century America (1970).

    • Matzko, John A. "The Encounter of the Young Joseph Smith with Presbyterianism," Dialogue: A Journal of Mormon Thought 40/3, 2007.

    • McLoughlin William G. Modern Revivalism, 1959.

    • McLoughlin William G. Revivals, Awakenings, and Reform: An Essay on Religion and Social Change in America, 1607–1977, 1978.

    • Noll; Mark A. ed. God and Mammon: Protestants, Money, and the Market, 1790–1860 (2002).

    • Posey, Walter Brownlow. The Baptist Church in the Lower Mississippi Valley, 1776–1845 (1957)

    • Raboteau, Albert. Slave Religion: The "invisible Institution' in the Antebellum South, (1979)

    • Roth Randolph A. The Democratic Dilemma: Religion, Reform, and the Social Order in the Connecticut River Valley of Vermont, 1791–1850, (1987)

    • Shiels Richard D. "The Second Great Awakening in Connecticut: Critique of the Traditional Interpretation", Church History 49 (1980): 401–415. in JSTOR

    • Smith, Timothy L. Revivalism and Social Reform: American Protestantism on the Eve of the Civil War (1957)

    GOLD DIVIDER WITH CROSS CENTER
    CHRISTIPEDIA

    SECOND GREAT AWAKENING;

    BRIEF OVERVIEW, SUPER-CONDENSED;

    (All NewtonStein "INSPIRED-INERRANT" Bible View!)

    AMERICAN FLAG DRAPE LEFT THESIS, TOPIC: The Second Great Awakening, was from roughly 1820 to 1860. What is known for sure is that the many splinters of it spotlighted the evils of slavery to be INTOLERABLE . . .

    . . . and led to the Civil War that ended slavery in the USA!

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