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President Abraham Lincoln Reads Bible to Son Tad
(Secularists Angrily Dispute this photo!)


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[2] "AMERIPEDIA™" – Abe Lincoln's “Faith Journey” In His Own Words

[3] "CHRISTIPEDIA™" - 25-SCHOLARS SPEAK on Abe-Lincoln’s Bible Knowledge;

[4] "AMERIPEDIA™" – Abraham Lincoln, Dateline to Salvation, then Assassination!

[5] "AMERIPEDIA™" – Abraham Lincoln: His Boyhood Church at Pigeon Creek:

[6] "AMERIPEDIA™" – Abraham Lincoln, His Religion and Beliefs

[7] "AMERIPEDIA™" - Abraham Lincoln: 1000 of His Best Quotes

[8] "AMERIPEDIA™" – Abraham Lincoln Declares USA Founded on ‘SPIRIT of CHRISTIANITY

[9] "AMERIPEDIA™" – President Abraham Lincoln HIS GREATEST QUOTES

[10] "AMERIPEDIA™" – Abraham Lincoln: HIS POWER and PRINCIPLES

[11] "AMERIPEDIA™" – Abe Lincoln: He had an “A.C.E. SCHOOL TYPE”-Education

[12] "AMERIPEDIA™" – Abraham Lincoln: His COMMON BELIEFS

[13] "AMERIPEDIA™" – Lincoln’s GETTYSBURG ADDRESS being CORRUPTED by Politicians

[14] "AMERIPEDIA™" – ABRAHAM LINCOLN: His Gettysburg Address

[15] "AMERIPEDIA™" – Abraham Lincoln: His Second Inaugural Address

[16] "AMERIPEDIA™" – Abraham Lincoln: Does He Speak To Muslim Terrorism Today?

[17] "AMERIPEDIA™" – Abraham Lincoln: His 1862 Proclamation… “PRECEDING”... The Emancipation Proclamation

[18] "AMERIPEDIA™" – President Abraham Lincoln’s “Emancipation Proclamation”

[19] "AMERIPEDIA™" – Abraham Lincoln: His MOST IMPORTANT Document

[20] "AMERIPEDIA™" – Abraham Lincoln: His Pro-Religious Quotes

[21] "AMERIPEDIA™" – Abraham Lincoln’s ‘Personal Handbill’ on “Believing-The-Scriptures”


[23] "AMERIPEDIA™" – President Lincoln’s “Proclamation for Repentance, Fasting, and Prayer

[24] "AMERIPEDIA™" – WEALTH BUILDING Principles of Abe Lincoln

[25] "AMERIPEDIA™" – Abe Lincoln Files: Web’s Largest Commentary on Lincoln

[26] "AMERIPEDIA™" – Abraham Lincoln: His 1862 Proclamation… “PRECEEDING”... The Emancipation Proclamation

[27] "AMERIPEDIA™" – Abraham Lincoln v. George W. Bush: Liberation Legacy-1

[28] "AMERIPEDIA™" – Abraham Lincoln v. George W. Bush: Liberation Legacy-2

[29] "AMERIPEDIA™" – Lincoln Reads Bible to His Son “THE DESTROYERS”

[30] "AMERIPEDIA™" - "ABE LINCOLN STORIES: 100 Pages Long!"

[31] "AMERIPEDIA™" – Abraham Lincoln: “The Second Confiscation Act” of 1862:

[32] "AMERIPEDIA™" – Abraham Lincoln: Books Written About Him

[33] "AMERIPEDIA™" – Abraham Lincoln: His Salvation Testimony, His Wife, Pastors, Others

[34] "AMERIPEDIA™" – Abraham Lincoln, A Man of CONSTANT Prayer!

[35] "AMERIPEDIA™" – Abraham-Lincoln--Powerful-Believer-in-PROVIDENCE

[36] "AMERIPEDIA™" – Abraham Lincoln: A BRIEF BIO

[37] "AMERIPEDIA™" -

[38] "AMERIPEDIA™" –

[39] "AMERIPEDIA™" –

[40] "AMERIPEDIA™" –

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Abraham Lincoln


Researching how Lincoln's Beliefs effected His Government;


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    Abe Lincoln: He may be the Greatest Democratically-Elected Leader ever!

    More books have been written about Honest Abe than any other human being except Jesus Christ.

    More statues have been erected to President Abraham Lincoln than any other person who ever lived . . . also excepting Jesus Christ!

    Of thousands of Presidential Monuments in the USA dedicated to the 44 presidents, one-third are dedicated to Lincoln, one-third to the Founding Fathers, and one-third to all the rest.

    On a world-wide stage, the difference is even more striking. The statues in memory to Lincoln exceed all other USA presidents combined, several times over.

    In fact, the books and statues to Lincoln exceed the books & statures for the other top-10 American Presidents - combined:


    What made Abe Lincoln so great? There is a 'Secret'! There is a great secret! Abraham Lincoln was the original "Mr. Republican!" (and founder of the Republican Party) Lincoln was a man extremely dedicated to the following:

      [1] Beliefs,

      [2] Principles,

      [3] Ideals . . .

      RATHER THAN . . . just winning elections.

    Thus Lincoln failed in more quests than he succeeded, and lost more elections than he won, but when he finally won, he had Proven Principles upon which to lead and govern greatly!

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Abraham Lincoln!


Abraham Lincoln and Jesus Christ, Compared for Students, Disciples:

The Mystery of Lincoln's Attraction!

Jesus Christ!

    Of whom 'Five-New-Books-Are-Written-About-Him-Every-Single-Day, with over 300-MILLION copies of His Words printed every year formally (in the western world) . . . (and 'mere-mortals boast of "BEST SELLING BOOKS that reach a Million or 10 in a "Life-Time?"). . .

    . . . and there are 24,000-Plus new Christian Titles in the USA each year, not to mention the many "Top-Sellers" that attract new readers year after year, plus the "Classics" that have been selling for centuries . . .

    . . . from the Pilgrim's Bible (now 450 years old), the KJV Bible (400 years old in 2011) Pilgrims Progress (the largest selling book of all time after the Bible, Matthew Henry's Commentary and Adam Clarke's Commentaries (on every preachers desk in the free world!)

    . . . and this 24,000 new Christian Books is just from the USA alone!


    Only God knows just how many Books are written about Jesus, how many copies of His Words, how many books about ministry, Church leadership, Christianity, etc., are written in the 230 nations of the world, especially with the greatest Christian growth taking place in Hispanic-Latino Nations, China, Africa, and Southeast Asia.

    At least one such researcher places the figures at 100 new books about Jesus every day, 100,000 new titles per year and a billion copies of the Words of Jesus EVERY YEAR, world-wide,

    Additionally, there has been 'A-New-Book-Written-About-Jesus-Every-Day . . . For-Over-A-THOUSAND-YEARS'; with more statues erected to 'His Honor' in every land, than anyone can tell . . . because they are neither counted, nor known, for multitude.

    What does this have to do with Abraham Lincoln?

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Abraham Lincoln


Abraham Lincoln, More Books about Him than Jesus Christ?

Lincoln: The World Studies Him!

    After Jesus Christ, however, there have been more books written about Abraham Lincoln than any other person who ever lived - 16,000 as of 2009:

    [Source Craig Symonds, Author of "Lincoln, His Admirers"].

    After Jesus, there have been more seekers, writers readers and admirers about Abraham Lincoln - the humble, countrified, never-attending-grade-school - much less college!

    Abraham Lincoln, somewhat 'ill-bred' (crude, some declared!) but born and raised in a 'three-sided-log cabin' (the fourth open to the elements, protected by a fire for the panthers and bears prowling at night;

    Yet Lincoln has been studied, written and red about more than any other human being:

      >> more than any King, Pharaoh, Caesar, or Czar;

      >> more than any Dictator, Emperor, President or Prime Minister;

      >> more than any Shah, Ayatollah, Imam or Generals of Armies;

      >> more than any Scientist, Philosopher, Musician, Sports or TV Star;

      >> In fact - according to some research - there have been more books about Lincoln than all other US Presidents: combined!

    Thus by so many searching-&-researching Lincoln’s Life, everything knowable should already be known:



    If you inquire about Abraham Lincoln's faith, you will find every position of faith possible thus attributed: Angry-Atheist, Super-Skeptic, Antagonistically-Agnostic, Doubting-Deist, Trusting-Theist, Effervescent-Evangelical, Fervently-Faithful . . . and ALL POSITIONS have a dozen personal "quotes" to prove their particular point of view.

"What is Truth?” Pilate asked Jesus!

To figure out this fascinating figure's faith, see "Abraham Lincoln: Journey of Faith" in the webpages listed above.


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Abraham Lincoln


Abraham Lincoln: Is he the Greatest "Christian Leader" of all Time?

Lincoln: The World Studies Him! Do You?



    Abraham Lincoln's religious beliefs are a matter of controversy. Lincoln frequently referenced God, quoted the Bible, prayed constantly, believed strongly in 'Providence' (as did George Washington!) attended preaching meetings - even had a 'Handbill' printed to declare his belief in the Holy Scriptures!) yet never formally joined any church.[1]

    His 'ever-studied-and-ever-evolving-beliefs' his beliefs were often discussed.

    Many attempts have been made to define his beliefs as either religious or secular.

    While Lincoln never joined any church, there is great evidence he experienced a conversion to Christianity later in life, particularly during his tenure as president of the Civil War, after his son Willie died.

    Lincoln's wife and widow, had a definite perspective on her husband's faith:

      "… As my husband was known to be the most loving and devoted husband & father we will allow these falsehoods a place where they deserve.

      We all — the whole world have been greatly shocked — at the fearful ideas — Herndon — has advanced regarding Mr. Lincoln's religious views.

      You, who knew him so well & held so many conversations with him, as far back as twenty years since, know what they were.

      [Lincoln was] A man, who never took the name of the Maker in vain, who always read his Bible diligently, who never failed to rely on God's promises & looked upon Him for protection, surely such a man as this, could not have been a disbeliever, or any other than what he was, a true Christian gentleman.

      No one, but such a man as Herndon could venture — to suggest such an idea.

      From the time of the death of our little Edward (1850), I believe my husband's heart was directed towards religion & as time passed on - when Mr. Lincoln became elevated to Office - with the care of a great Nation, upon his shoulders - when devastating war was upon us then indeed to my knowledge - did his great heart go up daily, hourly, in prayer to God - for his sustaining power.

      When too - the overwhelming sorrow came upon us, our beautiful bright angelic boy, Willie was called away from us, to his Heavenly Home, with God's chastising hand upon us - he turned his heart to Christ —"[3]

      Early years

      Lincoln's parents were Hard-shell Baptists, joining the Little Pigeon Baptist Church near Lincoln City, Indiana in 1823.[4] However, historian Dr. Mark Noll states that "Lincoln never joined a church nor ever made a clear profession of standard Christian belief."[5]

      During the White House years, however, he often did attend the New York Avenue Presbyterian Church, where the family pew he rented is marked by a plaque.[6]

      Noll agrees with biographer Jesse Fell that Lincoln rejected orthodox views of denominations. Some say Lincoln did not believe in the divinity of Jesus but there is not the slightest hint of evidence for such accusation!

      The blasphemers also accuse the Atonement, the infallibility of the Bible, miracles, or heaven and hell. This to is false as he spoke of ALL of them with finality!

      Noll argues Lincoln was turned against organized Christianity by his experiences as a young man who saw how excessive emotion and bitter sectarian quarrels marked yearly camp meetings and the ministry of traveling preachers.[7]

        [NOTE: This observation is very true, but Lincoln's disgust - and even anger - was with DENOMINATIONS and DENOMINATIONALISM - with all of them criticizing, competing, condemning each other, confusing the issues, etc., bu he NEVER had the slightest disregard for Christ or His Word!]

      The one aspect of his parents' Calvinist religion that Lincoln apparently embraced wholeheartedly throughout his life was the "doctrine of necessity," also known as predestination, determinism, or fatalism, or Providence - which George Washington also believe SO STRONGLY![8]

      It was almost always through the lenses of Providence that Lincoln assessed the meaning of the Civil War.

      Lincoln was said to be (by atheists, agnostics, skeptics, and Christ-haters) an admirer of the deist author Thomas Paine,(hearsay, with no evidence, Lincoln NEVER uttered a word admiring Paine! False claim by the "History Twisters!") and it has been reported (More hearsay without the slightest evidence) that in 1834 he wrote a manuscript essay challenging orthodox Christianity modeled on Paine's book The Age of Reason, which a friend supposedly burned (Pure yth and fairy tale!) to protect him from ridicule.[9]

      According to serious biographer Rev. William Barton, but it was not likely that this 'tale is true! [10]

      Lincoln was often perplexed by the attacks on his character by way of his religious choices. In a letter written to Martin M. Morris in 1843, Lincoln wrote:

        There was the strangest combination of church influence against me. Baker is a Campbellite; and therefore, as I suppose with few exceptions, got all of that Church. My wife had some relations in the Presbyterian churches, and some in the Episcopal churches; and therefore, wherever it would tell, I was set down as either one or the other, while it was everywhere contended that no Christian ought to vote for me because I belonged to no Church, and was suspected of being a Deist and had talked of fighting a duel.[11]

      In 1846, when Lincoln ran for congress against Peter Cartwright, the noted evangelist (popular, yes, but very rude, crude, arrogant and belligerent!), Cartwright tried to make Lincoln's religion or lack of it a major issue of the campaign. Responding to accusations that he was an "infidel", Lincoln defended himself, without denying that specific charge, by publishing a hand-bill in which he stated:

        That I am not a member of any Christian church is true; but I have never denied the truth of the Scriptures; and I have never spoken with intentional disrespect of religion in general, or of any denomination of Christians in particular.... I do not think I could myself be brought to support a man for office whom I knew to be an open enemy of, or scoffer at, religion.[12]

        As Carl Sandburg recounts in Abraham Lincoln: The Prairie Years, Lincoln attended one of Cartwright's revival meetings. At the conclusion of the service, the fiery pulpiteer called for all who intended to go to heaven to rise. Naturally, the response was heartening. Then he called for all those who wished to go to hell to stand, unsurprisingly there were not many takers. Lincoln had responded to neither option. Cartwright closed in.

        "Mr. Lincoln, you have not expressed an interest in going to either heaven or hell.

        May I enquire as to where you do plan to go?" Lincoln replied: "I did not come here with the idea of being singled out, but since you ask, I will reply with equal candor. I intend to go to Congress."[13]

        Later years

        In 1862 and 1863, during the most difficult days of the Civil War and his presidency, Lincoln's utterances were sometimes marked with spiritual overtones.

        1862: Bereavement and Emancipation

        On Thursday, February 20, 1862, at 5:00 P.M. Lincoln's eleven year old son, William Wallace Lincoln (Willie) died in the White House. Historians suggest that this may have been the most difficult personal crisis in his life. After the funeral, Lincoln attempted a return to his routine, but he was unable. One week after the funeral, he isolated himself in his office and wept all day.

        Several people report that Lincoln told them that his feelings about religion changed at this time. Willie is reported to have often remarked that he wanted to be a minister someday.[14] When he died, Lincoln reportedly said, "My poor boy. He was too good for this earth. God has called him home. I know that he is much better off in heaven." [15][16]

        Spiritualism, popularly in vogue during this era, was tried by the Lincolns. Mrs. Lincoln used the services of mediums and spiritualists to try to contact their dead son. Lincoln allegedly attended at least one seance at the White House with Mrs. Lincoln at this time.[17]

        At the same time, the War was not going well for the Union. General George McClellan's failure in the Peninsula Campaign came about within months after Willie's death. Next came Robert E. Lee's impressive victory at the Second Battle of Bull Run, after which he said, "I have been driven many times upon my knees by the overwhelming conviction that I had nowhere else to go."[18][19]

        According to Salmon Chase, as he was preparing to issue the preliminary Emancipation Proclamation, Lincoln said, "I made a solemn vow before God, that if General Lee was driven back from Maryland I would crown the result by the declaration of freedom to the slaves."[20]

        The differences in interpretation of the President's statement can be due to the belief that "swearing or vowing" to God was blasphemous to some religious sects.

        At the same time, Lincoln sat down in his office and penned the following words:

          The will of God prevails.

          In great contests each party claims to act in accordance with the will of God. Both may be, and one must be, wrong.

          God cannot be for and against the same thing at the same time.

          In the present civil war it is quite possible that God's purpose is something different from the purpose of either party -- and yet the human instrumentalities, working just as they do, are of the best adaptation to effect His purpose.

          I am almost ready to say that this is probably true -- that God wills this contest, and wills that it shall not end yet.

          By His mere great power, on the minds of the now contestants, He could have either saved or destroyed the Union without a human contest.

          Yet the contest began. And, having begun He could give the final victory to either side any day.

          Yet the contest proceeds.[21]

        This concept continued to dominate Lincoln's public remarks for the rest of the war. The same theological allegory was to be prominent in Lincoln's Second Inaugural Address in March 1865:

        Both [North and South] read the same Bible, and pray to the same God; and each invokes His aid against the other. It may seem strange that any men should dare to ask a just God's assistance in wringing their bread from the sweat of other men's faces; but let us judge not that we be not judged. The prayers of both could not be answered; that of neither has been answered fully. The Almighty has His own purposes.

        1863: Gettysburg

        In late 1862 and early 1863 Lincoln would endure more agonies. The defeat of General Ambrose Burnside at Fredericksburg followed by the defeat of General Joseph Hooker at Chancellorsville sent Lincoln into a deep depression.

        "If there is a worse place than hell I am in it," Lincoln told Andrew Curtin in December 1862.[22]

        1863 was to be the year, however, in which the tide turned in favor of the Union. The Battle of Gettysburg in July 1863 was the first time that Lee was soundly defeated.

        In the fall, Lincoln issued the first Federally mandated Thanksgiving Day to be kept on the last Thursday in November. Reflecting on the successes of the past year, Lincoln said,

          "No human counsel hath devised nor hath any mortal hand worked out these great things.

          They are the gracious gifts of the Most High God, who, while dealing with us in anger for our sins, hath nevertheless remembered mercy.

          It has seemed to me fit and proper that they should be solemnly, reverently and gratefully acknowledged as with one heart and one voice by the whole American People.

          I do therefore invite my fellow citizens in every part of the United States, and also those who are at sea and those who are sojourning in foreign lands, to set apart and observe the last Thursday of November next,

          as a day of Thanksgiving and Praise to our beneficent Father who dwelleth in the Heavens.[24]

        In December 1863, Lincoln began a move to have Congress lawfully put the the USA motto - "In God We Trust" - on all USA coinage and money. Gladly - yet sadly - his success in this quest, and signing the Congressional bill into LAW, was Lincoln's Last Law before his Assassination.

        When a pious minister told Lincoln he "hoped the Lord is on our side," the president responded, "I am not at all concerned about that.... But it is my constant anxiety and prayer that I and this nation should be on the Lord's side."[26]

        In November 1863, Lincoln travelled to Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, to participate in the dedication of the cemetery established there for the thousands of soldiers who died during the recent battle.

        There he gave his celebrated speech, the Gettysburg Address, wherein he hoped that "this nation shall, 'under God', have a new birth of freedom." The words, "under God," according to scholars, he likely drew the expression from George Washington.[28]

        Later, this passing rhetorical reference of Lincoln's would be embedded in the U.S. Pledge of Allegiance at the prompting of George MacPherson Docherty who, in 1954 was the pastor of the New York Avenue Presbyterian Church, where Lincoln had rented a pew.


        In 1864, some former slaves in Maryland presented Lincoln with a gift of a Bible.

        Lincoln replied:

          In regard to this great book, I have but to say, it is the best gift God has given to man. All the good the Saviour gave to the world was communicated through this book. But for it we could not know right from wrong. All things most desirable for man’s welfare, here and hereafter, are to be found portrayed in it.[29]

          In September 1864, Lincoln, placing the Civil War squarely within a divine province, wrote in a letter to a member of the Society of Friends, "The purposes of the Almighty are perfect, and must prevail, though we erring mortals may fail accurately to perceive them in advance.

          We hoped for a happy termination of this terrible war long before this;

            ** but God knows best,

            ** and has ruled otherwise...

            ** we must work earnestly in the best light He gives us,

            ** trusting that so working still conduces to the great ends He ordains.

            ** Surely He intends some great good to follow this mighty convulsion, which no mortal could make, and no mortal could stay."[31]

            Following Lincoln's assassination, the well-known Presbyterian clergyman, the Rev. John H. Barrows, D.D., wrote and signed as follows: that Lincoln had become a Christian while in Washington.

            He said:

            "In the anxious uncertainties of the great war, he gradually rose to the heights where Jehovah became to him the sublimest of realities, the ruler of nations. (PROVIDENCE)

            When he wrote his immortal Proclamation, he revoked upon it not only 'the considerate judgment of mankind,' but the 'gracious favor of Almighty God.'(PROVIDENCE)

            When darkness gathered over the brave armies fighting for the nation's life, this strong man in the early morning knelt and wrestled in prayer . . .

            . . . with Him who holds the fate of empires.(PROVIDENCE)

            When the clouds lifted above the carnage of Gettysburg, he gave his heart to the Lord Jesus Christ.

            When he pronounced his matchless oration on the chief battlefield of the war, he gave expression to the resolve that 'this nation, under God, should have a new birth of freedom.'

            And when he wrote his last Inaugural Address, he gave it the lofty religious tone of an old Hebrew psalm.[32]

            [SOURCE: The Rev. John H. Barrows, D.D., well-known Presbyterian clergyman; "Lincoln Memorial Album". p. 508, Library of Congress, USA].

            Another entry in the memory book, attributed to An Illinois clergyman (unnamed; most entries in the memory book are attributed by name) reads

            "When I left Springfield I asked the people to pray for me. I was not a Christian. When I buried my son, the severest trial of my life, I was not a Christian. But when I went to Gettysburg and saw the graves of thousands of our soldiers, I then and there consecrated myself to Christ. Yes, I do love Jesus."[33]

            This has been portrayed to have been Lincoln's "reply" to this Illinois clergyman when asked if he loved Jesus. William Eleazar Barton quotes this version in The Soul of Abraham Lincoln (1920), but further writes:

              "This incident must have appeared in print immediately after Lincoln's death, for I find it quoted in memorial addresses of May, 1865.

            The earliest reference I have found to the story in which Lincoln said to an Illinois minister, "I do love Jesus" is in a sermon preached in the Baptist Church of Oshkosh, Wisconsin, April 19, 1865, by Rev. W.W. Whitcomb, which was published in the Oshkosh Northwestern, April 21, 1865, and in 1907 issued in pamphlet form by John E. Burton."[34]

            The quote may be first found in the Freeport Weekly Journal, December 7, 1864.[35] That this text appeared before Lincoln died is confirmed by a letter from Benjamin Talbot, December 21, 1864.[36]

            Talbot's letter also demonstrates that Lincoln would have been aware that he had been quoted as saying "I do love Jesus".

            After his assassination

            Following Lincoln's assassination, there were competing biographies, some claiming Lincoln had been a Christian and others that he had been a non-believer. In 1872, Colonel Ward Hill Lamon published his Life of Abraham Lincoln; From his Birth to his Inauguration as President . . .

            . . . using interviews and correspondences collected by William Herndon, Lincoln's law partner in Springfield.

            [NOTE: IT is clearly stated Lincoln was saved AFTER Gettysburg - NOT before 1860.

            Note also the vast hearsay that would NEVER be accepted in court:

              >> Some unknown, unnamed people - 2, 4, 10, how many?

              >> Could he not even give a number?

              >> These "supposed people supposedly said to someone who told Atheist William Herndon;

              >> Then Herndon supposedly told Ward Lamon;

              >> Lamon then published what he had HEARD:

              >> NO ONE had any written sources:

              >> NO ONE had any signed sources:

              >> NO ONE signed any "Legal Affidavits";

              >> NO ENTRIES were made into the Library of Congress:

              Herndon, himself a skeptic and agnostic had been a law partner with Lincoln in Illinois from 1852 until 1858, and later was Lincoln's personal bodyguard in Washington.

                NOTE: Lamon had NOTHING from Lincoln himself - not a single quote in 11 years (6 in IL and 5 in Washington DC, that he could offer, sign, and.or affidavit, from Lincoln himself that he was not a true Christian!

                Do you see how shallow and fabricated this is?

                Sadly, the unthinking will believe it and not even see the great lack of any true evidence . . . not even one word!

              Rev. James Armstrong Reed, in preparing his 1873 lectures on the religion of Lincoln, asked a number of people if there was any evidence of Lincoln being an infidel in his later life. The reply from Phineas Gurley, pastor of the same New York Avenue Presbyterian Church while Lincoln was an attender, to Reed's question was:

                I do not believe a word of it.

                It could not have been true of him while here, for I have had frequent and intimate conversations with him on the subject of the Bible and the Christian religion, when he could have had no motive to deceive me, and I considered him sound not only on the truth of the Christian religion but on all its fundamental doctrines and teaching.

                And more than that:

                in the latter days of his chastened and weary life, after the death of his son Willie, and his visit to the battle-field of Gettysburg, he said, with tears in his eyes, that he had lost confidence in everything but God, and that he now believed his heart was changed, and that he loved the Saviour, and, if he was not deceived in himself, it was his intention soon to make a profession of religion.[37]

                Noah Brooks, a newspaperman, and a friend and biographer of Lincoln's, in reply to Reed's inquiry if there was any truth to claims that Lincoln was an infidel, stated:

                In addition to what has appeared from my pen, I will state that I have had many conversations with Mr. Lincoln, which were more or less of a religious character, and while I never tried to draw anything like a statement of his views from him, yet he freely expressed himself to me as having 'a hope of blessed immortality through Jesus Christ.'

                His views seemed to settle so naturally around that statement, that I considered no other necessary. His language seemed not that of an inquirer, but of one who had a prior settled belief in the fundamental doctrines of the Christian religion.

                Once or twice, speaking to me of the change which had come upon him, he said, while he could not fix any definite time, yet it was after he came here, and I am very positive that in his own mind he identified it with about the time of Willie's death.

                He said, too, that after he went to the White House he kept up the habit of daily prayer. Sometimes he said it was only ten minutes, but those ten minutes with God he had. There is no possible reason to suppose that Mr. Lincoln would ever deceive me as to his religious sentiments.

                In many conversations with him, I absorbed the firm conviction that Mr. Lincoln was at heart a Christian man, believed in the Savior, and was seriously considering the step which would formally connect him with the visible church on earth. Certainly, any suggestion as to Mr. Lincoln's skepticism or Infidelity, to me who knew him intimately from 1862 till the time of his death, is a monstrous fiction -- a shocking perversion.[38]

                According to an affidavit signed under oath in Essex County, New Jersey, February 15, 1928, by Mrs. Sidney I. Lauck: "After Mr. Lincoln's death, Dr. Gurley told me that Mr. Lincoln had made all the necessary arrangements with him and the Session of the New York Avenue Presbyterian Church to be received into the membership of the said church, by confession of his faith in Christ, on the Easter Sunday following the Friday night when Mr. Lincoln was assassinated." Mrs. Lauck was, she said, about thirty years of age at the time of the assassination.[39]

                Though this is possible, Dr. Gurley did not mention anything about Lincoln's impending membership at the funeral in the White House, in which he delivered the sermon which has been preserved,[40] nor in his reply to Reed (above).

                Francis Bicknell Carpenter, the author of Six Months in the White House, told Reed that he "believed Mr. Lincoln to be a sincere Christian" and reported that Lincoln had told a woman from Brooklyn in the United States Christian Commission that he had had "a change of heart" and intended "at some suitable opportunity to make a profession of religion"[41]

                Rev. Madison Clinton Peters, in his 1909 biography wrote, "That he was a true and sincere Christian, in fact, if not in form, is fully proved by many extracts from his letters and public utterances." [42]

                However, Mary Lincoln utterly denied these quotes, insisting that Herndon had "put those words in her mouth." She wrote,

                With very great sorrow & natural indignation have I read of Mr Herndon, placing words in my mouth--never once uttered. I remember the call he made on me for a few minutes at the [St. Nicholas] hotel as he mentions, your welcome entrance a quarter of an hour afterward, naturally prevented a further interview with him. Mr Herndon, had always been an utter stranger to me, he was not considered an habitué, at our house.[46]

                Herndon never answered Mrs. Lincoln's sharp rebuke![47]

                John Remsburg (1848–1919), atheist, Christ-hater, and President of the American Secular Union in 1897, argued against claims of Lincoln's conversion in his book Six Historic Americans (1906). He cites several of Lincoln's close associates:[48]

                * The man who stood nearest to President Lincoln at Washington—nearer than any clergyman or newspaper correspondent—was his private secretary, Col. John G. Nicolay. In a letter dated May 27, 1865, Colonel Nicolay says: "Mr. Lincoln did not, to my knowledge, in any way change his religious ideas, opinions, or beliefs from the time he left Springfield to the day of his death."

                * His lifelong friend and executor, Judge David Davis, affirmed the same: "He had no faith in the Christian sense of the term."

                * His biographer, Colonel Lamon, intimately acquainted with him in Illinois, and with him during all the years that he lived in Washington, says he never heard him say Jesus was the son of God and the Savior of all men.

                Both Lamon and William H. Herndon published biographies of their former colleague after his assassination relating their personal recollections of him. Each denied Lincoln's adherence to Christianity and characterized his religious beliefs as deist or skeptical.

                Modern views

                Richard Carwardine of Oxford University has recently published Lincoln: A Life of Purpose and Power (2006). Carwardine argues that Lincoln's intense faith permeated everything he did as President.

                Allen C. Guelzo, director of Civil War Era studies at Gettysburg College in Pennsylvania, published Abraham Lincoln: Redeemer President in 1999. Guelzo argues that Lincoln's boyhood inculcation of Calvinism was the dominant thread running through his adult life. He characterizes Lincoln's worldview as a kind of "Calvinized Deism".[49]

                These recent scholars expand on the mainstream views of the likes of G. Frederick Owen who wrote Abraham Lincoln: The Man and His Faith in 1976, William Wolf who wrote The Religion of Abraham Lincoln in 1963, and William Barton who wrote The Soul of Abraham Lincoln in 1920. These scholars maintain that Lincoln was a man of deep faith.


                1. ^ Eric Foner (2010). The Fiery Trial. Norton. p. 35. ISBN 978-0-393-06618-0. OCLC 601096674.

                2. ^ Lamon, Ward Hill, "Recollections of Abraham Lincoln, 1847-1865". University of Nebraska Press, 1994 reprint

                3. ^ Mary Todd Lincoln letter to Rev. James Smith, June 8, 1870. As reported in Mary Todd Lincoln by Justin G. Turner and Linda Levitt Turner, pp 567-568.

                4. ^ "Says Record Shows Lincoln A Baptist" (PDF). New York Times. October 31, 1921. Retrieved 2010-02-20.

                5. ^ "The Ambiguous Religion of Abraham Lincoln". Retrieved 2010-04-11.

                6. ^ "Mr. Lincoln's White House". Retrieved 2010-02-20.

                7. ^ Noll, Mark A. (1992). online version "The Ambiguous Religion of President Abraham Lincoln". online version. Retrieved 2010-02-20.

                8. ^ Guelzo, Allen C. (1997). "Abraham Lincoln and the Doctrine of Necessity". Journal of the Abraham Lincoln Association. Retrieved 2010-02-20. 29 pars.

                9. ^ Nelson, Michael (Autumn 2003). Fighting for Lincoln's Soul. Virginia Quarterly Review. Retrieved 2010-02-20.

                10. ^ Barton, William Eleazar (1920). The Soul of Abraham Lincoln. pp. (Chapter XII, page 150. Retrieved 2010-02-20).

                11. ^ Nicolay, John G. (2007). Complete Works of Abraham Lincoln. Kessinger Publishing Company.

                12. ^ "Abraham Lincoln Online". Retrieved 2010-05-31.

                13. ^ a b Steiner, Franklin (1936). "Abraham Lincoln, Deist, and Admirer of Thomas Paine". Religious Beliefs of Our Presidents.

                Retrieved 2010-05-31. 14. ^ "Seances In The White House? Lincoln & The Supernatural".

                Retrieved 2010-02-20.

                15. ^ "Behind the Scenes, or, Thirty years a Slave, and Four Years in the White House". New York: G. W. Carleton & Co.. 1868. Retrieved 2010-02-20. Lincoln quoted by Elizabeth Keckley

                16. ^ This transformation is reported by a considerable number of contemporaries, and a number of scholars agree - though there is less agreement on the nature of this change.

                * Pulitzer prize historian David H. Donald, Lincoln (Simon & Schuster, 1995), p. 336-337, writes: "After the burial the President repeatedly shut himself in a room so that he could weep alone... During this time he increasingly turned to religion for solace...

                During the weeks after Willie's death Lincoln had several long talks with the Rev. Phineas D. Gurley, pastor of the New York Avenue Presbyterian Church in Washington where the Lincolns rented a pew... [W]hen he looked back on the events of this tragic spring, recognized that he underwent what he called 'a process of crystallization' in his religious beliefs."

                * Ronald White, Lincoln's Greatest Speech (Simon & Schuster, 2002), p. 134, writes, "Many have pointed to the death of Willie on February 20, 1862, as a critical moment in Lincoln's struggles with faith."

                * Stephen Oates, With Malice Toward None: A Life of Abraham Lincoln (Harper & Row, 1977), p. 70, writes, "After Willie's death, he talked more frequently about God than he had before."

                * Sandburg, Abraham Lincoln: The War Years, III:379-380, recounts a report that "Mr. Lincoln's views in relation to spiritual things seemed changed from that hour [viz., Willie's death]."

                17. ^ "Mary Todd Lincoln and Clairvoyance". Retrieved 2010-02-20.

                18. ^ Reed, James A. (July 1873). "The Later Life and Religious Sentiments of Abraham Lincoln". Scribner's Monthly 6 (3): 340. citing Noah Brooks article in Harper's Monthly, July 1865

                19. ^ David H. Donald, Lincoln (Simon & Schuster, 1995), 354, writes, "By the summer of 1862, Lincoln felt especially in need of divine help. Everything, it seemed, was going wrong, and his hope for bringing a speedy end to the war was dashed."

                20. ^ Carpenter, Frank B (1866). Six Months at the White House. p. 90.

                Retrieved 2010-02-20. as reported by Secretary of the Treasury, Salmon Portland Chase, September 22, 1862. Others present used the word resolution instead of vow to God. Gideon Welles, Diary of Gideon Welles, Secretary of the Navy Under Lincoln and Johnson (Boston, New York: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1911), 1:143, reported that Lincoln made a covenant with God that if God would change the tide of the war, Lincoln would change his policy toward slavery. See also Nicolas Parrillo, "Lincoln's Calvinist Transformation: Emancipation and War," Civil War History (September 1, 2000).

                21. ^ "Abraham Lincoln's Meditation on the Divine Will". Retrieved 2010-02-20.

                22. ^ Carl Sandburg, Abraham Lincoln: The War Years (New York: Harcourt, Brace & Co., 1939), Vol. 1, 630.

                23. ^ "1863 Thanksgiving Proclamation by Abraham Lincoln". Retrieved 2010-02-20.

                24. ^ "NPS Source Book: Abraham Lincoln". Retrieved 2010-02-20.

                25. ^ According to The Congressional Record (1908, House), p. 3387, the motto was adopted "doubtless with his [Lincoln's] knowledge and approval."

                26. ^ Carpenter, F.B. (1866). Six Months at the White House. p. 282. Retrieved 2010-02-20.

                27. ^ William E. Barton, Lincoln at Gettysburg: What He Intended to Say; What He Said; What he was Reported to have Said; What he Wished he had Said (New York: Peter Smith, 1950), pp. 138-139.

                28. ^ "Under God". Retrieved 2010-02-20.

                29. ^ "Abraham Lincoln, quoted in The Washington Daily Morning Chronicle". September 8, 1864.;rgn=div1;view=text;idno=lincoln7;node=lincoln7%3A1184. Retrieved 2010-02-20. The Collected Works of Abraham Lincoln (Rutgers University Press, 1953), Roy P. Basler, editor. Volume, VII, page 542.]

                30. ^ :"Six Historic Americans: Abraham Lincoln". Retrieved 2011-01-02."

                31. ^ Donald (1996), pp. 514–515.

                32. ^ "Lincoln Memorial Album". p. 508. Retrieved 2010-02-20.

                33. ^ Osborn H. Oldroyd, Editor, 1882, New York: G.W. Carleton & Co.The Lincoln Memorial: Album Immortelles, p. 508; From the copy in the U.S. Archivesl online here

                34. ^ See a discussion of this story in They Never Said It, by Paul F. Boller & John George (Oxford Univ. Press, 1989, p. 91).

                35. ^ Freeport Weekly Journal, December 7, 1864.

                36. ^ "Benjamin Talbot to Abraham Lincoln". December 21, 1864. Retrieved 2010-02-20.

                37. ^ Reed, James A. (July 1873). "The Later Life and Religious Sentiments of Abraham Lincoln". Scribner's Monthly 6 (3): 339. Retrieved 2010-02-20. quoting Phineas Gurley

                38. ^ Reed, James A. (July 1873). The Later Life and Religious Sentiments of Abraham Lincoln. 6. Scribner's Monthly. p. 340. Retrieved 2010-02-20. Noah Brooks to J.A. Reed, December 31, 1872

                39. ^ D. James Kennedy in his booklet, "What They Believed: The Faith of Washington, Jefferson, and Lincoln" p. 59, Published by Coral Ridge Ministries, 2003

                40. ^ "Abraham Lincoln's White House Funeral Sermon". Retrieved 2010-02-20.

                41. ^ Reed, James A. (July 1873). The Later Life and Religious Sentiments of Abraham Lincoln. 6. Scribner's Monthly. p. 340. Retrieved 2010-02-20.

                42. ^ Peters, Madison (1909). Abraham Lincoln's Religion. Graham Press. pp. 29. Retrieved 2010-02-20.

                43. ^ Mary T. Lincoln to James Smith, June 8, 1870, in Robert J. Havlik, "Abraham Lincoln and the Reverend Dr. James Smith: Lincoln's Presbyterian experience of Springfield," Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society (Autumn, 1999) online

                44. ^ Ward Hill (Colonel) Lamon, Life of Lincoln p. 489

                45. ^ William Herndon Religion of Lincoln

                46. ^ Mary Todd Lincoln to John T. Stuart, December 15, 1873, Mary Todd Lincoln: Her Life and Letters, ed. Justin G. Turner and Linda Leavitt Turner (New York: Knopf, 1972), 603.

                47. ^ "Herndon's reply and more on the enmity between himself and Mary Lincoln". Retrieved 2010-02-20.

                48. ^ "Six Historic Americans: Abraham Lincoln". Retrieved 2010-02-20.

                49. ^ p447 Redeemer President

                External links

                * The Puzzling Faith of Abraham Lincoln - essay by Mark Noll

                Abraham Lincoln


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