DOME OF THE ROCK ISLAMIPEDIA HEADER

STAR and CRESCENT STAR and CRESCENT STAR and CRESCENT

ISLAMIPEDIA™ by NEWTONSTEIN at MINISTERS-BEST-FRIEND.com

Please visit our TOP-TWENTY-FIVE ISLAMIPEDIA™ Webpages

[1] ISLAMIPEDIA™ Holy Quran Quotes About JESUS CHRIST, the MESSIAH!

[2] ISLAM- ISLAMIPEDIA™ INTRO to BASIC Muslim Beliefs

[3] ISLAMIPEDIA™ Do Islam, Judaism, and Christianity All Teach Monotheism?

[4] ISLAMIPEDIA™ - KORAN, “HOLY QUR’AN” The Muslim American Authorized-Version, SURAH-1

[5] ISLAMIPEDIA™ - ISLAMIC PRAYER “SALAH” – Muslim Prayer Principles:

[6] ISLAMIPEDIA™ - ISLAMIC HADITHS, Defined and Explained:

[7] ISLAMIPEDIA™ - Prophet Mohammad, His Last Teaching:

[8] ISLAMIPEDIA™ - “The TRUTH of the SWORD” by Ayatollah Khomeini!

[9] ISLAMIPEDIA™ - Ayatollah Khomeini, Brief-Bio;

[10] ISLAMIPEDIA™ - The Grand Ayatollah Khomeini: His Beliefs of Theocratic Governing;

[11] ISLAMIPEDIA™ - The Grand Ayatollah Khomeini, Islamic-Hero

[12] ISLAMIPEDIA™ - Quotes Against USA and Israel by MAHMOUD-AHMADINEJAD:

[13] ISLAMIPEDIA™ - Letter to PRESIDENT G. W. BUSH by MAHMOUD-AHMADINEJAD

[14] ISLAMIPEDIA™ - Quotes Against USA by OSAMA bin LADEN

[15] ISLAMIPEDIA™ - Powerful Modern Muslim Quotes Against USA, Israel & The West

[16] ISLAMIPEDIA™ - Islam for Dummies! The Very Basics

[17] ISLAMIPEDIA™ - The New Islamic Doctrine of “DISPOSSESSING-DISBELIEVERS WEALTH”

[18] ISLAMIPEDIA™ - What do Muslims, Christians and Jews have in Common?

[19] ISLAMIPEDIA™ - Will Islam Conquer the USA in a Generation?

[20] ISLAMIPEDIA™ - Do Muslims love Jesus as much as Christians Do?

[21] ISLAMIPEDIA™ - A “Seeking Soul” Explores Islam

[22] ISLAMIPEDIA™ - Web’s Most Comprehensive Islamic-Muslim Site:

[23] ISLAMIPEDIA™ - Report on Muslims Converting to Christianity: IS THIS TRUE?

[24] ISLAMIPEDIA™ - Why Muslims REJECT Apostle Paul: His Revelation v. Prophet-Mohammad’s

[25] ISLAMIPEDIA™ -

STAR and CRESCENT

"ISLAMIPEDIA™"

Idi Amin

Islamic Muslim Dictator, Uganda:

Idi Amin, His MIlitary Coup took over the nation of Uganda;



Islamic Muslim Dictator, Uganda: Comrade with Muaumar Gdaffi, Libya;

ISLAMIPEDIA™ INTRO

Will Muslims take over USA and Establish “Sharia Law?”


Only God truly knows the answer to that question. However, the extremely sad truth is – for this writer as a Bible Christian – as follows:

**Many of the things the Muslims DESPISE about the USA, we Bible Christians despise as well!

Consider an “Americanized Version of Isaiah 1:1-4 where God gives an INTRO to Israel, explaining why He was going to destroy them as a nation:

    "O Ye Sinful Americans: a people legalizing sin instead of outlawing sin as I have Commanded!

    You have legalized that which I have forbidden: drunkeness, abortion, gambling, pornography, pornographic movies and Hollywood, 'No-fault-Divorce', adultery and fornication, and even legalized blasphemy;

    At every level of your society, My 'Name', My 'Word', My 'Day' (The Sabbath), My 'Church', My 'Ministers', My 'People' and 'MY SON' - are Blasphemed! My Christians simply turn a 'Deaf Ear' to this profanity';

    All the while turning a blind eye to near-nudity, nearly-legal prostitution, rampant drug usage, and under-aged-sexual activity and abortion (not to mention greed, pride, materialism, secularism, evolutionism and so much more . . .)

    And now - you are even embracing Sodomy and same-sex-marriage - WELL KNOWING My Destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah!

      Do you see why I AM provoked to anger with you?

    Sadly, you are raising your children to be completely corrupted. [America] You have forsaken My Ways, the Ways of your Founding Fathers, and therefore, your whole nation is gone away backward."

Isaiah goes on in chapter three to describe in detail the blatant sexuality of Israel’s women: (Isaiah 3.16 begins: “Because the daughters of Zion… with wanton eyes…their secret parts…” and on it goes for 10 more verses.

Thus God explained that because the men of Israel allowed – and even encouraged - their wives and daughters to look like, talk like, act like and dress like, harlots; and allowed their Children to grow up uncorrected and unrestrained, that God would punish them by doing the following:

    >> Allow Children to oppress them (Crime rampant in the streets!)

    >> Allow women to Rule over them, (disdaining and disrespecting the men who have fought every war, manned every police and sheriff’s department, shedding their blood and risking their lives to keep them safe! (See Isaiah 3:12)

    >> That the men would then fall by the sword (See Isaiah 3:26)

If Muslims took over USA, most sin would be stopped immediately!

Sadly, when we Americans are fighting for ‘the American way of life’ – we are fighting for:

    >> The 'Right to Sin',

    >> The 'Right to Practice Abomination',

    >> The 'Right to Blaspheme'!"

    >>> Is this all the American way of life is about!

If the Muslims took over the USA, the sin and the blaspheming would end immediately. There would be no more drunkeness and drug addiction, and same-sex marriage and blatant homosexuality would become “a dead issue” in American politics.

Isn’t it terribly sad, for us American Christians (too weak and wimpy to stop any sin!) to think that our beloved American homeland may need conquered by Muslims . . .JUST to “STOP THE LEGALIZED SINS and ABOMINATIONS?"

It may well be true! It may very well be true!





STAR and CRESCENT STAR and CRESCENT STAR and CRESCENT

Islamic Muslim Dictator, Uganda: Comrade with Muammar Gaddafi, Libya;

Was Idi Amin a “Model for Military Coup” in Egypt in 2011?

Idi Amin Dada Jr., was a military leader and President of Uganda from 1971 to 1979. Idi Amin joined the British colonial regiment, the King's African Rifles, in 1946, and eventually held the rank of Major General and Commander of the Ugandan Army prior to taking power in the military coup of January 1971, deposing Milton Obote.

He later promoted himself to Field Marshal while he was the head of state.

Idi Amin's rule was characterised by human rights abuse, political repression, ethnic persecution, extra-judicial killings, nepotism, corruption and gross economic mismanagement. The number of people killed as a result of his regime is estimated by international observers and human rights groups to range from 100,000[1] to 500,000.

Notable backers of Idi Amin included:

    > Muammar al-Gaddafi's Libya, calling for uprising of all Muslims – especially Palestinians – against Israel in February, 2011

    > The Soviet Union and East Germany,[2][3][4]

    > with early support for his regime coming from the United Kingdom,

    > Israel, [Why Israel would have supported Amin, is unknown!]

    > and Apartheid-era South Africa.[5]


    STAR and CRESCENT STAR and CRESCENT STAR and CRESCENT

Islamic Muslim Dictator, Uganda: Comrade with Muammar Gaddafi, Libya;

Idi Amin: Was Chairman on African Unity, seeking to control whole Continent;

In 1975–1976, Idi Amin became the Chairman of the Organisation of African Unity, a pan-African group designed to promote solidarity of the African states.[6] During the 1977–1979 period, Uganda was appointed to the United Nations Commission on Human Rights.[7]

*** This shows the extreme blindness of the UN!

From 1977 to 1979, Idi Amin titled himself as "His Excellency, President for Life, Field Marshal, Al Hadji, Doctor, [B] Idi Amin Dada, VC, DSO, MC, [C] Conqueror of the British Empire in Africa in General, and Uganda in Particular".[8]

Dissent within Uganda and Idi Amin's attempt to annex the Kagera province of Tanzania in 1978 led to the Uganda–Tanzania War and the demise of his regime. Idi Amin later fled to exile in Libya and Saudi Arabia, where he died on 16 August 2003.


STAR and CRESCENT STAR and CRESCENT STAR and CRESCENT

Islamic Muslim Dictator, Uganda: Comrade with Muammar Gaddafi, Libya;

Was Idi Amin a “Model for Military Coup” in Egypt in 2011?

Early life and military career

    Idi Amin never wrote an autobiography nor did he authorise any official written account of his life, so there are discrepancies regarding when and where he was born. Most biographical sources hold that he was born in either Koboko or Kampala in around (1 January 1925[A] – 16 August 2003).[A] Other unconfirmed sources state Idi Amin's year of birth from as early at 1923 to as late at 1928.

    According to Fred Guweddeko, a researcher at Makerere University, Idi Amin was the son of Andreas Nyabire (1889–1976). Nyabire, a member of the Kakwa ethnic group, converted from Roman Catholicism to Islam in 1910 and changed his name to Idi Amin Dada in which he named his first-born son after himself.

    Abandoned by his father at a young age, Idi Amin grew up with his mother's family in a rural farming town in northwestern Uganda. Guweddeko states that Idi Amin's mother was called Assa Aatte (1904–1970), an ethnic Lugbara and a traditional herbalist who treated members of Buganda royalty, among others.

    Idi Amin joined an Islamic school in Bombo in 1941. After a few years, he left school with nothing more than a fourth grade English-language education and did odd jobs before being recruited to the army by a British colonial army officer.[9]

    STAR and CRESCENT STAR and CRESCENT STAR and CRESCENT

Islamic Muslim Dictator, Uganda: Comrade with Muammar Gaddafi, Libya;

Was Idi Amin a “Model for Military Coup” in Egypt in 2011?

Chronology of Idi Amin's military promotions

    King's African Rifles

    1946 Joins King's African Rifles

    1947 Private

    1952 Corporal

    1953 Sergeant

    1958 Sergeant Major (acting as Platoon Commander)

    1959 Effendi (Warrant Officer)

    1961 Lieutenant (one of two of the first Ugandan Officers)

Uganda Army

    1962 Captain

    1963 Major

    1964 Deputy Commander of the Army

    1965 Colonel, Commander of the Army

    1968 Major General

    1971 Head of State

    Chairman of the Defence Council

    Commander-in-Chief of the armed forces

    Army Chief of Staff and Chief of Air Staff

    1975 Field Marshal


STAR and CRESCENT STAR and CRESCENT STAR and CRESCENT

Islamic Muslim Dictator, Uganda: Comrade with Muammar Gaddafi, Libya;

Was Idi Amin a “Model for Military Coup” in Egypt in 2011?

Colonial British Army

    Idi Amin joined the King's African Rifles (KAR) of the British Colonial Army in 1946 as an assistant cook.[10] He claimed he was forced to join the Army during World War II and that he served in the Burma Campaign,[11] but records indicate he was first enlisted after the war was concluded.[8][12]

    He was transferred to Kenya for infantry service as a private in 1947 and served in the 21st KAR infantry battalion in Gilgil, Kenya, until 1949. That year, his unit was deployed to Somalia to fight the Somali Shifta rebels. In 1952 his brigade was deployed against the Mau Mau rebels in Kenya. He was promoted to corporal the same year, then to sergeant in 1953.[9]

    In 1959 Idi Amin was made effendi (warrant officer), the highest rank possible for a Black African in the colonial British Army of that time. Idi Amin returned to Uganda the same year and in 1961 he was promoted to lieutenant, becoming one of the first two Ugandans to become commissioned officers.

    He was then assigned to quell the cattle rustling between Uganda's Karamojong and Kenya's Turkana nomads. In 1962, following Uganda's independence from Great Britain, Idi Amin was promoted to captain and then, in 1963, to major. The following year, he was appointed Deputy Commander of the Army.[9]

    Idi Amin was an active athlete during his time in both the British and Ugandan army. At 193 cm (6 ft 4 in) tall and powerfully built, he was the Ugandan light heavyweight boxing champion from 1951 to 1960, as well as a swimmer. Idi Amin was also a formidable rugby forward,[13][14] although one officer said of him: "Idi Amin is a splendid type and a good (rugby) player, but virtually bone from the neck up, and needs things explained in words of one letter".[14][15]

    In the 1950s, he played for Nile RFC.[16] There is a frequently repeated urban legend[14][16] that he was selected as a replacement by East Africa for their match against the 1955 British Lions. The story is entirely unfounded; he does not appear on the team photograph or on the official team list[17] and replacements were not allowed in international rugby until 13 years after this event is supposed to have taken place.[18]

    Army commander

    In 1965 Prime Minister Milton Obote and Idi Amin were implicated in a deal to smuggle ivory and gold into Uganda from Zaire. The deal, as later alleged by General Nicholas Olenga, an associate of the former Congolese leader Patrice Lumumba, was part of an arrangement to help troops opposed to the Congolese government trade ivory and gold for arms supplies secretly smuggled to them by Idi Amin.

    In 1966, the Ugandan Parliament demanded an investigation. Obote imposed a new constitution abolishing the ceremonial presidency held by Kabaka (King) Edward Mutesa II of Buganda, and declared himself executive president. He promoted Idi Amin to colonel and army commander. Idi Amin led an attack on the Kabaka's palace and forced Mutesa into exile to the United Kingdom, where he remained until his death in 1969.[19][20]

    Idi Amin began recruiting members of Kakwa, Lugbara, Nubian, and other ethnic groups from the West Nile area bordering Sudan. The Nubians had been residents in Uganda since the early 20th century, having come from Sudan to serve the colonial army. Many African ethnic groups in northern Uganda inhabit both Uganda and Sudan, therefore allegations persist that Idi Amin's army consisted mainly of Sudanese soldiers.[21]


    STAR and CRESCENT STAR and CRESCENT STAR and CRESCENT

Islamic Muslim Dictator, Uganda: Comrade with Muammar Gaddafi, Libya;

Was Idi Amin a “Model for Military Coup” in Egypt in 2011?

Seizure of power

    Eventually, a rift developed between Idi Amin and Obote, worsened by the support Idi Amin had built within the army by recruiting from the West Nile region, his involvement in operations to support the rebellion in southern Sudan, and an attempt on Obote's life in 1969. In October 1970, Obote himself took control of the armed forces, reducing Idi Amin from his months-old post of commander of all the armed forces to that of commander of the army.[22]

    Having learned that Obote was planning to arrest him for misappropriating army funds, Idi Amin seized power in a military coup on 25 January 1971, while Obote was attending a Commonwealth summit meeting in Singapore.

    Troops loyal to Idi Amin sealed off Entebbe International Airport, the main artery into Uganda, and took Kampala. Soldiers surrounded Obote's residence and blocked major roads. A broadcast on Radio Uganda accused Obote's government of corruption and preferential treatment of the Lango region.

    MIRRORS EGYPT?

    Cheering crowds were reported in the streets of Kampala after the radio broadcast.[23]

    Idi Amin announced that he was a soldier, not a politician, and that the military government would remain only as a caretaker regime until new elections,

    which would be announced when the situation was normalised.

    He promised to release all political prisoners.[24]

    Idi Amin gave former king and president Mutesa (who had died in exile) a state burial in April 1971, freed many political prisoners, and reiterated his promise to hold free and fair elections to return the country to democratic rule in the shortest period possible.[25]

    STAR and CRESCENT STAR and CRESCENT STAR and CRESCENT

Islamic Muslim Dictator, Uganda: Comrade with Muammar Gaddafi, Libya;

Was Idi Amin a “Model for Military Coup” in Egypt in 2011?

Presidency, Uganda under Idi Idi Amin Establishment of military rule

    On February 2, 1971, one week after the coup, Idi Amin declared himself President of Uganda, Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces, Army Chief of Staff and Chief of Air Staff.

       He announced that he was suspending certain provisions of the Ugandan constitution;

       and soon instituted an Advisory Defence Council composed of military officers,

       with himself as the chairman;

       Idi Amin placed military tribunals above the system of civil law,

       appointed soldiers to top government posts and para-statal agencies,

       and informed the newly inducted civilian cabinet ministers that they would be subject to military discipline.[22][26]

       Idi Amin renamed the presidential lodge in Kampala from Government House to "The Command Post".

       He disbanded the General Service Unit (GSU), an intelligence agency created by the previous government, and replaced it with the State Research Bureau (SRB).

       SRB headquarters at the Kampala suburb of Nakasero became the scene of torture and executions over the next few years.[27]

       Other agencies used to root out political dissent included the military police and the Public Safety Unit (PSU).[27]


      STAR and CRESCENT STAR and CRESCENT STAR and CRESCENT

Islamic Muslim Dictator, Uganda: Comrade with Muammar Gaddafi, Libya;

Was Idi Amin a “Model for Military Coup” in Egypt in 2011?

Ugandan Refugees

    Obote took refuge in Tanzania, having been offered sanctuary there by Tanzanian President Julius Nyerere. He was soon joined by 20,000 Ugandan refugees fleeing Idi Amin. In 1972, the exiles attempted to regain the country through a poorly organised coup attempt, without success.[28]

    Idi Amin retaliated against the attempted invasion by Ugandan exiles in 1972 by purging the army of Obote supporters, predominantly those from the Acholi and Lango ethnic groups.[29]

    In July 1971, Lango and Acholi soldiers were massacred in the Jinja and Mbarara Barracks,[30] and by early 1972, some 5,000 Acholi and Lango soldiers, and at least twice as many civilians, had disappeared.[31] The victims soon came to include members of other ethnic groups, religious leaders, journalists, artists, senior bureaucrats, judges, lawyers, homosexuals, students and intellectuals, criminal suspects, and foreign nationals.

    In this atmosphere of violence, many other people were killed for criminal motives or simply at will.[32]

    The killings, motivated by ethnic, political and financial factors, continued throughout Idi Amin's eight-year reign.[31] The exact number of people killed is unknown. The International Commission of Jurists estimated the death toll at likely around 300,000.

    An estimate compiled by exile organizations with the help of Amnesty International puts the number killed at 500,000.[8] Among the most prominent people killed were  Benedicto Kiwanuka, the former prime minister and later chief justice;

     Janani Luwum, the Anglican archbishop;

     Joseph Mubiru, the former governor of the Central Bank;

     Frank Kalimuzo, the vice chancellor of Makerere University;

     Byron Kawadwa, a prominent playwright; and

     two of Idi Amin's own cabinet ministers, Erinayo Wilson Oryema and Charles Oboth Ofumbi.[33]

    In August 1972, Idi Amin declared what he called an "economic war", a set of policies that included the expropriation of properties owned by Asians and Europeans. This is what Hugo Chavez is doing in 2010 and 2011 in Venezuela

    Uganda's 80,000 Asians were mostly from the Indian subcontinent and born in the country, their ancestors having come to Uganda when the country was still a British colony. Many owned businesses, including large-scale enterprises, that formed the backbone of the Ugandan economy.

    On August 4, 1972, Idi Amin issued a decree ordering the expulsion of the 60,000 Asians who were not Ugandan citizens (most of them held British passports). This was later amended to include all 80,000 Asians, except for professionals, such as doctors, lawyers and teachers.

    A plurality of the Asians with British passports, around 30,000, emigrated to Britain. Others went to Australia, Canada, India, Kenya, Pakistan, Sweden, Tanzania and the U.S.[34][35][36] Idi Amin expropriated businesses and properties belonging to the Asians and handed them over to his supporters.

    The businesses were mismanaged, and industries collapsed from lack of maintenance. This proved disastrous for the already declining economy.[26]

    In 1977, Henry Kyemba, Idi Amin's health minister and a former official of the first Obote regime, defected and resettled in Britain. Kyemba wrote and published A State of Blood, the first insider exposé of Idi Amin's rule.


    STAR and CRESCENT STAR and CRESCENT STAR and CRESCENT

Islamic Muslim Dictator, Uganda: Comrade with Muammar Gaddafi, Libya;

Was Idi Amin a “Model for Military Coup” in Egypt in 2011?

International relations - Foreign relations of Uganda

    Following the expulsion of Ugandan Asians in 1972, most of whom were of Indian descent, India severed diplomatic relations with Uganda. The same year, as part of his "economic war", Idi Amin broke diplomatic ties with Britain and nationalised 85 British-owned businesses – a la Hugo Chavez.

    That year, relations with Israel soured.

    Although Israel had previously supplied Uganda with arms, in 1972 Idi Amin expelled Israeli military advisers and turned to Muammar al-Gaddafi of Libya and the Soviet Union for support.[29] Idi Amin became an outspoken critic of Israel.[37]

    In the documentary film General Idi Amin Dada: A Self Portrait, he discussed his plans for war against Israel, using paratroops, bombers and suicide squadrons.[11]

    Idi Amin later stated that Hitler "was right to burn six million Jews".[38]

    In 1973, U.S. Ambassador Thomas Patrick Melady recommended that the United States reduce its presence in Uganda. Melady described Idi Amin's regime as "racist, erratic and unpredictable, brutal, inept, bellicose, irrational, ridiculous, and militaristic".[39]

    Accordingly, the United States closed its embassy in Kampala.

    In June 1976, Idi Amin allowed an Air France airliner hijacked by two members of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine - External Operations (PFLP-EO) and two members of the German Revolutionäre Zellen to land at Entebbe Airport. There, the hijackers were joined by three more.

      Soon after, 156 non-Jewish hostages who did not hold Israeli passports were released and flown to safety, while 83 Jews and Israeli citizens, as well as 20 others who refused to abandon them (among whom were the captain and crew of the hijacked Air France jet), continued to be held hostage.

      In the subsequent Israeli rescue operation, codenamed Operation Thunderbolt (popularly known as Operation Entebbe), nearly all the hostages were freed. Three hostages died during the operation and 10 were wounded; seven hijackers, 45 Ugandan soldiers, and one Israeli soldier, Yoni Netanyahu, were killed.

      A fourth hostage, 75-year-old Dora Bloch, who had been taken to Mulago Hospital in Kampala prior to the rescue operation, was subsequently murdered in reprisal. The incident further soured Uganda's international relations, leading Britain to close its High Commission in Uganda.[40]

    Uganda under Idi Amin embarked on a large military build-up, which raised concerns in Kenya. Early in June 1975, Kenyan officials impounded a large convoy of Soviet-made arms en route to Uganda at the port of Mombasa. Tension between Uganda and Kenya reached its climax in February 1976 when Idi Amin announced that he would investigate the possibility that parts of southern Sudan and western and central Kenya, up to within 32 kilometres (20 mi) of Nairobi, were historically a part of colonial Uganda.

    The Kenyan Government responded with a stern statement that Kenya would not part with "a single inch of territory". Idi Amin backed down after the Kenyan army deployed troops and armored personnel carriers along the Kenya-Uganda border.[41]

    Libyan military dictator Muammar al-Gaddafi backed Idi Amin[2] and the Soviet Union became Idi Amin's largest arms supplier.[3]

    East Germany was involved in the General Service Unit and the State Research Bureau, the two agencies which were most notorious for terror. During the Tanzanian invasion in 1979 East Germany attempted to remove evidence of its involvement.[4]

    King of Scotland

    Near the end of 1976, Idi Amin officially declared himself "the uncrowned King of Scotland". (despite the fact that the proper name for the title is King of Scots)[42] Idi Amin lavished his guests and dignitaries with Scottish accordion music, while dressed in Scottish kilts.[43] He wrote to Queen Elizabeth II, "I would like you to arrange for me to visit Scotland, Ireland and Wales to meet the heads of revolutionary movements fighting against your imperialist oppression", and allegedly sent the Queen a telex that stated:

      "Dear Liz, if you want to know a real man, come to Kampala."[44] Idi Amin sometimes argued that he was "the last King of Scotland".[45]

    Erratic behaviour and media portrayalA 1977 caricature of Idi Amin in military and presidential attire by Edmund S. Valtman

    Over time, Idi Amin became more overweight and outspoken. In 1971, Idi Amin and Zaire's president Mobutu Sese Seko changed the names of Lake Albert and Lake Edward to Lake Mobutu Sese Seko and Lake Idi Amin Dada, respectively.[46]

    In 1977, after Britain had broken diplomatic relations with his regime, Idi Amin declared he had beaten the British and conferred on himself the decoration of CBE (Conqueror of the British Empire). His full self-bestowed title ultimately became "His Excellency President for Life, Field Marshal Al Hadji Doctor[B] Idi Idi Amin Dada, VC,[C] DSO, MC, Lord of the Beasts of the Earth and Fishes of the Sea and Conqueror of the British Empire in Africa in General and Uganda in Particular", in addition to his officially stated claim of being the uncrowned King of Scotland.[47]

    Idi Amin became the subject of rumours and myths, including a widespread belief that he was a cannibal.[48][49] Some of the unsubstantiated rumours, such as the mutilation of one of his wives, were spread and popularised by the 1980 film Rise and Fall of Idi Amin and alluded to in the film The Last King of Scotland in 2006.[50]

    During Idi Amin's time in power, popular media outside of Uganda often portrayed him as an essentially comic and eccentric figure. In a 1977 assessment typical of the time, a Time magazine article described him as a "killer and clown, big-hearted buffoon and strutting martinet".[51]

    For focusing on Idi Amin's excessive tastes and self-aggrandizing eccentricities, the foreign media was often criticised by Ugandan exiles and defectors for downplaying or excusing his murderous behavior.[52] Other commentators even suggested that Idi Amin had deliberately cultivated his eccentric reputation in the foreign media as an easily parodied buffoon in order to defuse international concern over his administration of Uganda.[53]

    STAR and CRESCENT STAR and CRESCENT STAR and CRESCENT

Islamic Muslim Dictator, Uganda: Comrade with Muammar Gaddafi, Libya;

Was Idi Amin a “Model for Military Coup” in Egypt in 2011?

Deposition and exile, Uganda-Tanzania War

    By 1978, the number of Idi Amin's supporters and close associates had shrunk significantly, and he faced increasing dissent from the populace within Uganda as the economy and infastructure collapsed from years of neglect and abuse. After the killings of Bishop Luwum and ministers Oryema and Oboth Ofumbi in 1977, several of Idi Amin's ministers defected or fled into exile.[54]

    Later that year in November, after Idi Amin's vice president, General Mustafa Adrisi, was injured in a car accident, troops loyal to him mutinied. Idi Amin sent troops against the mutineers, some of whom had fled across the Tanzanian border.[26] Idi Amin accused Tanzanian President Julius Nyerere of waging war against Uganda, ordered the invasion of Tanzanian territory, and formally annexed a section of the Kagera Region across the boundary.[26][28]

    In January 1979, Nyerere mobilised the Tanzania People's Defence Force and counterattacked, joined by several groups of Ugandan exiles who had united as the Uganda National Liberation Army (UNLA). Idi Amin's army retreated steadily, and despite military help from Libya's Muammar al-Gaddafi, he was forced to flee into exile by helicopter on 11 April 1979 when Kampala was captured.

    He escaped first to Libya where he stayed until 1980, and ultimately settled in Saudi Arabia where the Saudi royal family allowed him sanctuary and paid him a generous subsidy in return for his staying out of politics.[10]

    Idi Amin lived for a number of years on the top two floors of the Novotel Hotel on Palestine Road in Jeddah. Having covered the Ugandan-Tanzania war for the BBC as chief Africa correspondent, in 1980 Brian Barron, in partnership with cameraman Mohammed Idi Amin of Visnews in Nairobi, located Idi Amin and secured the first interview with him since his deposition.[55]

    Idi Amin held that Uganda needed him and never expressed remorse for the nature of his regime.[56] In 1989, he attempted to return to Uganda, apparently to lead an armed group organised by Colonel Juma Oris. He reached Kinshasa, Zaire (now the Democratic Republic of the Congo), before Zairian President Mobutu forced him to return to Saudi Arabia.


    STAR and CRESCENT STAR and CRESCENT STAR and CRESCENT

Islamic Muslim Dictator, Uganda: Comrade with Muammar Gaddafi, Libya;

Was Idi Amin a “Model for Military Coup” in Egypt in 2011?

Idi Amin's death

    On 20 July 2003, one of Idi Amin's wives, Madina, reported that he was in a coma and near death at King Faisal Specialist Hospital in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia from kidney failure. She pleaded with the current Ugandan President Yoweri Museveni to allow him to return to Uganda for the remainder of his life. Museveni replied that Idi Amin would have to "answer for his sins the moment he was brought back."[57]

    Idi Amin died at the hospital in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia on 16 August 2003. He was buried in Ruwais Cemetery in Jeddah.[58]

    Family and associates

    A polygamist, Idi Amin married at least six women, three of whom he divorced. He married his first and second wives, Malyamu and Kay, in 1966. The next year, he married Nora and then Nalongo Madina in 1972. On 26 March 1974, he announced on Radio Uganda that he had divorced Malyamu, Nora and Kay.[59][60] Malyamu was arrested in Tororo on the Kenyan border in April 1974 and accused of attempting to smuggle a bolt of fabric into Kenya. She later moved to London.[59][61]

    Kay died on 13 August 1974, reportedly from an attempted surgical abortion performed by her lover Dr. Mbalu Mukasa (who himself committed suicide). Her body was found dismembered. In August 1975, during the Organisation of African Unity (OAU) summit meeting in Kampala, Idi Amin married Sarah Kyolaba. Sarah's boyfriend, with whom she had been living with before she met Idi Amin, vanished and was never heard from again.

    By 1993, Idi Amin was living with the last nine of his children and a single wife, Mama a Chumaru, the mother of the youngest four of his children. His last known child was a daughter called Iman, born in 1992.[62] According to The Monitor, Idi Amin married again a few months before his death in 2003.[61]

    Sources differ widely on the number of children Idi Amin fathered; most say that he had 30 to 45.[D] Until 2003, Taban Idi Amin (born 1955),[63] Idi Idi Amin's eldest son, was the leader of West Nile Bank Front (WNBF), a rebel group opposed to the government of Yoweri Museveni. In 2005, he was offered amnesty by Museveni, and in 2006, he was appointed Deputy Director General of the Internal Security Organisation.[64]

    Another of Idi Amin's sons, Haji Ali Idi Amin, ran for election as Chairman (i.e. mayor) of Njeru Town Council in 2002 but was not elected.[65] In early 2007, the award-winning film The Last King of Scotland prompted one of his sons, Jaffar Idi Amin (born 1967),[66] to speak out in his father's defense. Jaffar Idi Amin said he was writing a book to rehabilitate his father's reputation.[67] Jaffar is the tenth of Idi Amin's 40 official children by seven official wives.[66]

    On 3 August 2007, Faisal Wangita (born February 1983),[68] one of Idi Amin's sons, was convicted for playing a role in a murder in London.[69] Wangita's mother is Idi Amin's fifth wife, Sarah Kyolaba (born 1955)[70] a former go-go dancer, but known as 'Suicide Sarah', because she was a go-go dancer for the Ugandan Army's Revolutionary Suicide Mechanised Regiment Band.[70]

    Among Idi Amin's closest associates was the British-born Bob Astles, who is considered by many to have been a malign influence, and by others as a moderating presence.[71] Isaac Malyamungu was an instrumental affiliate and one of the more feared officers in Idi Amin's army.[54]


    STAR and CRESCENT STAR and CRESCENT STAR and CRESCENT

Islamic Muslim Dictator, Uganda: Comrade with Muammar Gaddafi, Libya;

Was Idi Amin a “Model for Military Coup” in Egypt in 2011?

Portrayal in media and literature, Film dramatizations

* Victory at Entebbe (1976), a TV film about Operation Entebbe. Julius Harris plays Idi Amin in a comic manner. Godfrey Cambridge was originally cast as Idi Amin, but died of a heart attack on the set.

* Raid on Entebbe (1977), a film depicting the events of Operation Entebbe. Yaphet Kotto plays Idi Amin as a charismatic but short-tempered political and military leader.

* In Mivtsa Yonatan (1977; also known as Operation Thunderbolt), an Israeli film about Operation Entebbe, Jamaican-born British actor Mark Heath plays Idi Amin. Here, Idi Amin is first angered by the German terrorists, whom he later comes to support.

* Rise and Fall of Idi Amin (1981), a film recreating Idi Amin's atrocities. Idi Amin is played by Kenyan actor Joseph Olita.

* The Naked Gun (1988), a comedy film in which Idi Amin (Prince Hughes) and other world leaders such as Yasser Arafat, Fidel Castro, Mikhail Gorbachev, Ruhollah Khomeini, and Muammar al-Gaddafi meet in Beirut to conspire against the United States.

* Mississippi Masala (1991), a film depicting the resettlement of an Indian family after the expulsion of Asians from Uganda by Idi Amin. Joseph Olita again plays Idi Amin in a cameo.

* The Last King of Scotland (2006), a film adaptation of Giles Foden's 1998 fictional novel of the same name. For his portrayal of Idi Amin in this film, Forest Whitaker won the Academy Award for Best Actor, a BAFTA, the Screen Actors' Guild Award for Best Actor (Drama), and a Golden Globe.

Documentaries

* General Idi Idi Amin Dada: A Self Portrait (1974), directed by French filmmaker Barbet Schroeder.

* Idi Idi Amin: Monster in Disguise (1997), a television documentary directed by Greg Baker.

* The Man Who Ate His Archbishop's Liver? (2004), a television documentary written, produced and directed by Elizabeth C. Jones for Associated-Rediffusion and Channel 4.

* The Man Who Stole Uganda (1971), World In Action first broadcast 5 April 1971.

* Inside Idi Idi Amin's Terror Machine (1979), World In Action first broadcast 13 June 1979.

Books

* State of Blood: The Inside Story of Idi Idi Amin (1977) by Henry Kyemba

* The General Is Up by Peter Nazareth

* Ghosts of Kampala: The Rise and Fall of Idi Idi Amin (1980) by George Ivan Smith

* The Last King of Scotland (1998) by Giles Foden (fictional)

* Idi Idi Amin Dada: Hitler in Africa (1977) by Thomas Patrick Melady

* General Idi Amin (1975) by David Martin[disambiguation needed]

* The Collected Bulletins of Idi Amin (1974) and Further Bulletins of President Idi Amin (1975) by Alan Coren, portraying Idi Amin as an amiable, if murderous, buffoon in charge of a tin-pot dictatorship. Alan was also responsible in part for a music release – "The Collected Broadcasts of Idi Amin". It was a British comedy album parodying Ugandan dictator Idi Amin, released in 1975 on Transatlantic Records. It was performed by John Bird and written by Alan Coren, based on columns he wrote for Punch magazine.

* I Love Idi Amin: The Story of Triumph under Fire in the Midst of Suffering and Persecution in Uganda (1977) by Festo Kivengere

* Impassioned for Freedom: Uganda, Struggle Against Idi Amin (2006) by Eriya Kategaya * The Feast of the Nine Virgins (2001) by Jameela Siddiqi

* Bombay Gardens (2006) by Jameela Siddiqi

* A Distant Grief (1979) by F. Kefa Sempangi

* Kahawa (1981) by Donald E. Westlake

* Confessions of Idi Amin: The chilling, explosive expose of Africa's most evil man – in his own words (1977) compiled by Trevor Donald

* Child of Dandelions, Governor General Award Finalist (2008) Shenaaz Nanji

* Campbell, M. and Cohen, E.J. (1960) Rugby Football in East Africa 1909–1959. Published by the Rugby Football Union of East Africa

Notes

* A ^ Many sources, like Encyclopedia Britannica, Encarta and the Columbia Encyclopedia, hold that Idi Amin was born in Koboko or Kampala c. 1925, and that the exact date of his birth is unknown. Researcher Fred Guweddeko claimed that Idi Amin was born on 17 May 1928,[9] but that is disputed.[72] The only certainty is that Idi Amin was born some time during the mid-1920s.

* B ^ He conferred a doctorate of law on himself from Makerere University.[6] * C ^ The Victorious Cross (VC) was a medal made to emulate the British Victoria Cross.[73]

* D ^ According to Henry Kyema and the African Studies Review,[74] Idi Amin had 34 children. Some sources say Idi Amin claimed to have fathered 32 children. A report in The Monitor says he was survived by 45 children,[61] while another in the BBC gives the figure of 54.[75]


STAR and CRESCENT STAR and CRESCENT STAR and CRESCENT

Islamic Muslim Dictator, Uganda: Comrade with Muammar Gaddafi, Libya;

Was Idi Amin a “Model for Military Coup” in Egypt in 2011?

WORKS CITED

    1. ^ Ullman, Richard H. (April 1978). "Human Rights and Economic Power: The United States Versus Idi Amin". Foreign Affairs. http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/29141/richard-h-ullman/human-rights-and-economic-power-the-united-states-versus-idi-ami. Retrieved 2009-03-26. "The most conservative estimates by informed observers hold that President Idi Amin Dada and the terror squads operating under his loose direction have killed 100,000 Ugandans in the seven years he has held power.".

    2. ^ a b Roland Anthony Oliver, Anthony Atmore. Africa since 1800. p. 272.

    3. ^ a b Dale C. Tatum. Who influenced whom?. p. 177.

    4. ^ a b Gareth M. Winrow: The foreign policy of the GDR in Africa, p. 141

    5. ^ Jørgensen, Jan Jelmert (1981). Uganda: a modern history. St. Martin's Press. p. 272. ISBN 0312827865.

    6. ^ a b "Idi Amin: a byword for brutality". News24. 2003-07-21. http://www.news24.com/News24/Africa/News/0,,2-11-1447_1390595,00.html. Retrieved 2007-12-02.

    7. ^ Gershowitz, Suzanne (20 February 2007). "The Last King of Scotland, Idi Amin, and the United Nations". http://www.ypfp.org/the_last_king_of_scotland_idi_amin_and_the_united_nations. Retrieved 2009-08-08.

    8. ^ a b c Keatley, Patrick (18 August 2003). "Obituary: Idi Amin". The Guardian (London). http://www.guardian.co.uk/news/2003/aug/18/guardianobituaries. Retrieved 2008-03-18.

    9. ^ a b c d Guweddeko, Fred (12 June 2007). "Rejected then taken in by dad; a timeline". The Monitor. Archived from the original on 2007-06-12. http://web.archive.org/web/20070612053237/http://www.monitor.co.ug/specialincludes/ugprsd/amin/articles/index.php. Retrieved 2009-08-08.

    10. ^ a b "Idi Amin". Encyclopedia Britannica. 19 December 2008. Archived from

    the original on 2009-08-09. http://web.archive.org/web/20070314142415rn_1/www.britannica.com/eb/article-9007180/Idi-Idi Amin. Retrieved 2009-08-08.

    11. ^ a b General Idi Amin Dada: A Self Portrait. Le Figaro Films. 1974.

    12. ^ Bay, Austin (20 August 2003). "Why Didn't Idi Amin Rot and Die in Jail?". Strategy Page. http://www.strategypage.com/on_point/20030820.aspx. Retrieved 2009-08-08.

    13. ^ Bridgland, Fred (16 August 2003). "Idi Amin". Scotsman. http://news.scotsman.com/idiamin/Idi-Idi Amin.2453742.jp. Retrieved 2009-08-08.

    14. ^ a b c Cain, Nick and Growden, Greg "Chapter 21: Ten Peculiar Facts about Rugby" in Rugby Union for Dummies (2nd Edition), p294 (pub: John Wiley and Sons, Chichester, England) ISBN 978-0-470-03537-5

    15. ^ Johnston, Ian (17 August 2003). "Death of a despot, buffoon and killer". Scotsman. http://news.scotsman.com/idiamin/Death-of-a-despot-buffoon.2453405.jp. Retrieved 2009-08-24.

    16. ^ a b Cotton, p111

    17. ^ Campbell, M. and Cohen, E.J. (1960) Rugby Football in East Africa 1909–1959. Published by the Rugby Football Union of East Africa

    18. ^ http://www.rugbyfootballhistory.com/laws.htm#Replacements

    19. ^ "Country Studies: Uganda: Independence: The Early Years". Federal Research Division. United States Library of Congress. http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/ugtoc.html#ug0159. Retrieved 2009-08-08.

    20. ^ "Idi Amin Dada Biography". Encyclopedia of World Biography. Thomson Gale. 2005. http://www.bookrags.com/biography/idi-amin-dada.

    21. ^ Nantulya, Paul (2001). "Exclusion, Identity and Armed Conflict: A Historical Survey of the Politics of Confrontation in Uganda with Specific Reference to the Independence Era". Archived from the original on 2006-10-04. http://web.archive.org/web/20061004231023/http://www.kas.org.za/Publications/SeminarReports/PoliticsofIdentityandExclusion/nantulya.pdf.

    22. ^ a b "General Idi Amin overthrows Ugandan government". British Council. 2 February 1971. http://www.britishcouncil.org/learnenglish-central-history-amin.htm. Retrieved 2009-08-08.

    23. ^ "On this day: 25 January 1971: Idi Amin ousts Ugandan president". BBC. 1971-01-25. http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/january/25/newsid_2506000/2506423.stm. Retrieved 2009-08-08.

    24. ^ Fairhall, John (26 January 1971). "Curfew in Uganda after military coup topples Obote". The Guardian (London). http://www.guardian.co.uk/theguardian/1971/jan/26/fromthearchive. Retrieved 2009-08-08.

    25. ^ Mbabaali, Jude (August 2005). "The Role of Opposition Parties in a Democracy: The Experience of the Democratic Party of Uganda" (PDF). Regional Conference on Political Parties and Democratisation in East Africa. http://www.fes-tz.de/arusha-2005/docs/the-role-of-opposition-parties-in-a-democracy.uganda.pdf. Retrieved 2009-08-08.

    26. ^ a b c d "Country Studies: Uganda: Military Rule Under Idi Amin". Federal Research Division. United States Library of Congress. http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/ugtoc.html#ug0159. Retrieved 2009-08-08.

    27. ^ a b "Country Studies: Uganda: Post-Independence Security Services". Federal Research Division. United States Library of Congress. http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/ugtoc.html#ug0159. Retrieved 2009-08-08.

    28. ^ a b "An Idi-otic Invasion". Time. 13 November 1978. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,946151-1,00.html. Retrieved 2009-08-08.

    29. ^ a b Tall, Mamadou (Spring–Summer 1982). "Notes on the Civil and Political Strife in Uganda". A Journal of Opinion (Issue: A Journal of Opinion, Vol. 12, No. 1/2) 12 (1/2): 41–44. doi:10.2307/1166537. http://www.jstor.org/pss/1166537. Retrieved 2009-08-09.

    30. ^ Lautze, Sue. Research on Violent Institutions in Unstable Environments: The livelihoods systems of Ugandan army soldiers and their families in a war zone. Hertford College, Oxford University. http://www.livesandlivelihoods.com/files/25826548.pdf.

    31. ^ a b Moore, Charles (17 September 2003). "Obituary: Idi Amin". Daily Telegraph (London). Archived from the original on 2009-08-09. http://web.archive.org/web/20071012134036rn_1/www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2003/08/18/db1801.xml&page=1.

    32. ^ "Disappearances and Political Killings: Human Rights Crisis of the 1990s: A Manual for Action". Amnesty International. Archived from the original on 2009-08-09. http://web.archive.org/web/20080309153107/http://web.amnesty.org/aidoc/aidoc_pdf.nsf/d45725da5fa95f1f80256a2b00642199/cde8ef35a67e99e3802569a70019299e/$FILE/a3307593.pdf.

    33. ^ "Special report: Who were Idi Amin's victims?". The Daily Monitor. 13 June 2007. Archived from the original on 2007-06-13. http://web.archive.org/web/20070613161724/http://www.monitor.co.ug/specialincludes/ugprsd/amin/articles/amin6.php.

    34. ^ Luganda, Patrick (29 July 2003). "Idi Amin's Economic War Left Uganda on Crutches". New Vision (Kampala).

    35. ^ "On this day: August 7th 1972: Asians given 90 days to leave Uganda". BBC. 1972-08-07. http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/august/7/newsid_2492000/2492333.stm. Retrieved 2009-08-08.

    36. ^ "Flight of the Asians". Time. 11 September 1972. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,906327,00.html. Retrieved 2009-08-08.

    37. ^ Jamison, M. Idi Amin and Uganda: An Annotated Bibliography, Greenwood Press, 1992, pp.155–6

    38. ^ End for Idi Amin the executioner The Sun-Herald August 17, 2003

    39. ^ "240. Telegram 1 From the Embassy in Uganda to the Department of State, January 2nd, 1973, 0700Z". Foreign relations (Office of the Historian) E-6. 2 January 1973. http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ho/frus/nixon/e6/66834.htm. Retrieved 2009-08-08.

    40. ^ "On this day: July 7th 1976: British grandmother missing in Uganda". BBC. 1976-07-07. http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/july/7/newsid_2496000/2496095.stm. Retrieved 2009-08-08.

    41. ^ "'Dada' always rubbed Kenya the wrong way". Sunday Nation. 17 August 2003. Archived from the original on 2008-02-06. http://web.archive.org/web/20080206065709/http://www.nationaudio.com/News/DailyNation/17082003/News/Idi Amin_News170820039.html.

    42. ^ Schwartzenberg, Roger-Gérard (1980). The superstar show of government. Barron's; Original: University of California Press. p. 257. ISBN 0812052587, 9780812052589.

    43. ^ Sapolsky, Robert M. (2002). A Primate's Memoir. Simon and Schuster. p. 86. ISBN 0743202414, 9780743202411.

    44. ^ Beaumont, Peter (17 August 2003). "Idi Amin Dada, VC, CBE .. RIP". The Observer (London). http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2003/aug/17/peterbeaumont.theobserver. Retrieved 8 November 2010.

    45. ^ Ludwig, Arnold M. (2004). King of the Mountain: The Nature of Political Leadership. University Press of Kentucky. p. 73. ISBN 0813190681, 9780813190686.

    46. ^ "Purges and Peace Talks". Time. 16 October 1972. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,906577,00.html. Retrieved 2009-08-08.

    47. ^ Post, Jerrold M.; George, Alexander (2004). Leaders and their followers in a dangerous world: the psychology of political behavior. Cornell University, p. 17. [1]

    48. ^ Orizio, Riccardo (21 August 2003). "Idi Amin's Exile Dream". New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2003/08/21/opinion/idi-amin-s-exile-dream.html. Retrieved 2009-08-08.

    49. ^ "Museveni, munificent with monarch". The Economist. 29 November 2007. http://www.economist.com/world/mideast-africa/PrinterFriendly.cfm?story_id=10216508. Retrieved 2008-06-27.

    50. ^ Serugo, Moses (28 May 2007). "Special Report: The myths surrounding Idi Amin". The Monitor. Archived from the original on 2007-05-28. http://web.archive.org/web/20070528211152/http://www.monitor.co.ug/specialincludes/ugprsd/amin/articles/amin9.php.

    51. ^ "Idi Amin:The Wild Man of Africa". Time. 28 February 1977. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,918762-1,00.html. Retrieved 2009-08-08.

    52. ^ Kibazo, Joel (13 January 2007). "A Brute, Not a Buffoon". The Guardian (London). http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/2007/jan/13/comment.uganda. Retrieved 2009-08-08. "... Idi Amin was widely portrayed as a comic figure. Yes, he had expelled the Asians and murdered a few people, but isn't that what was expected of Africa, I used to hear."

    53. ^ Moore, Charles (17 September 2003). "Obituary: Idi Amin". Daily Telegraph (London). Archived from the original on 2009-08-09.

    http://web.archive.org/web/20071012134036rn_1/www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2003/08/18/db1801.xml&page=1. "Throughout his disastrous reign, he encouraged the West to cultivate a dangerous ambivalence towards him. His genial grin, penchant for grandiose self-publicity and ludicrous public statements on international affairs led to his adoption as a comic figure. He was easily parodied ... however, this fascination, verging on affection, for the grotesqueness of the individual occluded the singular plight of his nation."

    54. ^ a b "Not even an archbishop was spared". The Weekly Observer. 16 February 2006. Archived from the original on 2007-10-12. http://web.archive.org/web/20071012152659/http://ugandaobserver.com/new/archives/2006arch/features/spec/feb/spec200602161.php.

    55. ^ Barron, Brian (2003-08-16). "The Idi Amin I knew". BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/africa/3156011.stm. Retrieved 2009-09-16.

    56. ^ Wasswa, Henry (17 August 2003). "Idi Amin's death brings muted reaction". Associated Press.

    57. ^ "Idi Amin back in media spotlight". BBC. 25 July 2003. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/3093613.stm. Retrieved 2009-08-08.

    58. ^ "Idi Amin, ex-dictator of Uganda, dies". USA Today. 16 August 2003. http://www.usatoday.com/news/world/2003-08-16-amin-obit_x.htm. Retrieved 2009-08-08. "Idi Amin was buried in Jiddah's Ruwais cemetery after sunset prayers Saturday, said a person close to the family in the Red Sea port city. The source, who spoke on condition of anonymity, was told that very few people attended the funeral."

    59. ^ a b "Reign of Terror: The life and loves of a tyrant". Daily Nation. 20 August 2003. Archived from the original on 2008-02-06. http://web.archive.org/web/20080206070718/http://www.nationaudio.com/News/DailyNation/20082003/News/News122.html. Retrieved 2009-08-08.

    60. ^ Kavuma, Richard (18 June 2007). "Special Report: Big Daddy and his women". The Monitor. Archived from the original on 2007-06-18. http://web.archive.org/web/20070618171054/http://www.monitor.co.ug/specialincludes/ugprsd/amin/articles/amin8.php. Retrieved 2009-08-08.

    61. ^ a b c Kibirige, David (17 August 2003). "Idi Amin is dead". The Monitor. Archived from the original on 2007-06-10. http://web.archive.org/web/20070610010707/http://www.monitor.co.ug/specialincludes/ugprsd/amin/articles/news1.php. Retrieved 2009-08-08.

    62. ^ Foden, Giles (2007-08-04). "Not quite a chip off the old block". The Guardian (London). http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2007/aug/04/ukcrime.gilesfoden.

    63. ^ "Son of Idi Amin threatens to sue 'Last King Of Scotland' producers". Jet. 2006. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1355/is_14_110/ai_n16807352/.

    64. ^ Mcconnell, Tristan (12 February 2006). "Return of Idi Amin's son casts a shadow over Ugandan election". The Daily Telegraph (London). http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/africaandindianocean/uganda/1510313/Return-of-Idi-Amins-son-casts-a-shadow-over-Ugandan-election.html. Retrieved 2009-08-08.

    65. ^ "Idi Amin's son runs for mayor". BBC. 3 January 2002. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/1740272.stm. Retrieved 2009-08-08.

    66. ^ a b "Idi Amin's son lashes out over 'Last King'". USA Today. 2007-02-22. http://www.usatoday.com/life/people/2007-02-22-amin-protest_x.htm.

    67. ^ "Idi Amin's son lashes out over 'Last King'". Associated Press (USA Today). 22 February 2007. http://www.usatoday.com/life/people/2007-02-22-amin-protest_x.htm. Retrieved 2009-08-08.

    68. ^ Levy, Megan (2007-08-03). "Idi Amin's son jailed for London gang attack". The Daily Telegraph. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/1559343/Idi-Amins-son-jailed-for-London-gang-attack.html.

    69. ^ "Idi Amin's son jailed over death". BBC News. 3 August 2007. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/england/london/6929285.stm. Retrieved 2009-08-08.

    70. ^ a b Bird, Steve (2007-08-04). "Idi Amins son was leader of London gang that stabbed teenager to death in street". The Times (London). http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/uk/crime/article2195535.ece.

    71. ^ Kelly, Jane (19 August 2003). "Uganda's white rat". Daily News. http://www.dailynews.co.za/index.php?fSectionId=502&fArticleId=210731. Retrieved 2009-08-08.

    72. ^ O'Kadameri, Billie (1 September 2003). "Separate fact from fiction in Idi Amin stories". Originally published in The Monitor. http://www.mail-archive.com/ugandanet@kym.net/msg06472.html. Retrieved 2010-05-08.

    73. ^ Lloyd, Lorna (2007) p.239

    74. ^ African Studies Review (1982) p.63

    75. ^ "Amins row over inheritance". BBC News. 2003-08-25. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/africa/3179085.stm. Retrieved 2009-08-09.

    References

    * African studies review. 25–26. University of California. 1982.

    * Avirgan, Tony; Martha Honey (1982). War in Uganda: The Legacy of Idi Amin. Westport: Lawrence Hill & Co. Publishers. ISBN 0882081365.

    * Cotton, Fran (Ed., 1984) The Book of Rugby Disasters & Bizarre Records. Compiled by Chris Rhys. London. Century Publishing. ISBN 0-7126-0911-3

    * Decalo, Samuel (1989). Psychoses of Power: African Personal Dictatorships. Boulder: Westview Press. ISBN 0813376173.

    * Gwyn, David (1977). Idi Amin: Death-Light of Africa. Boston: Little, Brown and Company. ISBN 0316332305.

    * Kyemba, Henry (1977). A State of Blood: The Inside Story of Idi Amin. New York: Ace Books. ISBN 0441785244.

    * Lloyd, Lorna (2007). Diplomacy with a difference: the Commonwealth Office of High Commissioner, 1880–2006. University of Michigan: Martinus Nijhoff. ISBN 9004154973.

    * Melady, Thomas P.; Margaret B. Melady (1977). Idi Amin Dada: Hitler in Africa. Kansas City: Sheed Andrews and McMeel. ISBN 0836207831.

    * Orizio, Riccardo (2004). Talk of the Devil: Encounters with Seven Dictators. Walker & Company. ISBN 0436209993.

    * Palmowski, Jan (2003). Dictionary of Contemporary World History: From 1900 to the present day (Second ed.). Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-860539-0.


    STAR and CRESCENT STAR and CRESCENT STAR and CRESCENT

Islamic Muslim Dictator, Uganda: Comrade with Muammar Gaddafi, Libya;

Was Idi Amin a “Model for Military Coup” in Egypt in 2011?

External links Uganda portal Biography portal Collection of quotations related to: Idi Amin

* The Idi Amin I knew, Brian Barron, BBC, 16 August 2003. Includes a video of Brian Barron interviewing Idi Amin in exile in 1980. The Atlantic - April 1 01 2001 Memo and Quincy LS the series

* General Idi Amin Dada: A Self Portrait on Google Video (Flash Video)

* idiamindada.com, a website devoted to Idi Amin's legacy created by his son Jaffar Amin

* Idi Amin at the Internet Movie Database

STAR and CRESCENT STAR and CRESCENT STAR and CRESCENT

Do You Qualify
For an Honorary Doctor of Divinity from Harvard Theological Seminary?
(Click for Program and Free Evaluation)

AMERICAN FLAG WAVING AMERICAN FLAG WAVING AMERICAN FLAG WAVING


flag divider

GOLD DIVIDER WITH CROSS CENTER


"CHRISTIPEDIA™"