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[5] Reagan Republican Michelle Bachmann for President

[6] PRO-LIFE Page

[7] Barack Obama Files: His Muslim Connections

[8] TALK-RADIO-REPUBLICANS HOME PAGE

[9] TEA-PARTY HISTORY and BACKGROUND

[10] Conservative Activists: "Who's Who in Christian Conservative Politics?

[11] SARAH PALIN HOME PAGE: "Winning Big Winning Easy in 2012!"

[12] TALK-RADIO-CONSERVATIVES Home Page: For a Judaeo-Christian America

[13] The ALL-PRO-ISRAEL-BLOG

[14] Sarah Palin Blog: The Webs Largest "Pro Sarah Palin Site!"

[15] The "Rush-Recommended Republican Blueprint!"

[16] "Rush Quotes" on Christ and Christianity!

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CHRISTIPEDIA™

The USA Church Restoration Movement,

The Stone-Campbell CHURCHES of CHRIST Movement:



Alexander Campbell's millennialism

Alexander Campbell's millennialism was more optimistic than Stone's.[12]:6 He had more confidence in the potential for human progress and believed that Christians could unite to transform the world and initiate a millennial age.[12]:6

Campbell's conceptions were postmillennial, as he anticipated that the progress of the church and society would lead to an age of peace and righteousness before the return of Christ.[12]:6

This optimistic approach meant that, in addition to his commitment to primitivism, he had a progressive strand in his thinking.[12]:7

development of the Churches of Christ

One of the issues leading to the 1906 separation was the question of organizational structures above the level of the local congregation. Since then, Churches of Christ have maintained an ongoing commitment to church governance that is congregational only, rather than denominational.

Churches of Christ purposefully have no central headquarters, councils, or other organizational structure above the local church level.[15]:124[29]:214[33]:238[34][35]:103

Rather, the independent congregations are a network with each congregation participating at its own discretion in various means of service and fellowship with other congregations (see

Sponsoring church (Churches of Christ)).[15]:124[36][37][38] Churches of Christ are linked by their shared commitment to restoration principles.[35]:106[36]

Since Churches of Christ are autonomous and purposefully do not maintain an ecclesiastical hierarchy or doctrinal council, it is not unusual to find variations from congregation to congregation. The approach taken to restoring the New Testament church has focused on "methods and procedures" such as church organization, the form of worship, and how the church should function.

As a result, most divisions among Churches of Christ have been the result of "methodological" disputes. These are meaningful to members of this movement because of the seriousness with which they take the goal of "restoring the form and structure of the primitive church."[29]:212

    Three quarters of the 30,000 congregations with 87% of the membership are described by The Encyclopedia of the Stone-Campbell Movement as "mainstream", sharing a consensus on practice and theology.[39]:213

    The remaining 13% of congregations may be grouped into four categories:

      >> The largest of which is the churches of Christ (non-institutional). Approximately 2,055 congregations fall in this category.[39]:213[40]

      >> The second group does not use separate Bible classes, and consists of approximately 1,100 congregations.

      >> The third group does not use multiple communion cups (approximately 550 congregations; this category overlaps somewhat with those congregations that do not use separate Bible classes for children).

      >> The fourth group "emphasize[s] mutual edification by various leaders in the churches and oppose[s] one person doing most of the preaching." This group includes roughly 130 congregations.[39]:213[40]

    These groups generally differ from the mainstream consensus in specific practices, rather than in theological perspectives, and tend to have smaller congregations on average.[39]:213

While there are no official membership statistics for the Churches of Christ, growth appears to have been relatively steady through the 20th century.[12]:4

One source estimates total U.S. membership:

    433,714 in 1926,

    558,000 in 1936,

    682,000 in 1946,

    835,000 in 1965,

    1,250,000 in 1994,

    4,000,000 in 2010;[12]:4

Separation of the International Churches of Christ

The International Churches of Christ had their roots in a "discipling" movement that arose among the mainline Churches of Christ during the 1970s.[41]:418 This discipling movement developed in the campus ministry of Chuck Lucas.[41]:418

In 1967, Chuck Lucas was minister of the 14th Street Church of Christ in Gainesville, Florida (later renamed the Crossroads Church of Christ). That year he started a new project known as Campus Advance (based on principles borrowed from the Campus Crusade and the Shepherding Movement).

Centered on the University of Florida, the program called for a strong evangelical outreach and an intimate religious atmosphere in the form of soul talks and prayer partners. Soul talks were held in student residences and involved prayer and sharing overseen by a leader appointed by Lucas.

Prayer partners referred to the practice of pairing a new Christian with an older guide for personal assistance and direction. Both procedures led to "in-depth involvement of each member in one another's lives," while critics accused Lucas of fostering cultism.[42]

The Crossroads Movement later spread into some other Churches of Christ. One of Lucas' converts, Kip McKean, was living in the Boston area in 1979 and began working with members of the Lexington Church of Christ.[41]:418 He asked them to "redefine their commitment to Christ," and introduced the use of discipling partners.

In order to distinguish themselves from mainline Christianity, the members referred to themselves as "disciples" as opposed to "Christians." The congregation grew rapidly, and was later renamed the Boston Church of Christ.[41]:418 In the early 1980s onward, the Boston Church of Christ began planting churches in other countries including overseas.

With the movement's leadership located in Boston, during the 1980s it commonly became known as the "Boston movement."[41]:418 Although divisions between the mainline Church of Christ and the Boston Movement festered for years, a formal break was made from the mainline Churches of Christ and the Crossroads Movement in 1993 with the Boston Movement adopting the name "International Churches of Christ" (ICOC).[41]:418

Much of the outside literature during this period commonly referred to the "Boston Movement" as the "Discipling Movement," after the practice of assigning each new church member a mentor who was to "disciple" or advise the newer member through prayer and advice about a wide range of spiritual and day-to-day decisions.

In November 2002, both McKean and his wife announced their resignations from their roles as leaders of the International Churches of Christ.[43] What followed was a period of increased sovereignty among local churches, what McKean called a "reactionary 'new vision' of autonomous congregations, consensus leadership with no lead evangelists, the elimination of structured outreach (Bible Talks) and the elimination of discipleship partners."

Many in leadership positions issued public apologies for their participation in authoritative abuses, and some resigned or were asked to leave. By 2004, Boston, Atlanta, and New York had lost over 30% of their members, and some entire congregations severed their ties with the ICOC.[44]

Local fellowships varied in their reactions to the power vacuum. ICOC Chronicler Chris Lee asserts that three factions emerged, still extant today:

>>> a conservative group which seeks a return to the former, authoritarian structure;

>>> a moderate group that, "while they recognize that reform is necessary, feel that the current rate of reform is sufficient"; and

>>> a reformist group which advocates radical restructuring.[45]

Reunion efforts

Efforts have been made to restore unity among the various branches of the Restoration Movement. In 1984 a "Restoration Summit" was held at the Ozark Christian College, with fifty representatives of both the Churches of Christ and the Independent Christian Churches/Churches of Christ.[46]:642

Later meetings were open to all, and were known as "Restoration Forums."[46]:642 Beginning in 1986 they have been held annually, generally in October or November, with the hosting venue alternating between the Churches of Christ and the Independent Christian Churches/Churches of Christ.[46]:642

Topics discussed have included issues such as instrumental music, the nature of the church, and practical steps for promoting unity.[46]:642

Efforts have been made in the early 21st century to include representatives of the Christian Church (Disciples of Christ).[46]:642 These efforts followed the "Stone-Campbell Dialogue," which was a series of meetings beginning in 1999 that included representatives of all three major U.S. branches of the Restoration Movement.[46]:642[47]:720

The first full meeting in 1999 included six representatives from each of the three traditions.[47]:720 Meetings were held twice annually, and in 2001 were expanded to include anyone associated with the Restoration Movement who was interested in attending.[47]:720

Also, special efforts were made in 2006 to create more intentional fellowship between the various branches of the Movement.[48][49] This was in conjunction with the one hundredth anniversary of the "official" recognition of the split between the Christian Church and the Churches of Christ by the U.S. Census in 1906.[48][49]

One example of this was the hosting, by Abilene Christian University (also founded in 1906), of the annual Restoration Unity Forum for 2006, as part of ACU's annual Bible Lectureship.[50] During the program Don Jeanes, president of Milligan College and Royce Money, president of ACU, jointly gave a presentation on the first chapter of the Gospel of John.

Additionally, the compilation and publication of The Encyclopedia of the Stone-Campbell Movement[51] is evidence that scholars in the three wings still work together on common projects. Collaboration on the Encyclopedia also included representatives of the Christian Church (Disciples of Christ).

Time lineRestoration Movementv

Cane Ridge Revival

First National Convention

United Christian Missionary Society

Springfield Presbytery

The American Christian Missionary Society (ACMS)

First North American Christian Convention

Last Will & Testament

First use of organs

Christian Church (DoC) Restructured

Christians

United movement, using various names

Christian Churches (both

Christian Church (DoC)

(Stone)

(Christian Church

Independent and Co-operative)

ICC/Churches of Christ

Disciples

Disciples of Christ

Churches of Christ

(Campbell)

Churches of Christ )

ICoC

Names for the movement

Because the Restoration Movement lacks any centralized structure, having originated in a variety of places with different leaders, there is no consistent nomenclature for the movement as a whole.[52]:551 When the Stone and Campbell movements united in 1832,

Barton Stone advocated using the name "Christians" based on its use in Acts 11:26, while Campbell preferred the term "disciples" because he saw it as both a more humble and an older designation.[52]:551

After 1832, use of term "Reformation" became frequent among leaders of the movement.[52]:551 The 'Campbellites 'had designated themselves as "Reformers," and other early leaders also saw themselves as reformers seeking Christian unity and restoring apostolic Christianity.[52]:551

The movement's language at the time included phrases such as "religious reformation," the "present reformation," the "current reformation" and "the cause of reformation."[52]:551

The term "Restoration Movement" became popular as the 19th century progressed.[52]:551 It appears to have been inspired by Alexander Campbell's essays on "A Restoration of the Ancient Order of Things" in the Christian Baptist.[52]:551

This name has remained popular among the Churches of Christ and the Independent Christian Churches/Churches of Christ.[52]:551 Because of the emphasis it places on the theme of restoration, it has been a less comfortable fit for those whose primary focus has been on the theme of unity.[52]:551

Historically, the term "Disciples of Christ" has also been used by some as a collective designation for the movement.[52]:551 It has evolved, however, into a designation for a particular branch of the movement - the Christian Church (Disciples of Christ) - as a result of the divisions of the late 19th and early 20th centuries.[52]:551

The term "Stone-Campbell Movement" emerged towards the end of the 20th century as a way to avoid the difficulties associated with some of the other names that have been used, and to maintain a sense of the collective history of the movement.[52]:551

Other names that have been used include "the Brotherhood", "the Cause" and "the churches."[52]:551 While the use of the word "movement" is supported by a fairly broad consensus, no single terminology is generally accepted or has official status.[52]:551

Key principles

    * Christianity should be united - not divided: Christ created One Church: His!

    * Creeds divide, but Christians should be able to find agreement by standing on the Bible itself (from which they believe all creeds are but human expansions or constrictions) instead of on the opinions of people about the Bible.

    * Ecclesiastical traditions divide, but Christians should be able to find common ground by following the practice (as best as it can be determined) of the early church.

    * Names of human origin divide, but Christians should be able to find common ground by using biblical names for the church (i.e., "Christian Church", "Church of God" or "Church of Christ" as opposed to "Methodist" or "Lutheran", etc.).

It is in this vein that conservative members of the Churches of Christ object to the phrase "Stone-Campbell Movement."

A number of slogans have been used in the Restoration Movement, which are intended to express some of the distinctive themes of the Movement.[53]:688

These include:

    * "Where the Scriptures speak, we speak; where the Scriptures are silent, we are silent."[53]:688

    * "The Church of Jesus Christ on earth is essentially, intentionally, and constitutionally one."[53]:688

    * "We are Christians only, but not the only Christians."[53]:688

    * "In essentials, unity; in opinions, liberty; in all things charity."[53]:688

    * "No creed but Christ, no book but the Bible, no law but love, no name but the divine."[53]:688

    * "Call Bible things by Bible names."[53]:688

All of the three major U.S. branches of the Movement share the following characteristics:

    * A high view, compared to other Christian traditions, of the office of the elder; and[54]:532

    * A "commitment to the priesthood of all believers".[54]:532

Churches outside North America

Restoration Movement churches are found around the world and the World Convention of Churches of Christ provides a link for them.

Their genealogies are representative of developments in North America. Their theological orientation ranges from fundamentalist to liberal to ecumenical. In some places they have joined with churches of other traditions to form united churches at local, regional or national level.

Great Britain

A group in Nottingham withdrew from the Scotch Baptist church in 1836 to form a Church of Christ.[55]:369 James Wallis, a member of that group, founded a magazine named the British Millennial Harbinger in 1837.[55]:369

In 1842 the first Cooperative Meeting of Churches of Christ in Great Britain was held in Edinburgh.[55]:369 Approximately 50 congregations were involved, representing a membership of 1,600.[55]:369 The name "Churches of Christ" was formally adopted at an annual meeting in 1870.[55]:369

Alexander Campbell influenced the British Restoration Movement indirectly through his writings; he visited the Britain for several months in 1847, and "presided at the Second Cooperative Meeting of the British Churches at Chester."[55]:369

At that time the movement had grown to encompass 80 congregations with a total membership of 2,300.[55]:369 Annual meetings were held after 1847.[55]:369

The use of instrumental music in worship was not a source of division among the Churches of Christ in Great Britain before World War I.

More significant was the issue of pacifism; a national conference was established in 1916 for congregations that opposed the war.[55]:371

A conference for "Old Paths" congregations was first held in 1924.[55]:371 The issues involved included concern that the Christian Association was compromising traditional principles in seeking ecumenical ties with other organizations and a sense that it had abandoned Scripture as "an all-sufficient rule of faith and practice."[55]:371

Two "Old Paths" congregations withdrew from the Association in 1931; an additional two withdrew in 1934, and nineteen more withdrew between 1943 and 1947.[55]:371

Membership declined rapidly during and after the First World War.[55]:372[56]:312 The Association of Churches of Christ in Britain disbanded in 1980.[55]:372[56]:312 Most Association congregations (approximately 40) united with the United Reformed Church in 1981.[55]:372[56]:312

In the same year, twenty-four other congregations formed a Fellowship of Churches of Christ.[55]:372 The Fellowship developed ties with the Independent Christian Churches/Churches of Christ during the 1980s.[55]:372[56]:312

The Fellowship of Churches of Christ and some Australian and New Zealand Churches advocate a "missional" emphasis with an ideal of "Five Fold Leadership." Many people in more traditional Churches of Christ see these groups as having more in common with Pentecostal churches.

The main publishing organs of traditional Churches of Christ in Britain are The Christian Worker magazine and the Scripture Standard magazine. A history of the Association of Churches of Christ, Let Sects and Parties Fall, was written by David M Thompson.[57]

Australia and New Zealand. See also: Churches of Christ in Australia

Historically, Restoration Movement groups from Great Britain were more influential than those from the United States in the early development of the movement in Australia.[58]:47 Churches of Christ grew up independently in several locations.[58]:47

While early Churches of Christ in Australia saw creeds as divisive, towards the end of the 19th century they began viewing "summary statements of belief" as useful in tutoring second generation members and converts from other religious groups.[58]:50

The period from 1875 through 1910 also saw debates over the use of musical instruments in worship, Christian Endeavor Societies and Sunday Schools. Ultimately, all three found general acceptance in the movement.[58]:51

Currently, the Restoration Movement is not as divided in Australia as it is in the United States.[58]:53 There have been strong ties with the Christian Church (Disciples of Christ), but many conservative ministers and congregations associate with the Independent Christian Churches/Churches of Christ instead.[58]:53 Others have sought support from non-instrumental Churches of Christ, particularly those who felt that "conference" congregations had "departed from the restoration ideal."[58]:53

Key figures)

Although Barton W. Stone, Thomas and Alexander Campbell, and Walter Scott were to become the best-known and most influential early leaders of the movement, others preceded them and laid the foundation for their work.

    * Barton W. Stone (1772–1844)[59]

    * Thomas Campbell (1763–1854)[60]

    * Alexander Campbell (1788–1866)[61]

    * Walter Scott (1796–1861)[62]

    * Rice Haggard (1769–1819)[63]

    * Amos Sutton Hayden (1813–1880)[64]

    * Abner Jones (1772–1841)[65]

    * Marshall Keeble (1878–1969) His successful preaching career notably bridged a racial divide in the Restoration Movement prior to the American Civil Rights Movement.[66][67] * Elijah Martindale (1793–1874), active in Indiana.[68][69]

    * James O'Kelly (1735?–1826), Durham, North Carolina[70]

    * Elias Smith (1764–1846)[71]

    * Walter Scott (Clergyman) (1796–1861), a successful evangelist who helped to stabilize the Campbell movement as it was separating from the Baptists[72]:673

    * "Raccoon" John Smith (1784–1868), instrumental in bringing the Stone and Campbell movements together[73]:690,691

    FOOTNOTES:

    1. ^ Rubel Shelly, I Just Want to Be a Christian, 20th Century Christian, Nashville, Tennessee 1984, ISBN 0-89098-021-7

    2. ^ a b Monroe E. Hawley, Redigging the Wells: Seeking Undenominational Christianity, Quality Publications, Abilene, Texas, 1976, ISBN 0-89137-512-0 (paper), ISBN 0-89137-513-9 (cloth)

    3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r McAlister, Lester G. and Tucker, William E. (1975), Journey in Faith: A History of the Christian Church (Disciples of Christ), St. Louis, MO: Chalice Press, ISBN 978-0-8272-1703-4

    4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Leroy Garrett, The Stone-Campbell Movement: The Story of the American Restoration Movement, College Press, 2002, ISBN 0-89900-909-3, 9780899009094, 573 pages

    5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc C. Leonard Allen and Richard T. Hughes, Discovering Our Roots: The Ancestry of the Churches of Christ, Abilene Christian University Press, 1988, ISBN 0-89112-006-8

    6. ^ a b Douglas Allen Foster and Anthony L. Dunnavant, The Encyclopedia of the Stone-Campbell Movement: Christian Church (Disciples of Christ), Christian Churches/Churches of Christ, Churches of Christ, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 2004, ISBN 0-8028-3898-7, 9780802838988, 854 pages, entry on Great Awakenings

    7. ^ Jeff McFadden, One Baptism, published by Lulu.com, 2006, ISBN 1-84728-381-0, 9781847283818, 248 pages

    8. ^ Thomas H. Olbricht, "Who Are the Churches of Christ?

    9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Douglas Allen Foster and Anthony L. Dunnavant, The Encyclopedia of the Stone-Campbell Movement: Christian Church (Disciples of Christ), Christian Churches/Churches of Christ, Churches of Christ, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 2004, ISBN 0-8028-3898-7, 9780802838988, 854 pages, entry on Christian Connection

    10. ^ Douglas Allen Foster and Anthony L. Dunnavant, The Encyclopedia of the Stone-Campbell Movement: Christian Church (Disciples of Christ), Christian Churches/Churches of Christ, Churches of Christ, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 2004, ISBN 0-8028-3898-7, 9780802838988, 854 pages, entry on "Calvinism"

    11. ^ Marshall, Robert; Dunlavy, John; M'nemar, Richard; Stone, B. W.; Thompson, John; and Purviance, David (1804). The Last Will and Testament of the Springfield Presbytery

    12. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Richard Thomas Hughes and R. L. Roberts, The Churches of Christ, 2nd Edition, Greenwood Publishing Group, 2001, ISBN 0-313-23312-8, 9780313233128, 345 pages

    13. ^ a b c d e Davis, M. M. (1915). How the Disciples Began and Grew, A Short History of the Christian Church, Cincinnati: The Standard Publishing Company

    14. ^ Philadelphia Confession

    15. ^ a b c Ron Rhodes, The Complete Guide to Christian Denominations, Harvest House Publishers, 2005, ISBN 0-7369-1289-4

    16. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Garrison, Winfred Earnest and DeGroot, Alfred T. (1948). The Disciples of Christ, A History, St Louis, Missouri: The Bethany Press

    17. ^ Douglas Allen Foster and Anthony L. Dunnavant, The Encyclopedia of the Stone-Campbell Movement: Christian Church (Disciples of Christ), Christian Churches/Churches of Christ, Churches of Christ, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 2004, ISBN 0-8028-3898-7, 9780802838988, 854 pages, Introductory section entitled Stone-Campbell History Over Three Centuries: A Survey and Analysis

    18. ^ a b Douglas Allen Foster and Anthony L. Dunnavant, The Encyclopedia of the Stone-Campbell Movement: Christian Church (Disciples of Christ), Christian Churches/Churches of Christ, Churches of Christ, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 2004, ISBN 0-8028-3898-7, 9780802838988, 854 pages, Introductory Chronology

    19. ^ Douglas Allen Foster and Anthony L. Dunnavant, The Encyclopedia of the Stone-Campbell Movement: Christian Church (Disciples of Christ), Christian Churches/Churches of Christ, Churches of Christ, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 2004, ISBN 0-8028-3898-7, 9780802838988, 854 pages, entry on Campbell, Alexander

    20. ^ See also American Christian Review.

    21. ^ a b c d e f g h Douglas Allen Foster and Anthony L. Dunnavant, The Encyclopedia of the Stone-Campbell Movement: Christian Church (Disciples of Christ), Christian Churches/Churches of Christ, Churches of Christ, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 2004, ISBN 0-8028-3898-7, 9780802838988, 854 pages, entry on Instrumental Music

    22. ^ David Lipscomb, 1899, as quoted by Leroy Garrett on page 104 of The Stone-Campbell Movement: The Story of the American Restoration Movement, College Press, 2002, ISBN 0-89900-909-3, 9780899009094, 573 pages

    23. ^ a b c d Ben Brewster,Torn Asunder: The Civil War and the 1906 Division of the Disciples, College Press, 2006, ISBN 0-89900-951-4, 9780899009513, 135 pages

    24. ^ Zuber, Glenn (2004). "Temperance", The Encyclopedia of the Stone-Campbell Movement, edited by Douglas A. Foster, Paul Blowers, and D. Newell Williams. Grand Rapids, Erdmans Publishing, 728-729.

    25. ^ Zuber, Glenn (2002). "Mainline Women Ministers: Women Missionary and Temperance Organizers Become 'Disciples of Christ' Ministers, 1888-1908." In The Stone-Campbell Movement: An International Religious Tradition, ed. Michael Casey and Douglas A. Foster, 292-316.

    26. ^ Zuber, Glenn (1993). "The Gospel of Temperance: Early Disciple Women Preachers and the WCTU," Discipliana, 53 (47-60).

    27. ^ *Cartwright, Colbert S. (1987). People of the Chalice, Disciples of Christ in Faith and Practice. St Louis, MO: Chalice Press. ISBN 978-0-827229-38-0.

    28. ^ a b c d e f Douglas Allen Foster and Anthony L. Dunnavant, The Encyclopedia of the Stone-Campbell Movement: Christian Church (Disciples of Christ), Christian Churches/Churches of Christ, Churches of Christ, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 2004, ISBN 0-8028-3898-7, 9780802838988, 854 pages, entry on Disciple Heritage Fellowship

    29. ^ a b c d e f Samuel S. Hill, Charles H. Lippy, Charles Reagan Wilson, Encyclopedia of Religion in the South, Mercer University Press, 2005, ISBN 0-86554-758-0, 9780865547582

    30. ^ Douglas Allen Foster and Anthony L. Dunnavant, The Encyclopedia of the Stone-Campbell Movement: Christian Church (Disciples of Christ), Christian Churches/Churches of Christ, Churches of Christ, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 2004, ISBN 0-8028-3898-7, 9780802838988, 854 pages, entry on Christian Church (Disciples of Christ)

    31. ^ Douglas Allen Foster and Anthony L. Dunnavant, The Encyclopedia of the Stone-Campbell Movement: Christian Church (Disciples of Christ), Christian Churches/Churches of Christ, Churches of Christ, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 2004, ISBN 0-8028-3898-7, 9780802838988, 854 pages, entry on Baptism

    32. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Douglas Allen Foster and Anthony L. Dunnavant, The Encyclopedia of the Stone-Campbell Movement: Christian Church (Disciples of Christ), Christian Churches/Churches of Christ, Churches of Christ, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 2004, ISBN 0-8028-3898-7, 9780802838988, 854 pages, entry on Christian Churches/Churches of Christ

    33. ^ Carmen Renee Berry, The Unauthorized Guide to Choosing a Church, Brazos Press, 2003, ISBN 1-58743-036-3

    34. ^ "Churches of Christ from the beginning have maintained no formal organization structures larger than the local congregations and no official journals or vehicles declaring sanctioned positions. Consensus views do, however, often emerge through the influence of opinion leaders who express themselves in journals, at lectureships,

    or at area preacher meetings and other gatherings" page 213, Douglas Allen Foster and Anthony L. Dunnavant, The Encyclopedia of the Stone-Campbell Movement: Christian Church (Disciples of Christ), Christian Churches/Churches of Christ, Churches of Christ, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 2004, ISBN 0-8028-3898-7, 9780802838988, 854 pages

    35. ^ a b Stuart M. Matlins, Arthur J. Magida, J. Magida, How to Be a Perfect Stranger: A Guide to Etiquette in Other People's Religious Ceremonies, Wood Lake Publishing Inc., 1999, ISBN 1-896836-28-3, 9781896836287, 426 pages, Chapter 6 - Churches of Christ

    36. ^ a b Batsell Barrett Baxter, Who are the churches of Christ and what do they believe in? Available on-line here, here, here, here and here

    37. ^ "Churches of Christ adhere to a strict congregationalism that cooperates in various projects overseen by one congregation or organized as parachurch enterprises, but many congregations hold themselves apart from such cooperative projects." Douglas Allen Foster and Anthony L. Dunnavant, The Encyclopedia of the Stone-Campbell Movement: Christian Church (Disciples of Christ), Christian Churches/Churches of Christ, Churches of Christ, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 2004, page 206, entry on Church, Doctrine of the

    38. ^ "It is nothing less than phenomenal that the Churches of Christ get so much done without any centralized planning or structure. Everything is ad hoc. Most programs emerge from the inspiration and commitment of a single congregation or even a single person. Worthwhile projects survive and prosper by the voluntary cooperation of other individuals and congregations." Page 449, Leroy Garrett, The Stone-Campbell Movement: The Story of the American Restoration Movement, College Press, 2002, ISBN 0-89900-909-3, 9780899009094, 573 pages

    39. ^ a b c d Douglas Allen Foster and Anthony L. Dunnavant, The Encyclopedia of the Stone-Campbell Movement: Christian Church (Disciples of Christ), Christian Churches/Churches of Christ, Churches of Christ, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 2004, ISBN 0-8028-3898-7, 9780802838988, 854 pages, entry on Churches of Christ

    40. ^ a b Ross, Bobby Jr. "Who are we?". Features. The Christian Chronicle. http://www.christianchronicle.org/modules.php?name=News&file=article&sid=621. Retrieved 2007-10-29.

    41. ^ a b c d e f Douglas Allen Foster and Anthony L. Dunnavant, The Encyclopedia of the Stone-Campbell Movement: Christian Church (Disciples of Christ), Christian Churches/Churches of Christ, Churches of Christ, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 2004, ISBN 0-8028-3898-7, 9780802838988, 854 pages, entry on International Churches of Christ

    42. ^ Paden, Russell (July 1995). "The Boston Church of Christ". In Timothy Miller. America's Alternative Religions. Albany: State University of New York Press. pp. 133–36. ISBN 978-0-7914-2397-4. http://books.google.com/books?pg=PA133&lpg=PA133&dq=%22international+churches+of+christ%22%7C%22boston+church+of+christ%22&sig=xJd6vwb-MYNOHOUFTtE7pctlbxc&id=og_u0Re1uwUC&ots=FNRFOjJOvr. Retrieved 2007–08–07.

    43. ^ Kip McKean Resignation Letter Wednesday, November 06, 2002

    44. ^ Greeson, Timothy (2005). "ICOC Update 2005: Is the Threat Resurfacing?". New Covenant Publications. http://www.newcovpub.com/icc/update2005.htm. Retrieved 2007-07-09.

    45. ^ Lee, Chris (2005 Sept). "Three Major Factions". REVEAL. http://www.reveal.org/abouticc/factions.html. Retrieved 2007-07-09.

    46. ^ a b c d e f Douglas Allen Foster and Anthony L. Dunnavant, The Encyclopedia of the Stone-Campbell Movement: Christian Church (Disciples of Christ), Christian Churches/Churches of Christ, Churches of Christ, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 2004, ISBN 0-8028-3898-7, 9780802838988, 854 pages, entry on Restoration Forums

    47. ^ a b c Douglas Allen Foster and Anthony L. Dunnavant, The Encyclopedia of the Stone-Campbell Movement: Christian Church (Disciples of Christ), Christian Churches/Churches of Christ, Churches of Christ, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 2004, ISBN 0-8028-3898-7, 9780802838988, 854 pages, entry on Stone-Campbell Dialogue

    48. ^ a b Erik Tryggestad and Bobby Ross Jr., "1906 - 2006: 100 years later, can we converse across the keyboard?," Christian Chronicle, February 1, 2006 (accessed November 27, 2009)

    49. ^ a b David Faust, "The 2006 Unity Efforts–Three Years Later," Christian Standard, May 24, 2009 (accessed November 27, 2009)

    50. ^ "ACU Bible Lectureship to focus on truth this spring; lectures moving to fall" ACU News, Feb. 16, 2006 (accessed January 21, 2009)

    51. ^ Douglas A. Foster (Editor), Paul M. Blowers (Editor), Anthony L. Dunnavant (Editor), D. Newell Williams (Editor). The Encyclopedia of the Stone-Campbell Movement. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, Grand Rapids, Michigan. ISBN 0-8028-3898-7

    52. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Douglas Allen Foster and Anthony L. Dunnavant, The Encyclopedia of the Stone-Campbell Movement: Christian Church (Disciples of Christ), Christian Churches/Churches of Christ, Churches of Christ, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 2004, ISBN 0-8028-3898-7, 9780802838988, 854 pages, entry on Names of the Movement

    53. ^ a b c d e f g Douglas Allen Foster and Anthony L. Dunnavant, The Encyclopedia of the Stone-Campbell Movement: Christian Church (Disciples of Christ), Christian Churches/Churches of Christ, Churches of Christ, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 2004, ISBN 0-8028-3898-7, 9780802838988, 854 pages, entry on Slogans

    54. ^ a b Douglas Allen Foster and Anthony L. Dunnavant, The Encyclopedia of the Stone-Campbell Movement: Christian Church (Disciples of Christ), Christian Churches/Churches of Christ, Churches of Christ, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 2004, ISBN 0-8028-3898-7, 9780802838988, 854 pages, entry on Ministry

    55. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Douglas Allen Foster and Anthony L. Dunnavant, The Encyclopedia of the Stone-Campbell Movement: Christian Church (Disciples of Christ), Christian Churches/Churches of Christ, Churches of Christ, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 2004, ISBN 0-8028-3898-7, 9780802838988, 854 pages, entry on Great Britain and Ireland, Churches of Christ in

    56. ^ a b c d Douglas Allen Foster and Anthony L. Dunnavant, The Encyclopedia of the Stone-Campbell Movement: Christian Church (Disciples of Christ), Christian Churches/Churches of Christ, Churches of Christ, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 2004, ISBN 0-8028-3898-7, 9780802838988, 854 pages, entry on Europe, Missions in

    57. ^ David M. Thompson, Let Sects and Parties Fall: A Short History of the Association of Churches of Christ in Great Britain and Ireland, Berean Publishing Trust (Jan 1980), ISBN 978-0-85050-012-7, 160 pages

    58. ^ a b c d e f g Douglas Allen Foster and Anthony L. Dunnavant, The Encyclopedia of the Stone-Campbell Movement: Christian Church (Disciples of Christ), Christian Churches/Churches of Christ, Churches of Christ, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 2004, ISBN 0-8028-3898-7, 9780802838988, 854 pages, entry on Australia, The Movement in

    59. ^ Barton W. Stone texts

    60. ^ Thomas Campbell texts

    61. ^ Alexander Campbell texts

    62. ^ Walter Scott texts

    63. ^ Rice Haggard texts

    64. ^ Amos Sutton Hayden texts

    65. ^ Abner Jones texts

    66. ^ Articles Appearing In The Gospel Advocate After The April 20, 1968 Death Of Marshall Keeble at therestorationmovement.com.

    67. ^ Texts & recording at the Restoration Movement pages at the Memorial University of Newfoundland.

    68. ^ Biography of Elijah Martindale at the Henry County Genealogical Services website.

    69. ^ Biography of Elijah Martindale at TheRestorationMovement.com.

    70. ^ James O'Kelly texts

    71. ^ Elias Smith texts

    72. ^ Douglas Allen Foster and Anthony L. Dunnavant, The Encyclopedia of the Stone-Campbell Movement: Christian Church (Disciples of Christ), Christian Churches/Churches of Christ, Churches of Christ, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 2004, ISBN 0-8028-3898-7, 9780802838988, 854 pages, entry on Scott, Walter

    73. ^ Douglas Allen Foster and Anthony L. Dunnavant, The Encyclopedia of the Stone-Campbell Movement: Christian Church (Disciples of Christ), Christian Churches/Churches of Christ, Churches of Christ, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 2004, ISBN 0-8028-3898-7, 9780802838988, 854 pages, entry on Smith,

    "Raccoon" John

    See also Christianity portal

      * Christianity in the 18th century

      * Christianity in the 19th century

      * Declaration and address by Thomas Campbell

      * History of Christianity

      * Restorationism (Christian primitivism)

      * Second Great Awakening

    References

    * C. Leonard Allen and Richard T. Hughes, Discovering Our Roots: The Ancestry of Churches of Christ (Abilene, Texas: ACU Press, 1988)

    * Douglas A. Foster (Editor), Paul M. Blowers (Editor), Anthony L. Dunnavant (Editor), D. Newell Williams (Editor). The Encyclopedia of the Stone-Campbell Movement. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, Grand Rapids, Michigan. ISBN 0-8028-3898-7

    * Douglas A. Foster, Jack Reese, Jeff W. Childers, The Crux of the Matter: Crisis, Tradition, and the Future of Churches of Christ. ACU Press. ISBN 0-89112-035-1

    * Flavil R. Yeakley, ed., The Discipling Dilemma: A Study of the Discipling Movement Among Churches of Christ (Nashville: Gospel Advocate Co., 1988).

    * Jennings, Walter Wilson. Origin and Early History of the Disciples of Christ Cincinnati: Standard Publishing, 1919.

    * Jerry Jones, What Does the Boston Movement Teach? vols. 1-3 (Bridgeton, Missouri: Jerry Jones, 12880 Bittick, 1991–93)

    * Martin Edward Wooten, "The Boston Movement as a 'Revitalization Movement'" (D.Min. thesis, Harding Graduate School of Religion, 1990)

    * Morrill, Milo True. History of the Christian Denomination in America. Dayton: The Christian Publishing Association, 1912.

    * Murch, James DeForest. Christians Only. Cincinnati: Standard Publishing, 1962.

    * North, James B. (1994). Union in Truth: An Interpretive History of the Restoration Movement. Cincinnati, Ohio: The Standard Publishing Company. ISBN 0-7847-0197-0.

    * United States Department of Commerce and Labor, Bureau of the Census, Religious Bodies, 1906 (United States Printing Office, 1910), 236

    * West, Earl Irvin (2002). The Search for the Ancient Order Vol. 1. Gospel Light Publishing Company. ISBN 0-89225-154-9

    * Zuber, Glenn (1993). "The Gospel of Temperance: Early Disciple Women Preachers and the WCTU," Discipliana, 53 (47-60).

    * Zuber, Glenn (2002). "Mainline Women Ministers: Women Missionary and Temperance Organizers Become 'Disciples of Christ' Ministers, 1888-1908." In The Stone-Campbell Movement: An International Religious Tradition, ed. Michael Casey and Douglas A. Foster, 292-316.

    * Zuber, Glenn (2004). "Temperance", The Encyclopedia of the Stone-Campbell Movement, edited by Douglas A. Foster, Paul Blowers, and D. Newell Williams. Grand Rapids, Erdmans Publishing, 728-729.

    External links

      * Restoration Movement Internet Portal

      * Richard M. Tristano, Origins of the Restoration Movement: An Intellectual History, Glenmary Research Center, 1998, ISBN 0-914422-17-0.

      * The documentary, "Our Restoration Heritage with Dr. Bill Humble"

      * The Restoration Movement Pages at the Memorial University of Newfoundland with historical texts, images, biographies and other resources


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