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Voting Righteousness is God's Command!

DO you well know the LEADING CANDIDATES?
Sarah Palin, Ted Cruz, Dr. Rand Paul, Rick Santorum, Dr. Ben Carson, Michelle Obama! Joe Biden, Hillary!
[1]GOP Queen! [2]Chosen? [3]Libertarian! [4]Dark Horse? [5]Fading Fast? [6]Just Waiting? [7]Surprise? [8]Benghazi?

DO you well know the MAJOR PARTICIPANTS?
Barack Obama, Michelle Obama, Joseph Biden, Sarah Palin, Dr. William Owens, Paul Ryan, Anne Romney, W. "Mitt" Romney,
[1]Muslim? [2]Preaching? [3]PRO-GAY? [4]TEA-PARTY! [5]Leading Voice! [6]Mr. Economy? [7]Ideal Mother? [8]Mormon Priest?
What Can We Learn From The HEADLINES?
Lance Armstrong, Christian Cheerleaders, Libya Burning! Ambassador Stevens! Arab Spring! TEBOW! Orley Taitz, Trinity Troubles!
[1]Cheater? [2]Free Speech? [3]Al Qaeda? [4]Islam Peaceful? [5]Obama Policies? [6]Football Preacher! [7]Birth Certificate? [8]TBN Downfall?
What Is The Media NOT Telling You?
Dinesh D'Souza, Michelle Obama, Stacy Dash, Jack Schaap, Bishop Long, Obama-Jarrett, Hillary-Huma, Jerry Sandusky
[1]Polygamy? [2]Preaching? [3]Lynched? [4]Pastor To Jail? [5]Gay Pastor? [6]Communist Advisor? [7]Muslim Advisor? [8]Gay Predator?
What Is The Media NOT Telling You?
Barack Hussein Obama! Osama! Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, Valerie Jarrett, Hillary! Obama Muslim? Kiss Saudi Kings! Huma Abedin!
[1]Obama! [2]Osama! [3]Caliphate? [4]Iranian-Saudi! [5]Hillary Islamic? [6]Muslim Proof? [7]Saudis Own Him? [8]Muslim Sisterhood!
Beauty Title Winners Standing-Up for Jesus!
G. Carlson, Miss A! 2003, Miss A! 2008, C. Prejean, Miss A! 2010, Miss A! 2011, Miss A! 2012
These Men Founded Christian Universities!
Dr.B. Jones, Dr.O. Roberts, Dr.L. Roberson, Dr.J. Falwell, Dr.K. Hagin, Dr.J. Hyles, Dr.A. Horton, Dr.P. Robertson, Dr.P. Chappell, Dr.B. Gray
Bob Jones U, Oral Roberts U, Tennessee Temple U, Liberty U, RHEMA! Hyles-Anderson, Pensacola Christian, Regent U, West Coast, Texas Baptist,
These Men Founded Large Churches-Ministries!
T.D. Jakes, Creflo Dollar, The "HUTCH!", Fred Price, Chas Blake, Ken Ulmer, Tony Evans,
These Leaders Changing Your World!
M. Rubio....S. Martinez...L. Palau...G. Maldonado...K. Guilfoyle...W. de Jesus;
These Leaders Are Changing Your World!
Dhinakaran Sr...Dinesh D'Souza...Joseph Prince...Michelle Malkin...Nikki Haley...Bobby Jindal...Dhinakaran Jr
These Leaders Are Changing Your World!
Santita J! G. Brigitte...S. Parker...A. Holmes...J. Bynum...H. Faulkner...A McGlowan...K. Watts...M. Love!
(Has YOUR "Spiritual Leader" COME OUT?)
Early Church OUTLAWS HOMOSEXUALITY in Roman Empire!
"EVERY REVIVAL" in the Bible Began by Removing SODOMITES!
1 Kin 14:24, 1 Kin 15:15, 1 Kin 22:6, 2 Kin 23:7,
(OBEDIENCE!...Deut 23:17, NOT PRAYER ... Brings REVIVAL!)
Did HOME-SCHOOLING Ruin Their Lives?
G. Washington,...Tersa Scanlan...Thomas Edison..."Miss Home School!"...Tim Tebow...Carrie Prejean...Abe Lincoln
Wealth-Seekers? Shallow? Heretics? God-Called? God-Blessed?
Paula White, Joel Osteen, Joe Prince, Rick Warren, T.D. Jakes, Billy Graham, Joyce Meyer, D.J. Kennedy, Tim Tebow!
(See Minister'S MAIN PAGE! 100 Leading Ministers-Churches)
Early Fathers! Reformation! 1st-&-2nd Great Awakenings, Great Study Resources)
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Haeckel's Imaginary Drawings: 100 Years of Error!
The 40-Year “Piltdown Man Hoax!”
The "Nebraska Man" becomes a "Pig's Tooth!"
10 Scientific Frauds that Rocked the World!
Global Warming Hoax (Hundreds of Articles!)


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Browse Massive Evidence Below:
Declares USA Recognizes: "SELF-EVIDENT TRUTHS!"
Declaring ALL are "CREATED" equal!
Endowed by Their "CREATOR"
With 'Certain', 'Inalienable', 'Rights';
Statesman Thomas Jefferson
Author, Immortal USA Declaration of Independence'
AMERIPEDIA Thomas Jefferson:
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U.S. Supreme Court Decision:
(Unanimous Decision!) "THIS IS A CHRISTIAN NATION!"
Trinity vs. New York, 143 US 457, 36 L ed 226,
Thomas Jefferson!
"Most Misunderstood" Founding Father!
Some say Non-Christian for REJECTING Christ's Divinity
(He believed like Jehovah's Witnesses: Not Mainstream,... but Christian!)
However, multitudes of Christians IN ALL AGES, saw
Christ as "PERFECT MAN" ...the "SECOND ADAM" Rom 5:6-16
Worshipping Christ as SAVIOUR, and KING, but not DIVINE! (Arianism)
FACT! President Jefferson STARTED Church in the US Capitol Building!
FACT! He JOINED it the same weekend he wrote SEPARATION CHURCH-STATE letter!
FACT! Jefferson ALLOWED several groups to have Church in the US Capitol!
FACT! He oversaw other Churches in the US TREASURY and SUPREME COURT!
FACT! Jefferson hired MARINE BAND to play each Lord's Day...
FACT! ... And President Jefferson paid them with TAX DOLLARS!
FACT! FEW...WHO EVER LIVED...were better Disciples of Christ than Thomas Jefferson!

Jefferson, Joins, Supports, Leads Church in US Capitol: FOOTNOTES [1-43]
Capitol Church Photos on OFFICIAL US GOV WEBSITE
President James Madison Joined Jefferson's Capitol Church!
Jefferson, Madison Belong to Church in US Capitol: FOOTNOTE [14]
Don't be Fooled By ...
"Willfully Blind", Atheist, Anti-Christian, "Deceived-and-Deceiving" College Professors!
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What Is
The WORD of GOD?
Statement On The Holy Scriptures;
The ‘LENS’ Through Which 'ALL' Knowledge Is Understood;
    "IF" there exists any such thing as 'THE WORD OF GOD!' [and ALL evidence proves such does exist:] "THEN" by inherent definition - it must be "GOD-BREATHED!"
      (Holy, Inspired, Inerrant, Infallible, Infinitive, Invincible, Indestructible, Inexhaustible, Intrepid,Inalienable, Immutable, Implacable, Impossible-to-Improve: Indubitable and Indomitable - NEVER FAILING - and ALL CONQUERING: ETERNAL!) DEDUCTING the above from the simple fact: That GOD EQUATES HIS WORD WITH HIMSELF!
        "In the Beginning was the WORD, and the WORD was with God, and the WORD was God, . . ." John 1:1 (and other Scriptures),
    Thus 'GOD'S WORD' can have NO LESSER STANDARD than that stated;

      AS TRUE IN history, archeology, geography, Earth science, medical science, nutrition, gerontology, agriculture, botany, astronomy, physics, chemistry, climatology, government, law, psychology, sociology - AND EVERY TOPIC IT TOUCHES - as in Theology, Divinity and Doctrine:
    And "IF IT BE NOT" - true in ALL subjects mentioned above; and And "IF IT BE NOT"
      Holy, Inspired, Inerrant, Infallible, Infinite, Invincible, Indestructible, Inexhaustible, Intrepid, Inalienable, Immutable, Implacable, Impossible-to-Improve: Indubitable and Indomitable in EVERY FIELD OF KNOWLEDGE:
    "THEN" . . . it cannot be ‘The Eternal and Incomparable Word’ of the Great Creator God!
God's Eternal Guarantee!
"Heaven and Earth Shall Pass Away;
-- Jesus of Nazareth, "The Messiah!" AD-33 (Matthew 5:18)
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"God's Goals"
For This World! Right Now! Today!
(Christ taught us to Pray WHAT? Matt 6:10, Luke 11:2)

Does God Achieve His Goals?
OR, does Satan achieve his goals?

(All Teaching and Commentary from "INSPIRED-INERRANT!" View of Scripture!)


      The Adversary’s Goals:

      SCRIPTURE: "The ‘Devil’ ... walketh about seeking whom he may DEVOUR." 1 Pet 5:8 SCRIPTURE: "The ‘Thief’ (Devil) cometh not, but for to steal, to kill and to DESTROY." John 10:10
        QUESTION: Do you Believe the Devil Succeeds?___ Or Fails?___

      God the Father’s Goals:

      SCRIPTURE: "For God sent NOT His Son into the world TO CONDEMN the world, but that THE WORLD though Him might BE SAVED! John 3:16 John 3:17 SCRIPTURE: "Beloved, be NOT ignorant of this ONE THING, ...The Lord is... NOT WILLING that ANYshould perish, but that ALL should come to REPENTANCE. 2 Pet 3:9
        QUESTION: Do you Believe Father God Succeeds?___ Or Fails?___

      God the Son’s Goals:

      SCRIPTURE: "For the Son of Man is come to seek and to SAVE that which is lost!" Luk 19:10 "For I came NOT to judge the world, but to SAVE the world. John 12:47 SCRIPTURE: "And I, if I be lifted up from the Earth, I WILL DRAW ALL men unto Me." John 12:32
        QUESTION: Do you Believe God the Son (Jesus Christ): Succeeds?___ Or Fails?___ center>

      God the Spirit’s Goals:

      SCRIPTURE: Jesus declares: "'I ’WILL’' send Him (Holy Spirit) unto you, and when He is come 'He ’WILL’' testify of Me: John 14:26 SCRIPTURE: "He ’WILL’ reprove the world [convict, convince, correct] of sin, of righteousness, and of judgment: John 16:7 SCRIPTURE: (1)Of Sin, because they believe not on me; ... (2) Of Righteousness, because I go to my Father; ...(3)Of Judgment, because the 'Prince of this World' IS JUDGED![A] John 16:8-10
        QUESTION: Do you believe God the Spirit Succeeds?___ Or Fails?___

        Who Achieves STATED GOALS? GODHEAD or Satan?

        If you believe
          God the Father,
            God the Son, and
              God the Spirit
                Win over Sin and Satan;
                  Please "CLICK" below!
    "I Believe GOD WINS the Battle for the World!"



    The "Inerrant Word of God!" Declares
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    So How Can We Know?
    Dearest Visitor!
    We BEG of YOU - TODAY - to "M-E-M-O-R-I-Z-E!" this SCRIPTURE!
    "These things have I written unto you who BELIEVE,
    Let's Break it Down!
    "These things have I WRITTEN (Absolute, Unchanging!)
    Unto You who BELIEVE, (BELIEVE! Plus Nothing! Minus Nothing!)
    THAT YE MAY K-N-O-W! (NOT 'Hope', 'Wish', 'Think', 'Suppose', etc.,)
    Eternal Life!" (You "Receive" Christ, He comes into Your HEART PROMISING!
    You know "IF" you believe that Jesus Christ died on the Cross:
    For the sins of all humanity! (Including your own!);
    Do You Qualify for
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    If you believe God's Word as Stated Above:
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    Many Fine Bible Scholars seem unaware,
    Of Christ's Great Parable covering the whole Church Age,
    From His Sowing First Seed to His Great End-Time Harvest of Souls!
    And Final Judgment of the Unsaved and their Damnation;
    To Christ’s Presence with us and The Eternal Kingdom!

    (See Greatest Parable on End of Times!)

    Christ’s Greatest Parable on End of Times: Brief Overview

    No other spiritual exercise,
    pays greater spiritual dividends than MEMORIZING Scripture!
    (Dr. Charles "Chuck" Swindoll, Radio-TV-Preacher)
    "I am convinced,
    that one of the GREATEST things we can do is to memorize Scripture."
    (Dr. Billy Graham, "World's Greatest Evangelist")
    (With Little Rhymes, Limericks for EACH CHAPTER!)
    In just 30 days . . . YOU know know from MEMORY,

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        Christianity is a BRANCH . . . grafted into the JEWISH TREE that is Israel, of which God says this "ROOT is HOLY:

        Romans 9, 10, 11, gives great understanding of the relationship of Hebrew and Christian faith! Hebrew Faith is the SEED of Christianity, . . . and Christianity is the FRUIT of Hebrew Faith!
      Inspired, Inerrant, Infallible, Word of God!





      of 1906, VOL-6

      "COLOR CODED!"

      Bold Highlight Key Words-Phrases:

      Blue Color for MORE IMPORTANT WORDS;

      Red Color for MOST IMPORTANT WORDS;

      Dark Blue in [Square Brackets] for Notes by NewtonStein;


      Jewish Encyclopedia

      GOD : The Supreme Being, regarded as the Creator, Aiitlinr, and First Cause of the universe, the
      Ruler of the world and of tlie affairs of men, the
      Supreme Judge and Father, tempering justice witii
      mercy, working out His purposes tlirough chosen
      agents— individuals as well as nations — and com-
      municating His will through prophets and other ap-
      pointed channels.

      Biblical Data : " God " is the rendering in the

      Englisli versions of the Hebrew "Kl," "Eloah," and
      "Eloliim." The existence of God is presupposed
      throughout the Bible, no attempt being anywhere
      made to demonstrate His realit)'. Philosophical
      skepticism belongs to a period pf thought generally
      posterior to that covered by the Biblical books, Ec-
      clesiastes and some of the Psalms (xiv., liii., xciv.)
      alone indicating in any degree in Biblical Israel a
      tendency toward Atheism. The controversies of
      the Earlier Prophets never treat of the fundamental
      problems of God's existence or non-existence; but
      their polemics are directed to prove that Israel,
      ready at all times to accept and worship one or the
      other god, is tmdcr the obligation to serve Yiiwii
      and none other. Again, the manner of His worship
      Is in dispute, but not His being. The following
      are the main Biblical teachings concerning God :

      God and the woi-ld are distinct. The processes of

      nature are caused by God. Nature declares the

      glory of God: it is His handiwork

      Relation (Gen. i. ; Ps. viii., xix. ; Isa. xl. 2a et
      to nei/. ). God is the Creator. As such,

      Nature. He is "in heaven above and upon the
      earth beneath" (Deut. iv. 39). His
      are the heavens, and His is the earth (Ps. Ixxxix. 13
      [A. V. 11]; compare Amos iv. 13). He created the
      world by the word of His mouth (Ps. xxxiii. 6, 9).
      Natural secpiences are His work (Jer. v. 23, 24; Ps.
      Ixxiv. 15-17). He maintains the order of nature
      (Ps. cxlvii. 8-9, 16-18; Neh. ix. 6). He does not
      need the offerings of men, because "the earth is the
      Lord's and the fulness thereof " (Ps. xxiv. 1,4, 7-13;
      compare Isa. i. 11; Jer. vii. 21-33; Micah vi. 6-8).

      Nothing is affirmed of His substantial nature.
      The phrase "spiritof God " ("ruah Elohim") merely
      describes tlie divine energy, and is not to be taken
      as equivalent to the phrase "God is a spirit," viz.,
      an assertion concerning His incorporeality (Zech. iv.
      6; Num. xiv. 33; Isa. xl. 13). He can not, how-
      ever, be likened to any thing (Ex. xx. 4-5; Isa. xl.
      18) or to any person (Jer. x. 6-7). No form is seen
      VI.— 1

      when God speaks (Deut. iv. 15). Ho rules supreme
      as the King of the nations (Jer. x. 6-7). His will
      conies to pass (Isa. viii. 9, 10; Iv. 10, 11 ; Ps. xxxiii.
      10-13, Ixviii. 3-4). He is one, and none shares with
      Him His power or rulership (Deut. vi. 4; Isa. xliv.
      6, xlvi. 10 [A. V. 9]). He is unchangeable, though
      he was the first and will be the last (Isa. xli. 4; Mai.
      iii. 6). All that is, is perishable: God is everlasting
      (Isa. xl. 7-8, 23-35; li. 13-13). Hence His help is
      always triumphant (Ps. xx. 8-9, xliv. 4, xlvi. 1-8).
      He is in all things, places, and times (Ps. cxxxix.
      7-13). He is not. like man, subject to whim (Num.
      xxiii. 19; Deut. vii. 9). He is the Judge, searching
      the innermost parts of man's being, and knowing
      all his secrets (Jer. xvi. 17, xvii. 10, xxiii. 34; Ps.
      cxxxix. 1—4). His knowledge is too high for man
      (Ps. cxxxix. 6, 15, 16). God's wisdom, however, is
      the source of human understanding (Ps. xxxvi. 10).
      He is " merciful and gracious, longsuffering, and
      abundant in goodness and truth " (Ex. xxxiv. 6-7).
      But He can not hold the sinner guiltless (ilj.). He
      manifests His supreme lordship iu the events of his-
      tory (Deut. xxxii. 8-12; Ps. xxii. 28, 29; Ixxviii.
      3-7). He is the ever-ruling King (Jer. x. 10). He
      punishes the wicked (Nahum i. 3); He turns their
      way upside down (Ps. i. 6). Appearances to the
      contrary are illusive (Hab. i. 13, ii. 2; Jer. xii. 1-2;
      Ps. X. 13-14, xxxvii. 85-39, Hi. 3-9, Ixii. 11-13, .xcii.
      7-8; Job xxi. 7-9, xxvii. 8-11, xxxv. 14).

      The Biblical theodicy culminates in the thought
      that the end will show the futility and deceptive

      nature of the prosperity of the wicked

      Relation (Ps. Ixxvii. 17). The mightiest na-

      to tious do not prevail against God (Jer.

      Man. xviii. 7-10, xxv. 30-31 ; Ps. vii. 8-9;

      xxxiii. 13, 19). He judges the world
      in righteousness (Ps. ix. 9, 16; Ixxvi. 9-10; xcv. 10-
      13). I Chron. xxix. 11-12 may be said to be a suc-
      cinct epitome of the Biblical doctrine concerning
      God's manifestations in nature and in histoi'j' (com-
      pare I Sam. ii.). Yet God does not delight in the
      death of the sinner: He desires his return from his
      evil ways (Ezek. xviii. 31-33, xxxviii. 10-11). Fast-
      ing is notan adequate expression of repentance (Isa.
      Iviii. 3-8; compare Jonah ii. 10; Joel ii. 13; Zech.
      vii. 5). God hath demanded of man " to do justly,
      and to love mercy " (Micah vi. 8); hence redress for
      wrongs done is the first step toward attaining God's
      forgiveness (Ezek. xxxiii. 15), the "forsaking of
      one's evil ways" (Lam. iii. 37-40).



      It is characteristic of the Biblical conception of
      God that He is with those of contrite heart (Isa. Ivii.
      15). He loves the weak (Deut. x. 17-18). He is the
      father (Isa. Ixiii. 16, Ixiv. 7); and like a father He
      taketh pity on His children (Ps. ciii. 13: see Com-
      passion). Therefore, love is due to Him on the part
      of His children (Deut. vi. 4-5). The demand to fear
      Him, in the light of the implications of the Hebrew
      original, is anything but in conflict with the insist-
      ence that the relations between God and man are
      marked by parental and filial love. The God of the
      Bible is not a despot, to be approaclied in fear.
      For "yir'ah" connotes an attitude in which con-
      fidence and love are included, while the recogni-
      tion of superiority, not separation, is expressed
      (Nietzsche's " pathos of distance "). Reverence in
      the modern sense, not fear, is its approximate equiv-
      alent. They that confide in Him renew their
      strength (Isa. xl. 30-31). God is holy (compare Isa.
      vi. 3) ; this plu'ase sums up the idtimate contents of
      the Bible conception of God (see Feau of God).

      He is Israel's God. Not on account of any merits

      of its own (Deut. vii. 7-8, ix. 4-7), b>it because of

      God's special designs, because the fa-

      Kelation thers' loved Him (Deut. x. 11-16), Is-
      to rael was chosen by God (Ex. xix. 4-6;

      Israel. Deut. iv. 30, xxxii. 9; Isa. xli. 8-9,xliii.
      21; Jer. ii. 2, and often elsewhere).
      Hence, in Israel's experience are illustrated God's
      power, love, and compa.ssion, as, in fact, it is Israel's
      sole destiny to be the witness to God (Isa. xliv. 8).
      For Israel, therefore, God is a jealous God. He can
      not tolerate that Israel, appointed to be His portion
      (Deut. xxxii. 9). His servant (Isa. xliv. 21), His peo-
      ple joined imto Him for His name and glory and
      ornament (Jer. xiii. 11, A. V., " for a name, and for
      a praise, and for a glory "), slioukl worship other
      gods. Israel's task is to be holy as He is holy (Lev.
      xix. 2; Deut. xxvi. 19). Israel itself does not fully
      recognize this. God sends prophets a.gain and .again
      to instruct and admonish Ilis people (Jer. vii. 25. xi.
      7, XXXV, 15; Isa. xxix. 13-14).

      In Israel God's judgments are purposed to im-
      press upon His people the duty placed upon it.
      Greater suffering He metes out to Israel (Lev. xxvi.
      40; Deut. iv. 30-31 ; viii. .5, 19; xi. 10-17; xxxii. 15;
      Isa. i. 19-20, iv. 3-4, xlii. 24-xliii. 1, xlviii. 9-11 ;
      Jer. ii. 19, v. 18-19; Amos iii. 2), but He will not
      permit Israel to perish (Isa. xli. 10-14; xlv. 17; Ii. 7-
      8; liv. 10, 17; Jer. xxxi. 30). And Israel, brought
      to faitlifulness, will be instrumental in winning the
      whole earth to God (Isa. ii. 2-4, xi. 9, xlv. 23, Ixv.
      25; Micah iv. 1-4; Jer. iii. 17; see Messiah).

      God is Israel's lawgiver. His law is intended to
      make Israel hoi)'. That Israel serve God, so as to
      win all people to the truth, is God's demand (Lev.
      XX. 20; Deut. iv. 6). God's unity is indicated in the
      one sanctuary. But legalism and sacerdotalism are
      withal not the ultimat.t"(Ps. 1. 7-13; I Sam. xv. 22:
      " to obey is better than sacrifice " ; Isa. i. 11 ; .ler. vii.
      21-23; Hosea vi. 6; " I desired love [A. V. "mercy"]
      and not sacrifice ").

      Nor is the law a scheme of salvation. Nowhere
      in the Old Testament is the doctrine taught that God
      must be satisfied (see Fall of Man; Sin). Sin is
      impotent a.gainst God, and righteousness does not

      benefit Him (.Job xxxv. 6-8). God is omnipotent
      (Ps. X. 3-4). At one with Him, man is filled with
      joy and with a sense of serene security (Ps. xvi. 5-6,
      8-9; XX vii. 1-4). Without this all else is sham (Ps.
      xlix. 7-13). Happy, therefore, the man who heeds
      God's instruction (Ps, xciv. 12; Prov. iii. 11-12).
      Sin never attains its aims (Ps. xxxiv. 22; Prov.
      xi. 19; I Sam. xxiv. 14; Job viii. 13-14, xv. 20-31).
      It is thus that God documents His supremacy; but
      unto man (and Israel) He gives freedom to choose be-
      tween life and death (Deut. xxx. 1.5-20). He is near
      to them that revere Him (Ps. Ixxxv. 9-14). Though
      His ways are not man's ways, and His thoughts not
      man's thoughts (Isa. Iv. 8), yet to this one certainty
      man may cleave; namely, that God's woi-d will
      come to pass and His purposes will be carried out
      (ih. verses 9, 10, 11).

      Tlie God of the Bible is not a national God, though
      in the fate of one people are mirrored the universal
      facts of His king.ship and fatherhood, and the truth
      is emphasized that not by might, nor by power, but
      by God's spirit are the destinies of the world and
      of man ordered (Zech. iv. 6; Mai. i. 11; Ps. cxiii.,
      cxv.). The God of the Bible is a person; i.e., a
      bein.g self-conscious, with will and purpose, even
      though by searching man can not find Ilim out (.lob
      xi. 7; Ps. xciv. 7, 8, 9, 10, 11; Isa. xl. 28; Ps. cxlv. 3).

      E. G. H.
      In Post-Biblical Literature : In the Apocry-
      pha of Palestinian origin the Biblical teachings con-
      cerning God are virtually reallirmed without mate-
      rial modifications. In some books anthropomorphic
      expressions are avoided altogether; in the others
      they are toned down. The "hand of God," for in-
      stance (Ecclus, [.Sirach] xxxiii. 3), is in the parallel
      distich explained as "His might." The "eyes of
      God " symbolize His knowledge and providence
      (Baruch ii. 17); the " voice of God " is synon3'raous
      with His will {ili. ii. 22, iii. 4).

      His unity, postulating Him as the absolute, omni-
      present, and therefore as the omniscient, eternal, and
      living God, is accentuated ; while in His relations to
      the world and its inhabitants He is manifest as the
      Creator, Ruler, the perfectly righteous Judge, re-
      quiting evil and rewarding good, yet, in His mercy,
      forgiving sin. To Him all nature is subject, while
      He executes His designs according to
      In the His inscrutable wisdonL The his-
      Palestinian tory of former generations is cited in

      Apocry- proof of the contention that the.y who
      pha. confide in Him have never been dis-

      appointed (Ecclus. [Sirach] ii. 10);^
      for God is full of mercy, pardoning sins, and is the
      great Helper (ih. verse 11).

      Good and evil proceed from God, as do life and
      death {ib. xi. 14). Yet, sin Is not caused by God, but
      by man's own choice {ib. xv. 11 et srq.). God is
      omnipresent. Though He is on high. He takes heed
      of men's ways ((i. xvi. 17, xvii. 15-10). Mountains
      and the ocean are in His power (ih. verses 18
      et seg. ).

      Being the Creator, He planned the eternal order of
      nature (ib. verses 26 etsrq.). He also fashioned man
      (ib. xvii. 1 et scq.). Whatever strength man basis
      from Him (ib. verse 3). The eyes of men are en-
      abled by Him to see " the majesty of His glory." and



      their ears to licar " His glorious voice " {ih. verse 13).
      He livelh in all eternity and judgeth all things.
      None may search out His wondious might {ih. xviii.
      1-3), or describe His grace {ih. verse 3). To Ilim
      naught may be added, and from Him nothing may
      be taken away (//'. verse G, .\lii. 21). Even the
      "holy ones" are not comi)etent to relate the marvels
      of His works ((V*. xlii. IT). He annoiuicesthat which
      was and that which is to be and all hidden tlu'ngs
      (ih. verses 19-20). He is one from all eternity (ih.
      verse 21). He is the Living God {ih. verse 23).
      Among all the varieties of things He has created
      nothing without purpose (n?D3?, ib. verse 34).

      The " wisdom of God " is spoken of and exalted in
      the same strains as in the Biblical books (Prov. vii.,
      viii.). All wisdom is from God and is with Him
      forever (Ecclus. [Sirach] i. 1). It came forth from
      the mouth of the Most High (ib. xxiv. 3); but it was
      created before all things (ib. i. 4). It is subject to
      the will of Him who alone is "wise, and greatly to
      be feared," seated on His throne {ib. i. 8). God
      "poured it out over all His works" (jV;. i. 7; comp.
      xxiv. 31). However clo.se this description of wis-
      dom may come to a personification, it is plain that
      it is free from any element which might be con-
      strued as involving a departure from the Biblical
      position regarding God's absolute unity.

      It is in the Alexandrian Apocrypha that modifica-
      tions of the Biljlical doctrine appear; but even liere
      are to be found I)ooks wliose theology is a reitera
      tion of the Biblical teachings. The so-called Third
      Book of the Maccabees, in tlie praj'er
      In Alex- of the high priest Simon, invokes
      andrian "God as the King of the Heavens, the
      Apocry- Kuler of all creatures, the most Holy,
      pha. the sole Governor, the Omnipotent,"

      declaring Him to be "a just ruler,"
      and appeals to the events of past days in support of
      the faith in God's supremacy and in Israel's ap-
      pointment to glorifj' Him (HI Mace. ii. 1-20) wlio is
      all-merciful and the maker of jieace.

      The third book of the " Oracula Sibyllina," also,
      reiterates with great emphasis and witliout equivo-
      cation the unity of God, who is alone in His super-
      lative greatne-ss. God is imperishable, everlasting,
      self-existent, alone subsisting from eteruit}' to cter-
      nitj'. He alone really is: men are nothing. He, the
      omnipotent, is wholly invisible to the tleshly eye.
      Yet He dwells in the firmament (Sibyllines, i. 1, 7-
      17, 20, 32; ii. 1-3, 17, 36, 46). From" this heavenly
      abode He exercises His creative power, and rules
      over the universe. He sustains all that is. He is
      "all-nourishing," the "leader of the cosmos," the
      constant ruler of all things. He is the "supreme
      Knower" (ib. i. 3, 4, 5, 8, 15, 17, 3.5; ii. 42). He is
      "the One God sending out rains, winds, earth-
      quakes, lightnings, famines, pestilences, dismal sor-
      rows, and so forth " ((*. i. 32-34). By these agencies
      He expresses His indignation at the doings of the
      wicked (ib. ii. 19-20); while the good are rewarded
      beyond their deserts {ih. ii. 1-8). God's indwelling
      in man (irani. (ipoTo'iaiv iv6>v) "as the faculty of judg-
      ment" is also taught ((*. i. 18). This indwelling
      of God, which has been claimed as an indication of
      the book's leaning toward a modification of the
      transcendentalism of the Biblical Idea of God. may

      perhaps rest on a faidty reading (comp. Drummoud,
      " Philo .Indicus," i. 173).

      In the Septuagint. also, the treatment of anthro-
      ])omorphic statements alone exhibits a progrc'ss be-
      yond (he earlier P.ihlical conceptions. For example,
      in Gen. vi. 6-7 "it repented the Lord" is softened
      into "He took it to lieart " ; Ex. xxiv. 9-10, "They
      [Moses, Aaron, and the others mentioned] saw tlie
      [ilace where the (lod of Israel stood " is rendered
      "They saw the God of Israel"; Ex. xv. 3, instead
      of "The Lord is a man of war," has "The Lord is
      one who crushes wars "; Josl). iv. 24, "the power "
      for "the hand." In Isa. vi. 1, the "train of liis
      I God's] rolx! " isclianged into " his .glory " (see Zeller,
      •"Die Philosophic der Griechen," iii., part ii., 2.54).
      As the Targumim, so the Sejituagiut, on account of
      a more spiritvialized conception of God, takes care
      to modify th(^ earlier and grosser terminology; but
      even the phrase oGtof rijv ihwa/iiuv (Isa. xlii. 13) does
      not iin]ily the recognition of powers .self-existent
      though under tlie control of God. The doctrine of
      the unity of God is put forth as the central truth also
      in the Septuagint.

      Nor is this theology toned down in other Hellen-
      istic writings. While in style and method under
      the influence of Greek thought, the fragments of
      Demetrius, Pseudo-Artapanus, Pseudo-Phocylides,
      Ezekielus' tragedy on Exodus, and the so-called
      Fourth Book of Maccabees can not be said to put
      forth notions concerning God at variance with the
      Palestinian theology. The TVisdom of Solomon,
      the Letter of Aristeas, and the fragments of Aris-
      tobiilus, however, do this. In the first of these three,
      Israel's God is pronounced to be the
      Hellenistic only God. He lives in solitar}' su-
      Influences. preraacy, responsible to Himself alone
      (Wisdom xii. 13-14). He is (rov dvrn;
      lb. xiii. 1). He is the "eternal light" {ib. vii. 26).
      He is the Artificer (Tfx'''"'/f) who created or prejiared
      (both verbs are used) the various things in nature
      {ib. xviii. 1-5). This uncertainty in the verb de-
      scriptive of (iod's part in creation suggests that the
      old Biblical conception of the Creator's functions is
      in this book attenuated to the bringing into order of
      formless primeval matter (comp. ib. xi. i'i). Matter
      is compared to a lump of wax which, originally de-
      void of attributes, owes its qualities to divine agency
      (Druramond, I.e. p. 188).

      But, while the cosmos is an expression and the
      result of the greatness, power, and beauty of God,
      He remains transcendent above it. Nevertheless,
      He continues to administer all things (Wisdom xii.
      15, 18; XV. 1). It is His providenc<' that acts as a
      pilot or rudder (ib. xiv. 3). In this is manifested
      His truth, justice, mere}', loving-kindness, and
      long-suffering (//;. xi. 23; xii. 15, 18; xv. 1). It is
      among His holy ones that His grace and mercy are
      conspicuous; but evil-doers are punished (iii. 9, 10).
      The pious are those wdio dwell with wisdom (vii.
      28). God possesses immediate knowledge of men's
      secrets, of their speech, feelings, and thoughts (ib.
      i. 6). He foreknows but does not foreordain the
      future. Necessity and right (rivayK?/ and fmij) are
      both postulated. The former blinds the judgment
      of the impious. If they continue in their impeni-
      tence, they will be overtaken by tlieir ]umishment



      (ib. i. 15;ii. 6-33; iii. 3-17; iv. 3-14; xii. 3, 10, 20; and
      more especially xix. 1-5). The avenging Right is,
      liciwever, not hypostatized or personified to any
      great degree (»'i. i. H, xi. 20, xiv. 31, xviii. 11). God
      is not the creator of evil (ib. i, 13-14); therefore in
      evil He is confronted with a tendency that He can
      not tolerate. Hence He or His is the avenging

      God is neither unknown nor unknowable. The
      external universe reveals Him. It implies the exist-
      ence of a primal source greater than it (ib. xiii. 1-9);
      and, again, through wisdom and " llie spirit " sent
      from on high, God is found by them who do not
      disobey Him {ib. i. 3-4, ix. 13-17). Yet man can
      never attain unto perfect knowledge of the divine
      essence (see Gfrorer, cited by Drummond, I.e. p.
      198). Notwithstanding God's transcendence, an-
      tlu'opopatliic phraseology is introduced (Wi.sdomiv.
      18, "God shall laugh"; " His right hand " and "arm,"
      v. 16; "His hand," vii. 10. x. 30, xi. 17, xix. 8).
      This proves that the doctrine of intermediate agents
      is not fully developed in the book, though in its
      presentation of God's wisdom elements appear that
      root in this conception. Certainly tlie question had
      begun to force itself upon the writer's mind: How
      is it that God enthroned on high is yet omnipresent
      in the universe'? Like the Stoics, the author as-
      sumes an all-penetrating divine principle which
      appears asthe rational order of the cosmos and as the
      con.scious reason in man. Hence God's spirit is all-
      pervasive (ib. i. 6-7). This spirit is, in a certain
      sense, distinct from God, an extension of tlie Divine
      Being, bringing God into relation with the phenom-
      enal world. Still, this spirit is not a separate or
      subordinate per.son. "Wisdom" and this "spirit"
      are used interchangeably (ib. ix. 17); "wisdom is a
      spirit that is" a lover of mankind {ib. i. 4-6); wis-
      dom is "a vapor of tlie power of God," a reflection
      of eternal light (ib. vii. 35-36).

      This wisdom has twenty-one attributes: it is "an

      understanding spirit, holy, alone in kind, manifold,

      subtile, freely moving, clear in utter-

      " 'Wisdom" ance. unpolluted, distinct, unharmed.

      of God. loving what is good, keen, unliin-
      dered, beneficent, loving toward man,
      steadfast, sure, free from care, all-iiowerful, all-sur-
      veying, and penetrating through all spirits that are
      quick of imderstanding, pure, most subtile "(«'/;. vii.
      33-34). Wisdom is a person, the " assessor " at God's
      throne (ib. ix. 4); the choo.ser of God's works (ib.
      viii. 3-4). She was with God when Ho made the
      cosmos (ib. ix. 9). She is the artificer of all things
      (ib. vii. 21). As all this is elsewhere predicated of
      God also, it is plain tliat this " wisdom " is regarded
      only as an instrument, not as a delegate of the Di-
      vine. The Wisdom of Solomon speaks also of the
      "Logos" (ib. ii. 3-3. ix. 1-3, xvi. 12, xviii. 14-16);
      and this, taken in connection with its peculiar con-
      ception of wisdom, makes the book an important
      link in the chain leading from the absolute God-con-
      ception of Palestinian Judaism to the theory of the
      mediating agency of the Word (Aoyof, "Memra")
      in Philo. The Aristeas Letter does not present as
      clear a modification of the God-conception (but see
      Eleazar's statement therein, " there is only one God
      and ' His power ' is through all things "). Aristobu-

      lus, in the Orphic verses, teaches that God is invisible
      (verse 30). Init that through the jnind He may be be-
      held (verses 11, 12). Maker and Ruler of tlie world,
      He is Himself the beginning, middle, and end (verses
      8, 34, 35, 39). But wisdom existed before heaven
      and earth; God is the "molder of the cosmos"
      (verse 8) — statements which, by no means clear
      enough to form the basis of a conclusion, yet suggest
      also in Aristobulus' theology a departure from the
      doctrine of God's transcendence and His immediate
      control of all as the Creator ex nihilo.

      PniLO is the philo.soplier who boldly, though not
      always consistently, attempts to harmonize the su-
      pramundaiie existence and majesty of the one God
      with His being the Creator and Governor of all.
      Reverting to the Old Testament idiom, according to
      which "by the word of Yiiwii were the heavens
      made" (Ps. xxxiii. [xxxii,] 6) — wliich passage is
      also at tlie root of the Targumic use of Memka (see
      Akthropomorpiiism) — and on the whole but not
      consistently assuming that matter was uncreated
      (see CRE.vnoN), he introduces the Logos as the
      mediating agent between God on high and the phe-
      nomenal world.

      Philo is also the first Jewish writer who under-
      takes to prove the existence of God. His argu-
      ments are of two kinds: tho.se drawn from nature,
      and those supplied Ijy the intuitions of the soul.
      Man's mind, also invisible, occupies in him the .same
      position as does that of God in the universe ("De
      Opificio Mundi," § 23). From this one arrives at
      a knowledge of God. The mind is the sovereign
      of the body. The cosmos must also have a king
      who holds it togetlier and governs it justly, and
      who is the Supreme ("De Abrahamo," § 16; "De
      Migratione Abrahami," § 33). From a ship man
      forms the idea of a ship-builder. Similarly, from the
      cosmos he must conceive the notion of the Father
      and Creator, the great and excellent and all-know-
      ing artist ("De Monarchia," i. 4; "De Praemiis et
      Pamis," § 7). For a first and an efficient cause
      man must look outside of the material universe,
      which fails in the points of eternity and effi-
      ciency ("De Confusione Linguarum," §§ 31, 25;
      "De Somniis," i. 33). This cause is

      Philo's mind. But man has the gift of im-

      Logos. mortal thoughts ("De Eo Quod De-
      terius Potiori Insidiatur," § 34): these
      culminate in the apprehension of God ; they press
      beyond the limits of the entire phenomenal world
      to the Unbegotten ("De Plantationo Noe," § 5).
      This intuition of God was the especial prerogative
      of the Prophets, of Abraham, and of Jacob.

      The essence of God is unknown to man, whose
      conceptions are colored through the medium of his
      own nature. Anthropopathisms and anthropomor-
      phisms are wicked. God is incorporeal. He is with-
      out any irrational affections of the soul. God is a
      free, self-determining mind. His benevolence is due
      not to any incapacity of His for evil, but to His free
      preference for the good {ib. § 30).

      Man's personality lifts him above the rest of the
      creatures. In analogy therewith, Philo gives God
      the attributes of pcrsonalit}', which are not restrict-
      ive, but the very reverse (Drumnumd. "Philo
      Jud;eus,"ii. 15). Efficiency is the property of God;



      susceptibility, tliat of the begotten (" De Clieni
      bim," t; 24). Goii, therefore, is not only the Finst
      Cause, but He is the still ellieient ground of uli
      that is and conies to pass. He never jjauses in His
      creative activity ('' I)e Allegoriis Leguni." i. B).
      The feebleness of the Innnan mind precludes the
      possibility of man's knowing God as He is in Him-
      self ((7*. iii. 73). God is without qualities (ib. i. 13).
      God is transcendent. He contains, but is not con-
      tained (TTcpii^uv oil —eiu€x6/tt"ug); yet He is also
      within the universe. He is omnipresent (comp.
      " De Confusione Linguarum," t? 27 ; " De Posteritate
      Caiui," i^ 5); still He is above the conditions of
      spaeeund time (" De Posteritate Caini," § 5; "Quod
      Deus Sit Immutabilis," tj 6). He is complete in
      Himself, and contains within His own being the
      sum of all conceivable good ("De Mutatione Nomi-
      num," § 4). He is perfect; He is omniscient ("De
      Eo Quod Deterius Potior! Insidiatur," t; 42); He is
      onmipotent : He is free from evil and, therefore,
      can not be its source (" De Profugis," § 15); He is
      without passion as the most perfectly reasonable
      being, as the efficient and not the susceptible. God
      cares for the world and its parts (see Providencf.)
      ("De Opificio Mundi." g 61). He is the " Archon of
      the great city," "the pilot managing the universe
      with saving care " (" De Decem Oraculis," § 12).

      It is in the development of bis theor}' of the di-
      vine powers that Philo injects into his theology ele-
      ments not altogether in concordance with antecedent
      Jewish thought. Tliese intelligible and invisible
      powers, though subject to God, partake of His mys-
      tery and greatness. The}' are immaterial. They
      are uncircumscriljed and infinite, independent of
      time, and unbegotten ("Quod DeusSit Iiiunutabilis."
      § 17). They are " most holy" (" Fragmenta." ii. 6.5.')).
      incapable of error ("De Confusione Linguarum."
      § 23). Among tliese powers, through whicli God
      works His ends, is the Logos. " God is the most
      generic Thing; and His Logos is second" ("De
      AUegoriis Legum," ii. 21). "This Logos is the di-
      vine seal of the entire cosmos " (" De Somuiis," ii. 6).
      It is the arehety])al idea with which all things were
      stamped (" De ^Mutatione Nominum." g 23). It is
      the law of and in all things, which is not corrupt-
      ible ("De Ebrietate," § 35). It is the bond of the
      universe, filling a function analogous to that of the
      soul in man("Quis Kerum Divinarum Ileres Sit,"
      §48). It is God's son (see Logos; Philo).

      Vacillating though it was, the theory of the di-
      vine powers and the Logos, as elaborated by Philo.
      certainly introduced views into the theology of
      Judaism of far-reaching consecpiences in tlie devel-
      opment of the God-idea if not of the Synagogue at
      least of the Church. The absolute unity and tran-
      scendence of God were modified materially, though
      the Biblical notion of the likeness of man to God was
      in the system developed in a manner adopted again
      by the modern Jewisli theologians (see below). Tal-
      mndic and medieval Judaism were only indirectly
      affected by this bold attempt to save the transmuii-
      dane and supramundane implications of the Goil-
      concept and still find an explanation for the imma-
      nence of the divine in man and in the world. The
      Pharisaic Psalms of Solomon, for instance, echo
      without the least ecjuivocation the theological con-

      structions of the Biblical books (seeii. 15-18, 32-37);
      and the other ajjoealyptic writings (Enocli; Book of
      Jubilees; Testanu'iitsof the Twelve Patriarchs) pre-
      sent no resentially new points of view or even any
      augmentations. E. G. II.

      — — In Talmudic Literature : The Hellenistic
      Miodillcations of the Biblical God-concept were fur-
      ther developed in the propositions of tlie lieretical
      sects, such as the INIinini or Gno.stics, and of the
      Jud:eo-Christians and Cliristians. To controvert
      their dejiartiu'es from the fundamental positions of
      Judaism, the Palestinian synagogue, as did all later
      Judaism with the exception of the cabalists (see
      Cai!AI-.'\), laid all the greater stress on the unity of
      God. and took all the greater precaution to purg(>
      the concept from any and all lunnan and terrestrial
      similarities. The Shema' (Dent. vi. 4 p< .v/.) was
      invested with the importance of a confession of faith.
      Kecited twice daily (Ber. i. 1), the concluding word
      "chad" was given especial prominence, emphatic
      and jirolonged enunciation being reeonunended (" kol
      ha-ma'arik be-ehad"; Ber. lOaj. Audible enuncia-
      tion was required for the whole sentence (Sifre,
      Deut. 31: "Mi-kan amru: ba-kore et shema' vvelo-
      hishmia' le-ozno lo yaza "). Upon Israel especially
      devolved the duty of proclaiming God's unity ("le-
      yahed shemo beyoter"). The repeti-
      The tion of "Ynwii" in the verse is held

      Shema'. to indicate that God is (me both in the
      affairs of this world and in those of
      the world to come ( Yalk., Deut. 833). " The Eternal
      is Israel's portion " (Lam. iii. 24, Hebr.) demonstrates
      Israel's duty in the Shema' to proclaim God's unity
      and imperishability over against the sun-, moon-,
      and star-worship of the heathen (Latn. R. iii. 24;
      comp. Deut. K. ii., end). The "chad " is also taken
      in the sense of "meyubad." i.e., uni(|ue, uidike any
      other being (Meg. 28). Two powers (" reshuyot"),
      therefore, can not be assumed, as Deut. x.xxii. 39
      proves (Tan., Y'itro; Jellinek, "B. H."i. 110); and
      the opening sentence of the Decalogue confirms this
      (Mek., Yitro, v. ; comp. Y'alk., Ex. 286). In the his-
      torical events, though God's manifestations are
      varied and differ according to the occasion, one and
      the same God appears: at the Red Sea, a warrior; at
      Sinai, the author of the Decalogue; in the daj'S of
      Daniel, an old, benignant man (Yalk. I.e.). God has
      neither father, nor son, nor brother (Deut. R. ii.).

      Pains are taken to refute the argiunents based on
      the grammatical plurals emplo.yed in Biblical texts
      when referring to God. "Elohim " does not desig-
      nate a plurality of deities. The very context shows
      this, as the verbs in the predicate are in the singular.
      The phrase " Let us make man in otir image " (Gen.
      i. 26) is proved by the subsequent statement, "so
      God createil man in his own image " (t'b. verse 27). to
      refer to one God only (Y'er. Ber. ix. : Gen. R. viii.,
      xix.). Nor. according to R. Gamaliel, is the use of
      both "bara" and "yazar," to connote (Jod's creative
      action, evidence of the existence of two di.stiuct di-
      vine powers (Gen. R. i.). The reason
      One why in the beginning one man only

      "Reshut." was fashioned was to disprove the
      contention of those tliat believe in
      more than one per.sonality in God (Sanh. 38a). God
      had neitlier associate nor helper (Sanli. 38b; Y'er.



      Sliab. vi. 8d ; Eccl. R. iv. 8). The ever-recum-nt
      principle throiigliout haggailic theological sijccula-
      tions is that there is only one "Reshut " (" Reshut
      ahat hu " = " jiersonality ").

      From this emphasis upon the unity and immuta-
      bility of God. Weber, among others (see his "Jii-
      disehe Theologie," p. 153, Leipsie, 1897), has drawn
      the inference tliat the Jewish God was apprehended
      as the Absolute, persisting in and for Himself alone
      — supramundane and therefore extramuudane also.
      Between Him and the world and man there is no
      affinity and no bond of union. This view, however,
      neglects to take into account the thousand and one
      observations and interpretations of the Rabbis in
      which the very reverse doctrine is put forth. The
      bond between this one God — supreme, and in no way
      similar to man — and His creatures is very chise
      (comp. the discussion of tlie effect of the Sheraa'
      taken from Yer. Ber. in Yalk., Deut. 836 1. It is not
      that subsisting between a despot and his abjeet.
      helpless slaves, but that between a loving father and
      his children. The passages bearing on the point do
      not support Weber's arbitrary constructii in that the
      implications of the names "Elohim " as "middat ha-
      din" (justice) and "' Yhwii " as " middat ha-ral.uimim"
      (mercy) merely convey the notion of a supreme des-
      pot who capriciously may or may not permit mercy
      to temper revengeful justice (Weber, I.e.). In the
      rabbinical as in the Biblical conception of God. His
      paternal pity and love are never obscured (see Com-

      Nor is it true, as Weber puts it and many after
      him have repeated, that the Jewish conception of
      God lacks that "self-communicating love whicli
      . . . presupposes its own immanence in the f)tlier "
      (Weber, I.e.). R. Johanan's parable of the king and
      his son certainly demonstrates the very reverse.
      " A king's son was made to carry a beam. The king.
      upon seeing this, commanded that the beam be laid
      on his own shoulders. So does G<k1 invite sinners
      to lay their sins upon Him " (Midr. Teh. to Ps. xxii.
      6). The anti-Pauline point of the parable is' patent.
      The couveuient restriction of the term "abiuu she-
      ba-shamayim '' (our father which art iu heaven) to
      mean, when used iu a Jewish prayer, "the father of
      the nation," while when found in a supposedly non-
      Jewish prayer (see Lord's Pis.wer) it is interpreted
      to express the filial relation of every human soul to
      the Father, rests on no proof. The Rabbis denation-
      alized and individualized their conception of God as
      clearly as did the Jewish compilers of the Gospels.
      "God used the phrase ' I am YnwH, thy God ' ad-
      visedly because He was the God of every individual
      man, woman, or child" {thy God, not your God)
      (Yalk., Deut. 286).

      In the quaint presentation of their views on God's
      providence, the haggadists strike this note as well.
      "God chooses His own. Him whose deeds He is
      pleased with. He brings near unto Himself " (Jlidr.
      Shemuel, viii. ; Num. R. iii.). " God is busy making
      marriages" (see Deism; Lev. R. viii., Ixviii. ; Pesik.
      lib; Midr. Shemuel v.; Tan., Bemidbar, ed. Buber,
      18). "God builds ladders for some to ascend [be-
      come rich], for others to descend [become poor] "
      (Tan., Mattot and Ki Tissa, ed. Buber, and pas-
      sages quoted in the foregoing sentence). " God does

      not provide for Israel alone, but for all lands: He
      does not guard Israel alone, but all men " (Sifre,
      Deut. 40). "None will wound as much as a finger
      here below unless this is the divine decree concern-
      ing him from al)ove " (Hu!. 7b). These passages,
      which miglit easily be indefinitely multiplied, are
      illustrative of the thought running through hag-
      gadic theology ; and they amply demonstrate the
      fallacy of the view denying to the God-concept of
      rabbinical Judaism individualistic and denational-
      ized elements.

      The care with which anthropomorphisms are
      avoided in the Targumim is not due to dogmatic
      zeal in emphasizing the transcendental character of
      the Godhead, but to the endeavor not to use phrase-
      ology which might in the least degree create the
      presumption f)f God's corporeality.
      In the Hence the introduction of the particle
      Targumim. "ke-'illu" (as it were) in the para-
      phrasing of passages that might sug-
      gest similarity between God and man's sensuous
      nature (Yer. Tar.g. to Gen. xviii. 8) ; the supjiression
      altogether of verbs connoting physical action ("God
      descended," Gen. xi. H, becomes "God revealed Him-
      self ") ; the recourse to " kodam " (before), to guard
      against the humanizing of the Godhead. The
      Memr.\ (" Word " ; " Logos ") and tlie Shekinah, the
      divine effulgent indwelling of God (see Na.mes op
      God), are not expedients to bridge the cliasm between
      the extramundane and supramundane God and the
      world of things and man, as Weber claims; they are
      not hypostases which by being introduced into the
      theology of the rabbinical Syna,gogue do violence to
      the strenuous emphasis on God's unity by which it
      is characterized; but they owe their introduction
      into the phraseology of the Targumim and Mid-
      rashim respectively to this anxiety to find and use
      terms distinctively' indicative of God's superlative
      sublimity and exaltedness, above and differentiated
      from any terrestrial or human similitude. Tliese
      two terms prove, if anything, the apprehension on
      the part of the haggadists of God's relations to the
      world as the one supreme, all-directing, omnipres-
      ent, and all-pervading Essence, the all-abiding, ever-
      active and activizing Principle, unfolding Himself
      in time and space.

      Equ.ally one-sided is the view according to which
      tlie rabbinical conception of God is rigidly and nar-
      rowly legal or nomistic. Weber (I.e.) and many
      after him have iu connection with this even em-
      ployed the term'" Judaized conception of God." In
      |)roof of the contention, after Bartolocci, Eisenmen-
      ger, and Bodenscliatz, rabbinical passages have been
      adduced in which God is represented as "studying
      the Law" ('Ab. Zarah 3b; Yalk., Isa. 316; or, more
      jiarticularly, the section concerning the red heifer.
      Num. R. xix., parasliah " Parah Adummah"); as
      "teaching children" (Yalk., Isa. I.e.); as "weeping
      over the destruction of the Temple " (Yer. Hag. i.
      5b; Yalk., Lam. 1000); as "roaring like a lion"
      and '-playing with the Leviathan" (Yalk., Lsa.
      I.e.); as "no longer on Ills Ihrone, but having only
      ' arba' ammot shel halakah, ' the four ells of the hala-
      kah in the world for His own " (Ber. 11a) ; as " being
      unrler the ban, ' herem ' " (Pirke R. El. xxxviii.); as
      " being Levitically unclean, owing to His having



      burk'd Moses" (Saiih. 3i)a); as "praying" (Yalk.,
      Ps. 873: Bcr. 7a); as "laying tcfillin ami wearing a
      tallit "(Ber. Ga; H. H. 171)'); as " blowing tlie sliofar";
      as "having u vow released according lo llie provi-
      siousof tlio Law " (Nnm. xxx. 2etseij. ; Ex. K. xliii. ;
      Lev. R. xix.); and as "rising before a lioary head "
      (Lev. 1{. XXXV.). Upon examination, all these pas
      sages are .seen to be liomiletieal extravagances, aca-
      demic exercises, and mere displays of skill and ver-
      satility iu the art of interpreting Biblical texts
      ("Schulweisheit "). and therefore of no greater im-
      portance as reflecting the religious consciousness of
      either their authors or the people at large than other
      extravagances marked as such by the prefacing of
      " kibbe-yakol " (if it isiiermitted tosay so; "sit venia
      verbo"), or "ilmale mikra katub e efshar le-omro"
      ('Er. 22a; Yer. Ber. 9d; Lev. R. xxxiv.).

      The exaltation of the Torah is said to have been
      both the purpose and the instrument of creation: it
      is preexistent (Gen. R. i.), the "daughter" of Yhwh
      (Tan., Ki Tissa, 28: ih. Pekude, 4), and its study even
      engages God (B. M. 86a). Differentiated from the
      " kabod " of God, it was given to man
      The La'w on earth, while the "splendor" (1133,

      of God. also nySCO has its abode in the higher
      regions (Midr. Teh. to Ps. xc. 17, xci.
      9). It is praised as the one panacea, healing the
      whole of man ('Er. 54a). This idea is not, as has
      been claimed by Weber and after him by others,
      evidence either of the nomistic character of the
      "Judaized " conception of God or of the absolute
      transcendence of God. In the first place, the term
      "Torah " in most of the passages adduced in proof
      does not connote the Law (Pentateuch). For it " re-
      ligion " might be with greater exactness substituted
      (see Bacher, "Die Aelteste Terniinologie der Jil-
      dischen Schriftausleguug, " s.i\ miD)- In the sec-
      ond, if not a restatement of the doctrine of wisdom
      (" hokmah " ; see above), these ecstasies concerning
      the Torah have a marked anti-Pauline character.
      The Torah is the " sam hayyim " (life- [salvation-]
      giving drug; Sifre, Deut. § 45; Kid. 30b; Y'oma
      72b; Lev. R. xvi.).

      The following haggadic observations will illus-
      trate the views formulated above :

      God's omnipresence (wltti reference t« Jer. xxlli. 24) is illus-
      trated by two mirrors, tbe one convex, the other concave, map-
      nifyinjr and contracting respectively the image of the beholder
      (Gen. R. iv. ). God's " mercy " will always assert itself if man
      repents (Pesik. 164a). God's "justice" often intentionally re-
      fuses to take account of man's misdeeds (Gen. R. ,\xxvi.; Lev.
      R. v.). God requites men according to their own measure
      (" middah ke-neged middah " ; Sanb. 9l)a, b ; Tosef., Sotah, iii. :
      Yer. Sotah 17a, b); but the measure t>f good always exceeds
      that of evil and punishment ( " middat tobah merubbah mi-mid-
      dah pur'aniyyot " ; Mek., Besliallah. x. 49a). God forgives the
      sins of a whole community on account of the true repentance of
      even one man (YomaSCb). " "Tob " (the good) is God's main at-
      tribute (Yer. Hag. 77c; Eccl. R. rii. «; Ruth R. iii. 16; eomp.
      Matt. xix. 17). The anthi'opomorjihic representation of God as
      suffering pain with men merely illustrates His goodness (Sanh.
      vi. .5). God fills the world; but the world does not fill or ex-
      haust Him (Gen. R. Ixviii.: Yalk.. Hab. 56:3). God's" hand"
      is extended underneath the wings of the beings that carry the
      throne, to receive and take to Himself the sinners tliat return,
      and to save them from punishment (Pes. llOa). Man is in the
      clutches of anger; but God masters wrath ((ien. R. xlix.; Midr.
      Teh. to Ps. xciv. 1 ) . God removes the " stumbling-block " (sin)
      (Pesik. 165a; Talk.. Hosea,532).

      God knows all. He is like an aichitect who. hav-

      ing built a palace, knows all the hiding-places there-
      in, and from whom, therefore, the owner can not
      secrete anything (Gen. R. xxiv.). God is the ar-
      chitect of the world (Gen. R. i); the
      Talmudic "Torah" is the plan. God's signet

      Views. ring is truth, flDS (the Alpha and
      Omega of the New Testament; Gen.
      R. Ixxxi; Shab. ri.la; YomaGOb; Sanh. G4a; Yer.
      Tan. 18a; Deut. R. i.). All that confess "two God-
      heads" will ultimately come to grief (Deut. R. ii.).
      In a vast immbcr of hag.gadic disciuisitions on God,
      attention is called to the difference between the
      action of man and that of God, generally jirefaced
      by "Come and .see that ' shelo k(vmid<lat basar we-
      dam middat ha-Kodesh baruk hii ' " (not like the
      motive and conduct of llesh and blood is God's man-
      ner). For instance, man selling a precious article
      will part with it in sorrow ; not so God. He gave
      His Torah to Israel and rejoiced thereat (Her. .5a).
      In others, again, God is likened to a king: and
      from this comparison conclusions are drawn (Gen.
      R. xxviii. and innumerable similar parables).

      Sometimes attention is called to the difference be-
      tween God and an earthly monarch. " When a king
      is praised, his ministers are praised with him, be-
      cause they help him carry the burden of his govern-
      ment. Not so wlicn God is praised. He alone is
      exalted, as He alone created the world " (Y'alk., Deut.
      835; Midr. Teh. toP.s. Ixxxvi. 10;Geu. R. i. 3). God
      exalteth Himself above tho.se that exalt themselves
      ("initga'ah hu 'al hamitga'im; Hag. 13b; Mek..
      Besliallah. 3.5b). In His hand is everything except
      thefearof Him(Ber. 33b; Meg. 2.5a; Niddah 16b).

      Among the descriptive atti-ibutes, "mighty,"
      " great, " and " fearful " are mentioned. After Jloses
      had formulated these (Deut. x. 17). and the last had
      been omitted by Jeremiah (xxxii. 18) and the first
      by Daniel (ix, 4), in view of the apparent victory of
      the heathen the "men of the Great Synagogue"
      (Nell. ix. 32) reinstituted the mention of all tliree,
      knowing that God's might consisted in showing in-
      dulgent long-suffering to the evil-minded, and that
      His " fearfulness " was demonstrated in Israel's
      wonderful survival. Hence their name " Great Syn-
      agogue " for having restored the crown of the divine
      attributes (Yoma 69b; Y'er. Ber. lie; Meg. 74c).
      These attributes may not be arbitrarily augmented ;
      however many attiibutes man might use, he could
      not adequately express God's greatness (Ber. 33b;
      see Agnosticism) ; but man is bound to praise the
      Creator with his every breath (Gen. R. xiv.).

      Stress is laid in the Talmudic theology on the res-
      urrection of the dead. God is "mehayyeh ha-
      metim," the one who restores the dead to life. The
      ke3' to the resurrection is one of the three (or four)
      keys not given, save in very rare cases, to any one
      else, but is in the hands of God alone (Ta'an. 2a, b:
      Gen. R. Ixxiii. ; see Esciiatologt).

      Israel is God's people. This relation to Him can

      not be dissolved bj' Israel (Num. R. ii.). This is

      expressed in the definition of God's

      God and name as "chyeh ashcr ehyeli." The

      Israel. individual has the liberty to profess
      God or not; but the community, if re-
      fractory, is coerced to acknowledge Him (Ex. R. iii.
      14). As a king might fasten the key of his jewel-



      casket by a chain lest it be lost, so God linked His
      name with Israel lest the people should disappear
      (Yer. Ta'an. 6od). Israel's love for God, evidenced
      when in the desert, became a great treasure of di-
      vine grace, stored up for the days of Israel's troubles
      (Midr. Teh. to Ps. xxxvi. 11). Upon Israel's fidelity
      to God even the earth's fertility is dependent (Lev.
      U. xlv.). God's punLshmeuts are therefore very
      severe for disloyal Israel, though in His grace He
      provides the cure always before the blow {Jleg. 13b).
      As a father prefers himself to discipline hi.s son
      rather than to have another beat him, so God Himself
      is Israel's judge (Midr. Teh. to Ps. Ixxviii. 41). God
      is toward Israel, however, like that king vrho, in-
      censed at his son's conduct, swore to hurl a stone at
      him. In order not to break his oath, but beiug anx-
      ious not to destroy his child, he broke tlie stone into
      pieces, which one after another he threw at him
      (ib, to Ps. vi. 4; comp. Lev. R. xxxii.). Israel's dis-
      loyalty to God involves in its consequences even
      the other peoples (after Haggai i. Hi; Jlidr. Teh. to
      Ps. iv. 8; comp. Matt. xv. 36; Mark vii. 37; Bacher,
      "Ag. Pal. Amor." i. 146).

      The prayer-book of the Synagogue is tlie precipi-
      tate of the teachings concerning God held b}' the
      Kabbis. An analysis of its contents reveals that
      God was adored as the Creator, the Preserver of the
      world (" Yozer Or," the first benediction before the
      Shema'). He is the Great, the Mighty, the Fearful,
      the Highest, the Loving, the All-Sustaining, Revi-
      ving the Dead (in the Shemoneh 'Eskeh), the King,
      Helper, Deliverer, the Support of the Weak, the
      Healer of the Sick. He sets free the captives, faith-
      ful even to them that sleep in the dust. He is holy.
      Knowledge and understanding are from Ilim, a mani-
      festation of IIisgrace(" Attah Honen la-Adam" ; Meg.
      17b; the "Birkat Hokmah," Ber. 33). He forgives
      sin (" Ha-Marbeh li-Saloah "). In His mercy He sends
      relief to those that suffer (" Birkat ha-Holim "; 'Ab
      Zarah, 8a; comp. Meg. 17b). To Israel He contin-
      ually shows His love and abundant grace (" Ahabah
      Rabbah" and " Aliabat '01am." the second benedic-
      tion before the Shema'; Ber. lib). Man's physical
      perfection is God's work('' Asher Yazar " ; Ber. 60b).
      In the prayer " Modim " (the " Iloda'ah " [Meg. 18;
      Ber. 39, 34; Shab. 34; Sotah 68b; Sifre, Deut. 949];
      see Artici.es op Faith), God's imniutal)ility is ac-
      centuated, as well as His providential care of the
      life and soul of every nmn. He is "ha-tob," the
      good one whose mercies are boundless ; while in the
      version given in the Siddur of Rab Amram and the
      Mahzor of Rome the statement is added that "God
      has not abandoned Isi-ael." God is also hailed as
      the maker of peace. The thought of God's unity,
      it is needless to remark, dominates throughout.
      The " 'Alenu," with whicli, according to the Kol Bo
      (§§ 11 and 77; Tur Orah Hayyim, S 133), every
      .service must conclude, is a resume of the implica-
      tions of Israel's conception of God. He is the Lord
      of the universe; the Creator. Israel by His grace
      was called to know Him as the King of Kings, the
      Holy One. He alone is God. It concludes with the
      fervent prayer for the coming of the day when
      idolatry shall be no more, but God shall be acknowl-
      edged as the one and onlv God.

      E. G. H.

      In Philosophical Literature : The rise of

      Karaism marks an eiiocli in Jewish philosophical
      thought concerning God. The ensuing contro-
      versies induced Jewish Rabbiuite thinkers to turn
      their attention to the S])eculative problems involved
      in the Jewisli conception of God. Alohamniedan the-
      ology, under the influence of Greek philosophy,
      which came to itb)' way of Syria through the Chris-
      tian Nestorians, had developed various schools,
      among them the Motekallamin or schoolmen, occu-
      pying a middle position between the orthodox be-
      lievers in the dogmas of the Koran and the Free-
      thinkers or Philosophers. According to Shahrastani
      (ed. Cureton, German transl. by Haarbriieker), they
      were the defenders of the fundamental truths of the
      Koran. They did not apjieal solely to
      Motekalla- the wording of the book, but formu-

      niin and lated a rational system, that of the Ka-

      Motazi- lam (hence their name, = Hebrew " Me-
      lites. ilabberim" = "loquentes "), in which
      through speculation the jiositious of
      tlie Koran were demonstrated as logically and intel-
      lectually necessary.

      An offshoot from the Motekallamin were the
      Motazilites, who differed from the former in their
      do<ttrines concerning the divine attributes. Desig-
      nating themselves as the proclaimers of the unity
      of God, they contended that the divine attributes
      were in no way to be regarded as essential; they
      tlius emphasized God's absolute unity, which was
      regarded by them even as numerical. Over and
      against them the Asii'.\hiya urged determinislio
      views in op])ositicm to tlie ascription of freedom to
      man, and pleaded for the reality of the divine at-
      tributes. These three schools were in so far ortho-
      dox as they all regarded the Koran as the source of
      truth and did not intend to abandon its fundamental
      authority. The Philosophers alone, though in ex-
      ternals observant of the religious ritual, ventured to
      take their stand on points other than those fixed
      by the text of the Koran; and they did not care
      whether their conclusions agreed with or differed
      from the positions of current theology.

      Jewish philosophers in the Middle Ages (900-1300)
      display, on the whole, the methods and intentions
      of these orthodox Mohammedan schools. The same
      problems engage their interest. The attributes of
      God — His unity. His prescience, the freedom of
      human action — are the perplexities which they at-
      tempt to solve. That the teachings of the Bible
      and the theology of the Synagogue are true, they
      assume at tiie very outset. It is their ambition to
      show that these fundamental truths are rational, in
      conformity with the postidates of reason. Aristote-
      lians for the most part, they virtually adopt the
      propositions of Al-Kindi, Alfarabi, and Al-GhazaH,
      as far as they are adherents of the Kalam; while
      those who are not resort to the Neoplatonic elements
      contained in Arabic Aristotelianism to sharpen their
      weapons. Ibn Sina (Avicenn.\) and Ibn Rdshd
      (AvEUROES), also, must be remembered among the
      tutors of the Jewish Aristotelians.

      The first of the Jewish writers to treat of the
      Jewish faith from the philosophical point of view
      was Saadia, the great anti-Karaite (see his contro-
      versies with Anan, Nahawandi, Ibn Sakawai, and



      Ben Jcrolmm). iu hi.s famous work "Kitiib al-

      Amauat wal I'tikadat" (Hebrew, "Sefer Emuiiot

      we-De'ot "), He sliows his fiiniiliiirity

      Saadia. with tlie positions of the .Motazilitesus
      well as with Greek philosophy and
      even with Christian theology. His jiurpose in com-
      posing the treatise was to set forth the harmony be-
      tween the revealed truthsof Judaism anil the reason
      of man. In its controversial chapters he attacks
      the theology of C'hristianity with greater vehemence
      than that of Islam (see Geiger, " Wiss. Zeit. Jiid.
      Theol."i. 192). His philosophical point of view
      has rightly been characterized as eclectic, though
      strongly influeneed by Aristotelianism. He prefaces
      his presentation of the God-concept with a discus-
      sion of the theory of human knowledge, which lat-
      ter, according to him, proceeds from the perception
      of the grossly sensual elements connnon to men and
      animals. But when a man perceives an object,
      merely the accidents come to his vision. By com-
      parison, however, he learns to know the quantity
      of bodies, thus forming the notion of space ; while
      through the observation of motion he arrives at the
      perception of time ("Sefer Emunot we-De'ot," ed.
      Amsterdam, ii.). In this way' man, through contin-
      ued reflection, attains to ever finer and higher degrees
      of knowledge, discovering the relation of cause to
      effect. Many men, says Saadia, reject the existence
      of God on the ground that the kuowl-

      " Sefer edge of Him is too subtle and too ab-

      Emunot stract. But this is easily met by the
      we-De'ot." assertion of the graduation of knowl-
      edge, which in its ascent always
      readies finer degrees, and develops into the faculty
      of apprehending the less concrete and more abstract.

      The final cause some philosophers have held to be
      material, an atom. But in going one degree higher,
      and iu assuming the existence of a creator, man must
      know him as the highest; that is to say, God is the
      noblest but also the most subtile goal of specidative
      reflection. Many represent God as corporeal, be-
      cause they do not push their ascending knowledge
      far enough beyond the corporeal to the abstract and
      incorporeal. The Creator being the originator of all
      bodies. He of necessity must be ajiprehended as
      supramundane, supercorporeal. Those that ascribe
      to God motion and rest, wrath and goodness, also
      apperceive Him as corporeal. The correct concep-
      tion culminates in the representation of God as free
      from all accidents (il).). If this conception be too
      abstract, and is to be replaced by one more material
      and concrete, reflection is forced to recede. The
      final cavise tnust be, by the very postulates of rea-
      son, an abstract being. God-perception is thus the
      rise from the sensual to the supersensual and high-
      est limits of thought.

      But the Creator has revealed Himself to His
      Prophets as the One, the Living, the Almighty, the
      All-Wise, the Incomparable. It is the philosopher's
      part to investigate the reality' of these attributes,
      and to justify them before the tribunal of reason
      {ih. ii. 24b, 25a). The unity of God includes His
      being absolutely one, as well as His uniqueness, and
      is necessarily postulated by the refiection that He is
      the Creator of all. For if He were not one. He
      would be many; and multiplicity is characteristic

      of corporeality. Therefore, as the highest thinking
      rejects His corporeality. He must be one. Again,
      human rea.soii postulates one creator, since for crea-
      tion a creator is indispen.sable; but, as one creator
      satisfies all the implications of this concept, reason
      has no call to assmne two or more. If there were
      more than one creator, proof would have to be ad-
      duced for the existence of every one ; but such
      proof could not be tiiken from creation, to account
      for which one creator suflices. That Scripture uses
      two names for God is merely due to linguistic idio-
      matic ])eculiaritics, as "Jerubbaal" is also named
      " Gideon."

      God is living because He, the Creator of the
      world, can not be thought of as without life (i.e.,
      self-consciousness and kuow'ledge of His deeds).
      His omnipotence is self-evident, since He is the Cre-
      ator of the all: since creation is perfectly adjusted
      to its ends, God must be all-wise. These three
      attributes human reason discovers "at one stroke "
      r'pit'om," "beli mahshabah," "mebi'ah ahat " ; ih.
      ii. 26a). Human speech, however, is so constituted
      as not to be able to express the three in one word.
      God's being is simple, not complex, every single
      attribute connoting Ilim in His entirety. Abstract
      and subtle though God is. He is not inactive. The
      illustration of this is the soul and its directive func-
      tion over the body. Knowledge is still more sub-
      tile than the soul; and the same is
      The Living again exemplified in the four elements.
      God. Water percolates through earth; light

      dominates water; the sphere of fire
      surrounds all other spheres and through its motion
      regulates the position of the planets in the universe.
      The motion of the spheres is caused hy the com-
      mand of the Creator, who, more subtile than any of
      the elements, is more powerful than aught else.

      Still, Saadia concedes that no attribute may in
      strict construction be ascribed to God (ib. ii. 28b).
      God has also created the concept attribute; and cre-
      ated things can not belong to the essence of the
      Creator. Man may only predicate God's existence
      ("yeshut "). Biblical expressions are metaphorical.
      The errors concerning God are set forth in ten cate-
      gories. Soine have thought God to be a substance;
      some have ascribed to Him quantity ; others quid-
      dity {iToidv in Aristotle); others have assigned to
      Ilim relations and dependency (-poc n). The Eter-
      nal can not be in relation to or dependent upon any-
      thing created. He was before creation was. God
      is in no space (-ov in Aristotle). He is timeless
      (rrore). God can not be said to possess (exeiv): all is
      His. He lacks nothing. Possession, however, in-
      cludes lack as its negative. God is incorporeal ;
      therefore. He can not be apprehended as conditioned
      b}' status (lificiiSn;). Nor does God work (TToair). In
      the common sense of the term, work implies mo-
      tion : and motion, iu the subject, can not be in God.
      His will suflices to achieve His i)urposes ; and, more-
      over, in work matter is an element, and place and
      time are factors — all considerations inapplicable to

      Nor does God suffer (Tnjo,-];"''). Even God's .seeing
      is not analogous to human sight, which is ati effect
      by some exterior object. Saadia controverts triin-
      tarianism more especially, as well as Du.^lism. He




      is most euipbalic in rejectiug tlie corporeal it}' of
      God, His incarnation, involved in tlie Cliristiau doc-
      trine. For his views conceruiug creation see Jew.
      Enxvc. iv. 339, s.v. Ckeation,

      But according to Saadia, man is tlie ultimate ob-
      ject of creation (" Emunot we-De'ot," iv. 45a). How
      is human freedom reconcilable with God's omnipo-
      tence and omniscience? That the will of man is free
      Saadia can not douljt. It is the doctrine of Scrip-
      ture and of tradition, confirmed b_y human experience
      and postulated by reason. Without it how could
      God punish evil-doers? But if God does not will
      the evil, how may it exist and be found in this
      world of reality? All things terrestrial are adjusted
      ■with a view to man ; they are by divine precept for
      the sake of man declared to be good or evil ; and it
      is thus man that lends them their character. God's
      omniscience Saadia declares to be not necessarily
      causal. If man sins, God may know it beforehand ;
      but He is not the cause of the sinful disposition
      or act.

      Ibn Gabirol's theology is more profound than that
      of Saadia. In his "Mekor llayyini," he shows him-
      self to be a follower of Plotiuus, an adherent of the
      doctrine of emanation; yet, notwithstanding tliis
      pantheistic assumption, he recognizes

      Solomon the donnnatiou of a supreme omnipo-
      ibn tent will, a free, personal God. lie

      Gabirol. views the cognition of tlie final cause
      as the end and goal of all knowl-
      edge. "Being " includes: (1) form and matter; (3)
      primal substance, the cause (God); and (3) will,
      the mediator between the other two. Between God
      the Absolute and the world of phenomena, media-
      ting agents are assumed. Like (God) can not com-
      municate with unlike (the world) ; but mediating
      beings having something of both may bring them
      into relation. God is on the uppermost rung of the
      ladder of being; He is the beginning and cause of
      all. But the substance of the corporeal world is the
      lowest and last of all things created. Tlie first is
      essentially different from the last; otherwise, the
      first might be the last, and vice versa. God is abso-
      lute unity; the corporeal world, absolute multiplic-
      ity and variety. Motion of the world is in time;
      and time is included in and is less than eternity.
      The Absolute is above eternity ; it is infinitude.
      Hence there must be a mediating soinetliiiig between
      the supereternal an<l the subeternal. Man is the mi-
      crocosm (" 'olaiu ha-katon "), a reflection of the mac-
      rocosm. The mind ("sekel") does not immediately
      connect itself with the body, but through the lower
      energies of the soul. In like manner in the macro-
      cosm the highest simple substance may only join
      itself to the substance of the categories through the
      mediation of spiritual substances. Like only begets
      like. Hence, the first Creator could have produced
      simple substances only, not the sensual visible world
      which is totally unlike Him.

      Between the First Cause and the world Gabirol
      places five mediators ("emza'ot"): (1) God's will
      (" ha-razon ") ; (2) general matter and form ; (3) the
      universal mind ("sekel ha-kelali"); (4) tlie three
      world-souls ("nefa.shot "), vegetative, animal, and
      thinking souls; and (5) nature ("ha-teba" "), the
      mover of the corporeal world.

      The divine will has a considerable part in this
      system. It is the divine power which creates form,

      calls forth matter, and binds them to-

      The Divine gether. It pervades all, from the

      ■Will. highest to the lowest, just as the soul

      pervades tlie body (" Mekor Ilayyim,"
      V. 60). God may be apprehended as will and as
      knowledge; the former operating in secret, invis-
      ibly; the latter realizing itself openly. From will
      emanates form, but from the oversubstance matter.
      Will, again, is nothing else than the totality compre-
      hending all formsin indivisible unity. Matterwith-
      out form is void of reality; it is non-existent; form
      is the element which confers existence on the non-
      existent, flatter without form is never actual
      (" be-fo'al "), but only potential ("' be-koah "). Form
      appears in the moment of creation, and the creative
      power is will ; therefore, the will is the producer of

      Upon this metaphysical corner-stone Ibn Gabirol
      bases his theological positions, which may l)e
      summed up as follows:

      God is absolute uuit.v. Form and matter are ideas in Him.
      Attributes, in strict construction, may not be predicated of
      Him ; will and wisdom are identical with His bein^. Onl,y
      througb the tbings wbicli bave emanated from God may man
      learn and comprehend aufrht of God. Between God and the
      world is acha.sm bridged only by mediatorial beings. The Hrst
      of these is will or the creative word. It is the divine power
      activated and energized at a deflnite point of time. Creation is
      an act of the divine will. Through processes of successive
      emanations, the absolute One evolves multiplicity. Love and
      yearning tor the Brst fountain whence issued this stream of
      widening emanations are in all beings the beginning of niotiou.
      They are yearning for divine perfection and omnipotence.

      Ibn Gabirol may rightly be styled the Jewish
      speculative exponent of a system bordering on the-
      osophy, certainly approaching obscurity and the
      mystic elimination of individuality in favor of an
      all-encompassing all-Divinity (pantheism). His sys-
      tem is, however, only aside-track from the main line
      of Jewish theological thought.

      Bahya ben Joseph ibn Pakuda, in the treatise in-
      troducing his exposition of the " Duties of the Heart "
      (" Hobot ha-Lebabot," chapter " Ha-'i'ihud "), reverts
      in the main to the method of Saadia. According to
      Bah}-a, only the prophet and the wise

      Bahya can serve God in truth. All otliers
      ibn revere in God something utterly out

      Pakuda. of consonance with the exalted, sub-
      lime conception of God (ib. § 2). It is
      therefore every one's duty to arrive at a proper con-
      ception of God's unity by means of speculative re-
      flection, and to be thus enabled to differentiate true
      unity ("chad ha-emet") from pseudo-unity ("chad
      ha-'ober"). In consequence Bahya develops the
      following seven demonstrative arguments in sup-
      port of God's unity :

      (1) The universe is like a pyramid sloping up-
      ward from a very broad base toward the apex ; or
      it resembles an infinite series of numbers, of which
      the first is one, and the last comprises so many
      figures as to baffle all efforts to form a conception
      of it. The individual beings in the world are nu-
      mericallj' infinite: when these individuals are clas-
      sified in groups according to species, etc., the num-
      ber of these groups becomes smaller. Thus by
      proceeding in his classifications to always more com-




      prclifiisive groups, man reduces the number ever
      more and more until lie arrives at the number five,
      i.e.. four elements plus motion. These, again, are
      really two only : matter and form. Their conunon
      principle, more comprehensive than either, must
      thus be smaller than two, i.e., one.

      (2) The harmony and concordance prevailing in
      creation necessitate theajiprehension of the world as
      the work of one artist and creator.

      (3) Without a creator there could be no creation.
      Thus reason and logic compel the assumption of a
      creator; but to assume more than one creator is irra-
      tional and illogical.

      (4) If one believes in the existence of more than
      one God, one of two alternatives is suggested: («)
      One God was potent enough to create the all; why,

      then, other gods? They are super-
      Proofs of tiuous. (b) One God alone had not the
      Unity. power; then God was limited in
      power, and a being so limited is not
      God, but presupposes another being through which
      He Himself was called into existence.

      (5) The unity of God is involved in the very con-
      ci'ption of Him. If there were more gods than one,
      this dilemma would be presented: (a) These many
      gods are of one essence; tlien, according to the law
      of absolute identity, they are identical and therefore
      only one. Or (J) these gods are differentiated by
      differences of essential qualities: then they are not
      gods; for God, to be God, must be absolute and
      simple (non-composite) being.

      (6) God connotes being without accidence, i.e.,
      qualities not involved in being. Plurality is quan-
      tity, and, therefore, accidence. Hence plurality may
      not be predicated of God.

      (T) Inversely, the concept unity pasits the unity
      of God. Unity, according to Euclid, is that through
      which a thing becomes numerically one. Unity,
      therefore, precedes the number one. Two gods
      would thus postulate before the number one the ex-
      istence of unit}'. In all these demonstrations Bahya
      follows the evidential argumentations of the Arabic
      schoolmen, the Motekallamin. In reference to God's
      attributes, Bahya is of those who contend that at-
      tributes predicated of God connote in truth only
      negatives (excluding their opposites), never posi-
      tives {ib. % 10).

      This view is shared also by Judah ha-Levi, the
      author of the "Cuzari," probably the most popular
      exposition of the contents of Israel's religion, though,
      as Gratz rightly remarks (" Geschichte," vi. 157),
      little calculated to influence thinkers. He regards
      Cre.\tiok as an act of divine will ("Cuzari," ii. 50).
      God is eternal ; but the world is not. He ranges
      the divine attributes into three classes: (1) practi-
      cal, (2) relative, and (3) negative. The
      Judah ha- practical are those predicated of God
      Levi. on the ground of deeds which, though
      not immediately, yet perhaps through
      the intervention of natural secondary causes, were
      wrought by God. God is in this sense recognized
      as gracious, full of compassion, jealous, and aven-

      Relative attributes are those that arise from the
      relations of man, the worshiper, to God, the one
      worshiped. God is holy, sublime, and to be praised ;

      but though man in this wise expresses his thoughts
      concerning God, God's essence is not thereby de-
      scribed and is not taken out of His unity ("meal.ia-
      duto '■).

      The third class seeminglj' express ])Ositive quali-
      ties, but in reality negative their contraries. God is
      living. This does not mean that He moves and
      feels, but that He is not unmoved or without life.
      Life and death belong to the corporeal world. God
      is beyond this distinction. This ajiplies also to His
      unity; it excludes merel}' the notion that He is more
      than one. His unity, however, transcends the unity
      of human conceptual construction. Man's "one " is
      one of many, a part of a w hole. In this sense God
      can not be called "One." Even so, in strict accu-
      racy, God may not be termed "the first." He is
      without beginning. And this is also true of the
      designation of God as " the last." Anihropopathic
      expressions are used; but they result from the
      humanward impression of His works. " God's will"
      is a term connoting the cause of all lying beyond
      the sphere of the visible things. C'oncerning Ha-
      Levi 's interpretation of the names of God see
      N-\MES OF God.

      In discussing the question of God's providential
      government and man's freedom Ha-Levi first con-
      troverts Fatai.ism ; and he does this by showing
      that even the fatalist believes in possibilities. Hu-
      man will, says he, is the secondary cause between
      man and the purpose to be accomplished. God is
      the First Cause: how then can there
      Centre- be room for human freedom"? But
      verts will is a secondary cause, and is not
      Fatalism, under compulsion on the part of the
      first cause. The freedom of choice is
      thus that of man. God's omnipotence is not im-
      pugned thereby. Finally, all points back to God as
      the first cause of this freedom. In this freedom is
      involved God's omnipotence. Otherwise it might
      fail to be available. The knowledge of God is not
      a cause. God's prescience is not cau.sal in reference
      to man's doings. God knows what man will do;
      still it is not He that causes man's action. To sum
      up his positions, Judah ha-Levi posits: (a) The ex-
      istence of a first cause, i.e.. a wise Creator always
      working under purpose, whose work is perfect. It
      is due to man's lack of understanding that this per-
      fection is not seen by him in all things, (b) There
      are secondary causes, not independent, however, but
      instrumentalities, (c) God gave matter its adequate
      form. ((/) There are degrees in creation. The sen-
      tient beings occupj" higher positions than those
      without feelings. Man is the highest. Israel as the
      confessor of the one God outranks the polytheistic
      heathen. (<■) Man is free to choose between good
      and evil, and is responsible for his choice.

      Abraham ibn Daud, in his "Emunah Ramah,"
      virtuallj' traverses the same ground as his predeces-
      sors; but in reference to God's pre-
      Abraham science he takes a very free attitude
      ibn Daud. {ib. p. 96). He distinguishes two
      kinds of possibilities: (1) The subjec-
      tive, where the uncertainty lies in the subject him-
      self. This subjective possibility is not in God. (2)
      The objective, planned and willed by God Himself.
      While under the first is the ignorance of one living




      in one place cnucerniug the doings of those in an-
      other, under the second falls the possibility of man's
      being good or bad. God knows beforehand of this
      possibility, but not of tlie actual choice. The later
      author UaLBaG advances the same theory in his
      " Mill.ianiot ha-Sheni " (iii. 2). Ibn Daud also argues
      against the ascription of positive attributes to God
      ("Emunah Ramah," ii. 3).

      !Moses ben ]\Iaimon's " Moreh Nebukim " (" Dalalat
      al-Ha'iriu ") is the most important contribution to
      Jewish philosophical thought on God. According
      to him, philosophy recognizes the existence and per-
      fection of God. God's existence is proved by the
      world, the effect whence he draws the inference of
      God's existence, the cause. The whole universe is
      only one individual, the parts of which are interde-
      pendent. The sublunar world is dependent upon
      the forces proceeding from the spheres, so that the
      universe is a macrocosm ("Moreh," ii. 1), and thus
      the effect of one cause.

      Two gods or causes can not be assumed, for they
      would have to be distinct in their community : b\it
      God is absolute ; therefore He can not be composite.
      The corporeal alone is numerical. God as incorpo-
      real can not be multiple (" Yad," Yesode ha-Torah,
      i. 7). But may God be said to be one?
      Mai- Unity is accidence, as is multiplicity.

      monides. " God is one " connotes a negative, i.e. .
      God is not many (" Jloreh," i. 57). Of
      God it Is possible only to say that He is, but not
      what He is («4. ; "liayuto bi-lebad lo mahuto"; in
      Arabic "anuiyyah " = un cavi [quodditas]). All at-
      tributes have a negative implication, even existence.
      God's knowledge is alisolute (ih. iii. 19). God's
      knowledge is never new knowledge. There is noth-
      ing that He does not know. In Ilis knowledge He
      comprehends all, even infinitude (il). iii. 20). God's
      knowledge is not analogous to man's. Evil is
      merely negation or privation (//). iii. 8). God is not
      its author; for God sends only the positive. All
      that is, save God, is only of possible existence; but
      God is the necessarily existent (ih. i. 57). In Him
      there is no distinction between essence ("'ezem")
      and existence ("ha-inezi'ut "), which distinction is
      in all other existing things. For this reason God is
      incorporeal, one, exalted above space and time, and
      most perfect (ib. ii.. Preface, 18, 21, 33, 24).

      By the successors of Maimonides. Albo. Ralbag
      (Levi ben Gekshon). and Cresc^s, no important
      modifications were introduced. Albo contends that
      only God may be designated as one, even numerical
      oneness being not exclusive connotation of unity
      ("■Ikkarim,"^ ii. !), 10; comp. Ibn Zaddik. " ' Olaiii
      Katon," p. 49: "chad ha-mispar eno ka-ehad lia-
      elaluit "). He, too, emphasizes God's incorporeality,
      unity, timelessness, perfection, etc. ("'Ikkarim,"
      ii. 6).

      Crescas jileads for the recognition of positive at-
      tributes in God. He concedes that the unity of God
      can not be demonstrated by speculation, but that
      it rests on the " Sliema' " alone. It maj' be noticed
      that Aaron l)en Elijah (" 'Ez ha-Hay_vim," ch. Ixxi.)
      also argties in favor of positive attributes, though
      he regards them in tlie light of homonyms.

      The precipitate of these philosophical speculations
      may be said to have been the creed of JIaimonides

      (see Akticles op Faith). It confesses that God is
      the Creator, Governor of all. He alone "does, has
      been and will be doing." God is One; but His
      unity has no analogy. He alone is God, who was,
      is, and will be. He is incorporeal. In corporeal
      things there is no similitude to Him, He is the first
      and the last. Stress is also laid on the thought
      that none shares divinity with Him. This creed is
      virtually contained in the Adox 'Olam and the


      The cabalists (see Cabala) were not so careful as
      Maimonides and otliers to refrain from anthropo-
      morphic and antliropopathic extravagances and
      ascriptions (see Sni'fu Komaii). Nevertheless their
      efforts to make of tlieincorporeality of God a dogma
      met with opposition in orthodox circles. Against
      Maimonides ("Yad," Teshubali, iii. 7), denying to
      the believers in God's corporeality a share in the
      world to come, Abraham ben David of Pos-
      QUiERES raised a fervent protest. Moses Taku is
      another protestant ("Ozar Nelimad," iii. 25; comp.
      Abraham Maimuni, "Milhamot," p. 25).

      Bibliography: Srhitiiedl. Stuilirii Vihir .JUili.-olu- Rilitjinna-
      lihilnsophie, Vienn-d. isi,'.); i>. j. MuIIit, 7<i (i<:il.<l,ir 'lir Mid-
      fkleeuwschc Jofhn, <in)niiiizen. 1>^.IS: T). K;iiifiiiann, Allri-
      hutiiihliiT. I.Hipsio, ISSO; l.iuttinanii. Iiir lit liiii,tiL-<ji]iiln.-<:,-
      pjiit (li.-< .^nailia; idem. Die /i(7/(/mj/.s/;/N7'i.^'vi/Ht ,lltnilKtm
      lim lhiu<U ; M, Joel. Zur <ifsr}i. lUi J!hli.^i}irii liiii{iiiiu.-<-
      philosoiJhic, Leipsic, 1873; Mimk. Mttangcs.

      E. G. H.

      The Modern "View : On the whole, the mod-
      ern Jewish view reproduces that of the Biblical
      books, save that the anthropomorphic and antliro-
      popathic terminology is recognized as due to the in-
      sufliiciency of human language to express the super-
      human. The influence of modera philosophers (Kant
      and Hegel) upon some sections of Jewish thought
      has been considerable. The intellectual elements in
      the so-called demonstrations of God's existence aud
      the weakness of the argument have been fully recog-
      nized. The Maimonideau position, that man can not
      know God in Himself (imriD). has in consequence
      been strengthened (see Agnosticism). The human
      heart (the practical reason in the Kantian sense) is the
      first source of knowledge of God (see Sanuiel Hirsch,
      "Catechismus," «.('. "DicLehre"). The experience
      of man and the history of Israel bear witness to God's
      existence, who is apprehended b)' man as the Living.
      Personal, Eternal, All-Sustaining, the Source of all
      life, the Creator and Governor of the universe, the
      Father of all, the Righteous Judge, iu His mercy
      forgiving sins, embracing all in His love. He is
      botli transcendental and immanent. Every human
      soul shares to a certain degree in the essence of the
      divine. In thus positing the divinity of the human
      soul. .ludaisin bridges the chasm between the tran-
      scendental and the immanent elements of its concep-
      tion of God. Pantheism is rejected as one-sided;
      and so is the view, falsely imputed to Judaism,
      which has found its expression in the absolute God
      of Islam.

      The implications of the Jewish God-idea may be
      described as "pan-monotheism," or "ethical mono-
      theism." In this conception of God, Israel is called
      to the duty, which confers no prerogatives not also
      within the reach of others, of illustrating in life the
      godliness of the truly liuman, through its own




      " lioliuess " : and of leading men to the knowledge of
      the one eternal, holy God (see Deism; Evolution).

      BniLii)(;itAi-iiY: Samuel Hirsili, IHr Itrlitiiniisiihilnmphie der
      ./ii./iii. I.i-liisic, l8+;i; Kunnsteolii-r-. I lir Itili'ji'iii ila< Geiste!<\
      see also i'atkcuism ; lliilf, Der Kiiilirilsiiidaiil.c.

      E. g. h.

      Critical View : Biblical historiograpliy pre-
      sents the tlieory that God revealed Himself succes-
      sively to Adam, Noah, Abraham and his descend-
      ants, and tinally to Moses. Monotheism was thus
      made known to the human race in general and to
      Israel in particular from the very beginning. Not
      ignorance but perverseness led to tlie recognition
      of other gods, necessitating the .sending of the Proph-
      ets to reemphasize the teachings of Moses and the
      facts of the earlier revelation. Contrary to this view,
      the modern critical school regards monotheism as
      the final outcome of a long process of religious evo-
      lution, basing its hypothesis upon certain data dis-
      covered in the Biblical books as well as upon the
      analogy presented by Israel's historical development
      to that of other Semitic groups, notably, in certain
      stages thereof, of the Arabs (Wellhauseu, "Skizzen
      imd Yorarbeiten," iii. 164; NOldeke, in "Z. D. M.
      G." 1887, p. 719).

      The primitive religion of Israel and the God-con-
      cept therein attained reflected the common primi-
      tive Semitic religious ideas, which, though modified
      in Biblical times, and even largel}' eliminated, have
      left their traces in the theological doctrines of the
      Israel of later days. Renan's theory, formulated in
      his " Precis et SystJme Compare des Langues Semi-
      tiques" (18.59), ascribing to the Semites a monothe-
      istic instinct, has been abandoned because it was
      foimd to be in conflict with facts. As far as epi-
      graphic material, traditions, and folk-lore throw
      light on the question, the Semites arc

      Polythe- shown to be of polytheistic leanings.

      istic Astral in character, primitive Semitic

      Leaning's religion deified the sun, the moon, and

      of the the other heavenly bodies. The

      Semites, storm-clouds, the thunder-storms, and
      the forces of nature making for fertil-
      ity or the reverse were viewed as deities. As long
      as the Semites were shepherds, the sun and the
      other celestial phenomena connected with the day
      were regarded as malevolent and destructive; while
      the moon and stars, which lit up the night — the time
      when the grass of the pasture was revived — were
      looked upon as benevolent. In the conception of
      Yhwh found in tlie poetry of the Bible, speaking
      the language of former mythology and theology,
      the element is still dominant which, associating Him
      with the devastating cloud or the withering, con-
      suming fire, virtually accentuates His destructive,
      fearful nature (Wellhausen, I.e. iii. 77, 170; Baethgen,
      "Beitrjige zur Semitischen Religionsgeschichte," p.
      9, Berlin, 1888; Sraend, "Lehrbuch der Alttesta-
      mentlichen Religionsgeschichte." p. 19, Leipsic,

      The intense tribal consciousness of the Semites,
      however, wielded from a very early period a deci-
      sive influence in the direction of associating with
      each tribe, sept, or clan a definite god, which the
      tribe or clan recognized as its own, to the exclusion
      of others. For the tribe thought itself descended

      from its god, which it met and entertained at the
      sacrificial meal. AVith this god it maintained the
      blood covenant. Spencer's theory, that ancestral
      animism is the first link in the chain of religious
      evolution, can not be supported by the data of
      Semitic religions. Ancestral animism as in vogue
      among the Semites, and the "cult of the dead " (see
      Witch of Endok) in Israel point rather to individ-
      ual private conception than to a tribal institution.
      In the development of the Israclitish God-idea it
      was not a determining factor (Goldziher, "LeCulte
      des Ancetres et des Morts chez les Arabes," in " Revue
      de rilistoire des Religions," .\. 33"2; Oort, in "The
      ologisch Tijdschrift," 1881, p. S.iO; Stade, " Ge-
      schichte des Volkes Israel," i. 387).

      Characteristic, however, of the Semitic religions
      is the designation of the tribal or clan deity as
      "adon" (lord), "melek" (king), "ba'al" (owner,
      fructifier). The meaning of "el," which is the
      commim Semitic term, is not certain. It has been
      held to connote strength (in which case God wo\ild
      = "the strong"), leadersliip ("the fii'st"), and bril-
      liancy (Sprenger, in his " Das Leben und die Lehre
      des Mohammad," in which God="sun"). It has
      also been connected with "elah." the sacred tree (Ed.
      Meyer, in Roscher's " Ausfiihrliehes Le.xikon der
      Griechisehen und Romischen My thologie. ".«.». "El " ;
      and Smend, I.e. p. 26, note 1), Etjually puzzling
      is the use of the plural " Elohim " in Hebrew (D^X
      in Phenician; comp. Ethiopic "amlak"). The in-
      terpretation that it isa"pluralis majestatis" with
      the value of an abstract idea ("the Godhead"), as-
      sumes too high a degree of grammatical and philo-
      sophical reflection and intention to be applicable to
      primitive conditions. Traces of an original po!^'-
      theism might be embodied in it, were it not for the
      fact that the religion of Israel is the outgrowth of
      tribal and national monolatry rather than of poly-

      Each tribe in Israel had its tribal god (see, for in-
      stance, D.\N; Gad; Ashek). Nevertheless from a
      very remote period these tribes recognized their af-
      finity to one another liy the fact that
      Tribal above their own tribal god they ac-
      Gods. knowledged allegiance to YnwH.
      This YnwH was the Lord, the Master,
      the Ruler. His will was regarded as supreme. He
      revealed Himself in fire or lightning.

      In Ex. vi. 2 Ynwn is identified with El-Shaddai,
      the god of the Patriarchs. What the latter name
      means is still in doubt (see Nijldeke in "Z. D. M. G."
      1886, p. 73.5; 1888, p. 480). Jlodern authorities have
      argued from the statement in Exodus that Yhwh
      was not known among the Hebrews before Moses,
      and have therefore insisted that the name at least,
      if not the god, wiis of foreign origin. Delitzsch's al-
      leged discovery of the name " Yii wtt " on Babylonian
      tablets has yet to be verified, Moses is held to have
      identified a Midiauite-Kenite deity with the patri-
      archal El-Shaddai. However this may have been,
      the fact remains that from the time of the Exodus
      onward Israel regarded itself as the people of
      Ynwn. whose seat was Sinai, where he manifested
      Himself amidst thunder and lightning in His unap-
      proachable majesty, and whence He went forth to
      aid His people (Judges v. 4; Dent, xxxiii. 3). It


      God, Childien of



      was Yhwii who had brought jiulfii'K'iit on Hie gods
      of Egypt, and by this act of His sujicrior power had
      renewed tlie covenant reUtion which the fathers of
      old had maintained witli Him.

      From the very outset the eliaracter of Ynwii must
      have been of an order conducive to tlie subsequent
      development of monotheistic and ethical connota-
      tions associated with the name and the idea. In
      this connection it is noteworthy that tlie notion of
      sex, so pernicious in other Semitic cults, was from
      the outset inoperative in the worship of Y'nwii. As
      Israel's God, He could not but be jealous and in-
      tolerant of other gods beside Him. to whom Israel
      would pay honor and render homage. Enthroned
      in the midst of fire, He was unapproachable (" kcv
      desh"); the .sacrificial elements in His cult were of
      a correspondingly simple, pastoral nature. The
      jealous}' of YnwH was germinal of His unity ; and
      the simplicity and austerity of His original desert
      worship form the basis of the moralization of the
      later theolog_y.

      With the invasion of the land, Israel changed from
      a pastoral into an agricultural peojile. The shep-
      herd cult of the desert god came into
      Chang-e of contact and conflict willi the agricul-
      Social lural deities and cults (if the Canaan-
      Conditions, iles, Yinvir was partly worshiped
      under Canaauitish forms, and parti}'
      replaced by the C'anaauitish deities (Baalim, etc.).
      But Yhwii would not relincpiish His claim on
      Israel. He remained the judge and lawgiver and
      ruler and king of the people He had brought out
      from Egypt. The Nazaritesand the Prophets arose
      in Israel, emphasizing by their life and liabits as
      well as by their enthusiastic and indignant protest
      the contrast of Israel with the peoples of the land,
      and of its religion with theirs (com]i. the Yiiwii of
      Emjah; He is " Ha-Elohim "). With Canaanilish
      cults were connected immoralities as well as social
      injustice. By contrast with these the moral nature
      of Yiiwn came to be accentuated.

      During the first centuries of Israel's occupation
      of Palestine the stress in religious life was laid on
      Israel's fidelity to Yiiwii, who was Israel'soiily God,
      and whose service was to be dilferent from that
      offered unto the Baalim. The question of God's
      unity was not in the center of dispute. YiiWH was
      Israel's only God. Other peoples might have other
      gods, but Israel's God had always shown His supe-
      riority over these. Nor was umbrage taken at this
      time at the representations of Yiiwii by figures,
      though simplicity still remained the dominant note
      in His cult. A mere stone or rock served for an
      altar (.ludges vi. 30, xiii. 10; I Sam. vi. 14); and
      natural pillars (holy trees, " mazebot ") were more fre-
      quent than artificial ones (,see Smend, I.e. pp. 40 ct
      seq.). The Ei'iion was perhaps the only original
      oracular implement of the Yiiwii cult. Teraphim
      belonged a]iparently to domestic worship, and were
      tolerated under the ascendency of the Yiiwii na-
      tional religion. "Massekah" was forbidden (Ex.
      xxxiv. 17), but not"])esel"; hence idols seem not
      to liave been objected to so long as Y'hwh's exclu-
      sive supremacy was not called into doubt. The
      Ark was regarded as the visible assurance of Ynwii's
      presence among His people. Human sacrifices, af-

      fected in the Canaanitish Moloch cult, were espe-
      cially abhorred ; and the lascivious rites, drunken-
      ness, and unchastity demanded by the Baalim and
      their consorts were declared to be abominations in
      the sight of Yiiwn,

      These conceptions of God, which, by comparison

      with those entertained by other peoples, were of an

      exalted character, e\'en in these early centuries, were

      enlarged, deepened, refined, and spiri-

      The God tualized by the Prophets in proportion
      of the as histmical events, both internal and
      Prophets, external, induced a widening of their
      mental horizon and a deepening of their
      moral perceptions. First among these is Amos. He
      speaks as the messenger of the God who rules all
      nations, but who, having known Israel alone among
      them, will punish His people all the more severely.
      Assyria will accomplish God's primitive purpose.
      In Amos' theology the first step is taken beyond
      national heuotheisni. Monotheism begins through
      him to find its vocabulary. This God, who will
      punish Israel as He does tlie otlier nations, can not
      condone .social injustice or religious (sexual) degra-
      dation (Amos iv.). The ethical implications of
      Ynwii's religion are thus placed in the foreground,
      riosea introduces the thought of love as the cardinal
      feature iu the relations of Israel and God. He
      spiritualizes the function of Israel as the exponent
      of divine purposes. Yhwh punishes; but His love
      is bound ultimately to awaken a responsive love
      by which infidelity will be eliminated and over-

      Isaiah lays stress on God's holiness : the "ko-
      desh," unapproachable God, is now "kadosh," holy
      (see Baudissin, " Der Begriff der Heiligkeit im Alten
      Testament," in "Studien zur Semitischeu Religions-
      gesch."). It is Israel's duty as God's people to be
      cleansed from sin by eschewing evil and by learning
      to do good. Onlj' by striving after this, and not by
      I)laying at diplomacy, can the " wrath of God " be
      stayed and .lerusalem be ,savcd. The remnant in-
      deed will survive. Isaiah's conception of God thus
      again marks an advance beyond that of his prede-
      cessors. God will ultimately rule as the arbiter
      among the nations. Peace will be established, and
      beasts as well as men will cease to shed blood.

      Jeremiah and his contemporaries, however, draw
      near the summit of monotheistic interpretations of
      the Divine. The cultus is centralized ; Deutero-
      noniic huinanitarianism is recognized as the kernel of
      the God-idea. Israel and Palestine are kept apart
      from the rest of the world. Yhwii ceases to be
      localized". Much greater emphasis than was insisted
      on even by Isaiah is now laid on the moral as dis-
      tinct from the sacrificial involutions of the God-idea.

      The prophets of the Exile continue to clarify the
      God-concept of Israel. For them God is One; He is
      Universal. He is Creator of the All. He can not
      be represented by image. The brokejj heart is
      His abiding-place. Weak Israel is His servant
      ('"ebed"). He desires the return of the sinner.
      His intentions come to pass, though man's thoughts
      can not grasp them.

      After the Exile a double tendency in the concep-
      tions of God is easily established. First, He is
      Israel's Lawgiver; Israel shall be holy. Secondly,




      God, Children of

      He is all mankind's Falhor. In the Psalms the

      latter note predominates. Though the post-exilic
      congregation is under l\u: domination
      Post-Exilic of national sacerdotalism (rejiresented
      Concep- by P). in the Wisdom literature the
      tion. universiil and ethical implications of

      Israel's God-belief came to the fore-
      front. In the later books of the Biblical canon the
      elTort is clearly traceable to remove from God all
      human attributes and passions (see ANTiiiiopo.Moii-
      riiis.M and ANTiim)PorATiiiSM). The critical school
      admits in the final residt what the traditional view
      assumes as the starting-point. The God whom
      Israel, through the events of its history, under the
      teachings of its men of genius, the Prophets, finally
      learned to i)roclaim, is One, the Ruler and Creator
      of all, the .Judge who loveth righteousness and
      hateth iniciuity, whose witness Israel is, whose true
      service is love and justice, whose purposes come
      and have come to pass.

      Bini.incRAPnY: Kuenon. Thr Ititininn nf Txi'art (Enc trans),
      of ll,,:lsiUrii.-:l rem Isiat). Ilaarlt-in, ISIHI Til); i.t.Mii, Xnti'mal
      HiliaioH.t (Ui'l Chii-. is,(/ ll.Uiiiifii illihbiTt I.nliiri-s, 1S82):
      Kuappert, Tin liiUtiinn i>f hriul; Ilulini. Itir Thioliuiic drr
      PraphcteiK Bonn, Istr.; Willii'liii Viitk.-. ;iii luliiiinii ilcs A.
      T. BerUn, lS:i') : Kwald, 7<i". Li Im iler llilul vii '.'..», (iiit-
      tlngen, 1871-Ttl; WHllliauseu.i'i r A !/")"< /m 2(1 ir;..vi/i. hrads,
      3d ed., 1886; idem, Skizzen uml Vnnnhiilni. i.yU. 1882-
      1903: Baudissin. SttxUen ziir Si initi.'niii ii iii/ii/ioHSflrac/i.
      Leipsie, 187ii, 1.878 ; W. Robertson ,Smitl). Hrl. uf Son. Edln-
      hui-Rli, iw^-'i; Ed. Kiinis, Gruiitlpnililniu drr Altlrxl. Rc-
      Udionsiin^rh. 188,5; idem, Der (Iffnihiiniiiiishnirilf, etc.;
      Friedrlrh Baetligen. neitriine zur Sriiiil. lirlininnstirwli.
      litTlin. isss; Smend, Lehrlmrh ilcr AUtiatattt'-ntUclifn Rc-
      liili'ni.tiii!<ih. l,Hij;i; Biidde, Vurlrxunucn lllitr die IVircr-
      iliKcUe RtUuiiin Israelii, 1901: Kayser-Dlllmaun, .1((. Test.

      E. G. H.

      GOD, CHILDREN OF ("bene ha-Elohim," per-
      haps = "sons of the gods"): The "sons of God"
      are mentioned in Genesis, in a chapter (vi. 2) which
      reflects preprophetic, mj'thological, and polytheis-
      tic conceptions. They are represented as taking, at
      their fancy, wives from among the daughters of
      men. For the interpretations given to this state-
      ment see F.\i.L OF Angei-s, and Flood in U.xijbin-
      ic.vL LiTER.\TUiU5. As there stated, the later Jew-
      ish and Christian interpreters endeavored to remove
      the objectionable implications from the passage by
      taking the term "bene ha-Elohim" in the sense of
      "sons of judges" or "sons of magistrates." In the
      introduction to the Book of .lob (i. 6, ii. 1) the "bene
      ha-Elohim " are mentioned as assembling at stated
      periods, S.\t.\n being one of them. Some Assyro-
      Babylonian mythological conception is held by the
      critical school to underlie this description of the
      gathering of the "sons of God" to present them-
      selves before YnwH. Another conception, taken
      from sidereal religion, seems to underlie the use of
      the phrase in Job xxxv. 7.

      The Israelites are addressed as "the children of
      the Lord your Gixl " (Dent. xiv. 1). When Israel
      was j'oung, he was called from Egypt to be God's
      son (Hosea xi. 1). The Israelites are designated also
      "the children of the living God" {ib. ii. 1 [R.V.i. 10];
      conip. Jer. iii. 4). They are a(Jdressed as "backsli-
      ding children " (Jer. iii. 14) that might and should call
      God their father (ib. iii. 19). Deut. xxxii. 5, though
      the text is corrupt, seems to indicate that through
      perverscness Israel has forfeited this privilege. Isa-
      iah, also, apostrophizes the Israelites as "children

      [of God] that are corrupters," though God has reared
      them (Isa. i. 4). As a man chastises his son, so does
      God chastise Israel (Dent. viii. .'i) ; and like a father
      jiities his children, so does God show pity (see Co.m-

      The critical school refers this conception to the
      notion commoidy obtaining among primitive races,
      that tribes and families as well as peoples are de-
      scended from gods regarded by them as their phys-
      ical progem'tors; community of worship indicaling
      community of origin, or adoption into the clan be-
      lieved to be directly descended from the tutelary
      god through the blood covenant. Hence the re-
      proach, "Saying toastock. Thou artmy f:itlier; and
      to a stone. Thou h;ist begotten me " (Jer. ii. 27).
      Even in Deutero-Isai;di Hi. 2) this notion is said to
      prevail ("Look unto Abraham your father," in cor-
      respondence with verse 1: "the rock whence ye are

      Tli;it this view was deepened and spiritualized to
      signify a much siiblinicr relation between the gods
      and their physical descendants than that which the
      old Semitic conception assumed, the following pas-
      sages demonstrate: "Surely they are my people,
      children that will not lie" (Isa. Ixiii. 8). "In all
      their affliction he was afflicted "((7). verse 9). "Thou
      art our father, for Abraham knows us not " (ib. verse
      16, Ilebr.). "Thou art our father; we are the clay "
      (ill. Ixiv. 8). "Have we not all one father?" (Mai.
      ii. 10).

      The relation of God to the individual man is idso
      regarded as th;it of a parent to his child. "For my
      father and my mother have forsaken me, but Yiiwii
      taketh me up " (Ps. xxvii. 10, Ilebr. ; comp. II Sam.
      vii. 14). That other peoples besides Israel are God's
      children seems suggested by Jer, iii. 19, the rabbinical
      interpretation of the verse construing it as implying
      this (D^iyn ni01N = D'n, Tan., Mishpatim. ed. Bu-
      ber, 10; Yalk., Jer. 370; Bacher, " Ag. Pal. Amor."
      ii. 34, note 1).

      Israel as the "first-fruits" (nnXUD FIT'S"! 1 is the
      "bekor," or first-born, in the hoiisehold of God's
      children (Jer. ii. 3; Ex. iv. 22). In the interpreta-
      tion of the modern Synagogue this means that
      Israel shall be an exeiupliir unto all the other chil-
      dren of God (see Lazarus, "Der Prophet Jerendas,"
      pp. 31, 32). According to the teachings of .ludaisiu,
      asexpouuded in the Catf.ciiisms, every man is God's
      child, and, therefore, the brother of every other man.
      Mai. ii. 10 is applied in this sense, though the proph-
      et's ajipeal was addressed solely to the warring
      brothers of the house of Israel. In this, modern Ju-
      daism merely adopts the teachings of the Apocrypha
      and of the Rabbis. See Eeclus. (Sirach) xxiii. 1, 4;
      li. 10; Wisdom ii. 13, 16, 18; xiv. 3 (comp. xviii.
      13; III Mace. v. 7: Jubilees, i. 24): Job xiii. 4:
      Enoch Ixii. 11; Psalms of Solomon, xvii. 30; Sifre,
      Deut. 48 (ed. Friedmann, 84b): Ab. iii. 14; K. H.
      iii. 8; Yer. Ma'as. .Wc; Sifra (ed. Weiss), 93d; Midr.
      Teh. xii. .') (comp. Bacher, " Ag. Tan." ii. 437). See
      Son of God.

      BIBI.IOORAPHT : Dalman, Die Wnrte Jem, pp. 1.50 et sirq.. Leip-
      sic, 1S9S: Tavlor. 'Ilie Smiintis nf the Fnthent. to Ah. iii. 14;
      Si-lireiner, in .lahrlnirh. iSHi), pp. 61-IB; idem. Die Jlliinstrn
      m-teile. eU-.. in Jtdnlivrli. 19itt. pp. 21, 22: Peiifs. Tioiaixel's
      Religiim lies Ju<leuluiiif, pp. 127 et ser/., Berlin, I'.id:!.

      E. G. H.

      God, Names of



      GOD, NAMES OF. See Names of God.
      GOD, SON OF. See Son op God.
      GODEFROI, MICHAEL H.: Dutch juiistaud
      niiuisler ,.f justicr ; b, .in ut AiuslenUim Jan. 13, 1814 ;
      died at Wiirzburg Juue 37, 1883. He devoted him-
      self to the study of iurisprudence, and at a veiy
      early age secured employ n.eut under the state. When
      but'tliirty-two, upon the <leath of Boas, he became
      by royal appointment judge of the provmeia court
      for North Holland ; and two years later (1848) be was
      elected in the city of Amsterdam a member ot the
      second ebamber of the States General of the Nethe ■
      lands which position he held until the year 1881.
      In 1860 he prepared a new code of judicial practise
      and procedure; this was adopted, and in recognition
      of his labors thereon the king decorated him with
      the cross of the Order of the Netherlands Lion On
      several occasions at the f ormaf ion of mi nistries he had

      been offered a portfolio, but had each time declined,
      until in Feb., 1860, the king himself joining the
      finance minister. Van Hall, in soliciting Godefroi to
      aid in the formation of a cabinet, he accepted tlie
      ministry ot j ustice. He has the distinction of being
      the first Jew to till a cabinet position m Holland,
      and this is the more noteworthy since he i,jas a con-
      sistent and outspoken adherent of his faith, occupy-
      ing the prominent position of president of the Jew-
      ish consistory and having been a nieml>er of tlie
      Institut zur Forderung Israelitischer Literatur dur-
      ing the eighteen years of its existence.

      Godefroi in his public life was a very ardent friend
      of his people. At one time he exposed in tJie cham-
      ber the abuses of the missionary eftorts in Amster-
      dam and protested vigorously against the excesses
      of the proselytizing zealots. As minister of justice
      he contributed greatly toward securing the eman-
      cipation of the Jews in Switzerland; the comuuM-
      cial treaty between the Netherlands and Switzerland
      was not "ratified until assurance had been given ot
      the establishment of the legal equality of Jews and
      Christians in the latter country. Again, on Sept.
      33 1873 and in Dec, 1876, he delivered exhaustive
      speeches in the chamber, insisting that the commer-
      cial treaty with Rumania should not be ratified un-
      til guaranties should have been given that Nether-
      land Jews in tliat country should enjoy perfect
      equality before the law. The influence of this atti-
      tude upon his Christian colleagues in the chamber
      was evidenced after liis death, when, early in July,
      1883, the Rumanian commercial treaty was again the
      subject of discussion in the chamlier. A member,
      Von Kerwijk, dwelt with fervor upon the intoler-
      ance manifested in Rumania against the Jews, re-
      ferring with indignation to the awful persecutions
      they had endured in Russia, Germany, and other
      countries. With creditable pride he pointed out that
      Holland emliodied the true spirit, of religious free-
      dom; and he illustrated the contention by showing
      th.- honor and respect manifested toward Godefroi,
      paying a loving tribute to the great Jewish states-

      BinLioGRAPHT: Kavserlinjf, M. H. OncUfroi. In AUg. Zcit.
      ,(, s .Tud. 1S83, lip. .524, 535. ^^ ^^^

      GODFATHER : Primarily, one who assists in
      the performance of the rite of circumcision by hold-

      ing the child upon his knees; secondarily, one who
      in°a measure takes the place of the father interest-
      ing himself in the lad's welfare. In the first sense
      the function of the godfather undoubtedly has its
      origin in Hebrew antiquity, and arose naturally
      from the necessity of having some one to assist the
      uKdiel. or circumciser, by holding the child firmly
      during the performance of the operation. In Tal-
      nuulic- literature the godfather is called '.'sandik
      ,„• ".sandikus," a term which is usually identified
      with the Greek <7.V(5<K0f (Latin, "syudicus"), in the
      sense of "representative," "patron," "advocate.
      Kohut("AruchCorapletum," vi. 84) and Low ("Le-
      beusalter," p. 84) claim, on the authority of the me-
      dieval rabbinical works " Rokcah " and " Or Zarua ,^
      that the correct reading is D'JpiJD, and identity it
      with the Greek owre/cof (" companion to the father :
      comp. the German "Gevatter," French " compere,
      Spanish "padrino," which all contain this idea of
      association with the father). A number of references
      in Midrashim and other early rabbinical works tes-
      tify to the existence of the godfather in the Talmudic
      age (see the Midrash to Ps. xxxv. 10, ami passages
      in interpretation of Gen. xviii. 1 and of Neh. ix. 8;
      also a reference in Pirke R. El.). The version of
      the Tamum of Jonathan ben Uzziel to Gen. 1. -3 is
      also an "apparent allusion to the ottice. In medie-
      val rabbinical literature the references to the ofhce
      are numerous, and it appears to have been well
      established and highly esteemed. Thus the ' Hag-
      gahot Maimuniyyot" (on the "Yad," Milah_, m.)
      mentions that many "covet and eagerly desu-e to
      hold the child upon their knees as it is circumcised.

      The (vodfather became known in medieval times
      by many names in addition to the ancient designa-
      tion of " sandik." He is called " ba'al berit " (master
      of the covenant), "ba'al berit ha-milah" (master of
      the covenant of circumcision), "tofes ha-yeled
      (holder of the child), "ab sheni" (second father), and
      also " shaliah " (messenger). The office was sur-
      rounded with marks of honor. A special seat, usu-
      ally richly decorated, was prepared in the synagogue
      for the sandik, and if the circumcision happened on
      a day on which the Law was read, he was entitled
      to be " called up." The privilege was reserved for
      persons of standing and of good moral and religious
      character. It was restricted also in other ways.
      Rabbinical authorities (for instance, Rabbenii Perez
      of Corbeil and Judah the Pious) decreed that the
      privilege should not be given more than once to the
      same man in the same family, neither should it, un-
      less unavoidable, be given to women. This latter
      prohibition was based on motives of delicacy.
      Women were, however, permitted to participate in-
      directly in tbe privilege as associates to the god^
      father They carried the child to the entrance of
      the synagogue or to the room in which the circum-
      cision was about to take place, where it was taken
      by the godfather.

      The modern manner of observing the custom is
      practically identical with the medieval. The Ger-
      man J.-ws do not use the term "sandik," but only
      the German "Gevatter" and, for the godmother
      " Gevatterin." According to Polish custom, the of-
      fice is divided into two parts, one performed by the
      sandik the other by the Gevatter, or, as he is termed



      God, Names of

      in the corrupted Polish-Jewish form of the word,
      llie " Kwaler." Where tliere is dilliculty in obtniu-
      ing persons to actus godfathers it is customary to
      form societies of religious persons for Ihis purpose.
      Tliese societies are known as"hebrot sandika'ut."
      That the custotn lias been to some extent alVeeted
      by medieval Christ inn practise is, no doubt, true,
      but in all essential respects it rests on historic Jew-
      ish ground. Heggio is, therefore, as has been well
      shown by Levinson, not justified in attacking it.

      BlBi.ioc.nAKHY: Koliiit, Aniili Cnmjihtiiin.s.v.Dip^-fia : l.inv,
      LebfliMlli r. Szi'Si'din, ls7.'>; I'tTlos. y.iir l!cthhiiii\ilii n
      ^pnd'li- mill Siifif iiUiiii:li. Ilivslau, IS"! ; laicssluMir. Zi/i niH
      Berit lit-Ilisliiinim. BiTliii. ls:«; idem. Die Bcsihiiitiiliiim,
      lb. 1896; Kohn, Ot Berit, Iracow, ISXK.
      A. B. D.

      GODING : Town of Moravia, Austria : it has a
      population of about 10.000 (1900). of whom over
      1,000 are Jews. The Jewish couiinunity there is one
      of the oldest in the province. As appears from the
      records of the old hebra kaddisha of GOding, two
      Jewish cemeteries, an old and a new one, existed
      there as early as 1682, at tlie time when the statutes
      of the hebra kaddisha were drafted. In the month of
      Nisau, 1693, these statutes were revised as published
      by 1. Willheimer in tiie Vienna "Neuzeit" of 1864.
      The connnnnity seems to have suffered greatly dur-
      ing the Thirty Years' war, and was so i-educed that
      for years it could not keep a rabbi of its own. It
      called upon outside rabbis to decide religious dis-
      ptites, appealing especially to the Moravian district
      rabbi, Menahem Mendel Krochmal, who several
      times decided questions for it (''Zeinah Zedek," No.
      33). At that time (between 1648 and 1661) large
      vineyards and cellars in the villages in the vicinity
      of Goding were ownetl by wealthy .Jews. In 1670
      the community was cousitlerably increased by Jew-
      ish exiles from Vienna and Lower Austria. Ref-
      ugees settled in large numbers in the neighboring
      crown lands. Among them was Daviil b. Isserl. who
      had placed himself under the protection of Prince
      Dietrichstein of Nikolsburg as "rabbi of Goding "
      (Sept. 1, 1672), paying the yearly sum of three
      florins for protection; he officiated there until 1676.
      Moses b. Isaiah, author of " Berit !Matteh Mosheh," a
      large commentary to tlie Pesah Ilaggadali (Berlin,
      1701), and for a time house rabbi of the " Hofjude "
      Jost Liebmann at Berlin, passed a part of his child-
      hood at Goding, after his parents had been expelled
      from Vienna.

      In 1689 and 1716 sj-nods were held at Goding, at
      which important resolutions were adopted relating
      to the commtmal life of the Moravian Jews. In the
      middle of the eighteenth century the community
      seems still to have been an important one, for in
      17.53 it numbered 140 families. In June, 1774. all
      the ,Tews were expelled from GOding by command
      of the empress Maria Theresa; but after her death
      Emperor Joseph II. recalled thirteen
      Synods of families to complete the number of
      1689 and .5.400 families allotted to Moravia.
      1716. The neighboring estate of Kosteletz
      had received twenty of the families ex-
      pelled from the town. The above-mentioned thirteen
      families formed the nucleus of the new community
      of Goding. which had increased to tifty families by
      1864. This new community at first had no rabbi of
      VI. -2

      its own, but called at need upon tlie rablii of the
      neighboring Hungarian community of Holies. In
      agreemeul with the law of 1890 relating tothe organ-
      ization of the congregations of Austria, an independ-
      ent congregation was organized at Goding. For
      several years after this date tlu! rabbi of Liindenburg
      officiated at (iiVliiig, but, in 1,S99 the community
      again inducted its own rabbi, after an interval of
      126 years.

      Among the noteworthy rabbis of Gliding was
      (Moses) Hamson B.\cii.\u.\cii, who settled at Gilding
      in 1629, where he olliciated for a number of years.
      There he wrote, at the age of twenty-four, a treatise
      on "the 118th Psalm" under the title " Ivol Sliirim";
      the work, however, was carried down only to the
      letter Q. About that time hi' also wrote .several
      "kiiiot" (lamentations), describing the sufferings of
      the Jloravian Jews during the Tliirty Years' war;
      these poems were inscribed on the walls of the old
      synagogue of Goding. Abraham Parzova (cl. 1758),
      twice proposed as chief rabbi of Moravia, was at
      one time rabbi of Gliding. The present incumbent
      (1903) is Dr. Luilwig Lazarus.

      !•;. c. L. L.\z.

      GODLINESS : The quality of being godly, i.e.,
      godlike, manifested in character and conduct ex-
      pressive of the conscious recognition and realization
      of man's divine origin and destiny, and in the dis-
      charge of the duties therein involved. Uegarding
      man as fashioned in the likeness of God (Gen. i. 26,
      27), Judaism predicates of every man the iiossiliility,
      and ascribes to him the faculty, of realizing godli-
      ness. According to its anthroi)ology. this faculty
      was never vitiated or weakened in man by original

      In tlie Authorized Version " godly " corresponds
      to the Hebrew "hasid " (Ps. iv. 3, xii. 3 [A. V. 1]);
      but the term "zaddik" (righteous; Ps. i. 5, 6)
      equally connotes the idea. The characteristics of
      the godly may best be derived from the fuller ac-
      count given of their antonyms. The ungodly
      ("resha'im"; Ps. i. 1, H) are described as men com-
      passed about with pride, clothed in violence, speak-
      ing loftily and corruptly, denying God's knowledge,
      prospering b}" corruption in this world, and wrong-
      fully increasing their riches (Ps. Ixxiii.). They are
      those that make not God their strength (ib. Hi. 7).
      Godliness is thus also the antithesis to the conduct
      and character of the wicked ("mere'im"), the work-
      ers of iniquity ("po'iile owen"; ib. Ixiv.), "who
      whet their tongue like a sword " ; who encourage
      themselves to do evil, denying that God will see

      The godly, by contrast, is he whose delight is in
      the Torah of Y'liwn {ib. i. 3), or who, to use ilicah's
      phrase, does justly, loves mercy, and walks humbly
      with his God (Micali vi. 8). The godly may be
      said to be actuated by the desire to learn of Yiiwh's
      way, to walk in His truth, and to keep his heart in
      singleness of purpose to fear His name (Ps. Ixxxvi.
      11). "To walk in God's ways" (Dent. xiii. .5;
      "halok aliare middotaw shel ha-kadosh baruk hu":
      Sotah 14a) is the definition of "godliness." with the
      explanation that man shall imitate God's attributes
      as enumerated in Ex. xxxiv. 6, 7a (comp. Y'allj..
      Deut. 873). As God is merciful, man also should be


      Gog' aud Magog:



      merciful ; and so with respect to all other character-
      istics of godliness.

      According to the Rabbis, the beginning and the
      conclusion of the Torali relate deeds of divine benev-
      olence. God clothed the naked; He comforted the
      mourners; He buried the dead (Sotah 14a; B. K.
      99a; B. M. 30b based on Mek., Yitro, 3 [ed. Weiss,
      68a: ed. Friedmann, 09b]; conip. the second "bera-
      kah " in the Shemoneh 'Esreh)- Godliness thus
      involves a like disposition and readiness on the part
      of man to come to the relief of all that are in dis-
      tress and to be a doer of personal kindness to his
      fellow men ("gomel hasadim"; comp. Ned. 391).
      40a). Thus, whateveris involved in " gemilut hasa-
      dim " (see Charity) is characteristic of godliness.
      Matt. XXV. 31 et scq. is an enumeration of the impli-
      cations of Jewish godliness, the con-
      Charity the text (" then shall he sit upon the tluone
      Essence, of his glory"; ib. xxv. 31) indicating
      that this catalogue was derived from
      a genuinely Jewish source (comp. Midr. Teh. to Ps.
      cxviii. 30, ed. Buber, p. 486). Jewish godliness
      also inculcates modesty and delicate consideration
      of the feelings of one's fellow man. According to
      Eleazar ben Pedat. "to do justly" (Mieah vi. !S)
      refers to judgments rendered by judges; "to love
      mercy [love]," to the doing of acts of love ("gemilut
      hasadim"); "to walk humbly," to quiet, unosten-
      tatious participation in bvirying the dead and the pro-
      viding of dowries for poor girls about to be married.
      "If," he continues, "for the prescribed acts the
      Torah insists on secrecy and uuostentatiousness, how
      much more in the ease of acts which of themselves
      suggest the propriety of secrecy" (Suk. 49b; Mak.
      34b). He who is charitable without ostentation is
      greater than Mo.ses (B. B. 9b). Greater is he that in-
      duces others to do kindly deeds than one that
      thoughtlessly or impioperlj^ performs them himself
      (B. B. 9a). He who does justly and loves mere}'
      fills as it were the whole world with divine love (Ps.
      xxxiii. 5; Suk. 49b). Jewish godliness is not an
      "opus operatum," as is so often held b_v non-Jewish
      theologians. Charity without love is unavailing
      ("en zedakah meshallemet ela left hesed she-bah " ;
      Suk. 49b). It comprises more than accurate justice,
      insistence being laid on "exceeding" justice (Mek..
      Yitro, 3, cited above).

      Godliness also comprehends the sense of depend-
      ence upon divine grace and of gratitude for the op-
      portunity to do good. "Prayer is
      Considera- greater than good works" (Ber. 32b).
      tion for The fiuestion why God, if lie loves
      Others' the poor, does not Himself provide for
      Feeling-s. them, is answered by declaring it to
      be God's intention to permit man to
      acquire the higher life (B. B. 10a). Jewish godliness
      is careful not to put another to shame (Hag. 5a, on
      public boastful charity); God's consideration for
      the repentant sinner (Hosea xiv. 2) is commended
      to man for imitation (Pesik. 163b). He who gloats
      over the shame of his fellow man is excluded from
      the world to come (Gen. K. i.). "Better be burned
      alive than put a fellow man to shaiue " (Sotah Idb).
      It is ungodly to remind the repentant sinner of
      his former evil ways ; as is it to remind the descend-
      ant of non-Jews of his ancestors (B. M. TiHh). There

      is therefore no forgiveness for him who puts an-
      other to shame or who calls him by an offensive
      name (B. M. 58b). Godliness includes tlie forgiving
      disposition (Prov. xvii. 9; Ab. i. 12, v. 14; R. H.
      17a). To be beloved of God presupposes to be be-
      loved of men (.\b. iii. 13). Slander and godliness
      are incompatible (Pes. 118a). Pride and godliness
      are absolute contraries (Prov. vi. 16-19; Ta'an. 7a;
      Sotah 4b, 5a, b; 'Ab. Zarah 30b; humility is the
      greatest virtue). To be among the persecuted rather
      than among the persecutors is characteristic of the
      godly (Git. 36b). " God says, ' Be like unto me. As
      I requite good for evil, so do thou render good for
      evil ' " (Ex. R. xxvi, ; comp. Gen. R. xxvi.).
      E. c. E. G. li.

      GODO-WSKY, LEOPOLD: Russian pianist and
      compo.ser: born at \VilnaFeb. 13, 1870. At a very
      early age he showed remarkable talent for music,
      and when nine years old was taken upon the road
      as a child wonder, traveling in Russia and Germany.
      In 1882 he entered the Hochsclude fur Musik at
      Bei-liu, where he remained for two years, at the end
      of that time going to the United States to tour the
      country, and the following jear to Paris, where he
      studied music until 1890. In 1887 he appeared in
      England with much success, being heard even at
      Marlborough House. He then traveled through Eu-
      rope, and went again to the United States in 1891.
      Since then he has played on both .sides of the At-
      lantic. He has been connected with tlie Thomas or-
      chestra, the New York Philharmonic orchestra, the
      Kneisel quartet, and other well-known orchestras.
      He has composed over one hundred pieces.

      BiBLiooRAPHY : Mauriee AroDsou, in Th& Rrfnrm Advocate^
      Cbicago, Feb. 34, 1900.
      H. R. F. T. il.

      GO'EL (^N3): Next of kin, aud, hence, redeemer.
      Owing to the solidarity of the family and the clan
      in ancient Israel, an}' duty which a man could not
      perform by himself had to be taken up by his next
      of kin. An}' rights possessed by a man which
      lapsed through his inability to perform the duties
      attached to such rights, could be and should lie re-
      sumed by the next of kin. This applied especially
      to parcels of land which any Israelite found it nec-
      essary to sell. This his go'el, or kinsman, had to re-
      deem (Lev. xxv. 35). From the leading case of
      Jeremiah's purchase of his cousin Hananeel's prop-
      erty in Anathoth (Jcr. xxxii. 8-12) it would appear
      that in later Israel at any rate this inj miction was
      taken to mean that a kinsman had the right of |ire-
      emption. Similarly, in tlie Book of Ruth the next
      of kin was called upon to purchase a jiarcel of land
      formerly belonging to Elimelech (Ruth iv. 3). It
      would appear froui the same example that another
      duty of the go'el was to raise offspring for his kins-
      man if he happened to die without any {ib. 5). This
      would seem to be an extension of the principle of
      tlie Levirate Marri.uie; hence the procedure of
      "halizah " was gone through in the case of Naomi's
      go'el, just as if he had been her brother-in-law. The
      relative nearness of kin is not very definitely deter-
      mined in the Old Testament. The brother appears
      to be the nearest of all, after whom comes the uncle
      or uncle's son (Lev. xxv. 49).




      Gog and Magog

      Auother duty of the go"el was to redeem his kins-
      man from slavery if sold to a stranger or sojourner
      (Lev. xxv. 47-55). In both cases nuieli depended
      upon the nearness or remoteness of the yi'ar of jubi-
      lee, which woidd automatieally release either the land
      or the per.son of the kinsman from sulijcction to

      As the go'el had his duties, so he had his privi-
      leges and compen.salion. If an injured man had
      claim to dama.ges and died before the}" were paid to
      liim, his go'el would have the right to them (Lev. v.
      21-26 [A. \". vi. 1-7J). Tlie whole conception of the
      go'el was based on the .solidarity of the interests of
      the tribe and the nation with tlio.se of the national
      God, and accordingly the notion of the go'el became
      spiritualized as applied to thc^ relations between
      God and Israel. God was regarded as the go'el of
      Israel, and as having redeemed him from the bond-
      age of Egypt (Ex. vi. 6, xv. 13). Especially in
      Deutero- Isaiah is this conception emphasized (Isa.
      xli. 14; xliii. 14; xliv. 6, 24, et patisiiii).

      However, the chief of the go'el 's duties toward his
      kinsman was that of avenging him if he should hap-
      pen to be .slain by some one outside the chin or tribe.
      This custom is foimd in all early or ]Mimitive civili-
      zations (comp. Post, " Studien zur Entwickelungs-
      gesch. des Familienrechts," pp. 113-137). Indeed,
      it is the only expedient by w-hich any
      Avenger of check could be put upon the tendency

      Blood. to do injury to .strangers. Here again
      the principle of solidarity was apiilied
      to the family of the murderer, and the death of one
      member of a family would generally result in a ven-
      detta. It would appear that this custom was usual
      in early Israel, for the crimes of a man were visited
      upon his family (.losh. vii. 34; II Kings ix. 26); but
      at a very early stage the Jewish code made an ad-
      vance upon most Semitic codes, including that of
      Hammurabi, by distinguishing between homicide
      and murder (Ex. xxi. 13, 14). It was in order to de-
      termine whether a case of manslaughter was acci-
      dental or deliberate that the Cities op Uefuge were
      instituted (Deut. xix. ; Num. xxxv. ). In a case
      where the elders of the city of refuge were satisfied
      that the homicide was intentional, the murderer was
      handedover to the blood-avenger (" .go'el ha-dani ")to
      take vengeance on him. Even if it was decided that
      it was a case of unintentional homicide, the man
      who committed the deed had to keep within the
      bounds of the citj- of refuge till the death of the
      high priest, as the go'el could kill the homicide
      with impunity if he found him trespassing beyond
      the bounds (Num. xxxv. 20. 27).

      In other legislations grew the principle of com-
      muting the penaltj' b\' a money line, known among
      the Anglo-Saxons as "wergild," which varied in
      amount according to the rank of the ]5erson ; but
      such a method was distinctly prohibited in tlie Is-
      raelite code (Num. xxxv, 31).

      It would appear tliat the custom of the blood-
      avenger still existed in the time of David, as the
      woman of Tekoah refers to it in her appeal to the
      king (II Sam. xiv. 11), but no further trace of it is
      foimd. Later the concentration of the pop\datlon
      in cities gave fuller power to the courts of justice
      to punish cases of murder. The term "go'el" thus

      became entirely conlined to the .spiritual sense of
      •• redeemer." It is probal)ly used in that way in the
      celebrated passage in Job xix. 25: " I know that my
      redeemer |go'elJ liveth." In the Talnuid it is used
      exclusively in this manner.

      niHI.lociKAPiiv: HastlnKs, Dirt. Bible, s.v. : FeuUm, l-Aiiiu
      Hrlmw Lifr; W . 11. Smith, KitiKliip mid .1/(Imi<ii/i. pas-
      sim ; iilelM, 'J'llf Itrlitlidii iit I In- Si in i/t.i, pii. :(:i ct .v r/., ','72 ct
      xi'l.: lienziiiKei', ,l?(;i.pp. :i:i.')-;i;i(i; Lew, Xe ulicbr. II (irtm-b.

      li. c. J.

      GOG AND MAGOG.— Biblical Data: Magog
      is nuijtiiJiicd ((Icii. .^. 'J; 1 Climii. i. 5) as the second
      souof Jaiilieth, between Ooiiier and Wadai. Goraer
      representing the ('inimerians and JMadai tlie iledes,
      JIagog must be a people located east of the Cim-
      merians and west of the Medes. But in the list of
      nations (Gen. x.) the term connotes rather the com-
      lilex of barbarian peoples dwelling at the extreme
      north and nortlieast of the geograpiiical survey cov-
      eied by the chapter, .Io.seplius ("Ant." ii. 6, t; 1) iden-
      tities them with the " Scythians, " a name which among
      classical writers stands for a number of unknown
      ferocious tribes. According to Jerome, Magog was
      situated beyond the Caucasus, near the Caspian Sea.
      It is very likely that the name is of Caucasian ori-
      gin, but the etymologies adduced from the Persian
      and other Indo-European dialectsare not convincing.
      In Ezek. xxx viii. 2 " Magog " occurs as the name of
      a country (witli the delinite article) ; in Ezek. xxxix.
      6 as that of a northern people, the leader of whom is
      Gog. This" Gog " has been identified with "Gyges."
      but is evidently a free invention, from "Magog." of
      eitlier popular tradition or the author of the chapter.
      The vivid description of the invasion indicates that
      the writer, either from personal knowledge or fi'om
      hearsay, was acquainted with a di.sasler of the kind.
      Probably the ravages conuuilted by the Scythians
      under Josiali (comp. Herodotus, i. 103, iv. 11) fur-
      nished him with his illusti'ative material. As con-
      tained in Ezekiel, the prophecy partakes altogether
      of the character of the apocalyptic prediction; ;'.(>,,
      it is not descriptive of events but predictive in a
      mystic way of happenings yet to be. according to
      the speculative theology of the writer. Winkler's
      theory ("Alt-Oriental. Forschungen," ii. 137, iii, 30)
      is that Alexander the Great and his invasion are the
      background. But this anticipates the development
      of the Gog legend, which, indeed, saw in the Mace-
      donian king the Go,g of the Biblical |irophecy (see
      Gog and M.\.GOa in Ai!.\bic IjiTEcii.vTfui-;).

      The Gog myth is probably jiart of a cycle which
      goes back to the Babylonian-Assyrian Creiil ion ac-
      counts (the tight with and thedcfeat of the Di!.\gon)
      and, on the other hand, enters largely into the escha-
      tology of Judaism and Christianity (.see Bmisset,
      "The Anti-Christ Legend." London. 1890; Gunkel,
      "Schiipfung und Chaos," Giiltingen, 1895).

      For tlie ralibinical development of the legendary
      material in connection with the advent of the "end
      time" and the Messiaii, see Escii.\toi,ogy.

      E. G. II.

      In Arabic Literature : Gog and JIagog, or

      Yajiij and JIajuj among the Ariibs, are mentioned
      in the Koraii aiid by most Arabic geographers as
      liioi-e or less mythical peoples. The chief interest in

      Gog: and Magq^
      Golden Rule, The



      them centers about two points: (1) tlie wall built bj'
      Dim al-Karnain (Alexandei- tlie Great) to shut them
      oS from the rest of the work], and (3) their reap-
      pearance as a sijin of the last day. Geographically
      they represent tlie extreme northeast, and are jilaced
      on the borders of the sea which encircles the earth.
      Descended from Japheth, son of Noah, they num-
      ber twenty- four tribes. Six of these are known by
      name (one being that of the Turks); and the number
      of each tribe equals that of all the other people in
      the world. Som<' sa_v that they belong to tlie Cha-
      zars, wlio are all Jews (Yakut, ii. 440).

      They are of small stature, attaining to only one-
      half the .size of a man (another report, in Yakut, i.
      113, makes tliem larger). Very ferocious, they have
      claws insteail of nails, teeth like a lion, jaws like a
      camel, and liair which completelj- hides the body.
      Their ears, hairy on f)ne side, are so large tliat they
      use one for a bed and the other for a covering.
      They live principally on fish, which are miraculously
      provided for them. They resemble animals in tlioir
      habits; and Mas'udi classes them among tlie beasts.
      The}' u,sed to ravage the country, devouring every
      green thing; and it was to prevent this tliat the
      people living near them begged Alexander to build
      the wall sliutting them in. It is even said that they
      were cannibals (Baidawi).

      The wall is generally sujiposed to have been at
      Derbent, although in later times it seems to have
      become confused with the Great Wall of China
      (Abti al-Fiila). The geographers frequently quote an
      account of it given by Sallam, the interpreter. The
      calif Watliik Billah had seen the wall destroyed in a
      dream, and he sent Sallam to investigate. The latter
      recounts marvelous things of the countries through
      which lie passed on his way thither, and gives a
      minute description of the wall itself. It was built
      in a gorge 150 cubits wide, and reached to the top
      of the mountains. Constructed of iron bricks em-
      bedded in molten brass, it had a peculiar red-and-
      black striped appearance. In it was an immense
      gate provided with a giant bolt, lock, and key, the
      last of which was suspended by a chain. Yakut
      remarks on this stor}' that God, who knoweth all
      things, also knows wliether it be true or not, but of
      the existence of the wall there can be no doubt, since
      it is mentioned in the sacred book.

      As one of the signs of the approaching day of

      judgment this wall will be broken down and Y^ajuj

      and Majuj will ajipear at Lake Tiberias, the \vater

      of which the vanguard of their hosts will entirely

      consume, so that the rear will pass over on dry

      ground. They will then proceed, eating every one

      they meet, even corpses, and ever}- green thing,

      until they come to Jerusalem. Here, until God shall

      destroy them, they will annoy Jesus and his faithful

      companions. It is said that Mohammed gave Yajuj

      and Majuj an opportunity to embrace Islam on the

      occasion of his night journey to Jerusalem ; but they

      refused to do so, and consequently are doomed to


      Bibliography: iforaji, sura.s xviii. 94-99, xxi. 96; the Koran
      commentaries of Baidawi and others ; Bnillntlieca Gen-
      yraphonim Arnbieorum, rt\. Dc (lopje, vol. iii.; Mas'udi,
      v.: Ibn al-Fakih, vi.: Ibn Khcpiiladlibeh, vil.; Yakut, (rcrii/ia-
      vhi'iches Wurtn-hr, Tabari, AiitKtlr.f^; Yule, Marco Palo, i.
      .53 ft scr/.. 2.'in, London, 187.5.

      E. G. II. M. W. M.

      rian rabbi, died al Ilogyesz. iluugary, Nov, 16,
      1843. He occupied the rabbinate of Hogyesz for
      many years, and wrote a work on Talmudic meth-
      odology under the title of "Kesef Nibhar" (Prague,
      1837-38, and republished several times). It contains
      160 principles of rabbinical law, giving the sources
      as found in the Talmud and their application to
      practical cases. The work is of great value because
      of its lucid presentation of an intricate subject.
      (Joiteiu retired in 1841, and was succeeded in the
      raliliiiiate of Hogyesz by his S( m Hermann (Hirsch)
      Goitein (b. 1805; d. fsfiO). who was hiiii.self suc-
      ceeded by his son Elijahu Meuahem (b. 1837 in
      Hiigvesz'; d. Sept. 35, 190'3). Of the hitter's sons
      one, Hirsch (b. 1863; d. Aug. 38, 1903), was rabbi
      at (^jpenhageii ; another, Eduard, is rabbi at Burg-
      kunstadt, Bavaria. Hirsch is the author of" Op-
      timismus und Pessimismus in der JUdischen Re-
      ligionsphilosophie." Eduard wrote "DasVergelt-
      ungsprincip im Bibiischen und Talmudischen
      Strafrecht" (1893).

      BIBLIOGRAPHY: Winter and Wiinsehe. Die JlUiiM-he LUtcrtx-
      tur, iii. 7.59; Slelnschnelder, Cat. ISudl. p. 775; AUu. Zeit.
      (Ics Jmh 1S.59, pp. .5(K)-.507.

      I) A. R.

      GOIiD : One of the precious metals. There are
      six Hebrew words which denote "gold," four of
      which occur in Job (xxviii. 1.5-17): (l)3nT. the most
      common term, used on account of the yellow color;
      it is generally accompanied by epithets, as " pure "
      (Ex. xxv. 11), "beaten," or "mixed" (I Kings x.
      16), " refined " (I Chron. xxviii. 18), " tine " (II Cliron.
      iii. 5). (3) -|13D. " treasured." line gold (Job xxviii.
      15; used elsewhere as an adjective with ant). (3)
      tS, pure or native gold (Jobxxviii. 17 and elsewhere);
      the word fQlo (I Kings x. 18) either is an adjective
      formed from f3 or it stands for tSINO (comp. Jer. x. 9
      andDan. X. 5). (4) -|V3. gold ore (Job xxii. 34). (5)
      Dn3, a poetical term the meaning of which is "hid-
      den" (Cant. V. 11 and elsewhere). (6) yT\r\, also a
      poetical term, the meaning of which is "yellow"
      (Prov.viii. 10 and elsewhere). Gold was known from
      the earliest times (Gen. ii. 11) and was chiefly u.sed
      at first for the fabrication of ornaments (Gen. xxiv.
      23). It is only later, in the time of the Judges, that
      gold is mentioned as money (Judges viii. 26). It
      was abundant in ancient times (I Chron. xxii. 16;
      II Chron. i. 15; and elsewhere), and a great quantity
      of it was used to ornament the houses of the rich and
      more especially the temples. Both sides of the
      walls of the Tabernacle were covered with gold,
      while the Ark of the Covenant and all the other
      utensils were made of pure gold (Ex. xxv.- xxvii.
      ptimm). In the Temple of Solomon even the floor
      and the ceiling were covered with gold (I Kings vi.
      33. 30). Gold was used also in making the garments
      of the high priest (Ex. xxviii. pii,m/ii). The crowns
      of kings were of gold (II Sam. xii. 30). Solomon
      and certain other kings had their shields and buck-
      lers made of gold (I Kings x. 16, 17; I Chron.
      xviii, 7).

      The countries particularly mentioned as producing
      gold are: Havilah (Gen. ii.'ll, 12), Sheba (I Kings x.
      3, 10), Ophir (ih. ix. 38; Job xxviii. 16), Uphaz
      (probably the ,same as Ophir, tDIN Ijeing a corrup-



      Gog- and Mat^oR-
      Golden Rule, The

      tionof nsix) (Jer. x. 9; Dan. x. .')), and Parvaim (II
      Chroii. iii. G). Gold in tho Bible is the symbol of
      purity (Job .\xiii. 10), of nobility (Lam. iv. 1), of
      gicat vahic (Isa. xiii. 12; Lam. iv. 3). Babylon was
      called by Isaiah (xiv, 4) the "golden city," and the
      entile empire I'lifures in Daniel (ii. 38) as a head of
      gold. Tlie linnian head is compared to a golden
      bowl (Eccl. xii. 6).
      E. «. II. iM. Sei,.

      GOLDBATJM, WILHELM : (Jeinian writer
      and journalist ; lioni at Kempcn. I'o.sen, .Ian. (i, 1843.
      After studying law for some time at the University
      of Breslau, he became editor of the " Posener Zei-
      tung." He lives at present (1903) at Vienna, and
      since 1873 has been one of the editors of the '" Neue
      Freic Presse." He is the author of " Entlegene Kul-
      turen" (1877) and " Literari.sehe Physiognomien "
      (1884). the lirst of wliich contains several sketches
      relating esjieciallv to .Jewish historv and literature.

      " S.

      OOIiDBERG, ALBERT : German opera-singer;
      born at Brunswick June 8, 1847. Educated at the
      Conservatorium of Leipsic (186.5-09), he made his
      debut at the court theater at Munich, and played,
      between 1.S69 and 1883. successively in ilayence,
      Bremen, Neu-Slrelitz, Strasburg. Augsburg, and
      Konigsberg, at the last-named place directing tiie city
      theater for three years. In 1883 he became manager
      of the opera at Leipsic. where he is at present (1903)
      engaged. The Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha con-
      ferred upon him the title of "court singer." His
      repertoire includes; Barbier, Don. Juan, Hans Hei-
      ling, Telrnmund, Wotun, Papagino, etc.
      Bibliography : Eisenbersr. BlngrapMschex Lexiknn.

      8. F. T. H.


      (known as BAG [J 3] ) : liussian srliolar; born at
      Soludna near Warsaw in 1799; died at Paris May 4,
      1884. Wlieu lie was scarcely fifteen jears of age
      his ]iarents contracted a marriage for him, and at
      eighteen he had to provide for the wants of a fam-
      ily. Having toiled without success for more than
      twenty-three years, he left liis native country for
      Berlin, where he hoped to earn a livelihood by his
      knowledge of Hebrew and the Talmud.

      The passion for science which prevailed at that
      time among the German Jews laid hold of Goldberg,
      and at the age of forty he resumed his neglected
      education, taking up tlie study of Oriental lan-
      guages. During his sojourn at Berlin he published
      two works: "Kontres mi-Sod Hakamim," a com-
      mentary on tlie Jewish calendar, with chronolog-
      ical tables, Berlin, 184.5; and " Hofes Matnionim,"
      a selection of essays contained in old and rare man-
      uscripts, these essays including: (1) 28 decisions of
      Solomon ben Isaac (Rashi); (2) letter of Sherira
      Gaon on the methodology of the Talmud, and the
      succession of the .Vmoraim and Geonim; (3) " Hai
      ben Mekiz," Abraham ibn Ezra's psychology and
      eschatology, according to Ptolemy; (4) " Milleta de-
      Sofos," fables of the Geonim; (.5) "Piyyut Aalier
      Ishshesli,"a liturgic poem of ten strophes on the
      "Baruk she-Amar" of Isaac ibn Ghayyat.

      In 1847 Goldberg went to London, where be re-
      mained until 18,"i2. there piiblishing. in collaboration
      Willi bis brother, A. L. Rosenkranz, the astronom

      ical work " Vesod •01ani,"by Isaac Israeli of Toledo,
      with a German summary and mat heiiiat ical figures
      (Berlin, 1848). He finally sell led at Paris (18.52),
      and there published: (1) "Sefer ha-Uikiiiah," Jiidali
      ibn Tibbon's Hebrew translation of the Hebrew
      grammar written in Arabic by Ibn Janah (Frank-
      fort oii-the-Main, 1857); (2)" " Birkat Abraham,"
      .\biahain Maimonides' answers to the criticisms and
      questions of Daniel the Babylonian (Lyck, 18.59);

      (3) ■' Sefer Taggiu," trcatingof thecrowned letters in
      the Scroll of the Law, after an old inaiiii.scri]it in the
      Bibliothfiiuo Nationale of Paris, and contaiiiiiig ex-
      tracts from " Badde Aharon " and " Migdol Haiiaiicl "
      on the same subject, together with "Midrash Ra-
      ton," attributed to the taiina I{. Akiba, on tlu' coro-
      nation and embellishments of the letters (iiublished
      attheexpenseof theabbe J. J. L. Barg(>.s, Paris, 18,5f));

      (4) •' Hisalat H. Jiidah ben Koreisch Tiliaretensis
      Africani ad Synagogain Juda'orum Civitatis Fez"
      (published in collabin-alion with the abbe J. J. L.
      Barges, Paris, 1807); (5) " Ma'aseb Nissim,"a transla-
      tion from the Arabic into Hebrew of Daniel the Baby-
      Ionian's critical work on Maimonides' "Sefer ha-
      Mizwot " (Paris, 1800) ; (0) " Iggeret H. Sherira Gaon,"
      a corrected edition of Sherira's letter, with glosses
      and notes (Mayence, 1873); (7) "Sefer ha-Zikronot,"
      Elijah Levita's Biblical concordance, after a manu-
      script in the Bibliotheque Nationale of Paris (Frank-
      fort-oii-the-Main, 1873).

      Goldberg contributed to the Hebrew periodicals
      man}- valuable articles on Jewish history and liter-

      BiBLiO(;KAPHy : Fiienn, Kcncset Yisrael, p. ISl ; Oziir ha-
      .S if rat, 1878, li. 71; fJiiiii. Isr. May, 1884; Fiirst, Tiiht. Jud.
      i. 337.

      n. n. I. Br.

      jurist; born in Jiigerndorf, Austrian Silesia, June
      15, 18.54. He was educated at the gymnasium of
      Troppau and at the University of Vienna. He
      began the iiractise of law in Vienna in 1887. He has
      written : " Oesterreichische Gewerbeordnung," 1883 ;
      "Das Neue Volksschulge.setz," 1883; "Die Directen
      Steuern," 1884; "Die Neuen Directen Steuern,"
      1898; "Das Neue Oesterreichische Patentrechf,"
      1899. s.


      Russian painter; born at Suwalki 1800: studied at
      the St. Petersburg Academy of Fine Arts from 1878
      to 1888, gaining many prizes, among them the sin;ill
      gold medal for "Priam Imjiloring Achilles," and
      the large gold medal for "The Last jNIoments of
      Socrates." He gradnated with the title of "class
      artist of the first degree in historical ]iainting," and
      with a scholarship from the academy with which he
      completed his studies abroad. At present (1903)
      Goldblatt is at the head of a private school of paint-
      ing and sculpture at St. Petersburg.

      H. R. ■* J. G. L.

      GOLDEN CALF. See C.\LF, Golden.

      GOLDEN RULE, THE : By this name is desig-
      nated the saying of Jesus (Matt. vii. 12): "All
      things therefore whatsoever ye would that men
      should do unto you, even so do ye also unto them."
      In James ii. 8 it is called "the royal law." It has
      been held to be the fundamental canon of morality.

      Golden Rule, The
      Goldfaden, Abraham



      Iq making this anuouncenieut, Jesus is claimed to
      liave transceuded tlie limitations of Jewish law and
      life. The fact is, luiwever, that this fundamental
      principle, like almost if not quite all the " logia "
      attributed to Jesus in the Sermon on the Mount,
      liad been proclaimed autlioritatively in Israel. In
      the instructions given by Tobit to his son Tobias
      (Book of Tobit, iv.), after admonishing him to love
      his brethren, the father proceeds to urge upon the .son
      to have lieed of all his doings and to show himself
      of good breeding ("derek erez") in all his conduct.
      "Aud what is displeasing to thyselfi that do not
      unto any otlier " (verse 15). Again, there is the well-
      known anecdote in which Hillel e.\ plains to a
      would-be pro.selyte that the maxim '"not to do unto
      one's fellow what is hateful to oneself" is the foun-
      dation of Judaism, the rest being no more than com-
      mentary (Shab. 31a). See Brotherly Love and


      It has been argued (l)y Hilgenfeld, Siegfried, and
      recently hy I'ousset) that the ma.xim of Hillel ap-
      plied, like the Biblical command "'Thou shalt love

      thy neighbor as thyself " (Lev. xix.

      Meaning of 18), only to fellow Jews. In proof of

      " Haber." the contention, the word " haber " u.scd

      by Hillel is noted. As in a technical
      sense H.vber designates a member of the Pharisaic
      fraternity of learned pious men, so here, according
      to the scliolai'S referred to above, it has a restricted
      significance. Tlie circumstances under which Hil-
      lel was speaking preclude the po.ssibility of liis
      having thought of the technical meaning of the
      word. He addresses himself to a non-Jew w'ho
      at best could not for years hope to be a haber.
      "Haber" is the usual rendering for tlie Hebrew
      "rea'" (neighbor). Much philological hair-split-
      ting has been used to restrict the meaning of
      this word to "compatriot," but the context of Lev.
      xix. 18 makes it plain that "rea'." as interpreted by
      these "holiness laws" themselves (see Ethics), em-
      braces also the stranger. Tobit's admonition proves
      the same. After speaking of "brothers," i.e., men
      of his race and people, the father proceeds to give his
      son advice regarding his conduct to others, " the hired
      man," for instance; and in connection with this, not
      in connection with the subject of his maiTiage, he
      enjoins the observance of the Golden Rule.

      Love of one's friends and hatred of one's ene-
      mies are nowhere inculcated in Jewish literature,
      despite the fact that Boussct (" Religion des Juden-
      thunis," p. 113), referring to Matthew v. 43, calls
      this verse the comprehensive statement of Jew-
      ish ethical belief aud doctrine. Either the second
      half of the sentence is an addition by a later hand,
      or, what is more likely, it resulted from a misappre-
      hension of a rabbinical argumentative question.
      According to Schechter the statement should read
      as follows: "You have heard that ["ettemar"=:
      ippitir/] it has been said [in the Law] ' Thou shalt
      love thy neighbor.' Does this now mean ["sho-
      mea' ani"] love thy neighbor [friend] but hate
      thine enemy?" No. Nevertheless while Jewish
      ethics has never commanded and paraded love for
      an enemy, it has practised it (Chwolson, "Das
      Letzte Passahmahl Christi," p. 80). Hillel in an-
      other of his sayings speaks of love for all creatures

      (" ha-))eriyyot "), which term certainly embraces all
      humanity. Nor is it true that the seeming uni-
      versalism of this sentence (Abot i. 12) is restricted
      by the addition "bring them toward the Torah,"
      as Bousset, following Hilgenfeld, would have it
      appear. ^ "Torah" is the equivalent of the modern
      "religion," and if Jesus in the Golden Rule de-
      clares it to be "the law and the prophets," he
      puts down merely the more specilic for the wider
      iin plications of the word " torah. " R. Akiba ascribed
      the wider application to the com.mand "Thou shalt
      love thy neighbor as thyself" (Lev. xix. 18; Sifra
      Kedoshim to the verse [cd. Weiss, p. 89b] ; comp.
      Gal. V. 14; Rom. xiii. 8; Yer. Ned. 41c; Gen. R.
      xxiv. ; aud Kohler in Ethics, R.\kbinical). The
      needy or the dead of non-Jews were never outside
      the range of Jewish brotherly love (Tosef., Git.
      V. 4-5; Git. 61a). The phrase "mi-peue darke
      Shalom " (on account of the ways of peace), which
      motivates Akiba's injunction, does not inject a non-
      ethical, calculating element into the proposition, but
      introduces the principle of equity into it.

      The negative fcu'm of the Golden Rule marks if
      anything a higher outlook than the positive state-
      ment in which it is cast in Matthew. " What you

      would have others do unto you,"
      Negative makes self and possible advantages to
      Jewish self the central motive; "what is hate-
      Form, ful to you do not unto another,"

      makes the effect ujion others the regu-
      lating principle. But be this as it may, the Golden
      Rule is only an assertion of the essentially Jewish
      aud rabbinical view that "measure for measure"
      should be the rule regulating any one man's ex-
      pectation from others (rights), while more than meas-
      ure should be the rule indicating one's services to
      others (duties). The former is phrased " middah ke-
      ncged midd.ah"(Nedariin33b), and " ba-middah she-
      adam moded inodadin lo " (Sotah 8b); the latter is
      "li-feniiu mishshurat ha-din " (B. K. 99b), or to be
      "ma'abir 'al middotaw." that is, of a forgiving,
      yielding disposition (see Cruelty).

      Bibliography: Jaoot> Bemays, Geaanimdte Ahhandlwiigen^
      i. 274-27t-J; L. Lazarus, Zur Char(thtfri.-<fih ilcr Tal-
      mutUtfdicu Etitik: Herm. Cohen, Iih Xt'lih.'<linlifhe im
      Talmud. Marburs, 1.S88; idem, in Jiihrhmli fVir Jlld. Oe-
      sc}iichte ■mid. LilUratur, ItiiKI; L. i/.w, (.'(,s. Sc/iMftcii, 1.
      45; Chwolson, 2J«.v Lilzte /'ris.«i;i/ii.i)i( (Inisti. p. till, St.
      Petei-sburg, 1893; (fiiaeniann, Ndihxliidirhc, in Oi.^lcmieli-
      ische Wochenxchrift. I'M); idem, Ni iitefstamentliche Stu-
      dlen, in Monatsschrift, 1S'J3, pp. 1 cl .w >;.; T!;ii-lier. Ag. Tan.
      1. 7 (2(1 ed., p. 41; F«ll.x Perles, Hntissilx liilifiidii des
      Judenthurwi, Berlin, 11*03; Hirsch, T}tc Times and Teach-
      ings of Jesus, Chicago, lS9t.

      K. E. g. h.

      GOLDENBEBG, JOHN: Russian merchant;
      born on the conlines uf Russia and Rumania; died
      1895. He followed the army in the Crimea (1856-57)
      as a sutler, and there acquired wealth, which he after-
      ward greatly increased in Burma. He had settled
      in Turkey after the war, and reached Burma through
      Persia. In Burma he superintended for King The-
      baw some of the large transactions in timber-cutting
      by which the king was enriched. Goldenberg after-
      ward resiiled for a time in Vienna and Wiesbaden.
      By his will, made in England, he left the greater
      piirt of his fortune of £160,000 (§800,000) to six Lon-
      don charities and hospitals.
      Bibliography : Jeiv. Chrun. June 31, 1895.

      J. G. L.



      Golden Rule, The
      Goldfadeii, Abialiam

      Ili'briiist; bcini al Biili'chow, Galioia, 1807; died at
      Taniopol Jan. 11, IJi-Ki. He was tlie founder and
      editor of the Hebrew jicriodieal " Kereni Henied "
      (vols. i. and ii., Vienna, 1833 and ISSt); vols, iii.-
      vii.. Plague, 1838— i;i), the appearance of which
      marked a new epoch in Hebrew literature, in that it
      supplied readinj^-inatter of a tiioi'ougldy seientifie
      character. Among its contributors were Rapojiorl,
      Kroclinial, Zunz, Slonimsliv, Pineles, S. D. Luz-
      zatlo, Ueggio. Ahraham Geiger, Isaac Erter, Samuel
      Byk, Tobias Feder, JosejJi Perl, and Aaron Chorin.
      Tlie pure, classic Hebrew employed by these .scholars
      put an end to the conceits and circumlocutions of the
      older Hebraists: and the spirit of criticism and his-
      torical investigation manifested in all their articles
      deallablow in Galieia to Ilasidisni. which had for-
      merly counted among its followers many of the con-
      tributors to the " Kereni Heiueil."

      Bibliography : Allti. Zcit. dcx Jud. I84B, pp. 10t-in,i; Griitz,
      ff'c.«c/i. xi. 493, iSS; .lost, Ncticre Ucsch. ill. ia5-10().
      s. A. R.

      GOLDENTHALi, JACOB: Austrian Oriental-
      ist; boru at Brody. Galieia, April 16, 1815; died at
      Vienna Dec. 28, 1868; educated at the University of
      Leipsic. In June, 1843, he became principal of the
      Jewish school at Kishinef, Bessarabia, and held the
      office for some years. He was appointed professor
      of rabbinica and Oriental languages at the Univer-
      sity of Vienna iu Sept., 1849. and held the chair until
      his death. Upon the nomination of Hammer-Purg-
      stall he was elected corresponding member of the
      Vienna Aeademj' of Sciences. His chief literary
      activity cousi.sted in editing the following manu-
      scripts: (1) " Mozene Zedek," a treati.se on philo-
      sophical ethics by Al-Gliazali, translated in to Hebrew
      by Abraham ibn Hasdai. with an introduction on the
      lives and works of Al-Ghazali and Ibn Hasdai, 1838.
      (3) "Bi'iir ibn Ro.shd," Totlrosi's Hebrew translation
      of Averroes' commentary on Aristotle's " Rhotorica, "
      with a historical and philosopliical introduction,
      1842. (3) ".Mesharet Mosheh," commentary by Ka-
      lonymus on Maimonides' system of Divine Provi-
      dence, with his explanation of Ps. xi.x. and .Kxxvii.,
      1845. (4) "Mafteah." methodology of the Talmud
      by Xissim ben Jacob of Kairwau, with introduction,
      notes, and references, 1847. (5) "Mikdash Me'at."
      Moses Rieti's didactic poem on ancient philosophy
      and the history of Jewish litei-ature, with an Italian
      and Hebrew preface, 1851 (.see"Allg. Zeit. des Jud."
      1859, p. 124).

      Goldeuthal further published a catalogue of He-
      brew manuscripts in the Imperial Library of Vienna,
      1854. and an Arabic grammar in Hebrew for the use
      of the Oriental Jews, with a French preface, 1857.
      Volume i. of the " Denkschrif ten " of the Vienna
      Academy of Sciences contains his "Beitrage zu ei-
      nem Spnichvergleicheuden Rabbinisch-Philosophis-
      chen Worterbuche." He issued " Das Neue Zion,"
      a monthly periodical, Leipsic, Nisau, 1845, of which
      only oneuumberappeared. Another periodical whicli
      he edited, "Das Morgenland," was also short-lived.

      Bibliography: Briill, in Anacmeinc Deutsche Hingraphie,
      ix. 332, I,eipsic, 1ST9: Fiirst, liiM. Jud.: Zedner, Cat. Hcbr.
      Bo(,l.s rsrit. ^riif.: Zeitlin. liihl. P^,sl-^^r)ldrl■<.■. Ahnanarh
      dey 7v<o\» r/Jc/KN Ahaihinii' dt-r \yis.s,n.-<c1i(iftni, I,sr»9, pp.
      343(7 .vf*/.; A'( Mf Firii- /^/■f.v.sc. Is*i8, No. l.VttJ.

      s. S. M.\N.

      Alinilmm (ioldfiiiien.


      LIPPE : Hebrew and Yiddish poet and founder of

      the Yiddish drama; born at Starokonsiantinov, Rus-

      si;i, July 12, 1840. He graduated from the mbbinical

      .school of Jitomir in 186(i. For nine years he taught

      in government schoi>ls.

      first at Simferopol and

      afterward at Odessa,

      and in 1875 went to

      Lemberg, where he

      fonndcd ''Yisrolik," a

      humorous weekly iu

      Yiddish which circu-

      liited mostly in Russia,

      but ceased to exist

      six months later, when

      its entnince to that

      country was prohib-
      ited. Goldfaden tlien

      went to Czeruowitz,

      where he cstalilished

      the "Bukowiuer Is-

      r;ielitisches Volks-

      blatt," which also had

      only a brief exi.stence.

      While on a visit to Jassy, Rumania, in 1876, his
      initial dramatic creation, "The Recruits," was put

      upon the first regularly organized modern Yiddish
      stiXge. It was entirely his own creation, for he him-
      ,self built the stage, painted the decorations, wrote
      the piece, composed the music, and instructed the
      actors. In 1878, when he already had a tolerably
      good troupe of actors, and a repertoire of fourteen
      pieces from his own pen. he carried his enterprise into
      Russia and at first established himself in the Jlaryin-
      ski Theater iu Odessa. He conducted several very
      successful tours through Russia until it was for-
      bidden by the government to continue Yiddish
      theaters (1883). After a few years iu Rumania and
      Galieia he revived his theater in Warsaw for a short
      time, but in a German guise. In 1887 he went to
      'New York, where he founded the " New Yorker
      Illustrirte Zeitung," the first Yiddish illustrated
      periodical, aud w:is also for some' time connected
      with the RunLani:in Opera-House of that city. He
      returned to Europe in 1889, aud lived mostly in
      Paris. Since 1903 he has resided in New York.

      Goldfaden's Hebrew jjoetry, most of which is con-
      tained iu his "Zizim u-Feiiilnm" (Jitomir, 1865),
      possesses considerable merit, but it h;is been eclipsed
      by his Yiddish poetry, which, for strength of expres-
      sion and for depth of true Jewish feeling, remains
      unrivaled. He is the most Jewish of all the Yiddish
      ])oets, and his .songs, especially those contained in
      his popular plays, are sung by the Yiddish-six'aking
      masses in all parts of the world. His earliest col-
      lection of Yiddish songs, "Das Yiidele," has been
      reprinted many times since its first appearance in
      1866. But his fame rests on his dramatic produc-
      tions, which number about twenty-five. The best
      of them, " Shulamit "and "B;ir Kochba." are consid-
      ered the most popular dram;itic works in Yi<ldish.
      Of the others, "Shmendrik," " Die Kishufmacheriu,"
      " DieZewei Kune Lemels," and "Dr. Alnia.sjida " de-
      serve special mention. Most of them were reprinted
      manv times, both in Russiaandin the United States,

      Goldfog-le, Henry
      Croldschmidt, Hermann



      and "Sliulamit " was played with considerable suc-
      cess in Polish, German, and Hungarian transla-

      Bibliography: Srfrr Zikknmn, p. 18, Warsaw, isnii; Ha-
      Meliz. No. I.W: I'Asi-nstein, The Fathrmf tin Jririxli Slaiir,

      in Jewish Cii/i/iii nf, Nov. 1, HKIl ; Ha|iL' I. Sinnt nf tlir

      Ghettd, pp. H9 et seq.. New York, IWK ; Wieruik, ,l)ij(i/i(i»i
      Gohlfaden, in Minikes' Hebrew Hulhhiu Papers, vol. Iv.,
      No. 33; Jew. Chron. Oct. 13, 1899.
      J. P. Wi.

      can lawyer and politician ; born iu New York city
      May 23, 1856; educated in the puldic scliools and at
      Townsend College ; admitted to tlie bar 1877. Gold-
      fogle was elected judge of the municipal court,
      New York city, 1888, and reelected, unopposed,
      1893. He resigned to resume the practise of law in
      1900. He has taken part iu every Democratic state
      convention, as delegate, during the past twenty-two
      years, and in 1896 was elected delegate to the Dem-
      ocratic national convention. He served several
      terms as grand presidentof District No. 1, Independ-
      ent Order of B'nai B'rith, and also as governor of
      the Home for the Aged and Intirm, Yonkers. As
      representative of the ninth district. New York city,
      he was elected to the Fifty-seventh Congress (1901),
      and was reelected for the same district to the Fifty-
      eighth Congress (1903). During the year 1903 he
      took steps in Congress looking to the removal of
      the restrictions placed upon American Jews travel-
      ing in Ru.ssia.

      A. F. H. V.

      GOLDMAN, BERNARD: Austrian deputy;
      born at Warsaw Feb. 20, 1842; died at Lemberg
      March 23, 1901. His father, Isaac Goldman, was the
      owner of a Hebrew printing esttiblishment. Bernard
      attended the rabbinical school in Warsaw under the
      direction of the censor Tugendhold. At the out-
      break of the Polish revolution in 1863 he was ar-
      rested in a synagogue and sentenced to banishment
      in Siberia. He managed to escape, however, and,
      after a brief stay in Paris, settled in Lemberg (1870).
      In 1876 Goldman was elected to the Galician Land-
      tag as deputy for Lemberg, and thereafter took an
      active interest in the welfare of the Galician Jews.
      In the council of the Jewish community, of which
      he was a member, he especially ]iromoted the edu-
      cation of his coreligionists. In the year 1894 he
      was decorated by the emperor with the ribbon of the
      Order of Francis Joseph.

      s. J. C.

      ph3'.sieian ; boi ii at Biughersdorp, Cape Colon_y,
      Nov. 12, 1862; studied medicine at the universities of
      Breslau, Freiburg, and London, graduating (M.D.)
      in 1888. After having been for half a year assistant
      at Weigert's pathological-anatouiical institute at
      Frankfort-on-the-Main, he became assistant at the
      university surgical hospital in Freiburg, which
      position he held until 1898. He w.as admitted to
      the medical facvdty of the university as privat-
      docent in 1891, was appointed assistant professor in
      1895, and became chief physician at the hospital of
      the evangelical sisters at Freiburg in 1898.

      Goldmanu has contributed several essays to pro-
      fessional journals: "Zeitschrift fiir Physiologische

      Hp ' li



      "a -' «-,


      Ktirl Goklinark.

      Chemie," "Centralblatt fiir Pathologic," "Beitrage
      zur IvlinischenChirurgie,"etc. He published, with
      Middeldorp, "Croup und Diphterie."

      s. F. T. H.

      GOLDMARK, KARL : ILingarian violinist,
      pianist, and operatic co)nposer; born at Keszthely,
      Hungary, May 18, 1830, where his father, Ruben
      Goldmark, was cantor in the synagogue. Karl re-
      ceiver! a rudimentary musical education from a
      schoolmaster in his
      native town, and at
      the age of twelve
      entered the school at-
      tached to the Oeden-
      burger Musikverein.
      At a concert given by
      that society in 1843
      Goldmark displayed
      such talent that his
      parents decided to send
      him to Vienna, where,
      after a preparatory
      eou rse with Jansa
      (1843-44), he entered
      the Conservatorium,
      becoming a pupil of
      B o h m (violin) and
      Preyer (harmony).
      Here he continued his

      studies until the outbreak of the revolution in 1.848,
      when he was compelled to enter the army.

      Upon completing his term of service his eldest

      brother, Josejih Goldmark, enabled him to continue

      his musical studies. Shortly after

      Musical Karl entered the Berlin Couservato-

      Studies. rium, his brother, who had been an
      active participant in the insurrection
      and who was suspected of complicity in the assas-
      sination of Jlinister of War La Tour, was compelled
      to leave Hungaiy, and Karl was constrained to sus-
      pend his studies and to seek an engagement iu a
      theater orchestra. In this he was successful; and
      after a brief career as an orchestral pla3'er in Raab,
      Hungary, he in 1850 secured a position as violinist
      iu the Josefstiidter Theater, Vienna.

      It was not until 1852 that Goldmark began to
      compose, his first efforts showing clearly the influ-
      ence of Feli.v Mendelssohn-Bartholdy. In 1857 he
      gave a concert of his own compositions, which
      proved a great success, and he deternnned. notwith-
      standing the offer of an engagement at the Vienna
      Carltheater, to discontinue his career as an orchestral
      player. In 1864 he wrote his overture to "Sakun-
      tala," a composition which rapidly became popidar
      and served to establish the fame of the coinposer.

      Goldmark 's next composition, the "Queen of
      Sheba," was played on March 10, 1875, at the
      Vienna opera-house. Its reception was a most en-
      thusiastic one, and the composer was
      His Compo- compelled toap|iear forty times before
      sitions. the curtain. The "Queen of Sheba "
      has since been performed in nearly all
      the principal cities of Europe and America : in Eng-
      land, however, in consequence of the Biblical nature
      of the subject, its production was forbidden. The
      number of performances in Budai>est alone amounted



      GoldfoBlo, Henry
      Goldscbniidt, Hermann

      to over 175. It was produced at the Metropolitan
      Opera-House, New York, on Dec. 3, 188.5, with An-
      ton Seidl as conductor. On Nov. 19, 18SG, Gold-
      mark's second but somewhat less successful opera,
      "Merlin," was produced at the Vienna opera-house.
      The intluencc of Oriental, or, more properly
      speaking, Hebraic melody is everywhere discerni-
      ble in the best compositions of Goldmark. While
      he has undoubtedly accomplished his best work in
      the field of opera, several of his overtures arc remark-
      able for their superb orchestration and power of
      graphic description. In addition to the foregoing
      compositions, Goldmark has written the operas;
      "Das Heimehen am Herd" (after Charles Dickens'
      "Tlie Cricket on the Hearth ''), which was performed
      at Vienna March 21, ISiKi, with great success; " Der
      Kriegsgefangene," in two acts (Vienna, .Tan. 17,
      1899): "Der Fremdling" (1899); and "GiMz von
      Bcrlichingen." played in the principal theaters of
      Europe (luring the winter of 1902. Among the
      other works of Goldmark the following are the most
      noteworthy: the overtures " Peuthesilea." " Im
      Pruhling." " Der Gefesselte Prometheus," anil " Sap-
      pho " ; the "Symphony in E-tlat," and that entitled
      "Landliche Hochzeit"; two suites for violin and
      piano ; the violin concerto, op. 28, and several songs
      and chamber-music compositions.

      Biblioorapht: W. J. HcniliTsnn. Fniiinu.i Composers and
      TJu-ir ^VorJts, pp. Sl-'i-.^l.-^ ; Muitland. Ma^-^tirs of German
      Mitsic, pp. 137-169; Rlemaiiii. Mnsik-Lcxikon.
      8. J. So.

      GOLDSCHMIDT, ADOLPH: German art
      critic: born at Hambuig .Ian. 1.5, 1863. After a
      short business career he devoted himself (1885) to
      the study of the history of art at the universities of
      Jena, Kiel, and Leipsic. He took his degree in 1889
      with the dissertation " Liibecker Malerei uud Plastik
      bis 1.530," the first detailed analysis of the medieval
      art of northeast Germany. After traveling through
      Germany, Denmark, Sweden, the Netherlands. Eng-
      land, France, and Italy, on the presentation of his
      work " Der Albanipsalter in Ilildesheim und Seine
      Bezichuug zur Symbolischen Ivirchenskulptur des
      12. .Jahrhunderts" (1893), he became privat-docent
      at the University of Berlin, His " Studien zur
      Geschichte der Sachsischen Skulptur in der Ueber-
      gangszeit vom Romanisehen zum Gotischen Stil "
      (Berlin, 1902) traces the gradual development of Ger-
      man sculpture with reference to iIh^ period of its
      florescence in the thirteenth century. His " Die
      Kirchenthur des Heil. Ambrosius in Mailand " (1902)
      for the first time showed the door of the Church of
      St, Ambrogio in Milan to be a mimument of early
      Christian art. He has also contributed a number of
      important articleson North-German painting, Saxon
      sculpture, and early medieval miniature manuscripts
      to the" Repertorium fiir Kunstwissenschaft," "Zeit-
      schiift fiir Christliche Kunst," and " Jahrbuch der
      Kgl. Prcussischen Kunstsammlungen."

      s. ' D. J.

      nas) : Wife of Rabbi A. M. Goldschmidt (m.
      18.5,5); born at Krotoschiu, Prussia, Nov. 23. 1825;
      and now (1903) resident at Leijisic. She was one of
      the pioneers of the movement for the emancipation
      of women in Germany. In 1866 she entered the

      Allgemeine Deutsche Frauenverein; in 1867 she was
      elected to the board of directors, becoming later its
      vie(?- president. She founded in Leipsic a Verein fUr
      Faniilien- und Volkserziehung, in connection with
      which were established two publie kindergartens
      and an institution for the training of kindergarten
      teachers which has already rendered about 1,000
      young women capable of earning their livelihood,
      Asarestdtof one of her lectures the municipal in-
      dustrial school for girls was fouiidcul at Leiji.sic.
      Besides nimjerous articles on the Frcibel syst<'ni of
      education she wrote "Ideen iiber Weibliehe Erzie-
      hung im Zusammenhange mit dem System Fried-
      rich Frobel's." Though in her seventy eighth year,
      slie still conducts the various institutions which she
      helpe<l to found ; and at the Leipsic Teachers' Asso-
      ciation she was invited to speak on tlie fiftieth an-
      niversary of the death of Friibel. This is the only
      Instance in which a German teachers' association
      has asked a woman not a teacher by profession to
      speak on a jiedagogic subject.
      BiBLiOfiRAPiiv: .MiKUste Schmidt, in Neue Bahncn. Dec. I,


      s K. p.

      painter and astronomer; born at Frankfort on-the-
      Main .Tune 17, 1802; died at Fontainebleau Sept. 10,
      1866. Destined originally for a commercial career,
      he spent a dozen years in his father's warehouse,
      devoting, however, his leisure to painting. At length
      he repaired to Munich, where he studied under Cor-
      ueliusand Schnorr. In 1836 he settled in Paris, and
      e.\hibited his first picture, "Woman in Algerian
      Costume." This was followed by many others until
      Goldschmidt became famous as a historical painter.
      One of his later works was the "Death of Romeo
      and Juliet " (1857).

      In 1847 Goldschmidt became interested in astron-
      omy. He procured a little two-inch telescope, and
      with this discovered (Nov. 15, 1852) a minor planet
      named " Lutetia" by Arago. With a two and two-
      third inch telescope he discovered four more plan-
      ets, Pomona, Atalanta, Harmouia, and Daphne.
      Nc-xt Goldschmidt procured a four-inch telescope,
      with which he found nine more planets, Nysa,
      Eugenia, Doris, and Pales (discovered in the .same
      night), Enropa, Alexandra, Melete, Dana', and Pan-
      opea. Thus within nine years Goldschmidt discov-
      ered fourteen minor planets with nothing larger than
      a small telescope, and from the windows of his garret,
      which necessarily afforded a very linnted view of the

      Goldschmidt's work was not confined to the dis-
      covery of planets. He was one of the observers
      who journeyed to Spain to watch the solar ecli|)Se of
      1860. TheLalande astronomical prize was awarded
      to him eight times by the Academy of Sciences; he
      received the cross of the Legion of Honor in 1857
      and the gold medal of the Royal Astronomical Society
      of London in 1861. In 1862 the French government
      awarded him a pension of 1,500 francs.

      HiBi.ioiiP.APHT : MnntMii Notices nf the lioiial yUtronnmical
      Society, .\xvil. 115; Meyers Konversatlons-Lcxihon.



      Taber): G<Tman novelist and phiywright: liorn at

      Frankfort-onthe-JIaiu July 18. 1860. He attended

      G-oldschmidt, Julius
      Ooldschmidt, Meir Aaron



      the local gymnasium, and studied law at the uni-
      versities of Heidelberg, Leipsic, and Marburg. He
      was first referendar and then (in 1S88) became " Ge-
      richtsassessor " in his native city. Soon tliereafter
      he embiaced a literary career. He jiubli.shed, among
      other worlds, a social novel, "Ein Weg zum Frieden "
      (1890), and in the following years he wrote tlie pla.ys
      "Fortuna," " Der Prcie Wille," " Goldene Liige,"
      "Hans der Triiumer," " Ewige Liebe," "Ein Glliclv-
      liches Paar, " and " Frau Lili, " all of which have been
      produced on German and forei.gn sta,ges, including
      the court theaters of Berlin, Vienna, Munich, the

      Berliner Deutsches Theater, etc.


      OOLDSCHMIDT, JULIUS: German physi-
      cian; born at .Mayener Feb. 12, 1843. He studied
      at the universities of Wiirzburg and Giessen, receiv-
      ing fnim the latter his degree as doctor of medicine
      in 1866. Accompanying in the same year a patient
      to Madeira, he established himself there as a physi-
      cian, and soon became one of the leading practi-
      tioners. In Puucbal. tlie capital of the island, he
      founded and endowed an international hospital for
      sailors. In 1896 he removed to Paris, where he is
      now (1903) practising.

      Goldschmidt's special field is the treatment of pul-
      monary diseases and leprosy, on which latter disease
      he is a high autlioritj'. It was partly through his
      endeavors and influence that in 1897 a congress for
      the consideration of leprosy was convened at Berlin.

      Among Goldschmidt's essays may be mentioned:
      "Sur laCurabilitedela L^jjre," in "Bulletin deMede-
      cine," Ix. ; "Erste Behandlung der Lepra Durch
      Tuberculin," in "Deutsclie Medizinische Wochen-
      schrift," 1891 ; " Kochsche Reaction und Heilwirkung
      bei Lepra Tuherosa," ih. 1893, No. 4; "Wirkung
      der Tuberculosis auf Lepra," ii. No. 15; "Immu-
      nitiit Qegen Inthienza Durch Vaccinirung mit Ani-
      maler Lymphe," ib. No. 45; "Behandlung und
      Heilung der Lepra Tuberosa mit Europhen," in
      "Tlierapeutische Monatsschrift." 1893; "Zur Aetio-
      logie und Prophyla.vis der Lepra," in "Berliner
      KHnische Wochenschrift," 1894.

      He is also the author of the following works:
      " Mad^re, Etudiee Comme Station d'Hiver et il'Ete,"
      3d ed., Paris, 1884; "Madeira und Seine Bedciitung
      als Heiluugsort" (with Mittermeyer), 3d ed., Leip-
      sic, 1885; "Die Lepra aut Madeira," »6. 1891; "La
      Lepre," Paris, 1894.
      Bibliography: Pagel, Btofl. ie.r. s.v., Leipsic, 19111.

      s. F. T. H.

      OOLDSCHMIDT, LAZARUS: German wri-
      ter; born at Plungiauy, Lithuania, Russia, Dec. 17,
      1871. He received his rabliinieal education at the
      Talmudic scliool in Slobodki, near Kovno. In 1888
      he went t(j Germany, and in 1890 entered the Berlin
      University, where, under the guidance fif Professors
      Dillmann and Selirader, he devoted himself to the
      study of Oriental languages, especially Ethiopic.
      GokLschmidt, who at present (1903) lives at Berlin,
      has published the following works: "Das Buch
      Henoch," retranslated from the Ethiopic into He-
      brew, and edited with introduction, notes, and
      explanations (Berlin, 1892); " Bibliotheca Aethio-
      pica," a list and description of all the known Ethiopic

      prints (Leipsic, 1893); "Das Buch der SchOpfung
      (ni'V "I3D)." critical text, translatiou notes, etc.
      (Frankfort-on-the-Main, 1894); "Baraita de-Ma'ase
      Bereshit," the story of the Creation, ascribed to
      Arzelai bar Bargelai (Strasburg, 1894; this sup-
      posed Midrash is an Aramaic translation of the Ethi-
      opic " Hexaemeron " of Pseudo-Epiphanias, edited
      by Trumpp in Ethioi^ic with a German translation,
      Munich, 1883, and the name of the supposed author
      is an anagram of Goldschmidt's Hebrew name, Elie-
      zcr ben Gabriel); "Vita do Abba Daniel," Ethiopic
      text, published, translated, and annotated iu col-
      laboration with F. M. E. Pereira (Lisbon, 1897);
      " Die Aethiopischen Handscbriften der Stadtbibli-
      othek zu Frankfurt a. M." (Berlin, 1897). In the
      year 1896 Goldschmidt commenced the publication
      of the Bab\'Ionian Talmud (from the editio princeps).
      with German translation, variants, and explanations.
      Up to the present (1903) the sections Zera'im and
      Mo'ed have been published, together with a part of
      the section Nezikin. Both the edition of the text
      and the translation have been severely ciiticized
      by David Hoffmann in Brody's "Zeitschrift fiir
      Hebrilische Bibliographic," i. 67-71, 100-103, 153-
      155, 181-185. Goldschmidt replied iu a pamphlet,
      "Die Recension des Hcrrn Dr. D. Hofl'mann iiber
      Meinc Talmudausgabe im Liclite der Wahrheit,"
      Charlotteuburg, 1896. See also " Theologische Li-
      teraturzeitung," 1896, pp. 477-479, and 1897, pp.
      D. L. Gru.

      GOLDSCHMIDT, LEVIN: German jurist;
      born at Danzig Jlay 30, 1839; died at Wilhelmshohe
      July 16, 1897. From 1847 to 1851 he pursued his
      studies at the universities of Berlin, Bonn, and
      Heidelberg, receiv.
      ing his doctor's de-
      gree in 1851 from the
      Univer.sity of Halle.
      He practised for sev-
      eral years in the
      courts of Danzig, be-
      came privat-doeeut
      at the University of
      Heidelberg in 18,55,
      and was appointed
      associate professor in
      1860. In the years
      1857-60 he publi.shed
      "Kritik des Ent-
      wurfs eines Handels-
      gesetzbuchs fiir die
      Preus.sischen Staat-
      eu " and " Gutachten
      iiber den Entwurf

      eines Deutsehen Handelsgesetzbuchs nach den Besch-
      llisseu Zweiter Lesung," which at once attracted at-
      tention to him as a critical jurist. During the same
      period he published " Der Lucca-Pistoja-Aktien-
      streit," Frankfort-on-the-Main, 1859 (Supplement,
      1861). He is the founder (1858) of the "Zeitschrift
      fiir das Gesammte Handelsrecht."

      Goldschmidt's scholarship was next displayed in
      his " Encyclopiidie der Rechtswisseuschaf t im Grund-
      riss," Heidelberg, 1862. He then began the great

      Levin Goldsphmldt.



      Ooldschmidt, Julius
      Goldschuiidt, Me'ir Aaron

      work which occupied him during the renuiiiider of
      liis lifetime, but which he did not live to complete,
      namely. "Dus Iliuidbuch des Ilaiidelsrechts," Kr-
      luugen, 18()-I-(>S. This i.s the work with which his
      fame as a historical jurist is ideutilied, il being rec-
      ognized as a masterly presentation of the general
      history of commercial law.

      In 1861) (loUlschmidl was ])romoted to a [irofessor-
      ship in the juridical faculty at Heidelberg. He next
      received the appointment of ■' Juslizrat" in theBuu-
      dcsgericht at Leiiisic, afterward occupying a judicial
      position at the Keichsoberhandelsgericht. In 1875
      he became jjrofessor of commercial law in ISerlin
      University, and received the title " Gelieimer Justiz-
      rat." From 1875 to 1877 he was also a member of
      the German Reichstag, representing the city of

      Of his further publications the following deserve
      special mention: "Das Dreijiilirige Studium der
      Rechts- und Staatswissenschaften," Berlin, 1878;
      •■ Erwerbs- und Wirtschaftsgenossenschaften, Stu-
      dien und Vorschlage." Stuttgart, 1882; "Rechts-
      studium und Prilfuugsordnung," ih. 1887; "Die
      Haf tptliclit der Genossen und das Umlageverfahren, "
      Berlin, 1888; "System des Handelsrechts, " Stutt-
      gart, 1887, 4th ed., 1891.

      BiBi.i()GK.\piiv : Riesser. (Ji'rtiYrfidii.vvivid-, HiTlln. 1S07 (with
      piirtniiti; Pappt'iilielin. y(nhrt(f, in Ziitsrlnift tf}r Hnn-
      dei.-i)-cc(i(, .\lvii.; Dcutsclie Juri.'stiiizi itunu, li.. No. 1.'); AA-
      ]er, Leriii (liiltliichmidt.mlieUelheim, Bioyraphisches Jahr-
      buch. ii. 11!>-122.
      s. M. Co.



      See Schmidt,

      political writer; l).irn Dit. -li. IMll, at V^ording-
      borg, Denmark; died at Copenhagen Aug. 15, 1887.
      The dream of his youth was to become a famous
      physician, but as Danish church orthodoxy pre-
      vented him, because he was a Jew, from taking
      his B.A. degree (1836), Ooldschmidt gave up the
      academic course, and in 1837 started the " Xiistved
      Ugeblad" (later called " SjiUlandsposteu "), a polit-
      ical weekly. He at once came into conflict with the
      authorities, and was fined heavily, and condemned
      to submit his publication to censorship for a year.
      Goldschmidt sold tlie paper, and as the Danish king
      (Frederick VI.) died at tliis time and a liberal gov-
      ernment was expected luider his successor (Christian
      VIII.), he moved to Copenhagen, and again entered
      into politics, with a new paper, the "Corsaren " (Oc-
      tober, 1840). This journal was a brilliant but reck-
      less paper, representing extreme republicanism or
      socialism, and taking a strong stand against the
      crown, which had failed to grant the expected liber-
      ties. For this the government promptly condemned
      Goldschmidt to imprisonment on bread and water
      for twenty-four days, and to the permanent cen-
      sorsliip of his paper. But he was undaunted and
      continued the publication of the "Corsaren." It
      likewise brought him into conflict with individual
      public men, but it matured his mind, won hini
      fame, and caused some novels of his to sell so
      well (1846) that he went abroad on the proceeds
      (1847). In Coppet he met the reformed priest

      Mei'r Aaron Gokischiuidt.

      Piguet and was much influenced by him. Gold-
      schmidt himself a<lndts that an unconscious Chris-
      tian inlluenci' is iierceptible in " Xord og Syd," which
      he edited 1847-50. This magazine was also polit-
      ical, but of a nuich more moderate tone. In 1861
      Goldschmidt started another niagaz.in<', " L'de og
      Hjemme," but soon discontinued it, and, thoroughly
      disgusted with Danish afl'airs. he moved to England
      in 1861. He returned, however, in ISIii. but from
      that time on remained outside of politics. His career
      is not unlike that <if Georg Bii.\NiH;s, with this dif-
      ference, that Oold-
      schmidt used politics
      where Brandes used
      lil.eratun^ to rouse the
      Danish apathy, hoping
      to change its jihilistine
      attitude toward the
      problems of life. Gold-
      schmidt 's social-polit-
      ical influence was im-
      mense, though nega-
      tive as far as visible
      and .systematic results
      were concerned, be-
      cause he stood alone
      and had to fight the
      crown as well as the forces of mediocrity.

      After his return in 1863 Goldschmidt devoted
      hiiuself entirely to literature, in which he became

      especially remarkable as a master of

      In style. As a man he was roinantic-

      liiterature. uiystic as much as he was Jewish, but

      his mysticism was Oriental in cast ; and
      his romanticism was original and neitlu'r ecclesias-
      tical nor medieval. These traits are evident in "En
      JOde" (1845). which has been translated into sev-
      eral European languages; "Ravuen" (1868-69);
      "Iljemlos" (1859);'^' I den andeu Verden " (18(i9).
      He wrote also " Fortiillinger og Skildringer" (1863-
      1865), " Arvingen " (1867), and several plays, among
      which " Uabbineren og Ridderen " (1869) and " Sve-
      denborg's Ungdom " (1863) were staged at the
      Royal theater.

      Goldschmidt endeavored tocon.struct a philosoph-
      ical world-system on the basis of Nemesis, but his
      work on this subject lias not yet been published. It
      is a noteworthy attempt to translate Hebrew theism
      into abstract thought and enliven that thought with
      moral sentiment. Goldschmidt called the last volume
      of his autobiography " Xemesis " (2 vols., 1877), and
      everywhere in it points to Nemesis as s!ia|iing his
      life. The same thought is found in " Havneu " (1868-
      1869) and " En Skavank " (1867). In the latter novel
      he connects his doctrine with ancient Egyptian wor-
      ship. Goldsclmiidt is remarkable for his psycholog-
      ical insight and his nia.sterly delineation of Jewish
      character, especially in its profounder aspects.
      Typical in this respect arc his"Maser" and "Av-
      rohmda Nattergal."

      liiBLTor.RAPH V : Goldschmidt, lAUxcrindriinicr off liesuHaler,
      WT"; S. Kierktwiard, Blail,nlililii: iair;0. Bim-h.sentus,
      Fill Fiinmir. 1S.S0: G. liniiidrs. Kritiltlicr im I'ditrilter,
      (Worlis i., IS'Jit); .los. Mi(liai-ls.-n, Fra mill Siimlki. 1S9II;
      Uiiillidlisk Lexicon, vi.: Salnhiiixen's Kmirersations-
      lelisihiin. vii.: P. Hansen, iHHstr6)-c( Dansk Littcratur His-
      tiirie. ll«e, i.
      s. C. H. B.

      Goldschmidt, Otto



      GOLDSCHMIDT, OTTO : German pianist and
      C(iiii|>oscr; linni at Haiiil)uig Aug. 31, 1839. He
      stiulied undc-i- Jacob Schmidt and F. W. Gruud ;
      with Hans voii Bi'diiw under jSIendclssohn at the
      Leipsic Conscrvaturium ; and in 1848 under Chopin in
      Paris. In 1849 he played at a concert given in Lon-^
      don by Jenny Lind; in 1851 lie accompanied her on
      a tour tlirough America; and on Feb. 5, 1853, was
      married to her at Boston. From 1853 to 1855 they
      lived in Dresden, and from the latter year until
      Madame Gnldschmidl's death (1887), in London and
      at Malvern, Worcestershire.

      In 1861 Goldschmidt was elected an honorary
      member of the London Philharmonic Society; in
      1863 he was appointed vice-principal of the Royal
      Academy of Music (London); in 1863 and 1866 he
      conducted musical fe.stivals at Dlisseldorf and Ham-
      burg respectively; and in 1875 he founded the Bach
      Choir in London.

      His principal works are: "Ruth," an oratorio,
      performed at the Hereford musical festival of 1867;
      pianoforte concerto, op. 10 ; trio for pianoforte, op.
      12; 13 studies for the same instrument, op. 13; 13
      songs, op. 8, 9; and some part-songs. With Sir
      William Sterndale Bennett he edited "The Chorale
      Book for England."

      Bibliography: niemnnn. Mvsik-Lexikdn; Mryers Kourer-
      mti(»if:-Lexiknn : Grove, JJict. o/ Music and Musicians.
      s. A. P.

      entalist; born at Casscl Oct. liSt, 1844; died at Stras-
      burg Jan. 31, 1884. He was educated at the universi-
      ties of Leipsic, Berlin, and Tiibiugen, graduating
      (Ph.D.) in 1867. His doctor's dissertation, "Der
      Vllte Prapathaka des Samaveda-Arcika in der Nai
      geya-Qakh:1 Nebst Anderu Milteilungen liber Die-
      selbe," publislied in tlie " Monatsbericlite der Kijnig-
      lichen Preussischen Akademie der AVissenscliaftcn "
      (1868, pp. 228-348), was an edition of the single
      portion which has lieen preserved of the Kauthuma
      recension of tlie S;uiia-Veda. Goldschmidt contin-
      ued his studies, first at Giittingen and later in Paris,
      where he gained a thorough mastery of the French
      language. On the outbreak of the Franco-Prussian
      war he returned to Germany and enrolled as a vol-
      unteer. He took part in the siege of Paris. At tlie
      close of the war Goldschmidt was appointed assist-
      ant professor in the newly created University of
      Strasburg, with which he was connected during the
      remainder of his life. He became professor Sept. 13,
      1881, but was fated never to sitin the faculty. Spinal
      consumption, the disease which ended his life, had
      already sapiied his vitality, and after two and a lialf
      years of sulVeiing death came as a welcome relief.

      Siegfried Goldschmidt was not a prolific writer.
      He pulilislied hut fourteen scientific studies, mostly
      short notes in Kuhn's "Zeitschrift fiir Vergleichende
      Sprachforscliuiig" and the " Zeitschrift der Deutschen
      Morgcnlandischeii Gesellschaft. " His interest was
      centered upon Prakrit, and brief as his articles were
      tliey formed valuable contributions to the investiga-
      tion of the medieval languages of India. His most
      import.ani work was his edition of the great Prakrit
      poem ascribed to Kalidasa, the Rilvanavahaor Setu-
      liandhu (Strasburg, 1880-84). This is in two vol-
      umes, the first of which comprises the text and an

      index of the Prakrit words, in preparing which
      Siegfried was assisted by his brother Paul, while the
      second part contains tlie German translation. The
      only other book published by this scholar was a vol-
      ume of "Prakrtica" (ib. 1879), containing gram-
      matical studies on Prakrit.

      Bibliography: LUeraturblatt fUr Orieiitiilhche Bihlio-
      (;rap'o«, i. 379-380.

      ^ Ij. xl. tjr.

      GOLDSCHMIEDT, GUIDO : Austrian chem-
      ist ; biiin in Triest Oct. 5, 1850; studied at Vienna
      ;uid Heidelberg. First as assistant, later as associ-
      ate professor at the chemical laboratory of Vienna
      University, he published a number of important
      articles on organic chemistry, for which he received
      the Lieben prize of the Imperial Academy of Sci-
      ences on different occasions. After a short activity
      ;is professor at the High School for Agriculture
      in Vienna, he was called as professor to the univer-
      sity at Prague in 1893. He won distinction by his
      demonstration of the constituti(m of papaverin,
      of whicli he had made a thorough study. In con-
      junction with several of his pupils, as well as in-
      dependently, he published a large number of treatises
      on substances of tlie pyridin and quinolin order, be-
      sides essays in other departments of organic chem-
      istry. The University of Prague elected him dean
      of the philosophical faculty in 1900. He is also a
      member of the council of the university and of the
      Imperial Academv of Sciences.

      s. ■ A. Ki.

      GOLDSMID : A family of English financiers,
      who trace descent from a certain Uii ha-Leviof Em-
      den, as shown in the pedigree on opposite page.

      The following were some of the prominent mem-
      bers of llic family:

      Aaron F. Goldsmid : London merchant and
      founder of the Goldsmid family of England; born
      at Amsterdam; died June 3, 1782. He was the son
      of Benedict Goldsmid, a Hamburg merchant. In
      1765 he left Holland with his family to settle in
      London, where he founded the lirm of Aaron Gold-
      smid & Son, subseciuently Goldsmid & Eliason.
      The firm of Aaron Goldsmid & Son experienced seri-
      ous reverses through the failure of Clifford & Sayer,
      one of the principal houses in Holland. Hence only
      George, the eldest son, entered into partnership with
      his father. The other sons founded new businesses
      for themselves in which they amassed large fortunes.
      Goldsmid left four sons and four daughters. The
      second son, Asher, was one of the founders of the
      firm Mocatta & Goldsmid, bullion-lu-okers to the
      Bank of England. Benjamin and Abraham were
      f:unous as financiers and philanthropists.

      BinLiOGR.vPHY: Lew Alexander. ilfcmmV.s o/ neiijnminGoM-
      Kiiiiil nf Roehamptnn, 1808; James Pieclotto, Sltelches of
      A null i-Jc Irish Histiyrij .
      ,1. I. H.

      Abraham Goldsmid : English financier and
      philanthropist; born in Holland in 1756 (?); died at
      Morden, near London, Sept. 38, 1810; third son of
      Aaron Goldsmid. About 1765 he went to England
      witli his father, and soon entered into partnership
      with his brother, Benjamin Goldsmid, the two
      starting in business as bill-brokers about 1777. They
      afterward took a house in Capel street, and soon be-
      came successful bidders for the national loan. It



      Goldsohmidt, Otto

      wns regardeil Oil the Stock Exchange as an unprcce-
      donteil rvcut that im-n, till then souici'ly known,
      should succei'd in wresting the negotiation of gov-
      ernment loans from the haiuis of the banking eliiiue.
      This was the first step in their rise to eminence; and
      after having been very suecessfulin negotiating sev-
      eral pnblic loans, they ae((uired considerable wealth.
      After the death of his brother Henjamin in 1808,
      Abraham continued the operations of the lirm. In

      Venn Mafiazlne, Ivlll.; The Mnrtiing Past, London, Oct. 9,
      IKK); Young /snid, vol. I.. No. 8; PIitIoIUi, .S/[c((,7ic» o^ ^Iti-
      ill'i-Jncish IliMorii, pp. 2a,'-S>4, S>«, London, 1»75; Jew.
      ll'or/r(. Miin-li, IHTs.

      Albert Goldsmid : Major-general in the IJritish
      army; bcirii in 17!M; died .I;in. (i. |M(il ; son of Ben-
      jamin Coldsmid. He entered the army in isil as
      cornet in the ISlh Light Dragoons, and the follow-
      ing year went on active duty in Spain, where he
      continued to serve until the close of the war in 1814.

      Uri lia-I.eTl of Emden (c. 1593)

      Bi-nt'ilifi Goldsmid of ffanUmrjr

      Aaron Goldsmid, London mercbant (d. 1783) Mose.s Goldsmid

      George :


      Asher :


      I I

      Benjamin = Jessie Salomons .\braEiam ■

      Eliason 4 dauRliters

      Sir Isaac Lvon, Bart. (1841)
      = 1804 Isabel Goldsmid


      Sir Francis Henry

      (2d bart.)


      Frederick Dayld (b. 1812)
      = Caroline Samuel

      Rachel = Count Solomon
      Henry Avigdor

      Sir Julian (d. 1896) Helen =
      Vi'i bart.) = Lionel

      Virginia, daugh- Lucas
      ter ot A. Philipson |

      I 1 son and

      8 daughters 1 daughter

      Mary =

      ITederick D.


      Emma = 1850 Nathaniel
      (d. 1903) Monteflore

      Elim Henry d'Avlgdor Claude Joseph Monteflore


      Osmond Elim rt'Avigdor-

      1810 the house of Baring & Goldsmid contracted for
      the government loan o'f £14.000,000 (§70,000.000).
      Sir T. Baring, with whom the Goldsmids had been
      connected in business, died at this juncture; and his
      death added greatly to Goldsmid 's many burdens,
      he having now to struggle alone. In addition, a
      powerful organization
      had been formed
      against the loan, and
      the resources of the
      two houses of Baring
      & Goldstnid combined
      were scarcely sufficient
      to combat it. The
      price of scrip fell
      daily, and the fortunes
      of Goldsmid fell with
      it. At the same time,
      the East India Com-
      pany, which had
      placed in his hands for
      sale bills of exchange
      to the value of half
      a million, became alarmed, and claimed the price of
      its propert.y. The payment was fixed for Sept. 28,
      1810. Goldsmid was unprepared, and on the fol-
      lowing morning he was found dead, with a pistol
      by his side.

      The Goldsmid firm subsequentU' made great ef-
      forts to discharge their liabilities. By 1816 they had
      paid fully fifteen shillings on the pound ; and in 1820
      Parliament, on the petition of the creditors, annulled
      the remaining portion of the debts.

      BIBLIOGRAPHV : Diet. iVadona! Biography ; Gentleman's
      Magazine, Ixxx.; T)ie Morning Chroniele. London, Sept. and
      Oct., 1810 : The Titnei, London, April 13 and 13, 18ftS ; Bum-

      Abraham Goldsmid.

      O. E. D'A. G.

      He was present at the cavalry affairs of Castrajon,
      Qiiintiire dc Puerta. and Monasterio, and at the bat-
      tles of Salamanca, Vittoria. Nivelle, and Nive, and
      was awarded the .silver medal and four clasps.
      He served also during the campaign of 1815, and
      was present at Waterloo. In June, 1826, he retired
      on half-pay with the rank of major, but was ga-
      zetted lieutenant-colonel Nov. 23. 1841 ; colonel
      June 20, 1854; and major-general Oct. 26, 1858.

      BiBi.iOGR.iPHY: Tlie Times, London, Jan. 9, 1861.

      Albert Edward W. Goldsmid: Colonel in the
      British army; born at Puna, Bombay, Oct. 6, 1846;
      son of Henry Edward Goldsmid. In June. 1866, he
      was gazetted from Sandhurst, England, to his first
      commission in the 104th Foot of the Bengal Fusiliers.
      He became adjutant of battalion in 1S71, captain
      in May, 1878, major in 1883, lieutenant-colonel
      in 1888, and colonel on April 21. 1894. In 1892
      Colonel Goldsmid was selected by Baron de llirsch
      to supervise the colonies in Argentina, but retired
      from the task to take up his appointment as colo-
      nel-in-command of the Welsh regimental <listrict at
      Cardiff in 1894. In 1897 he was promoted chief of
      staff, with the grade of assistant adjutant-general
      in the Thames district. At the departure of the
      Aldershot staff with Sir Kedvers Buller in the con
      flict with the Boers in 1899, Im^ acted as chief stalT-
      ofticer at the camp at Aldershot, and was entrusted
      with the duties of mobilizaticm. In Dec, 1899,
      when the sixth division of the South-.\frican field
      force was mobilized, Goldsmid was selected as chief
      staff-officer to General Kelly-Kenny with the grade
      of assistant adjutant-general, and in that capacity
      was present at the battle of Paardeberg. During




      the curlier stages of the war he was coiiimandaut of
      the Orange River, Herbert, and Hay districts. 1900.
      Colonel Goldsmid is an ai'dent Zionist, and is
      chief of the Chovevei Zion of Great Britain and Ire-
      land. The success of the Jewish Lads' Brigade in
      Loudon and the provinces is mainlj' due to Gold-
      smid's initiative. In 1903 he became president of
      the Maecabeans, of which he had been one of tlie

      BiBLior,R.\rnY: Jew. Chron. Dec. 8, 1899; yimiig Israel, i.

      No. HI.

      Anna Maria Goldsmid : Writer and communal
      worker; born in London Sept. 17, 180.5; died there
      Feb. 8, 1889; daughter of Sir Isaac Lyon Goldsmid,
      Bart. She was a pujiil of the poet Thomas Camp-
      bell, and translated (1839) into English twelve ser-
      mons delivered b_y Dr. Gotthold Salomon at Ham-
      burg, Ludwig Phillipsou's " Die Entwiekelung der
      Religiosen Idee" (1853), and J. Cohen's " Les Dei-
      cides" (1873). Miss Goldsmid also published many
      original pamphlets on educational and other ques-
      tions, and the formation of the Jews' Infant-Scliools
      was largely due to her enthusiasm and support.
      She was also interested in University C^ollege School
      and Hospital and the Jews' Deaf and Dumb Home.

      Bibliography: Jew. Cliron. and Jew. Tl'or/f/, Feb. 15, 1889;
      AUibone, Diclinnrnii eif Autliors.

      Benjamin Goldsmid : English financier and
      philanthropist; born in Holland 1755; committed
      suicide April 15, 1808; eldest son of Aaron Gold-
      smid, a London merchant. In 1777 Benjamin and
      his brother Abraham established themselves in bu.si-
      ness as bill-brokers. Their means increased on the
      death of an uncle in Holland who bequeathed to
      them £15,000. The marriage of Benjamin Gold-
      smid to Jessie, daughter of Israel Levin Salomons
      of Clapton, with a dowry of £100,000, placed the
      ci'edit of the firm on a solid footing. Large sums
      passed through the hands of the Goldsmids in the
      purchase and .sale of bullion, stocks, navy and ex-
      chequer bills, and in negotiating English and foreign
      bills of exchange. They became the largest loan-
      contractors of their day in England. Benjamin's
      great wealth brought him uiiu'h social recognition,
      and he was intimately connected with Pitt, who.se
      financial schemes were largelj' carried out through
      him, and with several members of the ro3al family,
      who visited him at Koehampton.

      Goldsmid was the founder of the Naval Asj'lum,

      which for a time was under his management. The

      two brothers collect<'d a fund for a Jewish hospital.

      This was never erected, but some of the money

      raised was used in building and endowing the Neweh

      Zedek at Mile End.

      Bibliography: Gentleman's Magazine, Ixxviii.: L. Alexan-
      der, Memoirs ; YimntI Israel, i., No. t'l; Jew. Wirrkl, March,
      1878; Picciotto, Sketches fif Anglo-Jewhih H/sfory, pp. 249-
      ■ira. l.nndon, 1875.

      Sir Francis Goldsmid: English philanthropist
      and jiolitician; born in Spital square, London, May
      1, 1808; died Jlay 2, 1878. The eldest son of Sir
      Isaac Lyon Goldsmid, Bart., he was educated pri-
      vately, and was called to the bar in 1833, becoming
      queen's counsel in 18,58. In 1859 he succeeded to
      his fatlier's honors, which included a barony of
      Portugal. He entered Parliament in 1860 as mem-
      ber for Reading, through a by-election, and repre-

      sented that constituency in the Liberal interest until
      his death. While still a young man he actively
      cooperated with his father to secure to the Jews full
      emancipation from civil and jiolitical disabilities.
      In 1839 he wrote "Remarks on the Civil Disabilities
      of the Jews," and in 1848 "A Reply to the Argu-
      ments Against the Removal of the Remaining Disa-
      bilities of the Jews." Ho was one of the chief .sup-
      porters of University College, and gave material aid
      to University College Hosi)ital.

      He was associated with various Jewish relig-
      ious and charitable organizations. He was con-
      nected with the Reform movement from its com-
      mencement, and was elected president of the Council
      of Founders of the West London Synagogue. He
      was vice-president of the Anglo-Jewish Association
      from its establishment in 1871, and was president of
      the Rumanian Committee which originated in the
      association. His greatest services to his race were,
      however, in the direction of improving the social
      condition of the Jews in those countries in which
      they were oppressed. The condition of the Poles in
      18f)3 moved him to organize meetings for the pur-
      pose of securing some alleviation of tlieir sufferings,
      and he also forcibly protested on several occasions
      in Parliament against the oppression of the Jews,
      notably that in Servia and Rumania.

      Goldsmid was deputy lieutenant for Berks and a
      justice of the peace for Berks and Gloucester. Hav-
      ing no children, the baronetcy devolved upon his
      nephew, Julian Goldsmid. His writings include,
      besides those already mentioned: "Two Letters in
      Answer to the Objections Urged Against Mr. Grant's
      Bill for the Relief of the Jews" (1830); "A Few
      Words Respecting the Enfranchisement of British
      Jews Addressed to the New Parliament " (1883) ; " A
      Scheme of Peerage Reform, with Reasons for the
      Scheme " (1835).

      Bibliography : Marks and Liiwy, Life cf Sir Francis (loUi-
      smid, 18S2; Jcn\ Chron. and Jew. Wrtrkl, May 10, 1878; The
      Times (Loudon), May 4, 187S.

      Frederick David Goldsmid : English member
      of Parliament; born in London 1812; died there
      March 18, 1866. He was the second son of Sir Isaac
      Lyon Goldsmid, and was educated at University
      College, London. After his marriage (1834) he
      spent a year in Italy, and on returning to England,
      liecame a member of the firm of Mocatta & Gold-
      smid. Goldsmid was an active member of the
      Jletropolitan Association for Imjiroving the Dwell-
      ings of the Laboring Classes, as well as of a large
      number of Jewish charities. He was also a mem-
      ber of the council of University College, London,
      and of the committee of the college hospital, as
      well as president of the Jews' Hospital and of the
      West Metropolitan Jewish School.

      Goldsmid was member of Parliament for Honiton

      from July, 1865, until his death.

      Bibliography: .Tew. Chron. March Zi, 18ti(l ; Bo-dse, Moiiern
      Knylisii Biograiihii, Tniio, 1.S9S.

      Henry Edvsrard Goldsmid : Indian civil serv-
      ant; born in London Jlay 9, 1812; died at Cairo,
      Egypt, Jan. 3, 1855. He entered the service of the
      East India Company in 1833, and three years later
      became assistant revenue commissioner for Bom-
      bay. While occupying this post he devised the




      revenue survey aud assessment system, Piina be-
      ing included in its organization. "Goldsinid's
      Survey," as it WHS called, was a great boon to the
      poor agriculturists of the ])rcsidciicy ; and it was
      permanently establislu-d by the Koniliay legislature
      in 1865. It was incorporated in the Bombay revenue
      code of liSTil, and was also adopted by the Berars
      and the native stale of Jlysore.

      Goldsndd's health broke down owing to his in-
      cessant labors; and after holding the positions of
      private secretary and chief secretaiy to the governor
      of Bondiay, he went to Cairo, where he died. Ten
      years later a memorial rest-house was erected by
      public subscription at Decksal, near the place where
      Goldsndd's survey liad commenced.
      BlBI.ioiiR.APUV : Yimng l^rart. i., .No. 10.

      Sir Isaac Lyon Goldsmid : Knglish financier
      and the lirst .leu isli baronet; born in London ,Iau.
      13, 1778; died there April 27, 18.")!). He was the son
      of Asher Goldsndd. and nephew of Beu,iamin and
      Abraham Goldsmid, the financiers. Educated at an
      English school in Finsbury square, he received a
      sound financial tiainiug in the technicalities of his
      fatlier's business of bullion-broUing. At a later
      period his as.soeiation with Kicartlo made him fandl-
      iar with the leading questions of political science.
      He became in due course a partner in the firm of
      Mocatta it Goldsmid. bullion-brokers to the Bank of
      England and to the East India Company. His early
      ventures on the Stock E.xchange were unfortunate,
      and, after losing on one occasion £16,000, he aban-
      doned speculal ion and contented himself with steady
      business as a Jobber. Goldsmid gradually rose to
      eminence as a financier, and ultimately amassed a
      large fortune. His most extensive financial opera-
      tions were connected with Portugal, Brazil, and
      Turkey; and for his services in settling an intricate
      monetary dispute between Portugal and Brazil he
      was. in 1846, created Baron de Palraeira by the
      Portuguese government.

      Goldsmid was one of the founders of the London
      Docks. The main effort of his life was made in the
      cause of Jewish emancipation. He was the first
      English Jew who took up the question, and he en-
      listed in its advocacy the leading Whig statesmen of
      the time. Soon after the passing of the Act of 1829,
      which removed the civil disabilities of tlie Roman
      Catholics, lie secured the powerful aid of Lord Hol-
      land, the Marquis of Lansdowne, the Duke of Sus-
      sex, and other eminent members of the Liberal
      partj', and then induced Robert Grant to introduce
      in the House of Commons a similar measure for the
      Jews. During more than two years from the time
      when Jewish emancipation was first debated in Par-
      liament, Goldsndd gave little heed to his ordinarj^
      business, devoting himself almost exclusively to the
      advancement of the cause. He was one of the chief
      agents in the establishment of L'niversity College,
      London, purchasing at his own risk the site of the

      Goldsmid was a liberal supporter of the Reform
      synagogue and of all Jewish institutions.

      BlBLiOGRAPHV: 77ic Bunker's Mauazine. xlx., xx.; Jeir.
      Chrfin. May 6 and June 17, 18.59; Jew. Workl, March S,
      , 1878; Diet. National BUmraphy.

      Julian (roldsmid.

      Sir Julian Goldsmid : English baronet, jirivy
      councilor, member of Parliament, and philanthro-
      pist; born Oct. a, 1838; died at Brighton Jan. 7,
      1896. lie was the eldest son of Freilerick D. Gold-
      smid, MP. Educated privately up to the age of
      seventeen, he entered
      University College, of
      which be became a
      prizeman. He received
      his B.A. degree with
      honors at the Uin ver-
      sify of London in l.S.'iO,
      and in 1861 obtained
      his M.A., with the
      first place in classics.
      In 1S64 he was made
      a fellow of University
      College, and in the
      same year was called
      to the bar. For a short
      time he went on the Ox-
      ford circuit, but aban-
      doned legal practise
      when elected JI.P. for
      Honiton in j\Iarch, 1 866.

      When Honiton was disfranchised by the Reform
      Bill of 1867 Goldsmid stood unsuccessfully for Mid-
      Surrey, but was returned in 1870 for Rochester, and
      sat for that constituency till 1880. He was defeated
      at Sandwich, but in 188.5 was returned for St. Pan-
      cras South. During 1894 Goldsmid, who belonged
      to the Liberal party, often had the honor of presi-
      ding over the delilierations of the House of Com-
      mons as deputy chairman of committees. In this
      capacity he showed great boldness and prompti-
      tude in the use of bis extensive knowledge of the
      rules of Parliament, and acted with an authority
      born of his experience as the ruling spirit of inqior-
      tant financial undertakings. As the Libera! Unionist
      candidate for St. Pancras South, Sir Julian Gold-
      smid was returned in 189.5 by an overwhelming

      The Jewish communal institutions with which
      Goldsmid was most prominently identified were the
      Anglo-Jewi.sh Association atid the Russo-Jewish
      Committee. He was elected a vice-president of the
      former at its foundation in 1871. which office he held
      till 1886, when he was unanimouslj' chosen to suc-
      ceed Baron de Worms in the jiresidency. His thor-
      ough knowledge of foreign affairs enabled him to
      present in the clearest light the situation of the Jews
      in Eastern countries; aud his intimacy with nnnis-
      ters was utilized by him to carry through many a
      difiicult and delicate diplomatic negotiation. The
      period of his presidency was the most brilliant in the
      liistory of the Anglo-Jewish A.ssociafion. In 1895
      the state of Goldsmid's health obliged him to give
      up many of his responsible positions. He resigned
      his presidency in that year, and also relinquished
      many of his financial interests.

      Goldsmid was chairman of the Russo-Jewish
      Comnnttee from its foundation in 1882 until 1894;
      a member of the visitation connnittee of the Jewish
      board of guardians; president of the Jews' Infant-
      Schools from 1883; and a member of the committee
      of the .lews' Free School. He was warden, and oc-

      Goldsmith, Lewis
      Goldstein, Joseph



      casional lay preacher, at the West London Synagogue
      of British Jews, and was subsequeutl}' elected chair-
      man of the council.

      In the general community the institutions in which
      he took most interest were; University College,
      of which he was treasurer in 1880-^1; University
      College Hospital, of which he served as a mem-
      ber of council; and the University of London, of
      whicli he was vice-chancellor at the time of his

      In 18T8 Goldsmid succeeded his uncle, Sir Francis
      Goldsmid, Q.C.. M.P., in the family honors and
      estates, in Sussex, Kent, Berks, and elsewhere.
      He filled many offices, among them that of deputy
      lieutenant for Kent, Sussex, and Berks; magis-
      trate for Kent, Sussex, and London; colonel of the
      1st Sussex Ride Volunteers, and honorary colonel of
      the 1st Sussex Artillery Volunteers; chairman of the
      Submarine Telegraph Company, and of the Imperial
      and Continental Gas Association; and director of
      the London, Brighton, and South Coast Railway.

      His chief country-seat was at Somerhill, near Tun-
      bridge, once the home of Sir Philip Sidney. In
      1868 he married Virginia, daughter of A. Philipson
      of Florence, by whom he had eight danglite1-s. The
      entailed Goldsmid estates devolved upon Osmond
      Elim d'Avigdor.

      BiBLior.RAPHT: Jiir. Chran. 3a.n. 10, 1S9I!: Jew. iVnild.lan.
      Ill, ISiiii; The Times. London, Jan. 8, 1891).

      .1. G. L.

      GOLDSMITH, LEWIS: English political wri-
      ter and agitator; born 1763; died Jan. 6. 1846.
      Educated in London, he was trained for the legal
      profession, but soon aliaudoued this profession for
      the writing of political pamphlets and satires. He
      started his career as an enthusiastic defender f)f the
      French Revolution. His first literary venture was
      an edition of Barlow's "Advice to the Privileged
      Orders in the Several States of Europe" (1792).
      This was followed (1801) by "State of the Freneli
      Reiiublicat the End of the Year 1800," a transla-
      tion from the French. In the same year he pub-
      lished "The Crimes of Cabinets, or a Review of
      the Plans and Aggressions for Annihilating the
      Liberties of France, and the Disniemberment of
      Her Territories. " So unpopular in England were the
      views which he held that the London booksellers
      scarcely dared to offer liis books for sale. Being
      threatened with prosecution for this last w-ork. he
      sought safety in flight, and went to Paris (1808).
      There he offered the French government the hel]i of
      his pen against England. The offer was accepted,
      and resulted in the [jublication of an English journal
      at Paris — "The Argus, or Loudon Reviewed in

      But there were limits to liis denunciations, and
      because he refused to do as his em])loj'ers wished
      they negotiated with the English government to sur-
      render him in exchange for a French political pris-
      oner in England named Peltier. He continued to
      reside in Prance, however, and was taken back into
      the confidence of Napoleon, who employed him
      upon various secret missions. In 1809 he was con-
      veyed to England, formall)' tried for treason, and
      discharged. Embittered bj' the treacherous condtict
      of the French government, he started (1811) a Sun-

      da}' newspaper called the " Anti-Gallican Monitor,"
      in which he denounced the French Revolution as vio-
      lently as he had formerly espoused it. He went so
      far as to propose the assassination of Napoleon. In
      his "Secret History of the Cabinet of Bonaparte"
      and his "Secret History of Bonaparte's Diplomacy,"
      he brought the most serious charges against his
      former cmi)lo3-er. In pursuance of his new policy
      he advocated the restoration of Louis XVIII., and
      when tliis event took place that monarch rewarded
      Goldsmith with a pension for life. The latter part
      of his life was spent principally in Paris. He had
      one daughter, Georgiana, who became the second
      Lady Lyndhurst.

      BuiLiociRAPHT; Didot, BUigraphie OeneraU; J. H. Rose, Bio-
      urai'liieai Dictionaiji; Querard, La France Lilteraire\
      PiiTiotto, Slietehes of Anulo-Jewish Hiatory, pp. 23U-331;
      Diet. Nat. Biay.
      J. I. H.

      GOLDSMITH, MILTON : American merchant

      and author; born at Philadelphia May 22, 1861. In
      1877 he went to Europe and studied three years at
      Zurich. Goldsmith has written two novels: "Rabbi
      and Priest." 1891 ; "A Victim of Conscience," 1903,
      and in addition several librettos for comic operas and
      several dramatic pieces. He has also contributed
      short stories to newspapers and poems to the maga-
      zines. A.


      The earliest descriptions of productions of the gold-
      smith's art refer to the work of Jewish goldsmiths.
      The Bible, which contains these descriptions, gives
      also the names of the workers — Bezaleel b. Uri and
      Aholiab b. Ahisamach (Ex. xxxi., xxxvi.). Impor-
      tant as were their achievcnnents. the Jewish gold-
      smith's art did not reach its height until the time of
      King Solomon. Although he used foreign skill to
      a certain extent in the making of the utensils for his
      house and for the Temple, yet Hiram, the overseer
      of the whole work, was of Jewish extraction, at
      least on his mother's side. Even after the downfall
      of the Jewish state Jewish goldsmiths were heard of
      everywhere. Thus the Talmud relates that the syn-
      agogue of Alexandria had a section reserved for gold-
      and silversmiths, just as for the other trades. It is
      also related of the Jewish tribe Kain\ika' in north-
      ern Arabia in the sixth century, that it engaged in
      the goldsmith's trade and in money-changing
      (Gratz, "Geschichte," v. 84). In the eleveuth cen-
      tury the Jewish goldsmiths in Languedoc bought the
      church treasure of Narbonue, and the tombstone of
      the goldsmith Joseph b. Joziz (1100) evidences the
      existence of Jewish goldsmiths in Spain ("C. I. H."
      No. 175). In the thirteenth century Jews carried on
      the goldsmith's craft in England (Jacobs, "Jews of
      Angevin England," p. 207; Levy, in "Jew. Chron."
      April 4, 1902), and toward the end of the f<mrteenth
      century there were Jewish goldsmiths in Avignon,
      in the coimty of Venaissin (Bardinet, in "Rev.
      Hist." 1880, Sept.-Oct.), in Navarre, where in the

      larger towns like Tudela and Pam-

      In the Mid- plona they had their own shops (Kay-

      dle Ages, serling, "Die Juden in Navarra," pp.

      59, 73), and in Lyons, whence, how-
      ever, they were expelled. The refugees from Lyons
      settled in Trevoux, whither they carried the art of



      Goldsmith, Lewis
      Goidsubiu, Josopli

      rcUning gold and making it into wire (Dcpping,
      "Die Judcn im Jlitlt-lallcr," pp. 250 (t seq.).

      Thai Ihoie weru .Jewish goldsinilhs at. Uiis time in
      Caslilo may be seen from the ilccrce of John II. iu
      144y (Lindo, "Hist, of tlie .lews iu Spain," pj). Hi it
      scq.). In Italy also, iu the same century, there were
      Jewish gohlsMiilhs, one of whom (Solomon) Ercole
      del Fedeli of Sessa, after he had gone over to Chris-
      tianity, made a name for himself I13' his rich ornameu-
      taliou of weapons, one of which was the famous
      swoid of Ca'sar ISorgia. In the si.\tecnth ceutury
      there were .skilful goldsmiths among the Jews who
      migrated from Khodes to Constantinople and Salo-
      niea (Bandin, " Les Israelites de Constantinople "), as
      there were among the original iidialiitants of Krem-
      sir (Frankl-Grun, "Geschiehte dor Judeu iu Krem-
      sier," i. 10); there were many also in Poland ("De-
      batten des Galizischeu Landtags," 1S68, p. 7"3). Pe-
      dro Tei.\eira(Kayserling, iu Beujamiu, " Acht Jahrc
      iu Asieu und Afrika," p. 44) states they were also in
      Aleppo, and Leo Africanus (" Africie Descriptio "),
      that they were in Morocco. There were goldsmiths
      also iu Venice, and Lecky declares that many of
      those who cultivated the art of carving weie Jews
      ("Kationalism in Europe," ii. 337, note). In Rome,
      however, Jewish goldsmiths are first mentioned in
      1726 (Vogelsteiu and Rieger. " Geschiehte der Jwden
      iu liom," ii. 331).

      There were numerous Jewish goldsmiths iu
      Prague, where they formed a separate gild until
      the middle of the uiuetecuth century, just as did the
      Jewish shoemakers, tailors, and butchers (Jost,
      "Neuere Geschiehte der Israeliten," i. 341). Ac-
      cording to the gravestones iu the old cemetery of
      Prague, twenty-one goldsiuiths were buried therein
      the years 1601-1700, and twenty-six in 1701-80
      ("Zeitschrift fur die Geschiehte der
      In More Judeu iu Deulschland," v. 351). In

      Recent 1847 the Prague directory gave the

      Times. number of Jewish gold- and silver-
      smiths as twenty-one. In t!ic seven-
      teenth century the French ambassador St. Olou
      found iu Morocco "a comparatively large number
      of .Tews, most of wboni were goldsmiths" (Sehudt,
      " Judiscbe Merckwurdigkciten." i. itO). In the saire
      century (1064), Jewish goltlsmiths are spoken of in
      Poland, six of whom — among them a woman, .Joze-
      fowa — met with a loss of more tli.an 36,000 gulden
      by plunder at the time of the Jewish persecution in
      Lemberg (Care, "' Geschiehte der Judeu in Lemberg,"
      pp. 74, 168 et seq.). In the eighteenth century the
      Jews of Bucharest seem to have included many
      skilful goldsmiths (see Jew. Encvc. iii. 411-413).

      In Germany for a longer period than in any other
      country Jews were strictly foibidden to practise
      any trade, and .Te«-ish goldsmiths are mentioned
      only as living in Berlin, at the beginning of the
      ciirbteenth century (Geiger, "Gesehiebte der Judeu
      in Berlin," i. 20, 43): beyond Berlin they were found
      only in the former Polish provinces, in Posen as
      e.arly as the seventeenth century : but they do not
      seem to have been very numerous, since they did
      not have a corporation as did the .Jewish tailors,
      butchers, furriers, and baberdasbers of that town
      (Perles. in " Monatsscbrift," 1S(!4. p. 420. and 186.'), p.
      84). Nevertheless, one Jewish goldsmith. liaruch,

      does appear iu East Franconia, who, on being re-
      ceived iu Schwar/.acli in 15;f?, promised to live only
      by his craft ("Alonalsschrift," 1880, p. 46:!).

      At present there are many Jewish goldsmiths in
      Russia, who, according to Ulilf ("Dk^I Tage in
      Jildisch-Kusslaud," pp. 55 tt kcji.), are highly sl<illed
      workers. The number is still greater in Rumania,
      where in Lsro, in lincharest, out of a total of 212
      goldsmitlis, 104 W(ue Jews (Jacobs, "Jewi.sh SUitis-
      tics," p. 26). In Jernsaleni, where in 1865 L. A.
      Fraidil found oidy live Jewish goldsmiths and sil-
      versmiths, the number has recently increased to
      twenty-seven (/i.). According to Audree (" Volks-
      knnde der Jnden," p. i;)l). Jewish goldsmiths and
      silversmiths are found in Benghazi (Barca), Jebel
      Ghurian, Bagdad, Arabia, and Persia. In 1898
      eleven gold- workers belonged to the Jewisli conunu-
      nity iu Berlin, forty-four to that iu Vienna.

      For illustrations of the goldsmith's and silver-
      smitlfs art, relatiu,g to Jewish cereuionial, see the
      following articles: A.mui.kt; Bethotual; Bind-
      ing; ClIlCUMCISION; CuowN OP THE Law ; Cup;
      EsTHEit; Etuoo; II.\uual.\ii; HANtiKKAii ; Lavek;
      'Omer: Passoveu; Rincs, Enc.^gemf.nt and Wed-
      ding; SAniJATii: .^cuoi.LS of Law (for breastplates,
      mantels, and pointers); Sedeu: SvNAGO(ifE.

      BIDLIOGRAPHY : A. Wolt, Etwox Uher Jlhlische Kun.'it und
      Acltoe Jlulisclic Kllnstlcr. Hambui'tr. itlll.
      A. A. W.

      GOLDSTEIN, EDUARD: Russian musician;
      born at (,)de^^a 1851; dini at Ijcipsic Aug. 8, 1887.
      He was an accomplished pianist at the age of
      thirteen, and obtained a position in the Italiiin
      opera-house of Kishinef. In 1808 be was .sent to
      the Leipsie Conservatorium. where hestudied under
      Moscheles and Reinccke. Goldstein graduated with
      honors in 1872, and soon afterward made a successful
      tour through German}'. In 1874 he returned to
      Odessa and became leader of the orchestra iu the
      Berner Theater. Later he occupied f(U' sometime
      the position of director of tlie opera in Kharkof,
      and in 1876 went to St. Petersburg, where be soon
      attracted attention asa pianist. Goldstein struggled
      for ollicial recognition for ten years, \intil Anton
      Rubinstein returned to tlie St. Petersburg Conserva-
      tory of l\lusic as its director (18.^6) and aiijioinled
      him profes.sor of music and leader of the Fhilhar-
      monie Society. Goldstein wrote various songs and
      melodies, and began the composition of "Count
      Essex." an opera, which he left unfinished.' He was
      the musical critic of the "Golos"aud the"Pravi-
      telstvenuyj Vyestuik."
      BmLior.iiAPny : Hd-Axif, iv. CG-G7.

      II. 1;. P. Wi.

      GOLDSTEIN, JOSEPH: Austrian cantcu- and
      composer; biirn at Kecskemet, Hnng;iry. March 27,
      18:i6; died in Vienna Jiuie 17, 180U. He occupied
      the position of chief caidor at the Leopoldstiidler
      Tempel, the largest synagogue in Vienna, for forty
      years. He was one of tlie ten children of Hazzan
      Goldstein of Nentra. Hungary, who died when
      Joseph wasbuteleven. At theageof twelve he was
      so well accpiainted witli the liturgy and possessed
      such a phenomenal tenor voice tliat the congrega-
      tion of Neutra elected him as liis father's successor.




      He remained there for two years, ami tlieu maile a
      four years' tour through Austria and Germany,
      officiating in some of the largest congregations.
      Upon his return an admirer of his voice .sent him to
      Vienna to be educated for the stage. On the com-
      pletion of his course, and when about to enter upon
      his first engagement in Florence, he decided to re-
      turn to tlie position of cantor, and received an ap-
      pointment at the Leo]ioldstadter Tempel in Vienna
      in 1857, retaining the position until his death.
      Among Goldstein's ijublished works are: "Sliire
      Yeshurun," a collection of songs for tlie Sabbatli
      and festival service, 1865; a reiiuiem, 1892: a col-
      lection of " Festgesilnge."

      Bibliography: Dv- Xiuzcit ; Uimariiclin i'lniturciizcituiw,
      June, 18'.):). . „

      g. A. Kai.

      GOLDSTEIN, JOSEPH: Political economist
      and statistician; boin in Odessa, Russia, Jan. 9,
      1869. After completing liis studies at the gymna-
      sium of his native town, he entered tlie technolog-
      ical institute in Carlsruhe, Baden, and took a diploma
      as cltemist. He next studied jiolitical economy at
      the University of Munich, graduating (Ph.D.) in
      1895. He continued his studies in England and
      Prance until 1898, when he was appointed privat-
      docent in political science at the University of
      Zurich. In 1899 and 1900 he revisited France and
      England, and went to Russia in the winter of 1901-
      1902, when he submitted to the Russian nnnister of
      commerce, W. Kowalewski, and to the nnnister of
      finance, at therc(iuest of the former, an expert opin-
      ion with reference to the renewal of the commercial
      treaty between Germany and Russia. Before re-
      turning betook the degree of A.M. at the Univer-
      sity of Moscow, which practically conferred upon
      him the right to lecture in any university in Russia.

      Goldstein's " Deutschlands Sodaindustiie in Vcr-
      gangenheit und Gegeuwart," Stuttgart, 1895, occa-
      sioned the introduction of a bill by the German gov-
      ernment effectingaSO percent reduction in theduty
      on soda. Among his other works may be men-
      tioned: "Berufsgliedernng und Reichthum in Eng-
      land," inaugural dissertation, 1897; "Die Zukunft
      Deutschlands im Liclite der Agiarischen Bewcis-
      fiihrung," 1898; "Die Vermeintlichen und die Wirk-
      lichen Ursaclien des Bevolkerungsstillstandes in
      Frankreich," 1898; " Die Statistik und Hire Bedcu-
      tung fur das Jloderne Gesellschaftsleben," 1899;
      "Bevolkerungsproblenie und Berufsgliedernng in
      Frankreich," 1900 ; " Gewerbefreiheit und Ihre Licht-
      undSchattenseiten." 1901.



      Russi;ui chemist; born at Odes.sa 1853; educated in
      the Richelieu Gymnasium of Odessa, and graduated
      from the Medico-Surgical Academy of St. Peters-
      burg. In 1877 he went abroad and obtained the
      de.gree of doctor of philosophy. On his return he
      became assistant in chemistry in the St. Peters-
      liurg medical academy. In 1880 Goldstein passed
      the examination for master of chemistry, and in
      1890 obtained his degree, his dissertation being on
      the rise of salt-solutions in capillary tubes," Materialy
      K Voprosu o Vysotakh," etc. In 1891 he became
      privat-docent in theoietical and physical cheniislry


      II. H.

      at the University of St. Petersburg, but in 1901 was
      compelled, by circumstances of a political nature,
      to discontinue his lectures. Tlieresearcliesof Gold-
      stein, mostly in theoretical and physical chemistry,
      have been published in the following magazines:
      "Zliurnal-Russkavo Fisiko-Khiinicheskavo Obsh-
      cliestva " ; " Berichte der Deutschen Chemischen Ge-
      sellschaft " ; " Annates de Chimie et Physique " ; and
      "Zeitschrift fur Physikalische Clicmie." Goldstein
      also published in the "Nauchnoe Obozrycnie" for
      1898-99 a portion of his work, "Elementy Filosotii
      Chimii," on the elements of chemical philosophy;
      and, between 1894 and 1900, under the pseudonym
      "Cardauus," several articles in the "Novosti." He
      has published in book form "Zhivoye 1 Jlcrtvoe"
      (Living and Dead) and"0 Fisicheskom Dukhovnom
      Vospitanii" (On Physical and Intellectual Educa-
      tion). He has translated into Russian Daneinan's
      sketches of the history of natural science, published
      with supplementary notes in "jMir Bozlii," 1897.
      At present he is the editor of the department of
      physics, chemistry, and technology of the "Bol-
      sha3'a Entziklopedia."
      BiBi.ioORAPiiT: BoWmija Entziklnpedia, vli., St. Petersburg.

      J. G. L.

      skrilist; born at Kijnigsberg, Prus.sia, Jan. 18, 1821 ;
      died in Loudon U-dvch 6, 1872. In 1840 he gained
      his degree of Ph.D. at Kdiiigsberg University,
      where he first studied Sanskrit under Bolilen, con-
      tinuing his studies in that language at Bonn and
      Paris. In 1842 he published a German translation
      of the Sanskrit drama "Prabodha-Chandrodaya "
      At Paris lie collected materials forau extensive work
      on Indian philosophy and for a new edition of the
      great epic poem " Mahabharata." In 18.50 he Avent
      to England, where he assisted Professor Wilson in
      preparing a new edition of his Sanskrit-English dic-
      tionary. This edition outgrew all practicable pro-
      portions, and, having reached page 480 without
      completing the first letter of the alphabet, it was

      Goldstiickor was professor of Sanskrit at Univer-
      sity College, London, from 1851 until his death, and
      was the chief founder of the Sanskrit Text Society,
      established in 1866. He was also president of the
      Philological Society, and was well known in many
      of the literary societies of London. He left an edi-
      tion of the "Nyaya-inala-Vistara," an important
      woik on mimausa philosophy, and an edition of the
      " Jlahabhashya," the well-known commentary on
      Panini's grammar (London, 1874); he had previously
      written a monograph on Panini (18(il). From 1862
      to 1868 Goldstflcker was a contributor to " Chambers'
      Encyclopiedia" and the "Westminster Review."
      His essays were collected under the title " Literary
      Remains," 1879.

      liiRLioCRAPHV: GdldKttlclter's Litcrrnii Bcmoi)iJi, 1879: Tlie
      Tiiiirx. Loiulon, March 13 and 14, 1S72: Diet. Nat. Bing.x
      Mnfrrs Kiinvcit^atiiins-Lcxikon.
      .1. G. !-■•

      GOLDSZMIDT, JOSEPH: Polish lawyer;
      born at Hrubieszow, government of Lublin, 1846;
      died 1896; graduate of the University of War-
      saw. He wrote : " Wizerunki Wslawionych Zydow




      XIX Wicku," sketchi-s of famous Jews of the nine-
      teenth century (Warsaw, 18G7-(i8): a l)i()graphy of
      Lukasz Koucewicz, in "Tygodnik Illustrowany " ;
      a conuncutary on Talinu<lic law, under the title
      •'Wyklad Frawa Kozwodowego I'odlug I'staw
      Mojzes/.owoTahnudycznyeli " ((V'. 187(1); an essay
      on tlie lastdaysof the .lew.s in Spain, tnider the title
      "Ostatuie dni Pobytu Zydow w lliszpanji" (ih.
      18G9); an essay on marriage according to law and
      custom, under "the title " O Malzenstwie pod Wzgle-
      deni Prawnyni i Ohyezajawym" (rt. 1874). He also
      contributed many Jewish articles to "Izraelita."
      BiHLiOGRArnv : Encvkhipciina Poir.iiVi/iiiti. vl., Warsiuv, 19()0.
      II. u. J- <J- L.

      GOLDZIEHEK, WILHELM: Hungarian ocu-
      list and ophthalnuilogical writer, burn at Kopcseny
      (= Kilsce), near Presburg, Jan. 1, 1S4S). He studied
      medicine at Vieiuia, Bc-rlin, Prague, and Heidelberg,
      graduating (M. D.) at Vienna Dec. 25, 1871. In 1874
      he settled in Budapest as an oculist; was appointed
      privat-docent at the University of Budapest in 1878;
      and became professor in 189."). While a student he
      published au essay written by liim in Ilelmholtz's
      laboratory, "Zur Theorie dcs Elektrotonus," in
      " Archiv "fur Physiologie." 1870. He hassince writ-
      ten many monographs and articles forinedical period-
      icals. He is one of the chief contributors to Enlen-
      burg's " Kealencyclopailie der Mediciuischen Wis-
      sensehafteu," for which he prepares most of the ma-
      terial relating to practical ophthalmology. He also
      wrote " Die Therapie der Augcnkrankheiten " (1881 ;
      3d ed., 1900), and •'Szemf-szet Kezikonyve " (1890),
      a manual of ophthalmology written in Hungarian,
      the lirst work of the kind in that language. In
      April, 1903, he was decorated by the Austrian em-
      peror with the officer's cross of the Order of Franz
      Bibliography : Ocxtcrreiehischc Wocliciiiiclirift, May 8. 1903.

      s. W. B.

      GOLDZIHER, IGNAZ : Hungarian Oriental-
      ist; born iu Stnhhveissenburg, Hungary, June 23,
      1850; attended the gymnasium in his native town,
      and continued his studies at the universities of Bu-
      dapest, Berlin, Leipsic (Ph.D., 1870), and Leyden.
      In 1873 he became privat-docent at the University
      of Budapest. In 1873, commissioned by the Hun-
      garian government, lie undertook a scieulilic jour-
      ney through Syria, Palestine, and Egypt, spending
      several months at the Azhar mosque iu Cairo, where
      he attended the lectures of learned sheiks on JIo-
      hammedan theology and the science of law. In
      1894 he was promoted to a professorship — the first
      instance in the history of the Budapest University
      of a Jew being admitted to the faculty. Goldziher
      is a member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences,
      corresponding member of the Imperial Academy of
      St. Petersburg, honorary memberof the Royal Asial ic
      Society of England, and corresponding member of
      the Jewish Historical Society of England anil of
      other scientific societies. He was appointed to n'p-
      resent the Hungarian government and the Academy
      at many congresses, e.r/., at the first meeting of tlie
      Association dcs Academies, held in Paris (1901). At
      the Oriental Congress in Stockholm (I8S9) he re-
      ceived the large gold nudal. He holds the ofiiee of

      Ipmaz (icildziber.

      secretary of the Jewish community at Budapest,
      and since 1900 has been leclurer on religious phi-
      losophy at the Budapest rabbinical sc-nunary.

      Goldziher's chief importance for Semitic history
      and philology rests on the fact that he was the first
      to give a critical history of Arabic traditions (''Mu-
      hammedanische Studien," ii.), and that bis esti-
      mates of Arabic civil
      and religious law "

      have withstood the
      test of criticism. He
      has likewise placed
      the various theolog-
      ical move m cuts
      which have arisen
      within Islam in their
      true light, and his
      knowledge of ancient
      Arabic poetry lias
      enabled him to make
      valuable contribu-
      tions to the knowl-
      edge of pre-Moham-
      medan paganism.

      Jewish science is
      likewise indebted to
      him; he has pointed

      out the traces of Hebrew mythology in the
      Bible, and has presented comparative .studies of
      Jewish and Arabic folk-lore and culture in the
      Middle Ages.

      Goldziher's principal writings are the following:
      "Studien fiber Tanchum Jerusehalini," Leipsic,
      1870; a second edition of Ballagi's Hebrew gram-
      mar, Budapest, 1873; "Beitriige zur Gcscliielite der
      Siirachgelehrsamkeit bei deu Arabcrn," iu three
      parts, Vienna, 1871-73; "Beitriige zur Literatur-
      gescli. der Schi'a," ili. 1874; "Der Jlythos bei den
      Ilebriiern und Seine Geschichtltche Entwickelung."
      Leipsic, 187(5: English transl. by K. Jhirlineau,
      "Mythology Among the Hebrews and Its Historical
      Development," London, 1877; "Az Iszlam," Buda-
      |)est, 1881 ; " Die Zahiriten, Ihr Lehrsystcm und Ihre
      Gcscliichte," Leipsic, 1884; "Mulianiinedanische
      Studien," two vols., Halle, 1889-90; "Der Diwan
      des Hoteia," Leipsic, 1893: " Abhandlungen zur
      Arabischen Philologie," two vols., Leyden. 189()-
      1899; "Die Legende vom Monch Barsisa." Kirch
      luiiii, 1896; and many treatises on Oriental history
      anil the science of religion, published in the col-
      lections of the Hungarian Academy. He has con-
      tributed numerous articles and reviews to German.
      French, English, and Hungarian periodicals, among
      which maybe mentioned the following: "Jlateria-
      lien zur Kenntnis der Almohailenbewegung in Nord-
      afrika," iu "Z. D. M. G." .\li. 30-140; ""Das Prinzip
      des Istislulb in der Muhammcdanisclien Gesetzes-
      wissenschaft," in " W. Z. K. M." i. 228-236; "Ara-
      bisclie Beitriige zur Volksetymologie," in "Zeit-
      sehrift fur ViJlkerpsychologie," xviii. G9-82; "In-
      fluences Chretieniiis dans la Litterature Keligieuse
      de rislam," in " Hev. de I'llistoire des Peligions,"
      xviii. 180-199; "Das Arabische Original von Mai-
      muni's Sefer Hammiswot," in "W. Z. K. M."
      iii. 77-85; " Muhammedanisches Recht in Theorie
      und Wirklichkeit," iu "Zeitschrift fUr Verglei-




      cliende Reclitswisscoschaft," viii. 40G-423; "Der
      Chatib bt'i don Alteu Arabern," iu " VV. Z. K. M."
      vi. i)7-l03; "Der Divan des Garwal b. Aus Al-
      Huteja," in " Z. D. M. G." xlvi. 1-53, 173-235, 471-
      537; xlvii. 43-85, 103-201; "Le Deuombremeut dos
      Sectes Moham^tanes." iu "Rev. de I'llistoire dts
      Religinns," xxvi. 129-137; "La Notion de la Sakina
      Chez Ics Mobametans," in ih. xxviii. 1-13; "Salih b.
      "AbJ al-KuddCis und das ZindiUthuni Wiihrend der
      Regierung des Chalifen Al-Mahdi, " in " Transactions
      of tlio Congress of Oriental Languages," 1893, ii.
      104-139; " JMoliammedan Propaganda iu America"
      (Hungarian), iu "liudapesti Szemle," Ixxix. 45-00;
      "Sa'd b. JMausGr ibn Kamnulna's Abhandlung iiber
      die Scele," in "Steinsclineider Festschrift," pp. 110-
      114; "Neue Material ieu zur Litteratur des Ueber-
      lieferungswesens bci den Muhannnedanern," iu "Z.
      D. 51. G." I. 405-500; " Ueber eine Pormel in der
      Jilflischen Responseulitteratur und iu den I\Iuliam-
      medanischen Fetwas," in "Z. D. M. G." Ixxx.
      645-053; "Die Sabbathiustitution im Islam," iu
      "Kaufniaun Gedenkbuch," pp. 80-103; "Probcn
      Muliammedanischer Poleiiiik Gegen den Talmud,"
      in Kol),ak's " Jeschurun," viii. 7(i, ix. 18; "Ibn Hud,
      the Jluhammedan Mystic, and the Jews of Damas-
      cus," in "J. Q. R." vi. 318; "Bemerkungen zur
      Neuhebriiischeu Poesie," iu ib. xiv. 719; "Sa'id b.
      Hasau d'Alexaudrie," iu " R. E. J." xxxi. 1; "Me-
      langes Jud^o-Arabes," in ib. xliii. 1, xliv. 63, xlv. 1,
      xlvii. 41.

      BmLiOGRAPUY : Urocktiaus, Knnve-ntnUniw-Lcxilwn ; JVfcyers
      Kiiimeraat Inns-Lcxlknn; Pierer, Unhvrsal-hexiHon; Gu-
      hernatis, Dlctiommire Internatwnal ; Panaa Lex.; La
      Grande Encijclopedlc.

      S. M. Sc.

      GOLEM (0^3) : This word occurs ouly onee in
      "the Bible, in Ps. cxxxix. 10, where it means "em-
      bryo." In tradition everything that is in a state of
      inconipletion, everything not fidly formed, as a
      needle without the eye, is designated as "golem"
      (" Aruch Oompletum," ed. Kohut, ii. 297). A woman
      is golem so long as she has not conceived (Saidi.
      22b; comp. Shab. 52b, 77b; Sauh. 9.5a; Hul. 25a;
      Abot v. 0; Sifre, Num. 158). God, father, and
      mother take part iu the creation of the child: the
      skeleton and brain are derived from the father; the
      skin and muscles from the mother; the senses from

      God. God forms the child from tlie
      Embryo, seed, putting the soul into it. If the

      male seed is emitted first, the child is
      of the male sex ; otherwise it is of the female sex
      (Nid. 31a), Althcugh God impresses all men with
      the seal of Adam, there is no resemblance between
      any two of them (Sanh. 37a).

      In the womb the navel is first formed, and from
      this roots spread out, until the child is fully devel-
      oped. According to another opinion tlie head is
      first developed. The two eyes and the two nostrils
      of the embryo resemble the eyes of a fly ; the apei-
      ture of the mouth is like hair (or a barleycorn). R.
      Jonathan says: "The two arms are like two pieces
      of string; the other members are combined in a
      mass" (Yer. Nid. 50(1; comp. Nid. 25a; Sotah 45b).
      Women that eat much mustard give birlh to glut-
      tonous cliildren ; those that eat many d.ites, to blear-
      eyed childien; those that eat much small fish, chil-

      dren with unsteady eyes; those that eat clay,
      naughty children ; those that drink beer, dark-

      skiuued children; those that eat much

      Causes meat and drink much wine, healthy

      Influencing' children; those that eat many eggs,

      the Embryo, children with large eyes ; those tliat eat

      much large fish, beautiful cliildren;
      tliose that eat much celery or parsley, children with
      flue complexions; those that eat oleander, well-nour-
      ished children ; tho.se that eat paradise-apples, fra-
      grant chililreu (Ket. Gla). The same Babylonian
      amora, of the fourth century, also indicates why
      epileptic and otherwise defective children are born
      (Brecher, "Das Transcendentale, Magic und jMa-
      gische Heilarteu im Talmud," pp. lliietKeq.). jMfrral,
      not physical, reasons are given as the priucipal fac-
      tors in the birth of healthy or sickly cliildren. De-
      cent behavior produces male children (Sheb. 18b;
      comp. Nid. 71a), who are also regularly produced
      under cerlaiu conditions ('Er. 100b; B. B. 10b; Nid.
      81a, b). A dwarf should not marry a dwarf (Bek.
      40a). Other references to the embryo are found in
      Nid. 15a, 17a, 31b, 37b, 38a, 45b, 00a; Bezali 7a;
      Bek. 44b-45a; Hul. 127a; Ned. 20a; Pes. 112a, and
      'pns.sim. Unfounded hatred causes abortion and the
      death of the child (Shab. 32b).

      The imagination of the ancient Israelites fre-
      quently turned to the birth of the first mau, who
      was formed of dust and not born of woman. A
      principal passage reads as follows : " How was Adam
      created? In llie first hour his dust was collected;
      iu the .second his form was created; in the third he
      became a shapeless mass [golem] ; in the fourth liis
      members were joined; in the fifth liis apertures
      opened; in the sixth he received his soul; in the
      seventh he stood up on his feet; in the eighth Eve
      was associated witli him; iu the nhith he was trans-
      ferred to paradi.se; in the tenth he heard God'scom-
      mand; in the eleventh he sinned; in the twell'th lie
      was driven from Eden, in order that Ps. xlix. 13

      might be fulfilled " (Ab. R. N. ed.

      Adam Schechter. Text A, i. 5; comp. Pcsik.

      as Golem. R. cd. Friedmann, 187b, and note 7;

      Kohut, in "Z. D. M. G." xxv. 13).
      God created Adam as a golem; he lay supine, reach-
      ing from one end of the world to the other, from
      the earth to the firmament (Hag. 13a; comp. Gen.
      R. viii., xiv., and x\iv. ; Jew. Encyc. i. 175). The
      Gnostics, following Irena>us, also taught that Adam
      was immensely long and broad, and crawled over
      the earth (Hilgenfeld, "Die Jiidische Apokalyptik,"
      p. 314; comp. Kohut, i.e. xxv. 87, note 1). All
      beings were created in their natural size and with
      their full measure of intelligence, as was Adam (It.
      H. 11a). According to another tradition Adam was
      oulj' one lumdred ells high (15. B. 7>5a); according to
      a Mohammedan legend, only sixty ells (Koliiit,
      l.r. xxv. 75, note 5; the number "sixty" indicates
      Babylonian influence). When he hid from the face
      of God, six things were taken from him, one of these
      being his .size, which, however, will be restored to
      him in the Messianic time (Gen. R. xii. ; Num. K.
      xiii. ; Koliut. I.e. xxv. 70, note 1 ; 91, note 3). Other
      conceptions, for instance, that Adam was created a
      hermaiibiodite (see ANtinooYNOs), or Avith two
      faces (DISIDIIS'T = '''^/«Ji'"""r; Gen. R. viii. 7), be-




      long to the literatvirc of Gnosticism. For siiuilur

      views, after Pluto and Philo, sec Froudenllial,

      '•Ililluiiistiselie Studien," p. 69 (see Adam).

      Bim.iOfiR.vriiv: C. Brci'liL-r, Diis Trani'cendciitnlr, JTaaie
      xinil .'^t<misrlie H' Hailiii iin 7Vi(>iii»i, Vienna. Ifwl); A. Ku-
      liiit. Hit Tiihnudiscli'Miilrnsthisiiir Adamssnac in Hirer
      Itlhliliezicliiiiiil I'lif (lie I'irsisclh Vimn- mid Mi'sliiaxaue,
      In Z. D. M. U. XXV. "liMJl ; M. (iitiiilKiuiri, ynu- Iteitriitje zur
      aeiinli.'iclicn Sanenliuudf.pyi. at ctsi<i.. I.i'vilrn, IS!):); .Jkw.
      Encvc.I. 174-175; A. Hiigvntiilii, Vic J Udixclic Apnhalmit ilc,
      Jena. ltiJ7.
      E. C. L. B.

      In Medieval Times: In the Jliddle Ages

      arose llie liclief in the possibility of infusinK life
      into a clay or wooden ligiire of a liwnian being,
      whieh figure was termed "golem" by writers of
      the eighteenth century. The golem grew in size,
      and could carry any message or obey mechanically
      any order of its master. It was supposed to be
      created by the aid of the "iSefer Yczirah," that is,
      by a combination of letters forming a "Shem" (any
      one of the names of Go<l). The Shem was written
      on a piece of paper and inserted either in the mouth
      or in the forehead of tlic golem, tlius bringing it
      into life and action. Solomon ilin Gabirol is said to
      have created a maid servant by this means. The
      king, informed of this, desired to punish him, but
      Ibn Gabirol showed that his creature was not a real
      being by restoring every one of its parts to its origi-
      nal form.

      Elijah of Chelm, in the middle of the sixteenth
      century, was the fir.st person credited with having
      made a golem with a Shem, for which reason lie
      was l;no«n as a " Ba'al Shem." It is said to have
      grown to be a monster (resembling that of Franken-
      stein), which the rabbi feared might destroy the
      world. Finally he c.Mracted the Shem from the
      forehead of his golem, which returned to dust
      (Azulai,"Sliemha-Gedolim," i., No. I(i3). Elijah's
      grandson, known as the '"liakam Zebi," was so con-
      vinced of the truth of this that he raised the ques-
      tion as to whether a golem could be counted as one
      in a " minyau " ((juorum ; Responsa, No. 93, Amster-
      dan>, ITl'i; Baer Ilcteb to Shulhan 'Aruk, Orah
      Hayyim, 55, 1). The best-known .golem was that

      of Judah Low b. liezaleel, or the

      Golem of " hohe Rabbi Low," of Prague (end of

      Holie 113th cent.), who used liis golem as a

      Rabbi Low. servant on week-days, and extracted

      the Shem from the golem's mouth
      every Friday afternoon, so as to let it rest on Sab-
      bath. Once the rabbi forgot to extract the Shem,
      and feared that the golem would desecrate the Sab-
      bath, lie pursued the golem and caught it in front
      of the synagogue, just before Sabbath began, and
      Inirriedly extracted the Shem, whereupon the golem
      fell in pieces; its remains are said to lie still among
      the debris in the attic of the syna,gogue. Rabbi Low
      is credited with having performed similar wonders
      before Rudolph 11. ("Sippurim," p. 52; eomp. Gaiis,
      "Zemah Dawid," p. 4lia, Frankfort-on-lhe-Main,
      1G92). A legend connected with his golem is given
      in German verse by Gnstav Philippson in "Allg.
      Zeit. des.Iud." 1841. No. 44 (abridged in " Sulamith?'
      viii. 231; translated into Hebrew in "Kokebe Yiz-
      hak," No. 28, p. 75, Vienna, l.%2).

      It is sometimes aileged that Elijah of Wilna also
      made a golem, and the Hasidim claim the same for

      Isniel Ba'al Shem-Tob, but apparently the claims
      are based on the similarity in the one ca.se of the
      name "Elijah" ami in the other of the appellation
      "Ba'al Sliem " to the name and apjiellation of the
      rabbi of Chelm. The last golem is attributed to R.
      Davidl .lall'e, rabbi in Dorhiczyn, in the government
      of Grodno, Russia (about 18110). This golem, unlike
      tliat of R. Low, was not suppose<l to rest on Sab-
      bath. Indeed, it appears that it was created only
      for the puriKise of replacing the Sabbath goy in
      heating the oven.s of .Jews on winter S;ibbatlis. All
      orders to make fires were given to the golem on
      Friday, which he executed promptly but mechanic-
      ally th(^ next day. In one case a slight error in an
      order to the golem caused a conllagial ion lli.'it des-
      troyed the whole town.

      From this story it becomes probable that the whole
      of the golem legend is in sonu; way a reflex of
      the medieval legends about Vergil, who was cred-
      ited with the power of making a statue move and
      speak and do his will. His disciple once gave
      orders which, stiictly carried out, resulted in his
      deslruclion. The statue of Vergil saved an adul-
      teress, just as did the golem of R. Low in Philipp-
      son's above-mentioned poem (J. A. Tuuisou, "Mas-
      ter Virgil," p. 145, Cincinnati, 1888).

      BiBi.ioi:RAPMT:H'i-Jl/d(7f;iW, lS(i7, StippliMiicnt Nn. 42; Pasclie-
      Ics. Sippurim. vp. 51-.iA Pi-igiic, 1S7I1; Ruliin, Mii'ase
      Ta'aluim. p. 117, Vienna, 1.S.H7; Tendlaii, Siiiicn. tiiid Le-
      (tendeii drr Jlidisilicn Vin'zeit.
      J. .L D. E.

      GOLGOTHA (literally, "the skull"): Locality
      nu-nliiined in tlie New Testament as the scene of
      .Jesus' execution (Matt, xxvii. 83 and parallels)
      The name is an Aramaic emphatic state, and corre-
      sponds to the Hebrew roibi- I" t'"' Greek trans
      ! iteration of the Gospels the" 1 " is elided except in one
      nnnuscript (Codex Bezw) ; "Golgotha " is the proper
      form. It was outside the city wall (.John xix. 20).
      near a tomb, a gate, and a road, and in a promi-
      nent position (Mark xv. 29, 40; John xix. 20,
      41). Two places answerto this description: (1) The
      Church of the Holy Sepulchcr, which is identilied )iy
      tradition with Golgotha; it lay beyond the second
      wall and was near tombs and a road. A temple of
      Venus was erected on the site; and from the anal-
      ogy of the temple of Zeus, whieh was built on the
      site of the Second Temple, this seems to imply that
      it was once a sacred spot. (2) A.skull-shaiicd rock
      above the grotto of Jeremiah, about which there is
      a Jewish tradition that it was the; ]ilace of st,oiiing.
      The name docs not occur in Talmudie literature.
      See also Adam.
      Bibliography: A. McOn'Kor, in Eiicuvliipivdio Ilrilmniifa,

      s.T. Sepulclire, Holii; Clieyue and Black, thiciic. liihl. s.v.

      i;. c. J.

      GOLIATH: A Philistine giant of Gatli (I Sam.
      xvii. 4). The name " Goliath " is probably comieeted
      with the Assyro-Babylonian "Guz:ili" = "running,
      ravaging spirits," "destroyers" (Jastrow, "Religion
      of Assyria and Babylon," p. 500; Muss-.\rnolt,
      "Concise Dictionary." s.c. "The Throne-Carriers";
      Delitzsch, "Assyrisches Haiidwi'irterb." .«.?.).

      Biblical Data: GoH:ith was the champion of

      the I'hilisliiies. who had encamped between Shochoh
      and .\zekali against Saul and the men of Israel ar-
      rayed for battle in the valley of Khih. He is described




      as being six cubits and a span in height, having
      upon his head a liehuet of brass, and wearing a coat
      of mail weigliing five thousand shekels of brass,
      with greaves of brass upon his legs and a target or
      gorget of brass between his slioulders. The staii of
      his spear is said to have been like a weaver's beam,
      the spear's head weigliing six huudreil sliekels of

      Insolently challenging Israel to appoint one of
      their number to meet him in single combat, with tlie
      condition that the people wliose champion should
      be killed should become the slaves of the other,
      Goliath strikes fear into the hearts of Saul and his
      men. David, sent by his father with some provi-
      sions to his brotliers and to their captain in Israel's
      array, hears the giant's challi'nge, and imiuires what
      reward there shall lie for the man who dares meet
      the monster. Rebidced by ids Ijrother Eliah for his
      presumption in leaving the slicep, and taxed by him
      witli idle curiosity, David persists in liis inquiry.
      Saul hears of David, and sends for him. The latter
      relates his experiences with lions and bears, and de-
      clares that the imcireuinci.sed Philistine shall at his
      hands meet a similar fate.

      On being armed witli Saul's armor, David finds
      that it impedes his gait, whereupon he discards it,
      takes his staff, and cliooses five smooth stones out of
      the l)rook for use in his sling. He meets the giant,
      who, upon catching sigiit of Ins diminutive adver-
      sary, resents Ins coming as an insult. David de-
      clares tliat he comes in tlic name of Yiiwii of hosts,
      the God of Israel, and warns tlic monster of liis im-
      minent destruction. David, using great strategy in
      running forwaiil and liackward, watches until the
      giant exposes his face, when, rushing upon him,
      he slings one of tlie stones, which.

      Is Slain well directed, strikes tlie giant be-
      by David, tweeu the eyes, and. sinking deep into
      Ins foreliead, fells bim to tlie ground.
      Drawing the giant's own sword, the shepherd bo}'
      severs the head from the trunk. The defeat and
      death of their champion are the signal for a hasty
      fliglit of the Pliilistincs. In consequence of this
      feat, David is received into Saul's family, but Saul
      becomes jealous of the young conqueror's popular-
      ity (I Sam. xviii. 9). Goliath's sword is reported to
      liave been kept, " wrapped in a cloth behind the
      epliod," in the sanctuary at Nob in which Ahimclek
      was priest. David, a fugitive from Saul, knowing
      its worth, takes it with liim in his flight to the King
      of Gath (I Sam. xxi. 9 [A. V. 10]). According to
      another account (11 Sam. xxi. 19). Goliath was killed
      liy Ellianan from Hetlilc hem.

      In Rabbinical Literature : Goliath was of

      ignoble liirth. His mother is .said to have been Or-
      pah (nsiy = na"in: II Sam. xxi. 16; Talk. ii. 12.i).
      wlio. after making a pretense of accompanying
      Ruth, lier mother-in-law, and walking with her forty
      paces, liad left her and liad led a very iirofiigate life,
      so that Goliath, her son, was of uncertain paternity
      (Midr. Ruth i. 14, wliere the Uetib ninjJDO (I Sam.
      xvii. 33) is read nilJJ HXDD; comp. Talk. ii. 126,
      601). She bore besides Goliath three other giants
      (Tan., 'Wayiggash, 8).

      In defying Israel Goliath boasted of having .slain
      the two sons of Eli, captured the lioly Ark, brought

      it to the house of Dagou, where it stayed seven
      months, and of having led the van of the Philistines
      in every war, scattering the enemy before him like
      dust. Notwithstanding all these valorous deeds, he
      had not been found wortliy to be the captain over
      a tliousand. But what had Saul done? Why had
      he been made Idng'!* If he was a man and warrior,
      he should now come forward and meet him ; liut if
      lie was a weakling, let Israel choose another cham-
      pion (Targum to I Sam. xvii. 8). The name tlie giant
      bore indicated bis supernatural insolence, Goliath re-
      calling that lie na'p.Tjaij D''J3 '1^33 noV, stood with
      "uncovered [arrogant] countenance before even God"
      (Sotah43b). Goliath challenged the Israelites every
      morning and every evening, so as to disturb them
      at the hour set for reciting the Siiema' (Yalk. ii.
      126). He was permitted to I'cpeat his defiances for
      forty days because of tlie forty paces which Orpah
      had accompanied Ruth (Tan., Wayiggash, 8). His
      accouterments weighed, according to R. Hauina.
      60 tons; according to R. Abba bar Kahana, 120 tons
      (Sotah 48b). The Biblical account is .said to h:ive
      described tlie immense projiortions and strength of
      the giant only in order to convey tlie lesson that it
      is unlawful to sing the praises of an evil-doer
      (Yalk. I.e.).

      The accouterments of Saul fitted David ; but the
      latter, seeing Saul's displeasure, doffed them (Mid-
      rash Tan., Emor, ed. Buber, p. 43a; comp. a similar
      tradition among the Arabs in Tabari and Mas'ndi).
      When David went forth to battle, liowever, God
      placed greaves upon his limbs (Yalk. I.e.). Why
      did Goliath fall on his face';' In order that David
      should not be put to the trouble of going far when
      rushing upon liim to behead him. According to R.
      Huna, Goliatli had tlie picture of Dagon engraved
      upon his heart, which also came to shame through
      the giant's death (Cant. R. to iv. 4). Goliath is
      mentioned as the typical case where strength leads
      to downfall (Ex. R. xxxi.). He died like a dog
      (ii.). The sword of David (probably Goliath's)
      h.ad miraculous {lowers (Midrash Golyat, .Tellinek,
      "B. H." iv. 140-141). In order to guard the slayer
      of Goliath against becoming overbearing, God ex-
      posed hiui to the revenge of his slain adversary's
      Iirother and mother (see Gi.\nts ; Sanh. 95a; Jelli-
      nek, " B. Ii. " iv. 140 et scq.). The Targum to II Sam.
      xxi. 19 makes David, not Elhanan, the slayer of
      Goliath; Raslii identiti<'S Ellianan with David.

      Critical View: The two accounts of Goliatli's

      death prove that many old traditions concerning
      valorous deeds performed in the wars against tlie
      Philistines were current among (he people, the
      names of the heroes being variously given. Popu-
      lar imagination attributed gigantic stature to the
      champions of the enemy; speaking not of one giant
      onl3% but of four (II Sam. xxi. In et seq.). and asso-
      ciating with David other men, "his servants," who
      after one of these encounters (with Ishbibenob; see
      Gi.vNTs), in which David had run great dangers,
      swear to prevent him from again taking part in such

      The endeavor to harmonize the variant accounts
      is apparent in the version of I Cliron. xx. .'>, where
      Ellianan is credited with the slaying ot Lahmi, the
      brother of Goliath. This Lahmi clearlv owes his




      existt'ucc to the epithet by wliich EUmiiiin is distin-
      guished in II Sum. xxi. lit, niunely , tlie " Betli-lehem-
      ile " COn^n n'3)- 'l"he eonfiisiou in the text is plain
      in tlu' rciietiliun of "oreiiini" after tlie name of
      Elliauan's fallier, .Taare (.lair), from the end of the
      verse " llic staff of wliose spear was like a weaver's

      The brief sketch in II Sam. xxi. is tlie more trust-
      worthy. The men of David — freebooters — mani-
      fest no fear in their movements against the enemies.
      The story of David's duel exhibits great literary
      skill, and the purpo.se is plainly to exalt David.
      The giant and the mere lad — the one in heavy, for-
      midable equipment, the other with

      Literary the simple outtit of a shepherd; the
      Treatment, insolence of the Philistine; the faith
      and fortitude of David; thecowardiee
      of Israel; the distrust of David's own brothers; the
      helplessness of Saul; the blind animal passion of the
      champion; the shrewd, calm strategy of the shep-
      herd — all these are contrasted effects worked out
      ^\ itli consummate art. But they point to the fact
      that in this version reflection and tendency had the
      dominating part. Prom the point of view of liter-
      ary effectiveness, few portions of Old Testament
      literature equal this.

      Underlying this tradition concerning Goliath and
      other giants is the undoubted fact that many huge
      weapons of bronze (brass) and iron were found by
      the invading shepherd tribes of Israel. Many of
      these were stored a^vay at old shrines, jierhaps be-
      cause they were votive gifts of former generations
      (I Sam. xvii. 54). The sword incident in the ver-
      sion of I Sam. xvii. reflects, according to Cheyne,
      the religious temper of late Psalms (Ps. xx. 7 [A.
      V. 8], xliv. .') [6]). The battle-cry in Cideon's army
      (Judges vii. 2U) may be remembered as signiticant
      in this connection. The later religious construction
      of the David-Goliath incident (see EecUis. [Sirach]
      xlvii. 2-11) is indeed woven in to the account in I Sam.
      xvii., just as the valoro\is deed of David furnished
      the basis for the late superscriptions of ]isalms within
      and witliout the Hebrew canon (Ps. cxliv. [cxliii.])
      and of one in the Greek psalter, liu-Dm tov apidfiuv:
      "when David fought against ro/mtS" (Goliad[thJ).

      The text of the Septuagint differs mateiially from
      the Hebrew: verses 12-31, 41, 48b, an<l .'iO are miss-
      ing. These omitted, a coherent and consistent nar-
      rative is presented, recounting how David, a mere
      recruit, becomes suddenly a renowned warrior.
      Some critics have assumed that these omissions were
      made intentionally (so Wellhausen, "Die Composi-
      tion des Hoxateucbs," etc., 3d ed., p. 249; Kuenen,
      " Ilistorisch-Kritiscbe Einleitung in die Bucher des
      Alten Testaments," i., part 2, p. CI ; Budde, "Richter
      und Samuel," p. 210). Others (W. K. Smith and
      Cornill) believe that the Hebrew verses not found in
      the Septuagint represent a second David-Goliath

      E. c. E. G. H.

      sian writer; born inthe.seeond half of the nineteenth
      centurj'. He became notorious through his history of
      Russian legislation dealing with the Jews, entitled
      "Istoria Russkavo Zakonodatelstva O Yevrevakb."

      of which only the first volume, covering the jieriod
      from Alexis IMikhailovieh (1049) to 182r), has ap
      peared. Ilis work is anti-Semitic in tendency. Al-
      though Golitzyn assumes that his compilation will be
      of historical vahn; lostudifntsof the Jewish (|uestion,
      he does not conceal his prejudice against the Jews,
      and he even admits in the preface that the ([uestion.
      because^ of its vitality and urgency, can hardly lie
      studied in a cold, impartial spirit. In speaking of
      the attitude of the Russian Jews toward the inva
      sion of Napoleon, he belittles their patriotism and.
      in spite of direct testimony to the contrary (see
      Ai.F.XANDKU I. ; Rfssi.\), even accii.sesthem of self-
      ish motives. Referring to the attempts of the Scniate
      under FJizabeth and Catherine II. to revise the laws
      concerning the Jews, Golitzyn neglects the facts
      which made sucli attempts necessary, and ascribes
      the action of the Senate to the intrigues of the Jews*.
      The work is a compilation from the writings of Or-
      shanski, Leontovioh, Dobrynin, Bei'shadski, Nikitin,
      Derzhavin. Levanda, and others, supplemented by
      speculations of the author utterly at variance with t he
      facts. Count Golitzyn, however, styles his work
      original, and claims, for instance, that Bershadski's
      "Litov.skiye Yevreii" is .strongly in favor of the
      Jews. Using Nikitin's history of the Jewish agri-
      cultural colonies in 1804-33, he not only imposes a
      different and unwarranted meaning upon the facts
      brought out by that author, but accuses him of jiar-
      tiality and lack of thoroughness, though admitting
      at the same time that Nikitin's work posse.sses great
      value as an extensive collection of interesting facts.

      Bibliography: Vmkhml, 1887, lit. 29, iv. 1.5; KntzikUqinli-
      cUeski Slovar, s.v. SI. Peterslmry.

      n. Ti. J. G. L.

      GOLLANCZ, HERMANN: English rabbi;

      born at Bremen Nov. 30, 1S02; educated at Jews'

      and University colleges, London. He officiated at

      .several synagogues in England, and on the death of

      the late chief rabbi succeeded Dr. Hermann Adler

      as rabbi at Bay svvater Synagogue, London. In Jan. .

      1900. he obtained the degree of Lit. D. from the Uni

      versify of London, being tlie first Jew to obtain that

      honor. Gollancz was secretary to the International

      Congress of Orientalists (Semitic Section) held in

      London in 1891, and was appointed to represent the

      University of London as delegate at the Oriental

      Congress held at Rome. He is professor of Hebrew

      at University College, London. 1I<! has published

      "Selectionsof Charms from Unedited Syriac 5ISS.."

      1891; English translations of "The Syriac Version

      of Sindban," 1892; "The Etliic;il Treatises of Ber-

      achyali" (with Eng. transl.), London, 1903; and

      "Clavis Solomonis," 1903. In 1903 he edited an

      Engli.sh version of the Bible for use in Jewish


      Bibliography: Jcu: tViroii. Jan. ."i. llinii; .1, ir. Year-Bdck.

      .r. G. L.

      GOLLANCZ, ISRAEL : Secretary of the Brit-
      ish Ae:uleiny ; boni in London 1804. He was edu-
      cated at the City of London School and Cambridge
      University (B.A., 1887). He was lecturer in English
      :il University College 1892-9.'"); leeturerat Cambridge




      under the Special Board 1888-90 ; and examiner for
      the medieval and nioderu tripos 1805-96. He was
      elected lecturerin Englisli at the University of Cam-
      bridge in March, 1890. When, owing in laige meas-
      ure to Gollaucz's initiative, the British Academy
      was founded in 1902, he was a|)pointed secretary.
      In 1903 he became professor of Englisli literature
      at King's College, London. Gollancz has always
      interested himself in communal affairs; he is con-
      nected with severa,! of the chief institutions, has
      been for several years theological tutor to the Jew-
      ish students at Harrow School, and in 1903 was
      elected president of the LTnion of Jewish Literary

      Gollancz has edited: "The Pearl," a Middle-Eng-
      lish poem prefaced with a special verse by Tenny-
      son, 1891; "Cynewulf'sClirist," 1892; " E.xeter Book
      of Anglo-Sa.xou Poetry " (Early English Text Soci-
      ety), 1895; "Temple Shakespeare," 1894-96, of
      which nearly three million copies have been sold,
      and which led to the publication of the"Tem])le
      Classics," a series of the best books; "The Parlia-
      ment of the Three Ages" (Roxburgh Club), 1897;
      and "Hamlet in Iceland." 1898. Gollancz is now
      (1903) editing another .series entitled "The King's

      Bibliogr.\phy: Tnio'.-i Wlio. Landon, 1903; Jew. Clirvii.
      March 20, 1S9S; Jew Ml Year-Buok, 1903.

      ,r. V. E.

      GOLOMB, HIBSCH NISSAN: Russian He-
      braist and writer on music; born at Podzelve, gov-
      ernment of Wilna, Dec. 15, 1853. He studied in the
      yeshibah of AVilkomir, and received a good musical
      training at Wilna. At the beginning of his literary
      career lie was a corrector iu Romra's printing-house
      at Wilna, and while there he translated into Juda^o-
      German the " Ililkot De'ot " of the Yad ha-I.Iazakah,
      Wilna, 1876. He also published several ivimphlets
      in Judico-German, among them "Mishle Hakamim."
      He tiien published a series of works on music: "Kol
      Yehudah," a musical chrestoinathy, Wilna, 1S77;
      "Menazzeah bi-Neginot,"anianualof singing and the
      violin, partly in Hebrew and partly in Jud;co-Ger-
      man, ib. 1884; "Zinirat Yali,"a manual of harmony,
      in Hebrew and Jiukieo-Gcrman, follow'cd by a mu-
      sical glossary, ib. 1885. He has also written the fol-
      lowing school-books: " Heder la-Tiuokot." a He-
      brew reader, ib. 1883; "Lahakat Nebi'im," a graded
      Hebrew chrestomatliy, ib. 1888; "Kiryat Sefer," a
      description of Wilua, Grodno, Byelostok, and War-
      saw, and of their Jewish communities.

      Bibliography : Sol;olov, Sefer Ziklmrnn, p. 1.5, Warsaw, 1889 ;
      Zeltlln, Bihl. PoKt-Mcndeh. pp. 119, l:;o.

      n. R. M. Sel.

      NIKI : Jjil tie-Russian cleric and anti-.lewisli writer;
      died 1688. After having studied in the Kiev-
      Mogilian College, Golyatovski took holy orders, and
      was later appointed rector of the Little-Rus.sian
      schools. He declared himself the enemy of the
      Roman Catholics, Jews, and Moslems, but showed
      the greatest animosity toward the Jews, knowing
      tliat this would increase his popularity among the
      populace of Little Russia. Golyatovski soon found
      in the appearance of Shabbethai Zebi a good ojipor-
      tunity for venting his ill-will. Taking tlie latter's

      assumptions as a pretext, he wrote, in the form of a
      dialogue between a Jew and a Christian, a violent
      polemic against the Jews under the title "Messia
      Pravdivi." He says in the preface that the reason
      wliich induced him to write the work was that the
      dishonesty of the Jews iu Little Russia, Lithuania,
      and Poland "raised its horns too high." He de-
      scribes the Shabbethaiau movement from a strongly
      anti-Jewish point of view. The work was written
      iu Little-Russian, then translated into Latin, and
      afterward into Russian by I. Nitzkevich (Kiev, 1887).

      Bibliography: EntziMnpeiUchesM Slovar; UnWiana Ent-
      ziklnpedin ; Kostomarov, Russkaua Istoria, 11. 3.")7 ct seq.,
      St. Petersburg, 1895 ; Voskhod, 18*7.

      II. R. M. Sel.

      GOMEL. See Homel.

      GOMEL BENSHEN (" gomel " = Hebr., " who
      beslowt-lli " ; ■' lieiisheii " = Jud;eo-Gernian, "to
      bless"); The pronouncing of the benediction for
      escape from danger after passing through the
      desert; after confinement in prison; after severe
      sickness; and after crossing the sea and arriving
      safel.v in port. From the verses " Men should praise
      the Lord for his goodness, and for his wonderful
      works to the children of men ! " and " They should
      exalt him also in the assembly of the people, at
      the seat of the elders they should praise him " (Ps.
      cvii. 8, 15, 31, 32, Hebr.),"tlie Talmud (Ber. 54b) de-
      rived the duty of giving thanks on the four occasions
      enumerated, and of doing this in public, that is,
      where ten or more men are gathered together for
      common worship. It is suggested that a literal com-
      pliance with the text ("at the seat of the elders")
      would require the presence of two rabbis, but this
      notion has been ignored. The words of the benedic-
      tion suggested in the Talmud are : " Blessed be . . .
      wiio bestowetli ["gomel"] goodly mercies" ; but in
      modern usage the one "bound to give thanks" is
      called to the desk to read a subsection from the Penta-
      teuch, and, after the usual benediction at the close,
      he adds the following: "Blessed be Thou . . . who
      bestoweth favors on the guilty, and who hath be-
      stowed on me all that is good"; wliereupon all the
      bystanders answer: "He who has bestowed good on
      thee may further bestow good on thee: Selali."

      BIBLI0I4RAPHY : Maimonides, Tnd, Derahot,x.S; Caro, Sftu!-
      han 'Aruk, Utah Hayijim, 319, 1.

      8. s. L. N. D.

      GOMER (HDJ) : 1- Eldest son of Japheth, and
      father of Ashkenaz, Riphath, and Togarmah (Gen.
      X. 2, 3; I Chron. i. 5, 6). In Yoma 10a and Yer.
      ]\Ieg. i. 9 "Gomer" is explained to be the .same as
      K'OOTJ. which stands either for N'-itDOJ ("Ciin-
      merii ") or for N''JD"IJ ("Germany"). Jn Gen. R.
      xxxvii. "Gomer" is Africa, and "Magog" is Ger-
      many (comp. Lenormant, "Origines," ii. 332).
      GoiiKM-, standing for the whole famil.y, is mentioned
      in Ezek. xxxviii. 6 as the ally of Gog, the chief of
      the land of Magog.

      2. Daughter of Diblaim, and wife of the prophet
      Ilosea (Hosea 1. 3).

      E. o. ir. M. Sel.

      GOMEZ: The Gomez family, or rather that
      branch of it which has established itself in America,
      traces its descent from Isaac Gomez, a JIarano who

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      left Madrid early in the seventeenth century and
      went to Bordeaux, whence his son Lewis removed
      to Loudon and, hitcr, to New Yorlv. His descend-
      ants liave intermarried with most of the old time
      American Jewish families. For the genealogical
      tree of the Gomez famil.y see page 41.
      .1. " , E. N. S.

      GOMEZ, ANTONIO ENRIftUEZ (call, d at

      the Spanish court Enrique Enriquez de Paz) :
      Spanish poet; born in Segovia toward the end of the
      si.\tccnlli century ; died in 1(K!3. He was a S(m of the
      Marano Diego Enrinuez de Villanueva. Of excep-
      tional abilities, Antonio devoted liimself to study
      while very young. At the age of twenty he entered
      upon a military career, in which he distinguished
      liimself so greatly that he was soon advanced to the
      rank of captain, was dccoi-ated with the Orderof St.
      Michael, and received the title of " Royal Counselor. "
      Later, however, he was suspected b_v the Inquisi-
      tion, and tied to France. For several years he re-
      mained in Bordeaux, Rouen, or Paris, and tlien
      settled in Amsterdam, where he openly jirofessed
      Judaism. In Ajiril. 1(500, he was publicly burned
      in efBgy in Seville.

      Gomez cultivated almost every l)nincli of litera-
      ture. He di.stiugnished himself as philosopher, poet,
      theologian, statistician, and author. In the pro-
      logue to liis heroic poem, " El Samson Nazareno," he
      gives a list of his works which had appeared up to
      that time, as follows:

      Aeademias Morales de las Musas. Bordeaux, 1612; Madrid,
      1B6(] ; liaroelona, ITU-t.

      La Culpa del Primer Peregrino. Rouen. 1044 ; Madrid, 173.5.

      La Poliiiea Angelica, divided inlo Ave dialogues, llouen, 1047.

      Luis Dado de Dios A Luis y Ana, Samuel Liado de Dios a Ei-
      cana y Ana, dedicated to Louis XIV. Paris, 1645.

      El Sigh) I>il.~ii.'orico y Vida de D. GreKorio Guadafia. Rouen,
      1047 ; 2d ed., 16S3.

      La Torre de Babilonia. Part i., i7). 1649; Madrid, 1670; Am-
      sterdam, 1726.

      El Samson Nazareno: Pt.ieina Heroieo. Rouen, 16.56,

      Romance al Divin Martyr Juda Creyentv, Martirizado em
      Valladolid por la Inquisicion, an account of ttie martyrdom of
      Juda Creyente or D. Lope de Vera y Alarcon, who was burned
      to death at Valladolid July 25, 1644. See Daniel Levi de Bar-
      rio.s, "Relaciou de los Poeta.s," p. 57; Neuhauer, "Cat. Bodl.
      Hehr. MSS." No. 34S1, 5.

      Gomez was also a ]irolific dramatist, as he himself
      has stated in the prologue to his " Samson Nazareno " ;
      up to the year IGI'3 he had written twenty-two
      dramas, some historical and some heroic. Many of
      them show a sti'ong similarity to those of Calderon.
      who was twenty j'ears his junior; indeed, his plays
      were often passed otl as Calderou's productions.

      Of his dramas there appeared: "A lo que Obliga
      cl Honor," together with "Aeademias Morales,"
      Bordeaux, 164'J; Valladolid. n.d. ; l5arcelona, 1704;
      "La Prudente Abigail," Bordeaux, 1642; Barcelona,
      1704; Valencia, 171)3; Amsterdam, 172(i. "A lo quo
      Obligan losCelos" was falsely attributed to D. Fer-
      nando de Zarate. Gomez is also .said to be the au-
      thorof " Triunfo Lusitano, Acclamacuo do Si\ Rei D.
      Joan IV.," Paris, 1014, and of the " [,amentacionesde
      Jeremias " (" Revista de Gerona," xii. 70 et seq.).

      Gomez's lyric poems are especially praiseworthy
      for their purity of form, beauty of expi'es.sion,
      wealth of thought, and depth of feeling. He was

      less successful with his heroic poems, which, in the
      opinion of Tickuor, are full of Gongorisms.

      BiBLinfiRAPnv: Tickuor, Hi.-'t. of Spnninh LUcratiire, li. U2
      et Kcij.. iii. 6S (Spanish translation, ii. 4.5:)c( .scr/.); Rios. E.s'fii-
      (Unx, pp. 369 ef se.'i.: KayserlinK. .ScpfinrriiHi, p. 2M, adopted
      In Annua ire (lex Archirex Israelites, .5(>4B (18S5); Idem, Bibl.
      EKp.-Pdi-t.-Jud. pp. 49 et seq.
      o. M. K.

      GOMEZ, DUARTE. See Usque, Solomon.

      GOMEZ, MANUEL : Physician ; born about
      1.580 of Portuguese parentage at Antwerp. After
      studying medicine at Evora he settled as a physician
      at Amsterdam. He wrote " De Pestilentioe Cura-
      tione" (Antwerp, 1003; 3d ed., ik 1648), and is said
      to have been one of the first to call attention to the
      uselessness of milk as a specific in the treatment of
      confirmed phthisis.

      This "Doctor Antwerpiensis,," who was liighly
      esteemed by Ainato Lusitano, was also a poet. Sev-
      eral of his poems — on the spider, the ant, and the
      bee — were added to his metrical commentary ou the
      aphorism of Hippocrates, "Vita brevis, arslonga."
      The commentary, written in Spanish and published
      in 164-3, was eulogized in a Latin ode by his coun-
      tryman Manuel Rodriguez of Antwerp.

      Bnu.KHiRAPiiY : B:irhosa Machado, 7?(7>i(o^(^ca. Liisitana, Hi.
      277; Wolf, Bilil. Helir. Iii. 875; Lindo. The HlsUrril "f "'«
      Jews in Spain and Portuyal, p. 368; Kayserling, Sejj/iar-
      dim. pp. 209, 347.
      G. M. K.


      Spanish physician; died at an advanced age Elul 21
      (= Sept. 10), 1067. He was physician in ordinary to
      the infante Ferdinand (son of Philip III. of Spain),
      governor of the Netherlands. Ills epitaph is recorded
      in D. II. de Castro's " Keur van Grafsteenen," p. 83.
      G. M. K.

      poet ("famoso poeta Latino," according to De Bar-
      rios); son of Abraham Gomez de Sosa. He was
      arbiter at fhe academy of poetry founded by Don
      JNlanuel de Belmonte in 1677. Gomez wrote the
      Latin epitaph on his father's tomb, a Latin poem in
      honor of Jacob JudiUi Leon's " Las Alabau(;as de
      Santitad," and two other poems in honor of a work
      by Joseph Pernio de la Vega. He also caused a
      translation to be made of the work "Divinidad de
      la Ley."

      BiBLiOGRAPHT: D. H. de Castro, Knir van Grafsteenen, p. 8i;
      Kayserling, Bibl. Esji.-Pwt.-Jiid.. pp. la, 22, 59, 74, 94, 104.
      G. M. K.

      GOMORRAH: One of the destroyed cities of
      the Pciita|>i>lis. ('limp. SoDOM and ZoAR.

      GOMPERS, SAMUEL: American labor-leader;
      born in Loudon Jan. 27, 18.j0. At ten years of age
      he became a wage-earner, working in a shoe-fac-
      tory ; later he was apprenticed to a cigar-maker. In
      1863 he emigrated to America, where a _vear later he
      helped to organize the Cigar-Makers' International
      Union, becoming its first registered member. For
      a number of years Gompers was the .secretary and
      pre.sident of this organization and iielped to make it
      the most successful of American trade-unions.

      In 1881 he became a delegiite to the first conven-
      tion of the American Federation of Labor. His nat-
      ural abilities as a leader were soon recognized; in




      SainiK'I (iinniHTs.

      1882 lie W!i9 clcctfii to tlu' prosideiuy of tliu Fedeia-
      tioii, till! eliicf re|irosent;itivc' liody of worUiiii; men
      in the United Slates, possibly in the world, its mem-
      bership beiiifr estimated at over 2,00(1,000. He lias
      heeu continuously re
      elected president, ex-
      cept in lSi)4, when lie
      was defeated by .Tolm
      McBiide. Tlielirst si.\
      y(ai'3 of his presidency
      he served without re-
      muneration, and he
      also paid bis own ex-
      penses incidental to the
      a?,ntatioiis of 18S6 in
      favor of the eight-hour

      (lumpers was instru-
      meiilal ill )ilacing on
      the statute-liooks of
      the national govern-
      ment and of the vari-
      ous states laws for the
      benefit of the worUing
      classes. Among the numerous laws passed at his
      instance are those providing for an eight-hour work-
      day for mechanics and laborers in government
      service, and a ten-hour limit for street-railway work-
      ers; for the regulation of child labor, and the con-
      trol of sweat-shops; and also for making the first
      Jlonday in September a legal holiday, since known
      as "Labor Day."

      In 1901 Gompers was appointed a member of the
      National Civic Federation as a representative of the
      interests of labor

      In addition to being the editor of the " American
      Federationist," the ollicial organ of the American
      Federation of Labor. Gompers has written numer-
      ous articles on the labor question.

      B;rlioc.raphv: Nalional Cijehipcdid of Amrrican nioura-
      (.III/, xi. SiO; ir/io'.< Whii in America. 11)1 1: i : 1'lie Ev-
      rucliipedia (if SociaJ Refurm, s.v.; ICcw International
      Encydoucdiu, s.v.
      A. L G. D.

      GOMPERTZ, BENJAMIN: llritish actuary;
      born in London ^Mareli 5, ITTil; died there July 14,
      186."). He wasdesceniled from t.lie family of Gomperz
      of Emmerich. In 1798 he began to contribute to the
      "Gentleman's Mathematical Companion," fora long
      time carrying oil the annual prizes of that magazine.
      Though he entered the Stock K.xchangc, he contin-
      ued to study inatlieniatics, became a member of the
      old jMathemaf.ical Society of Spitalfields, and acted
      as its president when it became later the Astronom-
      ical Society. He was a contributor to the " Tran.sac-
      tions"of the Royal Society, and in 1817-18 pub-
      lished tracts on imaginary cpiautities and porisms
      which established his reputation as a mathematician.
      In 1819 he was elected a fellow of the Royal Society,
      and became a member of its council in 1832. In
      1831 he was made a member of the council of the
      Astronomical Society, subsequently contributing
      many valuable papers to its jiroceedings.

      Gompertz's reputation rests mainly on his work
      as actuary. On the establishment of the Guardian
      Insurance Ollice in 1821 he was a candidate for its

      actuaryship, but the directors objected to him on
      the ground of his religion. His brotherin-law. Sir
      Moses Monleliorc, in conjunction with Nathan
      Rothschild, tlic^reupon founded the Alliance Assur-
      ance Co. (1^21), and Gompertz was apiioinled actu-
      ary under the deed of settlement. In this ca|)acity
      liiMl<;veloped in 182.5 a matheinatieal law of human
      mortality which remains the foundation of all actu-
      arial calcidatioiis. In 1818 Gomiiertz, after twenty-
      four years' service, retired from the actuaryship and
      devoted himself to scientific labors. He had been
      frequently consulted by the government, and was a
      iiKMiiber of numerous learned societies as well as of
      the leading Jewish charities. He worked out a plan
      of poor-relief which was afterward adopted by the
      Jewish board of guardians.

      Ilini.KiiiinpaY : A. de Mcirgiin, I'n Alliniaiim. .Inly '", 1.HK);
      list i.f Goiiij.ertz's sc-ientillc papers in Nutis <ni<t yiicritx -M
      siTles. X. le); M. N. Aiiler. in ,-l,vMir(iiii'i' .l/iii/iiziiic, ISGj;
      Jtll'. Cliriin. (let. IJ, 184): Dili. Ailfioiml Biuniiiiilni, s.v.

      ,1. G. L.

      GOMPERTZ, ISAAC: English poet: brother
      of licnjaiiiiii and Lewis Gompertz; born 177-1; died
      18.^0. He wrote: "June, or Light and Shade," a
      poem in six parts, Loudon, 18).'); "The Modern
      Antique, or the ;Muse in the Costume of (^ueen
      Anne," London, 1813; "Devon, a Poem," Teign-
      mouth, 182.J. Gompertz was much admired by his
      coutemporaries; Dr. Jamieson, in his " Grammar of
      l{lietoric" (p. 3.J7), classes Gompertz with Drydeii,
      Pope, Addison, and Gray.
      Bidi.ioor.vpht: Diet. Nat. Diny. s.v. Dinjamin and Lewis


      .1. L II.

      GOMPERTZ, LEWIS: English inventor of
      London; died Dee. 3, 1801; brother of Benjamin
      Gompertz, the mathematician. He devoted his life
      to the cause of kindness to animals, and in 1.S24 set
      forth his views in a work entitled " Moral Eni|uiries
      on the Situation of Men and Brutes," which at-
      tracted considerable notice, resulting in the founda-
      tion of the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to
      Animals. Gomjiertz became honorary secretary of
      the society and worked for it willi much enthusiasm.
      In 1832 religious dilliciilties arose between Gompertz
      and the executive committee ; hi-; " Moral Enipiiries "
      was denounced as hostile to Christianity, and he
      severed his connection with the .society. He then
      proceeded to form "The Animals' Friend Society,"
      which speedily outstiippeil the parent institution.
      In connection with the new society Gompertz edited
      "The Animals' Friend, or the Progress of Human-
      ity"; but owing to ill health he was obliged to re-
      tire in 1840 from public work, and the socirly dis-

      Gompertz was the inventor of sliot-i>roof ships,
      witli contrivances for reflecting the balls to the
      places from which they were fired ; a mechanical
      cure for apoplexy ; and the expanding chuck, which
      is now to b(! found in almost every workshop.

      Besides a volume of articles from "The Animals'
      Friend," Gompertz wa:? also the author of " Alechan-
      ieal Inventions and Suggestions on Land and Water
      Locomotion," London, 1851.

      Uuu.incRAPHY : .Jew. Chnm. Nov. 1. ls,sn; Allilwuc, Diet, of
      .tiitlKirs; IJiit. Pi'nlitmal Bi"ei;n(p/i)(, s.v.
      .1. ^- L.




      GOMPERZ, BENJAMIN : Austrian physician ;
      born ut Vit-aua Uct. U, ls(il. Ho was oducaled at the
      Eedpiildstailtur communal gynmasium and the Uni-
      versity of Vienna, and received tlie degree of doctor
      of medicine in 1885. He was appointed assistant at
      the liospital of the university (1885-1'JOU), and subse-
      quently established liiniself in the Austrian capital
      as a physician and specialist in aural and nasal dis-
      eases. Since 1897 he lias been curator of the Baronin
      Hirsch Kaiser-.Iubilauins-Wohlthatigkcit-Stiftung.

      Gouiperz has written many essays for the medical
      journals; e.r/.: "Das Weiche PapilUlre Fibrom der
      Unteren Nasenmuschel," in " Jlonatsschrift fur
      Ohrenheilkuiule." 1889, No. 2; " Erfahningen iiber die
      Verschlicssbarkeit Alter TrominelfellucUen," in llie
      "Wiener Klinische Wocheuschrift," 1890; and a
      number for the "Oesterreichi.sch-Ungarische Cen-
      tralblatt flir die Medizinischen Wissenschaften."
      His " Beitriige zur Pathologischcn Anatomic des
      Ohres"was published in the "Archiv fiir Ohrcn-
      beilUunde." Other essays appeared in the "Central-
      blatt flir die Gesainmte Therapie," in the "Wiener
      Medizinische Wochenscbrift," and in the "Deutsche
      Medizinische Wochen.schrift."

      s. F. T. H.

      GOMPERZ - BETTELHEIM. See Bettel-


      trian mi'icliuut and statesman; br(jthcr of Theodor
      Gomperz; born at Brl'iun 1824; studied at the gym-
      nasium and Philosophisclie Lehranstalt there. In
      18~)9 he became a member of the chamber of com-
      merce (president in 1872). He took his scat in the
      Moravian diet in 1861 ; and in 1871 he was a member
      of the Lower House, entering the Upiier House in
      the year following. In this year he was knighted
      and decorated with the Order of the Austrian Crown
      (3d class). He is also an officer of the Freneli
      Legion of Honor. Gomperz is one of tlie owners
      of the cloth-factory of Auspitz Enkel at Brunn,
      and a member of the firm of Philipp Gomperz of
      Vienna. For many years lie was president of the
      Jewish congregation of Brlinn. S.

      GOMPERZ, THEODOR: Austrian philologist;
      born at Brium March 29. 1833. Ilisgreat-graudfather,
      Benedictus Levi Gomperz, was the financial
      agent of the dnclij' of Cleve, whose influence with
      the Dutcli government was exemplified by his suc-
      cessful intercession (1745) in behalf of tlie Jews of
      Bohemia and Jloravia when they were to be expelled
      from these countries (see Bohemia; Maiiia The-
      resa; comp. David Katifmann, "Barthold Dowe
      Burmania und die Vertreibung der Judcn aus
      Miihren," in "Griitz Jubelschriftr" pp. 279-313).

      Toward the close of the eighteenth century Bene-
      dictus' son, Theodor Gomperz, went to Bri'inn,
      Moravia, where he held a modest position in the
      internal revenue service of the Austrian govern-
      ment under Josepli II. Soon afterward, liowever,
      he retired from public life and devoted himself to
      business, in which he acquired a moderate foi'turie.
      The business was continued by liis sons, the father
      and uncle of Theodor Gomperz. the subject of this
      liiography, both of whom attained to positions of
      trust and respect in the community.

      Gomperz entered the University of Vienna in 1849,
      and studied classical philology unihT Hermann
      Bouitz and pliilosophy under Uobert Zininiermann.
      He especially applied himself to the stud}' of the
      works of Spinoza and James and John Stuart Mill;
      the works of tlie last-named he subsequently trans-
      lated into German (Leipsic, 1869-80).

      Gomperz bec;ime privat-docent in 1867, assistant
      professor in 1869, and professor of classical philol-
      ogy in 1873. He is liouorary Pli.D. of the Univer-
      sity of Kijuigsberg and "doctor litterarum " of the
      University of Dublin. He became corresponding
      member of the Vienna Academy of Sciences in 1808,
      and full member in 1882. He is also corresponding
      member of the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences.
      In 1901 lie was appointed by the emperor Francis
      Joseph member of tiie Austrian House of Lords.

      Gomperz's principal writings are: "Philodemi de
      Ira Liber," 1864; "Demosthenes als Staatsmann,"
      1864; " Herculaneische Studien," 1865; " Beitriige zur
      Kritik und Erklarung Grieehischer Schriftsteller,"
      1875-90; " Herodoteisehe Stndien," 1883; "Ueberein
      Bishcr Unbelvanntes Griechisches Schriftsystem aus
      der jMittedes4. Vordiristlichen Jahrhunderts," 1884;
      " Platouische Aufsiitze, " 1887 ; " Ucberdie Charaktere
      Theophrasts," 1888; "Die Schrift vom Staatswesen
      der Alheuer," 1891. He resigned his professorship
      a f e w years ago to devote his entire energy to his main
      work, "Griechiscbe Denker," which began to ap-
      pear in 1893 (3 vols. ; vol. i. transl. into English by L.
      Magnus). Gomperz declares the object of Ids under-
      taking to be "to present a comprehensive picture
      of this department of knowledge" as a kind of pro-
      legomena to an "exhaustive universal history of the
      mind of antiquity." Each volume is divided into
      tlirce books.

      BuiMOGRAPIIY : Metiers Knnversatwns-LeTiknn ; Brockliaiis,
      Kiinverfiations-Lcxiknn; La Orantle Encuclophiie.s.v.i
      Tb. Gomperz, Erinnciiinnen aits Melnem Lcliet), I., in
      Detdsehe iScmieCed. K. Fleischer), June, 1903, pp. 305-310.



      Spanish bishop and enemy of the Jews; born at Bur-
      gos in 1379; baptized as a boy of eleven, together
      with his father, Paul de Burgos or de S. Maria. He
      was appointed Archdeacon of Briviesca in 1412, and
      then successively Bishop of Astorga, of Placentia,
      and of Siguenza. Besides his classical and historical
      studies, he made himself familiar with Jewish litera-
      ture, and was one of the most learned men of his
      time in Spain. Gonzalo showed his hostility to the
      .lews at every opportunity. He was .sent to the
      council at Basel as a delegate fromAragon, and was
      one of those who instigated the decisions hostile to
      the Jews wliieh were formulated there. Gonzalo
      was entrusted with the oversight of the punctilious
      execution of the laws against the Jews which liad
      been decreed by the anti-pope Benedict XHI., and,
      on tlie advice of Paul de S. Maria, by Juan I. and
      other Castilian kings.

      Bnii.iO(;R.4Pnv: nios, Hi.s-f. iii. ^ctseti.: Idem, Estutiios, pp.
      ;!r9 <:( acq.; Gratz, Qesch. viii. 135, 18.5.
      (i. M. K.

      GONZALO, MARTINEZ (also called Martin
      de las Gastillas) : A jioor Spanisli knight who was
      promoted to high offices through the instrumentality
      of Joseph de Ecija, in wliose service he was. He




      broil clil, rliargps against his master und against Saci-
      ui-l ibu Wakar before King Ail'onso Xf. (1312-60),
      aiiil both were ruiueil aiul soon afterward met
      their death. When he became minister and grand-
      master of the Order of Aleanlara, lie conceived the
      ideaof exterminating all tlie Jews of Castile, direct-
      ing Iiis attacks lirst against two prominent Jews,
      Jloscs Abndiel andlbn Va'ish, who, however, main-
      tained themselves in the king's favor by means of
      large gifts of money. When in K339 Abu al-
      Hasan of Jlorocco sent an army to conquer Cas-
      tile, Gonzalo proposed that the Jews be expelled
      and their fortunes conliseated. On account of its
      inexpediency this plan was opposed, especially by
      D. Uil de .Mbornoz, Archbishop of Toledo. Gon-
      zalo led the king's troops against the Sloroccan
      commander 'Abd al-.Malik, who was put to flight.
      But shortly after this Gonzalo was overthrown by
      the help of tlie king's mistress, Leonora de Guz-
      man, lie fled and entrenched himself in a tower,
      but was forced to surrender; in 1340 he was burned
      at the stake and his fortune was confiscated.

      Bini.ioGRAPHY: Josepli b. Zaddik. in M.J. C. p. 97; Shehet
      ichrifhi)t^ e<i. Wiener, pp.* ;tri et t-eq.; Zacuto, i'xihasin, ed'.
      Flllpowslii, p. 2^0. ; CrStz, (iesch. vil. 341 ct scq.
      c. M. K.

      GOOD AND EVIL. See Ethics.

      GOODMAN, TOBIAS: English preacher and
      author; died alter 1S'J4; one of the earliest preach-
      ers in English of the London Jewish community.
      Tobias Goodman was a reader and minister at the
      Denmark Court Synagogue, the first synagogue es-
      tablished in tlie West End of Loudon. Here as
      eaih' as lb<17 he preached an English sermon on
      the death of Princess Cliarlotte of AYale.s, and if
      not the lirst sermon delivered in English in a Lon-
      don synagogue, it is the earliest sermon printed in
      English of which any record exists. Soiue time
      afterward he preached a sermon in the same sjna-
      goguc on tlie death of King George III. (London,
      1S20). About IS'4 he was preaching regularly on
      Sabbaths in English at the Rosemary Lane Syna-
      gogue. But Goodman'swork as a preacher was not
      confined to London. On Jlay 2, 1819, in the Seel
      Street Synagogue, Liverpool, he delivered a di.s-
      course on "The Faith of Israel," which was replied
      toby William Smith of Glasgow in a published letter
      dated Oct. 3, 182.5.

      Goodman, who described liimselt at times as a
      "public lecturer," and at other times as a "teacher
      of the Hebrew language," was the author, also, of
      various works. His sermon at Liverpool on "The
      Failli of Israel" was subsequently elaborated into
      a text-book, published in 1834.

      As early as 1806 he had translated into English
      .ledaiah licdersi's "Behinat ha-'Olam." In 180!) he
      published a pamphlet containing a protest against
      the London >Society for Promoting Christianitv
      among the Jews.

      BiBLKUiRAPiiY: Matttiins Levy, Tlie Western S>inagnnue.
      Same Matcrialx fnr Its liistorii, 1K97, pp. 9 et Ken.; jeif.
      Chrnii. Nov. 12, 1897; Jew. World, Oct. 31, 1879.

      J. I. n.

      GOOSE (niS, pi. I'tllK; Npip, pi. '■pap): Ac-
      cording to the Talnnulists the domestic and the
      •wild goose are two different species which should

      not be crossed (B. ^. dim; Bek. 8a). They are
      distinguished by the following crileria: The domes-
      tic goose has a longer beak than the wild species;
      its genital organs are more retired under the skin,
      and it has .several eggs in its ovary at the same
      time, while the wild goose has only one, another
      being formed after the iir.st has been laid (ib.). In
      the Shulhan 'Aruk, Yoreh De'ah, 297, 7, only the
      second criterion is mentioned. In Yer. B. K. v. 10
      and Kil. viii. 6 a sea-goose is spoken of, whic.h, be-
      cause it belongs to a dilfcrent species, ought not to be
      crossed with a domestic goose. The goose, being a
      waterfowl, has a very thin brain-men: brane (II ul.
      .5Gb). It is permitted to hold a goose by its wings
      on the Sabbath while it is moving, hut it is not
      permitted to do so with a hen ; because the former
      when held by the wings moves of its own ac-
      cord, w'hile the latter has to bo dragged; and on
      Sabbath the moving of things from om: place to
      anotiier in an o]ieu space is not allowed (Shab. 128b,
      Itaslii). The foot of a goose is as wide as long
      (Bek. 45a). Generally a goose returns to its abiding-
      place at night (Bezah 24a), but occasionally it settles
      in a garden (Hul. 3Sb). Geese were known for their
      honking; compare the saying "You gabble like
      geese" (Yer. B. B. viii. 7). The Talmudists, refer-
      ring to Prov. i. 20. declared thatone who sees a goose
      in his dream may hope for wisdom (Ber. 57a). R.
      Gidal called women "white geese" (Ber. 20a). a
      term applied by Uaba to old and sellish judges
      (Git. 13a).

      Besides the flesh and feathers, which are widely
      used also in modern Jewish households, the fat and
      lungs of the goose were used, the latter two for medic-
      inal purposes (Hul. 4ya ; Yoma 84a). Geese were also
      used in thrashing (Saiili. 29b). Rabba bar bar liana in
      one of his stories similar to the "Liigcnmarclien "
      of modern folk-lore says that he once saw in the
      desert geese whose feathers were falling out of their
      bodies on account of their fat, while rivers of oil
      issued from them. They will be jireserved for the
      great meal to be given to the righteous in the Messi-
      anic times (B. B. 73b).

      Bini.ioRRAPHT: Lewysohn, Die Zimlogie drs Talmxiil.% pp.
      s. s. M. Sel.

      GOPHER-'WOOD : The material of which the
      ark of Noah was made. The w'ord "gofer " occurs
      but once in the Bible, viz., in the expression tsj <VJ/
      (Gen. vi. 14). A comparison of the ancient versions
      shows that the word was just as obscure when they
      were msule as it is to-day.

      The renderings proposed by modern interpreters
      are as a rule arbitrary and un.satisfaclory. The
      identilicatiou of "gofer" with "cypress" (Celsius,
      "Hierobotanicon," i. 328; Bocliart, "Gecgraphia
      Sacra." ii. 4) rests on the mere assumpticm that the
      roots of these two words are akin. According to
      P. de Lagarde, " gofer " stands for " gofrit." meaning
      originally "pine," from old Baclriim " voliiikereti,"
      and later also "sulfur," on account of the like-
      ness in appearance which sulfur bears to pine-resin
      ("Semitica," i. 64; comp. "Symmicta," ii. 93. and
      " Uehersicht i'lber die im Aramiiischen, .Vrabisclien
      imd Hebiilischen Uebliche Bildungder Nomina," p.

      Gordon, Leon



      Others tbink that " gofer " can best be explained
      from the Assyro-Bab3'louian literature. Cheyne,
      starting from tlie assumption that the Hebrew nar-
      rative of tlie Deluge is a mere translation from some
      similar Babylonian document, supposes that the
      passage under discussion read in the original "gu-
      shure is erinl " (cedar-beams). He thinks that first
      the word " erini " was overlooked by the Hebrew
      translator, who afterward mistook "gushure" for
      a tree-name, and accordingly wrote "lE'J 'VJ?; next
      a scribe, whose ej'e was caught by "las at the end
      of the verse, miswrote 133 (Stade's "Zeitschrift,"
      1898, p. 163; comp. Clieyne and Black, "Encyc.
      Bibl." s.v.). F. Hommel holds the Hebrew "laj to
      be the Assyrian " giparu " (reed).

      The "kufa" (Arabic, "k>ifr" = Hebr. "kofer" =
      " gofer ") now in use on the rivers and canals of the
      lanil that gave birth to the Hebrew narrative of the
      Deluge are made of willow-branches, palm-leaves,
      etc., closely interwoven like basket-work, with a
      coat of bitumen on the inside. This is evidently a
      very old type of water-craft, suggested by the natu-
      ral resoiu-ces of a land devoid of large trees suitable
      for ship-building, but having an abundance of
      lighter material and bitumen. Such must have been
      the ark of Noah (Hastings, "Diet. Bible," s.i\
      "Babylonia"). J. Halevy implicitly adopts the
      same view (" Reclierehes Bibliques," i. 130).

      The reading of the Masoretic text is correct, at
      least in the consonants. It is none the less certain
      that in course of time the Assyrian ^a3 (whether first
      Hebraized " gefer " or " gofer ") became obscure to
      the Hebrews. This might have necessitated the
      addition of an explicative clause with a Hebrew
      word as a substitute for "IDJ. viz., D'Jp- This, when
      the Hebrews had become familiar with the Plieni-
      cian methods of ship-building, came by degrees to
      l)e considered as an absurdity, and was altered into
      D'lp, much against the usage of the Hebrew lan-
      guage and in violation of the most elementary rules
      of composition, yet seemingly quite in agreement
      with the early Jewish methods of emendation.

      For passages of the Bible supporting, though only
      indirectly, the identification of "gofer" with "reed,"
      see the Bible commentaries to Ex, ii. 3, Isa. xviii. 2,
      and Job xi. 36, and the Hebrew lexicons x.r. SDJ and
      naX- See also P.\PYBUs ; Reed; Ship and Shipping,

      E. G. II. H. H.

      VICH) : Yiddish playwright and reformer; born
      May ], 18.53, in Mirgorod, government of Poltava. He
      received a good education and acquired a thorough
      knowledge of Hebrew. In 1870 he began to contrib-
      ute articles to various Russian periodicals. His first
      sketches appeared in "Zarya, " the organ of the
      Liberals of South Russia. In 1880 he wrote for
      "Nedyelya" a s<'ries of .short stories of Jewish life,
      and also a novel entitled "Liberal-Naroduik." For
      a time Gordin was unofiiciallj- the editor of "Yeli-
      savctgradski Vyestuik" and "Odesskiya Novosti,"
      to which he contributed weekyfeuilletons under the
      p.seudonym "Ivan Koliuchy."

      In 1879 Gordin founded in Yelisavetgrad the
      rational sect of the Biblettzy ("Bible Brother-
      hood "), which broke away from dogmatic Judaism.

      He remained the moving spirit of the fraternity
      throughout its short career. In 1890 he emigrated
      to New Y'ork.

      In America Gordin entered a new field of litera-
      ture, becoming a Y'iddish playwright. In this ca-
      pacity he has done nuieh to improve the Jewish
      stage, which, largely througli hiselforts, has attained
      a reputable position. Gordin is a prolific writer,
      and, since his first play, "Siberia," was produced in
      1891, has composed about sixty Jewish dramas and
      vaudevilles. While some of these belong to the
      poorest kind of literature, others have scarcely
      their equal on the Jewish stage, and may justly be
      ranked among the higher productions of dramatic art.
      Gordin's best plays are: "The Y'iddish King Lear,"
      "Mirele Effros," "Shechite," "Sappho," "Gott,
      Meusch un Taiwel." "Kreutzer Sonata," " Y^etomoh."

      Gordin has also written in Y'iddish a number of
      sketches, some of which are pathetic, and some
      grotesquely humorous.

      TSiBi.ioGRAPHY: H. Hapgood, The Spirit uf the Ghetto, New
      V.jfk, mrJ.
      H. H. W. A. M.

      GORDON, DAVID B. DOB BAEB : Russian
      journalist; born in Podmerecz, near Wilna, in 1826;
      died in Lyck, Prussia, May 21, 1886. At the age
      of ten he went to Wilna, where he studied in the j'e-
      shibah. When eighteen he settled in Sergei (Serhei),
      government of Suvalki, where he married and con
      tinned his studies, becoming a teacher. About
      1850 he left Russia for England. While passing
      through Lyck he made the acquaintance of Eliezer
      Lipnian Silberman, who was then planning the
      foundation of a Hebrew periodical. After three
      3'ears of hardship in Liverpool he became a school-
      teacher, but was finally forced by ill health to re
      linquish that position. When in 18.56 Silberman
      began to publish the first Hebrew weekly, "Ha-
      Maggid," he invited Gordon to act as his assistant
      editor. Gordon went to Lj'ck in 1858, and, in addi-
      tion to his editorial duties, assisted Silberman in the
      formation and conduct of the society IMekize Nir-
      damim (1864), established for the purpose of pub-
      lishing old and valuable Hebrew works. Fora short
      time Gordon edited the "jMaggid Mishneh," a liter-
      ary supplement to the above periodical, and for
      many years he edited the German tri-weekly
      "Lycker Anzeiger. " After Silberman's death in
      1883 Gordon succeeded him as editor of "Ha-
      Jlaggid." Gordon was one of the pioneers in the
      Zionist movement, and one of the intellectual leaders
      of the Chovevei Zion. In 1884 he went to London
      as the representative of the Zionists to congratulate
      Sir Moses Montefiore on the hundredth anniversary
      of his birth.

      Gordon translated the following: under the title
      " Masse'e Yisrael," Israel b. .Joseph Benjamin's (Ben-
      jamin II. 's) account of his travels through Asia
      and Africa (Lyck. 1854) ; " Milheniet ha-Or weha-Ho
      sbek," describing the trial of S. Brunncr and Ignaz
      Kiirandain Vienna (from the German ; ih. 1860) ; and
      " Mosheh wi-Y'erushalayiin." on Sir Moses Monte-
      fiore 's journey to Jerusalem (from the English; jfi.
      1867). He wrote "Darke ha-Refu'ah." on popular
      medicine and hygiene, part i. (ih. 1870); several
      biographies which appear(;d in " Ha-Maggid " and


      Tin: .) i:\visi I kncyclopedia

      Qordou, Leon

      " Maggiil Misliiicli " : and one of Leo Hebraeus, as an
      iiitrcKiiiclii)ii to " WiUkuali 'at lia-Aluibah," the He-
      brew edition of the " I )ialoghi di Amove. " His " Nar-
      rative from till' Borders," wliicb was piiblislud iu
      the "Jewish Chronicle " in 1881-82, affords a trust-
      wort liy account of tlie Russian persecutions of 1881.

      BinLiO(iRAPilT: The Times, London, June 7, 1S80: Ila-Asif,
      Ul. 114-113; Fueun, Kcneset Yisrael. p. 328, Warsaw, ISSli.
      II. H. P. Wl.

      GORDON, LORD GEORGE : English agita-
      tor and ci'nviii lo .ludaiMii; born in London on
      Dec. 26, 17r>l; died in 1793; son of the tliird Dulie

      Lord George Gnnloii After Conversion to .Judaism.

      (From a drawing by Polack.)

      of Gordon. After serving as midshipman and lieu-
      tenant in the navy, he entered Parliament for In-
      verness in 1774. In 1778 Gordon at the head of
      a disorderly mob presented a bill for the repeal of
      the act by which the Catholic disabilities had been
      removed, and, a riot ensuing, Gordon was sent to the
      Tower, but was acquitted. In 178-t he came for-
      ward as the Protestant champion in the quarrel be-
      tween the Dutch and the emperor Joseph. Mean-
      while he was in correspondence with the English
      Jews, and made an application to Chief Rabbi Tebele
      (David) Schiff to be converted to Judaism, which
      application was refused. He was, however, re-
      ceived into the covenant in Birmiugham, through
      the agency of R.iljbi Jacob of that city, but without
      the sanction of the ecclesiastical authorities. The
      object of his conversion, it was thought at the time,
      was partly to gain adherents among the Jews to his
      financial schemes; and he trusted that the}' would
      combine to withhold loans for carrying on war.

      In June. 1787, Gordon was convicted of a libel
      upon British justice; and. retiring to Birmingham.

      he lived quietly in tlie house of a Jew, wearing a
      long beard and adopting Jew ish customs. In 1788
      he was sentenced to five years' imprisonment and
      to pay a fine of £'M0 and furnish two securities in
      i!'2.."iOO apiece. During his stay iu Kewgate he con-
      lormed strictly in all respects to the Jewish religion,
      eating kaslier meat and wearing phylacteries. On
      the expiration of the five years he was unable to
      obtain the necessary securities, and had to stay in
      Newgate, where he caught the fever that caused his
      death. Dickens describes Gordon and the "No
      Popery" riots in "Baruaby Rudge," introducing a
      reference to his change of religion.

      BiBi.iooRAPHY: Trinls of Lord li. Gorihm, London, 1787;
      Jew. Chriin. Marcti in, 1899; Kobcrt Watson, Life nf L'nd
      tienrgc fltn-don, I^ondon, 1795 ; Picciott^>, Sketches of A n^jhi-
      Jewish Hif^t(yry ; Diet. National Biography., s.v.
      .1. G. L.

      ASHER) : Russian Hebrew writer and pnet; born
      at Wihia Dec. 7, 18;U ; died at St. Petersburg Sept.
      10, 189'3. He graduated in 1853 from the rabbinical
      seminary of Wilna, beconung teacher of Hebrew in
      the governmental schools, and was engaged in that
      capacity about twenty years. His efforts were liighly
      praised by the inspectors of the government schools.
      During the lime of Gordon's activity the struggle be-
      tween the j'ounger generation, or the Maskilim, and
      the older, or the conservatives, took place. Gordon
      was accused of heresy by the latter, but was not
      alarmed, and satirized them in articles in different
      Hebrew and Russian periodicals. In 1872 he was
      invited to St. Petersburg as secretary of the Society
      for the Promotion of Culture among the Jews of
      Russia, and secretary of the Jewish community.
      There he had more scope for his literary activity,
      and he enriched Hebrew literature with his contri-
      butions. He was also active in communal work.
      During liis secretaryship the Jews of St. Petersburg
      obtained permission to
      build a synagogue and
      to acquire a piece of
      ground for a new cem-
      etery, the old one hav-
      ing become too small.
      He also improved the
      regulations of the com-
      munity, especially
      those of the hebra
      kaddisha. But this
      communal work caused
      him great trouble ow-
      ing to a quarrel be-
      tween the Hasidim
      and Mitnaggedim
      about the nomination

      of a ral)bi, the Hasidim accusing Gordon of
      being the cause of the discord. The.y denounced
      liim as a political criminal, and iu
      Accused 1879, when an attempt was made
      of Treason, against the life of Alexander II., Gor-
      don was accused of having partici-
      pated in the affair. He and his wife and children
      were therefore thrown into prison, April 4, 1879,
      where they remained forty days. Later they were
      e.xiled to a small town in the government of Olonetz.
      But the innocence of Gordon was quickly proved,

      Leon (iordon.

      Gordon, Leon
      Goring- Ox



      and he was permitted to return to St. Petersburg,
      tliough he lost his position. He theu became co-
      editor witli Zederbaura of "Ha-Meliz," aud he occu-
      pied tliat post, with an interruption of two years,
      till 1888, when he resigned. Tlie Russian govern-
      ment conferred on him the title of "'Honorary Citi-
      zen " in return for the services he had rendered
      through his propagation of science among the Jews.
      Gordon was the leading Hebrew poet of his time.
      His chief merit consisted in the fact tliat lie turned his
      attention to Jewisli historv, presenting in liis poems
      a complete account of the Jews from the Biblical
      epoch till his own day. He was al.so an imrivaled
      prose-writer; his language was fluent and his style
      very biting and satirical. Gordon employed his
      satirical talent not only in .scourging Jewish fanat-
      ics, but also in defending the Jews against their
      enemies. Hisworksare: " Aliabat Dawid u-Mikal,"
      a Biblical epopee in twelve poems with an introduc-
      tion ( Wilna, 18o(i); "Mishle Yehudali," a collection
      of 100 fables in verse, many of which are adaptations
      from ancient fabulists {ib. 1860); " '(^lam ke-Jliu-
      hago," in two parts, the first being a description of
      Russian Jewish life (Odessa, 1870), and the second a
      satirical description of the Hasidim (Wilna, 1873);
      "Gam Eleh Mishle Yehudah," 21 fal)les in verse
      (Vienna, 1871): "Kozo shel Yud," a satire in verse
      on morals («ft. 187C) ; " 'Ofel bat-Ziyyou," an elegy in
      four partson tliedeath of Michael Joseph Lebensolm
      (ib. 1877); " Kol Shire Yehudah," hiscollected poet-
      ical works in 4 vols. (St. Petersburg, 1883-84); "Kol
      Kitbe Yehudah," a collectiim of his novels (Odessa,
      1880). He translated the Pentateuch into Russian
      in collaboration with J. Gerstein. Gordon contrib-
      uted to almost all the Hebrew periodicals, to many
      Russian papers, to the "Allgemeine Zeitung des
      Judenfhums" (1860-04), and to Brockhaus' "Kon-
      versatinns-Lexikon." His letters were published by
      J. Weissbcrg (Warsaw, 1894).

      Bnu.ior.RAPHY: Sokolov, in TTa-Asif,vi., part l,pp. 15,5 et acq.;
      J. Slutzki. in Luah Ahiaaiif, IH91, cols. ;S«-28ri; L. Kantor,
      In yaxhliiHl. 1881, Nos.'ll. 1-': S. Dnlinov, in Vuskhnd. 1884;
      Brainin, in Ha^SJiUoalu i. (J2, 244, 3;>2, 421 ; Luah Ahiasaf^
      ISii.s, |ip. 81-91.
      II. H. D. G.— M. Sel.

      GORDON, MICHEL : Judwo-German poet and
      Hebrew writer; bnin at Wilna Nov. 4, 1823; died
      at Kiev Dec. 36, 1890. While at the bet lia-midrash
      he wrote his first poetry and proses Gordon Avas a
      personal friend of Michael Lebensolm, Wolf Kaplan,
      and Ilirsch Katzenellenbogen. He married a sis-
      ter of the poet Leon Gordon, and exerted considera-
      ble intluenei,' upon the latter. In 1816 his first poem
      appeared in "Kol Bokim," a collection published by
      Kalman Schulmann upon the death of Mordecai
      Aai'on Gi'inzburg (Wilna, 1840). After the Crimean
      war Gordon removed to Poltava, and from there to
      Kiementcluig, where he found employment in the
      office of Joseph Glinzburg. In 1868 he was en-
      gaged as teacher by Brodski at Shpola, and until
      1881 he remained in the employment of the Brodski
      family at Smyela. In 1869 Goi'don published a
      history of Russia in Yiddish. About that time an
      anonymous collection of his poems was issued. In
      1881 he published at St. Petersburg, under the title
      of "Tif'eret Banim," a dissertation in Hebrew on the
      moral obligations and responsibilities of .lewish

      youth. In ]8S0 his" SheberGa'on" appeared. Gor-
      don was a contributor to "Ha-Shahar," "Ha-Boker
      Or," and "Ha-Karmel."

      His reputation, however, is based mainly upon
      his poetry, which appealed strongly to the popular
      imagination. Many of his songs, set to music,
      are known throughout Russia. To quote Leo
      Wiener, the author of "The History of Yiddish Lit-
      erature " ; "Gordon's poems are of a militant or-
      der; he is not satisfied with indicating the right
      road to culture, he al.so sounds the battle-cry of ad-
      vance. The key-note is .struck in his famous 'Arise,
      My People ! "... In this poem he preaches to liis
      race that they should assimilate themselves in man-
      ners and culture to the ruling people; that they
      should abandon their old-fashioned garments and
      distinguisliing characteristics of long beard and fore-
      lock " (pp. 83-84). In pursuance of his purpose of
      arousing his people to the necessity of adapting
      themselves to modern conditions, he assails the Hasi-
      dim, bewailing their fanaticism and ridiculing their
      Asiatic manners and customs, their ignorance and
      superstition. His ridicide is sharp and cutting.

      For a time Gordon dared not disclose his identity,
      and published his songs anonymousi}'. Acollection
      of these with his name appended was first published
      at Warsaw in 1889 under the title of " Yiddishe
      Lieder," comprising" DieBord," "DerBorsht," " Die
      Washke," " Mein Vida," "Die Bildung," "Steh Oif,
      Jlein Folk," and many other.s. Their language
      and style are plain, popular, and idiomatic, occa-
      sionally bordering on the profane, as in the con-
      cluding stanza of "j\Iein Vida," or in the ninth and
      twelfth stanzas of "Ikh Ken Nit Ferstein."

      BiBi.iO'JRAPnv : B. Volndier.'^ki, A Kiirzc Biofimphie fun
      Mich' I (inrthm^ in Hau.^freiiul, ii. 147-148. in. 31o: Leo
      Wiener, The Histoni of Vidili^h Litcntture in ilte Nine-
      teculli Centum, pp. 82-Sr,, New York, 1899; M. D. Gordon,
      Mehakker Tif'eret Banim, in Vushhod, 1881, No. 4, pp. 43-44.
      n. li.' ' M. Z.

      GORDON, SAMUEL: English novelist; born at
      Buk, Germany, Sept. 10, 1871. He went to England
      with his parents in 1883, and was educated at the
      City of London School and Cambridge University.
      He wasappointedsecretai-y of the Gi'eat Synagogue,
      London, in 1894. He has published several novels and
      volumes of short stories, almost all dealing with
      Jewish life and character, among them "A Handful
      of Exotics" (1897); "Daughters of Shem " (1898);
      "Lesser Destinies" (1899); "Sons of the Covenant"
      (1900) ; and " Strangers at the Gate " (Jewish Publi-
      ca.tion Society of America, 1902). "In Years of Tra-
      dition" (1897) and "The New Galatea" (1901) have
      been his chief attempts outside Jewish lines.

      Bibliography: Jcms/irearBoo/c, 1903, p.393; Who'sWho,
      1UU3, s.v.


      GORGIAS : Syrian general of the second cen-
      tury B.C. After Judas Maccabeus had defeated
      the Syrians, they determined to send a stronger
      foi'co against him. According to I Mace. iii. 38,
      which Jo.sephus follows ("Ant." xii. 7, § 8), it was
      the governor Lysias who commissioned the generals
      Nicanor and Gorgias, sending them with a large
      army to Judea; but according to II M.acc. viii. 8, it
      was Ptolemy, governor of Cade-Syria and Phenicia,
      who sent them. Nicanor seems to have been the



      Gordon, Leon
      Goring- Ox

      comiiimiilcr-in chief, altliough 11 Maccabees pmisus
      Gorgius' military ability. The Syrians were so sure
      of viftciry that they took with them a number of
      merchants, to whom they intended to sell the .lewisli
      prisoners as slaves. The Syrians camjied at Km-
      iiians; and Gorgias was sent thenee with 5,(100 in-
      fantry and 1,000 liorse to attack Judas by night, his
      guides being treacherous .lews. Judas had been in-
      formed of the expedition, and attacked the main
      Syrian army at Emmaus, (•ompletely routing it.
      Gorgias, not finding the enemy in camp, concluded
      they had retired into the mountains, and went in
      pursuit of them. Judas sagaciously kept his men
      from touching tlie booty, preparing them for the
      impending battle with Gorgias. When the latter
      returned to the main camp, he found it in llamcs,
      and the Jews ready for battle. The Syrians, .seized
      with panic, fled into the Philistine tenitory. and
      only then did the Jewsseize the rich spoils (KiG li.c).
      Gorgias di<l not again dare to enter Judea. Once
      when Judas and Simon Maccabeus were carrying
      the war outside of that country, two subordinate
      generals, Joseph and Azariah, in violation of orders
      undertook an expedition against Jamnia, but were
      scverel}' beaten by Gorgias (I Mace. v. 18, 19, 5.^-
      62), who is designated in " Ant." xii. 8, § 6, "genera!
      of the forces of Jamnia." II Maccabees does not
      mention this expedition, but refers to another, and
      calls Gorgias "governor of Iduma'a" (xii. H2),
      which seems to be more correct than "of Jamnia."
      He set out witli 3,000 infantry and 400 horse, and
      killed a !iuinberof Jews; whereupon a certain Do-
      sitlieus of Tobiene(so the correct reading of the Syr-
      ian translation), cue of those whom Judas had pro-
      tected against the pagans, threw himself upon Gor-
      gias and seized his mantle, intending to take him
      prisoner; butaTliracian horseman cut off Dositheus'
      arm and so saved Gorgias. The last-named then
      retired to Mari.ssa (Ih. verse 35; comp. "Ant." xii.
      8, S 6), after whicli he is lost to view. Willrich
      assumes ("Judaiea," p. C>3) from the description of
      the booty in I Jlacc. iv. 23 that " Holoferues " in t he
      Book of Judith represents Gorgias.

      Biiii.iOGitAiMTY: (iriitz, f7f.V(')i. ii. M'!, 3.57; Scljiircr, G<;.-ieh. M
      eil., 1. :W.>, 21-; Mfsu. in Jlrrina^. .\xxv. 46t>.
      O. S. Kk.

      GORIN, BERNARD {nomde pliniic, Isaac Goi-
      do) : Yiddish io\irnalist; born in Lida, government
      of WiUia, April, 1808. lie is the author of two short
      stones in Hebrew, " Ila-Naggar ha-Na'or " and " Ha-
      'Agunah " (War.saw, 1892). Gorin went to America
      about 1893, and has since been a regular contributor
      to the radical Yiddish press of New York. He has
      translated into Yiddish some of the works of Zola,
      Hawthorne. Jlaupa.ssant, Prevost, and various Rus-
      sian authors. He has also written two dramas in that
      tongue, " Der Wilner Pjalebe.sel " (in reference to a
      famous liazzan) and " I'aruch Spinoza " (1901). He
      edited " Jl'idiscli-Amerikanische Volksbibliothck."
      "Neuer Gei.st " (189S), and "Theater Journal " (1901-
      1903), all now defunct.

      BlBMOGRAPnv: Wiener, Yhhlish Lilrrnlvrc in llir Niiir-
      tcenth Cfutwii, pp. "14, ;i24--2.">. New Yorl;, 18!M); llap<:(KMi,
      Splril (,/ the aiiMu, pp. 319-2-.'a. ih. liKK.
      II. It P. Wi.

      GORING OX: Twopassagcsin Exodus treat of
      an ox doing harm: the first of liarm to a person

      (xxi. 28-32); the second to the ox of anotlier <iwner
      (ih. dii-'M). The verb u.sed in the first pas.sage is
      "nagah" (to gore); that in the .second, "nagaf" (to
      strike or hurt). But, according to the tradition, tlie
      rules laid down in either passage apply to goring,
      striking with the body, biting, kicking, and lying
      on. These rules are also extended to animals other
      than oxen, either injuring or injured (15. K. i. 4);
      and. while the texts contem))late killing only, Ihi'
      rules ajiply to lesser injuries also.

      In each of these p.assages a distinction is made

      between the ox whieli has not given evidence of its

      vicious character and one whose mas

      " Tani " ter has been forewarned in this regard.
      and The former is know n in the Jli.shnah as

      "Mu'ad." "tam" (lit. "innocent," "harmless");
      the latter is called "mu'ad "(lit. "testi-
      fied "). An injury committed by an innocent o.x is
      deemed a kind of accident ; while the master who is
      forewarned, but does not watcli his beast, is liable
      for full damage, and, in case of the death of a liu
      man being, to a mulct or forfeiture. To render an
      ox mu'ad, two witnes.ses must testify in court, in
      the presence of its owner, tliat tlie ox has on three
      separate days acted viciously. Acting thus to liis
      kind or toother domestic animals does not render
      him mu'ad as to injury to persons; nor vice versa
      (ih. ii. 4).

      An animal that killsahuman being must be stoned

      to death; its flesh may not be eaten. But it sliould

      first be tried Ijy a criminal court of

      Punish- twenty-three judges; for the owner,
      ment. who is also morally guilty of homi-
      cide, can be tried only in sueli a court.
      Even a lion, bear, or wolf that kills a per.son must
      be so tried ; only a serpent should be killed by the
      first comer (Sanh. i. 4). "The ox of the stadium
      [arena] is not stoned; it is not he that gores; ho is
      made to gore " (B. K. 39a).

      Concerning the owner of a mu'ad the text says:
      "and his owner, also, shall be put to death ; if there
      be laid upon him a ransom, then he shall give for
      the redemption of his life," etc. According to the
      rabbinic interpretation, the judges have no discre-
      tion as to putting to death or placing a ran.som : t hey
      alw;i_ys place the ransom, which goes to the heirs of
      tlie decedent. But whose life is to be estimated ?
      II. Ishmael says, that of tiie person killed; \i. Akiba
      more logicallj' says, that of the guilty owner, who
      redeems himself from death (ih. 40a). Hence Mai-
      monides draws the conclusion that w-liere the ox
      belongs to two owners jointly, both of w'hom have
      been warned, each of them has to riideeni liimself in
      the full amount. This amount is fixed according to
      age and sex (Lev. xxvii. ; see Estim.\te).

      When the person killed is a (Canaanite) bondman
      or bondwoman, the text fixes the mulct, payable to
      the owner, at thirty shekels, without regard to the
      value of the slave (Ex. xxi. 32; B. K. iv. .5).

      While the text speaks only of the ox that kills
      either man or beast, the animal may strike and
      wound without killing its victim, and thus inflict a
      lesser injury. In such cases the owner of a mu'ad
      pays full damage ; the owmer of a tam half damagl^
      as will be shown hereafter.

      Wlieii a human being is hurl the owner of the ox

      Goring- Ox
      G-ottbeil, Gustav



      pays only for damage proper, or diminution in value:
      he does not pay for pain, stoppage of work, cost of
      cure, or shame, as would one guilty of Assault and
      Battery. And the words of the text, "He shall
      surely pay ox for ox, and the dead shall be his own,''
      are construed contrary to their apparent meaning;
      the owner of the killed ox keeps the carcass, and the
      owner of the goring ox pays in money thedillerence
      between the value of the live animal and of the car-
      cass, just as he pays for a hurt not resulting in
      death. Tiiis rule naturally followed when restora-
      tion in kind fell into disuse and the courts gave
      judgments for money in all cases.

      Wheie one man's tam kills the ox of another, tlie
      text says, " they shall sell the living ox and di-
      vide the price of it, and the dead also
      Half they shall divide." Should the gor-
      Compensa- ing and the gored ox be of equal
      tion. value, this would amount to making

      gooil half the damage; and, in the
      words of the IMishnali, ''this istlieox of the Torah."
      Nothing is said in tlie text about any responsibility
      of the owner beyond the value of the offending
      beast. Hence the sages drew the conclusion that
      the two purpo;ies of the Torah were: (1) to tix the
      payment at half the damage done, and (2) to declare
      the lack of responsibility beyond tlie value of that
      beast, or, as they put it, beyond " half damage from
      its body," the latter element answering to the " pau-
      peries" of the Roman law.

      Tlie penalty of " half the damage done from the
      body " must be paid whether the injur}' be done by
      an ox or any other animal ; whether by goring or in
      any other way except by " foot or eating tooth " ;
      whether to a man (short of death) or to a beast or
      other property; and whether the injured animal die
      or not; the ownerof the offending animal, however,
      is then free from all further liability. And where
      the oxen of two men injure each other, the harm
      or diminution of v.-ilue to each is apprai.sed, and
      the owner whose ox did the greater harm i)ays half
      of the difference, to the extent of the living se-
      curity (H. K. iii. S). If tlie olfending ox is in the
      keeping of a bailee, it maj' nevertheless be taken
      for the damage done, and the owner then has re-
      course to the bailee.

      For the case of doubt as to which of several oxen
      has committed an injury, .see Burden op Proof.

      Bibliography : Maimonides, I'ad, Nizkc Mamon, iv.-xi.
      s. s. ■ L. N. D.

      Isaac i;i;\ Aisraiiam Gorni.

      GOSHEN : Region of Egypt which the Israelites
      inhabited during their .sojourn in that country. It
      is described as situated on the eastern frontier of
      Lower Egypt (Gen. xlvi. 28, 29: Ex, xiii. 17;
      I Chron. vii. 21), forming an outpost of it (Gen.
      xlvi. 34); apparently not at all (or scantily) inhabited
      by Egyptians (/4.), but, in the estimation of shep
      herds, evidently " the best of the land" (il>. xlvii. (i.ll),
      since Pharaoh's cattle grazed there (0). According to
      verse 11 "the land of Ramescs" (P '!) is synonymous
      with "the land of Goshen." "Goshen " alone (with-
      out the addition "land of") is used only in xlvi. 28,
      29. In these two verses it may designate a city, as the

      LXX.- understands it, which here renders " Goshen "
      by "Heroonpolis," adding in verse ^8 to "unto
      Goshen" the words "into the land of Ramesses"; in
      xlv. 10 the LXX. transliterates "Gesem of Arabia."
      This name "Arabia" means, in Egyptian usage,
      either, generally, all land east of the Nile or, as a
      special district, the "nome Arabia," the 20th of
      Lower Egypt. Heroonpolis or Heropolis (according
      to the excavations of Naville, modern Tell al-Mas-
      khuta) was, however, the capital of the 8th or Ilero-
      opolitan nome, east of the Arabian. Nevertheless,
      the name " Arabia " seems to he u.sed by the LXX. in
      the special sense, for in the reign of Ptolemy II. the
      Greek administration seems to have treated the neigh-
      boring 8th and 20th nomesas one district (comp. the
      "Revenue Laws of Ptolemy Philadelphus," ed.
      Grenfell, 1890, p. 1.). Later, the two districts seem
      to have been separated again (comp., e.*/., Ptolemy,
      "Gcograpliia," iv. 5, 53).

      The name " Goshen " (Egyptian, " Ksm," sometimes
      abbreviated into "Ks"), occurring lirst in a papyrus
      ofdynasty 12(Grimth,"KahunPapyri,"2, 14), desig-
      nated, however, the 8th or so-called "Arabian" nome,
      i.e., the land west of the Bnbastide nome, between
      the Pelusiac branch of the Nile and the canal now
      branching off at Belbeis. It touched the entrance to
      the desert valley, now called Wadi al-Tumilat,
      where a fortification, erected in dynasty 12, pro-
      tected the easiest entrance to Egypt. It is likely
      that the capital P(er)-sopd(u) (Pisaptu of the Assyr-
      ians), situated near modern Saft al-Haniiah, had as
      profane name the same name as the region, because
      the classical writers speak of a city Pliacus(s)a on
      that spot (Ptolemy, I.e. ; less distinct are Stephen of
      Byzantium, the " Tabula Peutingerina," Geographus
      Ravennatu, and Strabo, who may liave confounded
      with Goshen a city with a similar name, modern
      Pakus, northeast of Bubastus). If so, the Biblical
      pronunciation of the name is authenticated as
      against the "Ges(.s)em" of the LXX. and the de-
      pendent versions.

      The synonymous designation, "land of Rameses,"
      has not yet been found on the monuments, but seems
      to refer to the region bordering eastward on the
      land of Goshen, the 8th or IIero(on)pol-
      " Land of itan nome, which is known to have
      Rameses." been colonized by the famous pharaoh
      Rameses 11. The LXX. certainly errs
      in identifying Heroonpolis with Go.slien, but is other-
      wise correct in seeking the Israeliti.sh settlements in
      that region (which contained the towns of Pithom and
      Succoth, Ex. i. 11, xii. 37, etc.), the narrow valley
      Wadi al-Tumilat of modern time, between the Croc-
      odile Lake and the old land of Goshen. This part
      of the country' answers perfectly to the description
      of Goshen in the Bible. It was reached only irreg-
      ularly by the yearly inundation of the Nile, and
      therefore was less suited for agriculture. It is
      necessary only to assume that with the Semites or in
      popular Egyptian usage the name of " Kosem "
      (Goshen) was extended beyond the limits of the
      old country and its frontier fortifications. Unfortu-
      nately, little is known of the whole region before
      Rameses II. It might also be assumed that the Is-
      raelites settled, in Joseph's time, in the old land of
      Goshen, and spread in the subsequent perioil over



      Goring Ox
      Gottlieil, Gustav

      tlie newly colonized district; but this agrees less
      with the ISiblieal data. No Egyptian clymology for
      the name "Goshen" (Kosein) has been found, whieli
      seems to be of Semitic orisrin ; this would indicate
      Semitic settlers already r. 2000 or earlier. In Judith
      i. y ("the land of Gesem [R. V. "Goshen"] until
      thou comest above Tanis and Memphi.s") the name
      seems to be used without precise knowledge as to
      the location of the place.

      BiHi.iiXiKAi'iiv: Ttip fullest discussion of the Epyptian data
      will lie found in Niivilli'. Thr Shrine of SafI cl-Hentieh and
      the Liuiil (if (lanlieium the flh Mcnuiir nf tlie K'jiipl Kr-
      j)hir. Fmid, ISS.'), p. 74 ; couip. niso his I'ithnm Ust Mi mni,).
      El>tn\s, Diireh (luseit zum .s'l/jrii. 1872. is iintiquated, like Mio
      thporios pronouured reiieatedly by Brugseh (L'Kjoifc c( Ico
      Monuments, et«.).
      E. G. ir. W. M. M.

      GOSLAR : Town in the province of Hanover,
      Germany ; on an affluent of the Ockcr at the north-
      east foot of the Ilarz. According to the chronicle
      of Erdwin von der Hardt, " Plebis Tribunus et An-
      tiquitatuni Goslariensium Mirator," Frederick I. in
      lir).") collected from the Jews of Goslar a third of
      their possessions as "allegiance money " ("Huldig-
      ungsabgabc ") ; such a tax, however, was unknown
      until the fifteenth century; and the original docu-
      ment which the chronicle cites as authority for its
      statement has not been found. On April 3, 12.')2,
      King ^Villiam of Holland promised not to molest
      the Jews nor to imprison them unjustlj', but to
      protect them as his "servi cameric." Rudolph I., in
      confirming the privileges of the citizens of Goslar,
      expressly reserved his rights over the Jews of that
      town. In 1385 Emperor Rudolph directed the latter
      to pay more promptly the yearly ta.x of 6 marks for
      the maintenance of the royal palace at Goslar.

      The Jews of Goslar escaped the massacres at the
      tin:e of the Black Death, Init suffered so much from
      the plague in lli.")0 tliat their cemetery, .situated on
      Mount St. George, no longer sufficed, and another,
      near the forts, had to be acquired. Like all the other
      Jews of the province of Hanover, those of Goslar
      were expelled in I.IOI.

      At present (1003) there exists in Goslar a small
      Jewish community numbering about 100 persons in
      a total population of 13,311.

      BlBi.inr.rnPHV: Wiener, in. 7(i?ir/iiic/i fllr fVc.«c/i.i. 107 ; itfcm,
      in Monatstiehrift. x. 121 ; Ai'onius. Rrijisli n, p. 24i); AdoJph
      KoUnl, (rt'iich. (h'r Jiiihn in Detitseiihttiil, pjissiin : Hehr.
      BiiiL xii. 9 : stobbe, IJie, Jmlen in Dcut.^cltliinil. p. 18; Zeit-
      schrift (ics Harzvereln.^ v. 457.
      G. t. Bli.

      GOSPELS, THE FOUR. See New Testa-

      MION r.

      THAN) : German-American merchant and litlera-
      teur; born Feb. 9, 1811, at Eulin, Holstein, Ger-
      many ; died at Hamburg Oct. 5, 1888. He went to
      the United States in 1830, and for the next twenty
      years was engaged iu the commission business in
      New York. About 1843 he became friendly with
      Horace Greeley (upon whose advice he changed his
      name from "James Nathan" to " Gotendorf "), and
      through him with Margaret Fuller, afterward ("ount-
      ess Ossoli, iu whom hearouised feelings of passionate
      friendship. In 184.5 he left New York, but returned
      in 18.50, and for two years engaged in a banking busi-
      ness in Wall street. He then retired to Hamburg.
      where he spent the remainder of his life. Fil'l.v of

      >rargaret Fuller's letters to him were published un
      der the title " Ijove-Letters of Margaret Fuller"
      (New Y'ork, 1903).

      liiin.ioimAPiiv : Lovc-Lellcru of Maranre.t t'liUcr, p. IM.
      Letters from (Jolendorf appeared In the Tribune (New York).
      Sept. HI, 1-', I«, 1S4.'>.
      s. J.

      GOTHA: Capital of the iluchy of Saxe-Coburg-
      Gotlui, (Jermany. A Jew named Jacob who lived
      at Cologne iu the middle of the thirteenth century is
      designated as a native of Gotha (Iloniger, " I.)aa
      Juden.schrein.sbuch der Laurt^nzpfarre in Koln," p.
      7, Nos. 39, 40). In 1303 the Jews of Gotha were
      per.secuted in consequence of an accusation, which
      originated in the province, of having murdered the
      son of aminer forritual purposes. The Nuremberg
      " Memorbuch " gives the names of the victims of
      this persecution. The community was annihilated
      at the time of the Black Death, and a new com-
      munity must have sprung up, which appears to have
      disappeared again in 1459-00. a period of renewed
      persecution. The exegete Solomon is designated as
      a native of Gotha.

      In the nineteenth century, prior to 1848, no Jews
      were permitted to live in the duchy of Gotha, al-
      though they could trade there under restrictions;
      after 1848 they were free to enter. They began to
      settle there in the sixth and seventh decades, ami
      founded a community in the capital which at liisl
      numbered only from ten to twelve families. The
      first communal officials were appointed iu the eighth
      decade. There is no rabbi, all'airs being managed
      by three teachers. The community has a literary
      society and a B'nai B'rith lodge. The synagogue
      was built in 1003. The first cemetery was situated
      on the Erfurter Landstrasse; when this was closed
      by the local authorities, in the eighth decade, a new
      cemetery was ac(|uired on the Eisenacher Land-
      strasse. In 1903 Gotha had a population of 29.134.
      of whom about 350 were Jews.

      BiBi.KniRAPnv : Salfeld. Maftjirnlogium, p. 217; (Jriitz, Geseh.
      vii. :i+:!; Adolph Kohut, fri.si'/i. der Jmten in Drntsehland.
      pa.ssiui : Aronius. Reijrsten, No. 608; Monatssciirift, xliv.
      <:. D. K

      GOTTHEIL, GUSTAV: American rabbi ; born
      at Piiuut in I'russiiiu I'osen May 28, 1827; died in
      New Y'ork city April 15, 1903. He was educalc'd
      in Posen under Rabbi Solomon Plessner, and later
      continued his studies at the luiiversities of Berlin
      and Halle (Ph.D.), receiving in the meanwhile Ids
      "hattar:it hora'ah" in the former city from Sanun-l
      Hoi.Diiicnr, whose assistant he became (1S55). lie
      also studied under Zunz and Sleinschncider. In
      18(i() lie set out from the Berliner Reform Gemeiiide
      to labor for progressive Judaism in new fields.

      In 18()0 he received a call from the Reform Jews
      of Manchester. England, and he went thither as
      rabbi to the Manchester Congregation of British
      Jews, remaining as incumbent for thirteen years.
      During this time he was connected with the faculty
      of Owens College as teacher of German. Two of
      his most noteworthy sermons preached in Alanclies-
      ter were on the slavery questicjn, attacking those
      who had declared the institution to be sanctioned
      by Mosaic law. Dr. Gottheil was a member of
      the Synod of Leipsic in 1871, which took a de-
      cided stiind on the (juestion of Reform. He left





      Mancliester in 1873, having been elected to succeed
      the Rev. J. K. Giitheim as assistant to Dr. Sanniol
      AuLEU, the senior rabbi of Temple Emanu-El,
      New York. When Adler retired about eighteen
      months later, Gottheil succeeded him. On taking
      charge he rcorganizeil
      the religious school,
      and assisted in found-
      ing a theological .school
      wiiere jireliniiuarj'
      training might be im-
      parted to future can-
      didates for the rabbin-
      ate. He prepared in
      1886 the first Jewish
      hymn-book printed in
      America (with music
      in a separate volume
      by A. Davis); it con-
      tains not only tradi-
      tional Jewish hymns,
      but alsoothersof Chris-
      tian origin, and upon
      Gu«av Gottlieil. '»■ ^^'•^'^ ''''sed the Union

      « Hymnal, which has

      since been generally adopted by the Reform congre-
      gations in the United States. In 1889 he started
      the first Sisterhood of Personal Service, a philan-
      thropic organization alliliated with Temple Eiiianu-
      El which has served as a model for similar institu-
      tions elsewliere. Dr. Gottheil was the founder of
      the Association of Eastern Rabljis, and when it was
      assimilated with the Central Conference of American
      Rabbis in 1800 he took an active part in the (lelil)cra-
      tions. He was one of the founders and the presi-
      dent of the (American) Jewish Publication Society,
      vice-president of the Federation of American Zion-
      ists, chairman of tlie Revision Committee for tlie
      Union Prayer-P>ook, and one of the governors of
      the Hebrew Union College. Cincinnati.

      The broad catholicity of Dr. Gottheil's sympathies
      and interests is evidenced by his connection with
      various non-Jewi.sh institutions as well as by many
      of Ins sermons and writings. He was one of the
      founders of the New York State Conference of Re-
      ligions, assisting in the editing of its "Book of Com-
      mon Prayers " ; and a founder and for many years
      vice-president of the Nineteenth Century Club. In
      1893 Gottheil was one of the representatives of the
      Jews at the Parliament of Religions held in Chicago
      during the World's Fair. He published "Sarah";
      and "Sun and Shield" (New York, 1890), a sur-
      vey of Judaism as he saw it. Essays by Dr. Gott-
      heil haveap|ieared iu various periodicals and colli'C-
      tions. He was retired as rabbi emeritus of Temide
      EmanuElinOclober, 1899. In lionorof hissevenly-
      fifth birthday a "Gustav Gottheil Lectureship in
      Semitic Languages" was founded at Columbia

      BrnLIOGHAiMiY: Marlcens, Tlir Hchrrirx in Amrrira, Now
      Yorli, tSS8; The ItKlnniirr and Jewish Timr.s. New '^'cirl;,
      Oct. 2.5, 1S78, pp. i-r>: Who's Who in Ama-ini. loni-ii;;;
      Jewish Chrmiirle, May 1, V.m. p. ;;i ; May l."i, V.m. p. lO;
      American Hchren\ Apiil tT. V.Ui; April l.'l, lllii;!; iWid
      York Times. April IG, V.mi.

      A. F. H. V.

      OOTTHEIL, PAUL EDTJAKD : (!i iman Prot
      estunt missionary ; born al Fiausladt, April .'), 1818;

      died at Stuttgart in 1893. A convert to Christianity,
      in 1818 he entered the service of the Rritish Society
      for the Propagation of the Gospel Among the Jews,
      with which he was connected until the end of his
      life. He was for many years minister of the English
      church at Cannstadt, near Stuttgart, and then min-
      ister of the Diakonissenhaus in Stuttgart. As a mis-
      sionary he was very successful. Some of those whom
      he instructed and baptized at Nuremberg, Cann-
      stadt, and Stuttgart have become ministers of the
      gospel or missionaries among the Jews. He pid)-
      lished" Blatter fur die Evangelische Mission Unter
      Israel," 18.")0-58; "Der Messias, Israels Hoffnung
      und Alter Volker Verlangen," 1863 (translated into
      English): "Jlischau Leehem, Lebensbrot fi'ir Gottes
      Volk aus Gottes Wort " (Hebrew and German), 1871 ;
      (Yiddisli and German), 1873; "Die Arbeit an den
      Einzelnen," in "Nathanael," 1891, No. 6. He was
      a brother of Rabbi Gustav Gottheil.

      BiRLIontiAPHV : Zunlioiti, BihlintJnca Tlirnlogira. R.V.: Dole
      lio\. fhsrhii-litc ilrr l<U'nnij>U.-^i-fii n Jmlcn-Missinn. ii. 26rt ;
      article GuilhciU in Der Fiiuml Isnula, liasel, IWW; Dunlup,
      GikikI Triumiihs.

      R. B. P.

      TIO : .Vnierican ttjientalist; prolVssor of Semitic lan-
      guages, Columbia University, New York; born in
      Mairehcster, England. Oct. 13, 1863; son of Gustav
      Gottheil; educated at Chorlton High School, Eng-
      land, and at CoUnnbia College, New York. He
      was graduated from Columbia College in 1881, and
      continued his studies abroad at the universities of
      J5erlin, Tubingen, and Leipsic (Ph.D. 1886). On
      Ills return to America he was appointed, instructor
      in the S.yriac language and literature at Columbia
      College (Nov. I,''l886). When the chair of rab-
      binical literature at Columbia was endowed, Oct. 7,
      1887, Gottheil was elected to it by the board of trus-
      tees. On the retirement of Profes.sor Peck in 1889,
      the work of the section of Semitic languages was
      tiansferred to Gottheil (June 3), first as instructor
      and later (April 4, 1893) as professor, a po.sitiou he
      still hoUls (190.3). He has published: "TheSyriac
      (irammar of Mar EhaofZobha,"Beriin,1887;" Jewish
      History in the Nineteenth Century " ; and numerous
      articles in educational works, including the " World's
      Best Literature," " Johnson's Encyclopedia." and the
      "International Encyclopedia." He has edited two
      volumes of "Persian Chissics" iu English for the
      Colonial Press; is permanent editor of the "Co-
      lumbia Uuivei-.sily C3riental Series" and (with J.
      Jasti'ow, Jr.) of the "Semitic Study Series" (Ley-
      den). In 1898 he was elected president of the
      American Federation of Zionists, and chief of the
      Oriental Department of the New Yoik Public Li-
      brary. Professor Gottheil is a member of the Cen-
      tral Committee of the Zionist organization, and in
      the capacity of delegate attended the Zionistic con-
      gresses held at Basel in 1898, 1899, and 1903 (see
      Basei- COiNGiiESS) and at Loudon in 1900; lie is
      also a member of various learned .societies. He is
      a member of tho: council of the American Oriental
      Society, and president (1903) of the Society of Bib-
      lical Literature and E.\egesis; he was one of the
      founders and the first vice-president of the "Ju-
      divans"; founder and president of the (Jewish) Re-




      ligious Seliool UniDii in New York; and is con
      nectL'J with llic Jewish CliiUitauinni Society.
      KiBLiooitAriiY: IDiri's Who, 1U03-05; .liiicriatii Ixrailitr.

      Dec. II. 1!X0, !)..■>.

      A. V- ". \ .

      GOTTHEIL, WILLIAM S.: American physi-
      cian; lii'iii in IJniin Fell. ."). IS.')!); eldest son cif
      Rabbi (iiistav Gottlu.'il. He was educated at, Cliorl-
      ton High School, Jlaiielieslcr, Eii!j;l;ind ; New
      York University, an<l Cornell University (A.B.
      1879) ; and took his special training at the College of
      Physicians and Surijeons, New York (M.D. 1882).
      From 1882 to 1883 he held the post of house svirgeon
      of the Charity Hospital, New Y'ork ; and from 188.T
      to 1888 lie lectured on dermatology at the New Y'ork
      Polyclinic. In ISStO Gottheil was appointed pro-
      fessor of pathology at the New Y'ork College of Vet-
      erinary Surgeons, and in 181)3 professor of derinatol-
      ogy at the New Y^ork School of Cliiucal Jledicine.
      In the following year he published a "Manual of
      General Histology," and in 1897 "Illustrated Skin
      Diseases." Gottheil was editor of "The Clinical Ke-
      colder" in 1898, an<l has conducted the department
      of dermatology in "Progressive Jledieine." He is
      consulting dermatologist of Beth Israel Hospital,
      and visiting dermatologist at the Charity and Leba-
      non hospitals. New Y'ork. In 189(5 he was elected
      president of the Eastern jNledical Society, and in 1899
      president of the JIanhattan Dermatological Society.

      A. " F. H. V."

      GOTTINGEN : City in tlie province of Hanover,
      Germany ; formerly capital of the principality of
      Grubenhageu under the dominion of the Guelfic
      dukes. Jews settled in Gottingen in the tliirteeulh
      century, as is shown bj' a document dated JIarch 1,
      1289, by which Dukes Albrecht and >Vilhelm per-
      mitted tlie council of the city to receive the Jew
      Moses and his legal heirs and grant them the rights
      of citizenship. On JIarch 10, 1348, at the time of
      the Black Death, Duke Ernest issued a patent of
      protection to the Jews of Giittingen; but they
      did not escape persecution. On D(u:. 24, lo.'iO, tlie
      house which had been the Jewish "Scliule" was
      given to tlie city by the same duke. Jews settled
      once mori^ in GiMtingen, and the city council in 1370
      announced its willingness to protect them, but de-
      manded that the Jews on their part should perform
      their civic duties. A Jew named
      From the Jleyer is mentioned as of GOttingen in
      Thirteenth, a record dated Oct. 1, 138."); and in
      to the 1394 tliree Jews lived in the city, and.
      Fifteenth according to an entry in the registry

      Century, of receipts, had to pay three marks
      annually as protection-money. The
      amount peJd as protect ion-ta.\ for the year 1399-1400
      was marks 14 pfennigs. When Duke William took
      over the government of the territory of Giitliugen
      (April 18, 1437), ami pledged himself to pay 10.000
      florins for the debts and engagements of Duke Otto,
      leaving to the latter the Jewish protcelion-money.
      the city of Gottingen, as regards the Jewish tribute,
      was e.\clude<l from the agreement.

      Inrecordsof the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries
      there is mention of a long and a short Jews' street
      ("d(! lange Joedenstrate," "de korte Joedenstrate " ;
      the latter was also called " die Kipper "). The houses

      on these streets, among them the Jewish school,
      were often damaged, especially on New-Year's eve
      and Shrove Tuesday, when the young members of
      the I5our.se Society, whose place of meeting was in
      the neighboring liarfi'issenstrasse, went through the
      city committing all sorts of depredations, until the
      Jewsapp('ale<l to the magistracy for aid. In 1447
      they obtained a decree to the elTect that the depre-
      dations against them should cease; and in return
      each Jewish house and the Jewish .school jiaiil a
      stoop and a half of wine to the members of the

      On .Inly 11, 14~>~, the council of (Jottingeii a])
      plied to the council of llildesheim in behalf of the
      Jew Nal.iman Cynner for a safe-conduct for liis
      mother, (iele Cynner, and his sister, who desired to
      sojourn for two months in Hildesheini. In the lat-
      ter city, also. lived .Meier (.Meyer, Meyger, Meigcr)
      of Gottingen (1423-47), and a woman from Giittingen
      called •■'Miehclsche" (14'2<)-34). When on June 28,
      1.591, Duke Heinrich Julius issucil an edict Revoking
      the protection and safeeondiiet even of those Jews
      whose patents explicitly extended ovi-r a longer
      period, the council of Giittingen tried
      From the to defend its rights. On Aug. 13 of
      Fifteenth the same year it addressed to tlu^ .gov-
      to ernor, chancellor, and counselors at

      the Eight- Wolfenbl'tttel a remonstrance concern-
      eenth ing the proposed expulsion of the
      Century. Jews, in which it pointed out that
      by the charter granted to the prece-
      ding council there wen' still some years of sojoiinr
      legally due to these Jews, and tliat, moreover, the-
      proposed expulsion would be a hardshiii for the in-
      digent citizens of Gottingen in that it would not al-
      low them sufficient time to redeem their pledges
      from the Jews. The governor. Wolf Ernst, Count
      of Stolberg. senta very ungracious answer (Aug. 18).
      In the following century only a few Jews lived in
      Gottingen, among them Eliezer Liepmann Giittin
      gen, father of Judah Berlin (Jost Liebmann) and of
      Rabbi Wolf, author of " Nal.ialat Binyaniin." One
      of his two sisters was Leah, mother of Liepmann
      Cohen (LelTmanu Behrens) of Hanover. The seven
      Jews enumerated by Freudentlial in " Monats-
      schrift," 1901, p. 480, as having attended the Leip-
      sic fairs between the years 1078 and 1099, probably
      lived in Goding. Sloravia. The respected Giitit-
      lirecht lia-Levi (r. 1720) and Elijah Magdeburg (c.
      1737) lived in Gi'ittingen. The latter is lauded as a
      benefactor by Wolf Ginzburg, who studied medi-
      cine in the same place.

      Light is thrown on the social conditions existing
      at the beginning of the eighteenth century by an
      edict promulgateil Jan. .5, 1718, which declared that
      no Jew could own a house in the duchies of Got-
      tingen and Grubenhageu. During the lirst few
      years after the founding of Giittin.gen University
      (1737) there were only three Jewish families in
      the city; and the authority of the university was
      requisite for the issue of almost all patents of pro-
      tection. Gradually the number of Hebrews in-
      creased to ten or eleven families. In 1780 the GiJt-
      tingen Jews held a patriotic celebration at the
      " festival of thankssciving for the deliverance of his
      Majesty . . . George III."




      Most of the Jews of Gottiugen attained a certain
      prosperity tlirougli tlieir liuaucial dealings with the
      students, to wliom they gave credit and loaned
      money on pledges, although they were forbidden,
      under penalty o"f losing their right of protection, to
      go to the students' rooms, or to address them on the
      street or in public places in regard to money mat-
      ters. As ceitain Jews were accused of having con-
      tributed to the ruin of students by advancing
      money for wliich the notes given by the latter ex-
      ceeded the amount actually received, it was decreed
      in 1790 that only three Jewish families might live in
      the university city. The chancellor (•' Grossvogt "),
      Von Beulwitz, energetically e.xecuted this decree,
      expelling even those against whom uo complaint
      had ever been made.

      At the time of the Fraueo-Westphalian dominion
      ,(1806-13) Reuben Jleyer from Gottiugen was one of
      the Jewish deputies presented to Miu-
      In ister Simeon by Jacobsou at Cassel.

      the Nine- In 1812 the district ("ayndikat ") of
      teenth Gottingen included about 160 families,
      Century, of which only three were resident in
      the city itself. August Wilhelm Kl-
      ander, ecclesiastic historian, formerly David Jlendel,
      was born in Gottingen. Moritz Abraham Stern,
      appointed professor of mathematics at Gottingen
      University in 18."i9, wasthe first Jew to be apiminled
      to a full professorship in a German university. In
      1902 there were 600 Jews in the community of Got-
      tingen, which now includes the towns of Gaisniar
      and Rtisdorf, and belongs itself to the district rabbin-
      ate of Ilildesheim. The present rabbi is Dr. B. Jacob.
      He was preceded by Dr. Loevy. Persons bearing
      the name " Gottingen " have lived in various places,
      -e.g., in Frankfortou-the-Main, Ilalberstadt, Ham-
      burg, Altona, Hildesheim, and Hanover.

      The community possesses a synagogue and the fol-
      lowing institutions: Israelitischer Brtiderschafts-
      verein, which cares for the sick and buries the
      dead; israelitischer Fraucnverein; and Benfey'sches
      Stipendium, for the support of the poor and of stu-

      BIBI lOfiRAPHT: Ze.it. mid CexcWcM-Tlfs'chrcihvnq iler fitntH
      (irillindf-ii. Hanover ami (iiiltinjreu. 17:M, parti.. Imok it, p.
      Kl • lT3li" part, it., Imol; i., p. (t! : .Inns, Dc J lue Ri cijilf )i(il
      f,;,!,cos-'p. 1.50, c.iltliiwn, 17tl; r.nh!Uir ~hv Stalklik nm
      GMIUiinn. pp. 11.'), ~-W i( "III.. I'.eiiin, ITS.'); .1 Hsciit; iiii.s- tAin-
      i,en (•h,n-n<n,<n,;,h,h,n Lamlrs-l >, ,l,nn,,i,u BeHlahutrn
      St.itulen und 0/.s,m),ihc,m .lirSln.ll Unltnnirii. b'-HP-".
      Sli-,4- p .W § liSli (ZOiM II ihr JiiiUn); Killerlieok, Gesch.
      drr SlaiU (iiilthuir ». 1T»T. p. -'.■, : r.ranilcs, Uehcr dm Geiiai-
      ■ii-,7i/m;.- II ZiisMii.; dn- I'liirrrsitdl (;;)tthiucn. IsOS, pp. 294,
      «N-c..ii.Mi I'clin-dir Laiif d,r .Jiid,'ii.f\i\. p. li, llaniiver,
      Tsi'- .Si-hiiiiilt, Vrl.iiiideiiliii.'liilirSl.iilKliVliiiuni hi^ziim
      Jainx 11,1)11. passim: i.i.Mu, IJrUiuidndiuch ,'i';'',;S""" '•'.''„'-

      OestiM-lc-y. in Hniiiiniv i im/i. .^ Mnijutiii. IMd, No. ai. p. (»!) ;
      Hivemann GckcIi. dcr Jjnnde /Jriiiiiisi/iirt iff xiiri Llhic-
      liuni. i- 6'7 ; idem, in Zci(.«'(inf( rir.s IJistnyi.srhni 1 i iriiis
      fill- JVicicr-snctecii, isr)7, p. 2ir,: WifniT. in .Miihii,!, fhr
      die Gcich. der Judn,. i. ITO, ITS, 21:! (noK- .K 214 (iiotn 12):
      Idem, in Zr.it^chrift dex Histnr Vrniux ( lii; A lofrraii/i.-v'ii,
      181)1 pp. 2110,287: Huisische Grschirhl>'Jildltci: \>i,K p. \a:
      Doi'iim-r, Urhiiiidenlinrh der Stadt Hildrslirlm. iv. aii<i vi.,
      nissim- vil , No. 277: Thimme, Die Tiilierni Zu'iliiude da
      Ki'irfn'rxle.ninins Haiiim,;;: ..to.. 189.5. ii. ^''-Il : Horwilz. THe
      UmrUlen uiitcr dcm Ki'mioreich ^\ rslfiden. pv. '■. »■<:
      Boafinever. Die Juden. IS'), p. 7: Lamlslmtli. Ti.lrdnl An-
      she flliem p. 2: Kaufinann. Die Memninu drr Glnrliel I'oii
      'llamrln li:',ri-17K. p. 79, remark 1 : Lewinskv, in Moriaix-
      sciiri.fl. '\'M\ p- 373; Jacob Km(i.)n. .s;h'i/ii( Yd'liez. i.. if-
      spnnsinn 41 ; MareW. Scfer Toledol Misiiudint (riialnir,,.
      p m St. IVfershurg, 1^99 ; Roest. Cnl. /.Vis, ii(/iii;. IUI)l. l.
      677 sv Lrnr. Horowitz. Friudtfvrter Urdilmier . . . ni.
      95,'iv; 3.5: iiiem. Die Iimcliriflcn des Allen Fricdlmfs dcr

      Urniliti^rlien Geiiieindc zii Franlifurt<i.-M. p. i09. 8.V.
      i.iitliiifii II and Giiiiliinirii: .Auerbac-b, Gcseli. der li.rae^
      lili!<rlien (hiniiiidr IliilhersiadI, p. 107, Halberstadt, 1808.
      ^, ' A. Liiw.

      GOTTLIEB, ABRAHAM : Civil engineer and
      contractor; born at 'lauss, Bohemia, June 17, lS;i7;
      died in Chicago, III., Feb. 9, 1891. Gottlieb grad-
      uated from the University of Prague in 1801, and
      was at once employed on the Kaiser Fraucis-Joseph
      Railroad, then in process of construction. Though
      promoted to the position of principal assistant to the
      chief engineer of construction, he emigrated in 1866
      to the United States and settled in Chicago, 111.,
      where, in 1868, he was appointed chief engineer of
      the American Bridge Works.

      In 1873 Gottlieb became Western agent of the
      Keystone Bridge Company ; in 1877 he was elected
      president of the company, removing to Pittsburg.
      D-iring his presidency he constructed the Susque-
      hanna River bridge at Havre de Grace for tlie Balti-
      more and Ohio Railroad; the Point Pleasant bridge
      over the Ohio River for the Ohio Central Railroad;
      the Plattsmouth bridge over the Jlissouri River
      for the Burlington and Missouri River Railro:id (the
      first steel-truss bridge erected in Americ.i); the
      Mi.s.souri River bridge at Blair Crossing. Nebraska;
      the New River Viaduct for the Cincinnati Southern
      Railway; the Monongahela River bridge at Pitts-
      burg for the Pittsburg, Cincinnati. Chicago and
      St. Louis Railroad; the JIadison Avenue bridge,
      New York city ; the train - shed at Broiul Street
      Station, Philadelphia; the Jlexican Government Ex-
      position and jMining Building at the New Orleans
      Exposition; the Sixth Avenue Elevated Railroad,
      New Vork city: and the New York approach to the
      East River liildge.

      In 1884 Gottlieb resigned the presidency and re-
      turned to Chicago to engage in civil engineering
      and contracting and to act as consulting engineer
      and Western agent of the Edgemoor Bridge Works.
      In Chicago he supplied the ironwork for the M.i-
      sonic Temple, the Taf!ters:dl Horse M:u-ket, and
      the Administration and Pine Arts liuildings of the
      Colundiian Exposition. In 1890, when work on the
      World's Fair was begun, Gottlieb was appointed
      consulting engineer, and was afterward appointed
      chief engineer of the construction department, which
      posiiiim ho resigned in September, 1891, when his
      plans had been largely carried out and the more
      important buildings eventually erected in Jackson
      P;irk were well under way.

      Gottlieb became a member of the American Soci-
      etyof Civil Engineers in 1872, and at the timeof his
      death w;is one of its directors ; he w;is a charter mem-
      ber and twice president of the Engineers' Society of
      Western Pennsylvania; president of the Western
      Society of Engineers; president, of Rodeph Shalom
      congregation of Pittsburg; and president of Zion
      congregation, Chicago.

      BiniiooRAPnv: Traiiyactinm of A meriran Knriet'iof Ciril
      KiiHiiiciT-s, 1K94: Crilumhian Eriinsitiim Dediailni'i ( ere-
      jiioliics. Cliioago, 189:i : Joseph Stolz, In Memoriain nf Alira-
      hnm GiittUeli, Cbicago, 1884.
      j^ .]. Sto.

      nyms. Abagaiid Mahalalel): Kus.siau Hebrew poet
      and author; born at Starokonstautinov, Volhynia,





      Abraham Baer Gotllober.

      Jan. 14, 1811; died at Byelostok April 13, 1899.
      His fatlicr was a cantor wlio synipatliized with tlif
      progressivi' movement, and }<nini; tiottlobcr was
      edueated in lliat spirit to tlie e.\tent of receiving
      iuslrnclion in liildieal and modern Helnew as an
      addition to tlie usnal Talnuulical studies. At tlie
      ageof fourteen he married tliedaui^lilerof a wealtliy
      "Hasid " in Cliernigov, and settled tliere. Wlien his
      incliualion for secular
      knowledge became
      known, his father-in-
      law, on tlie advice of a
      I.Iasidic rabbi, causeil
      the young couple to
      !)e divorced, and Gott-
      lober, who had joined
      the Hasidim after Iiis
      marriage, now became
      their bittereuemy. He
      married again, but
      found his second wife
      unbearable and soon
      divorced her. In 1830
      he married for the tliird time and settled in Kre-
      nienelz, where he formed a lasting acquaintance
      with Isaac Biir Lewinsohn.

      Gottlobcr travelwi and tauglit from 183G to 1851,
      when lie went to Jitomir and passed the teachers'
      examinations at the rabbinical school. After teach-
      ing for three years at a government
      Traveling: school for Jewish boys in Kamenetz-
      and Podolsk, he was transferred to a

      Teaching, similar position in his native city,
      where lie remained for about eleven
      years. In 1S6.J he became a teacher in the rabbin-
      ical school in Jitomir, and remained tliere until it
      was closeil by the government in 1873. He then set-
      tled in Dubno with liis son-in-law, Bornslein, who
      was the oflicial rabbi of that town. Thence be re-
      moved to Kovno, and subsequently to Byelostok,
      where the aged poet, who in later jcars had become
      blind, ended Ids days in poverty and neglect.

      Gottlober wasa prolific writer and one of the fore-
      most of Neo-Hebrew poets. The first collection of his
      poems, which was entitled "Pirhe ha-Abib," ap-
      peared in Yozefov in 183(i. A second collection, en-
      titled "Ila-Xizanini" (Wilna, 18.^0), was followed
      by "'Anaf 'Ez Abot," three poems, on the death of
      Emperor Nicholas I., on the peace of 18.>0, and on
      the coronation of Ale.xander II., respectivelj' (i'k
      1858). Soon afterward he visited Austria, wdiere
      he published "Shir ha-Shirim," a translation of a
      Passover sermon delivered by Adolpli Jelliiiek (Lem-
      berg, 1861), and " Mi-Mizrayim." a translation of
      Ludwig August Frankl'saccount of his travels in the
      Orient, with an appendi.x by Ma.x Letteris (Vienna,
      181)2). His lU'xt important work was the "Bikkoret
      le-Toledot ha- Kara'im," a critical investigation of tlie
      history of the ICaraiteR, with notes by Abraham Firko-
      vich (Wilna, ISCj). In the same year were published
      his " Yerushalayim," a translation of Slendelssohn's
      "Jerusalem." with an introdiu'tion. and his allegor-
      ical drama "Tif'eret li Bene Binah" (Jitomir. 1807).
      modele<l aft<T IMoses Hayyim Luzzatto's "La-Ye-
      sharim Tehillah." His " Iggeret Za'ar B I'ale Hay-
      yim" {ih. lSfl><) isa polemic against Kovner's critical

      work"IIeker Dabar." His "Toledot ha-Kabbalah
      welia Hasi<lut" {ib. 18G9), which purports to be a
      history of Cabala and of llasidism, is
      His Works, only a diatribe against ('abala in which
      the history of llasidism is scarcely
      mentioned, lie also wrote several short Hebrew
      novels, and translated Lessing's" Nathan der \\ else,"
      to which he added a biography of the author
      (Vienna, 1874).

      Gotllober was the founder and editor of the He-
      brew monthly " lla Boker Or," to whicli .some of the
      best contemporary writi'is conlrilnited [joems, arti-
      cles, and stories. It bail an interrupted e.\isleiice of
      about .seven years, liist appearing in I,emberg(lN7(i-
      1879) and then in Warsaw (1^80-81), in which jdace
      also the last live nunibeis were issued in 1885-86.
      His most important contribution to this magazine
      was undoubtedly bis autoliiography "Z'kroiiot, mi
      Yeme Ne'urai," containing much material for the
      culture-history of the? Jews of Uussia, which was re-
      printed in book form at Warsaw, l.s,>s()-,Sl. The
      last collection of his jioems is entitled "Kol Sliire
      Mahalalel," 3 vols., Warsaw, 1890.

      Like Levinsohn, Gordon, and other leaders of the
      progressive movement, Gottlobcr w rote in Yiildish
      for the masses. Among his works in that dialect
      are: "Das Lied vun'm Kugel." Odessa, 1803: "Der
      Seim," Jitomir. 1809; "Der Decktueh," a comedy,
      Warsaw, 1876; and "Der Gilgul," Warsaw, IK96.
      Most of these works were written a long time be-
      fore the dates of their publication,

      EiRi.iOGRAPiiY: Ufi-Asif, iii. 43n-4".0; Sifrr Zikkarmi. p. 14,
      Wiireaw. ISiX): Ahinsiif. StiiiO (= IIKHI). pp. :is(;^:i,s,s ; Si.l<.ilnv,
      Scfer ha-S}iantili'.iMV), pp. ;i())<-:ii4 ; Wiener. Yi<'di!'}t Liter-
      ature in the Nlnctccntti Century, Index, New Yoik, l.>-!);i.
      n. R. P. Wi.

      can pianist; Imrn at New Orleans .May 8, 1829; died
      at Rio de Janeiro Dec. 18, 1869. lie cimipleted his
      musical education at Paris (1841-46). and was but
      sixteen when he wrote his well-known coirqiosi lions
      "Le Bananier," "La Savane," "La Bamboula," and
      "La Dan.se Ossianicjue. " From 1845 to 1852 he
      made successful tours through France, Switzerland,
      and Spain. In 1853 he traveled through many jiarts
      of tlie L'nited States, playing and conducting his
      own compositions; and such was the success of these
      concerts that i\lax St rakoseli engaged him for a tour
      extending through the United States, the AVest
      Indies, and S|ianisli America. Among other deco-
      rations, Gottsclialk was honored with the Order of
      Carlos III., presented to bini by the Spanish minis-
      ter at Washington at the reiiuest of Queen I.saliella.

      Gottsclialk was the first American pianist to at-
      tain to cosmopolitan fame. The original element in
      his compositions was derived from the S|)anisli,
      Cuban, and negro folk-songs, and certa'ii dances,
      which he had heard in his boyhood; and this mate-
      rial he skilfully developed into a distinctive genre.
      His princijial orchestral works are: two operas,
      "Charles IX." and "Isaiira de Salerno" (never per-
      forniei!) ; I wo sy inphonies. " La Xuit des Tropiques "
      and "Montevideo"; "Gran Marclia Solemne" (to
      till' Kmperor of Brazil); " Esceiias Campestres Cu-
      banas"; and "Gran ■Tarantella." His pianoforte
      works, about ninety in luimber. include; " Jota Ara-




      gouesa" (baujo), "Caprice Espagnol," "Caprice
      Americaiu," "Last Hope," "Marchc de Nuit,"
      "Marcke Soleuuelle," "Berceuse," and "Pasqui-

      Bibliography: Luis Eicanlo Yors, Goltxflnilh (in Spanish),
      Havana, 1880; W. J. HentlirTson, in tlie iV(f/fnN, xxxiv. lli ;
      Music, ii. 117-132 ; Balder, }iiog. Did. of Miu^iciaus.
      s. ■ .1. So.

      GOTTSTEIN, ADOLF: Gerraau physician;
      born at Breslau Is'ov. 3, ISoT. He was educated at
      the gyinuasiuni of Ids native town, and at tlie uni-
      versities of Breslau, Strasburg, and Leipsic, obtain-
      ing from tlie last-named tlie degree of doctor of
      medicine in 1881. In the same year he became as-
      sistant at the hospital of the city of Breslau, which
      position he resigned in 1883. He then removed to
      Berlin, where he is still practising (1902).

      He has written several essays in llie medical jour-
      nals, especially on bacteriology and epidemiology.
      Gottstein is also the author of "Epidemiologische
      Studien liber Diphtherie und Scharlach," Berlin,
      1895, and of " Allgemeine Epidemiologic," Leipsic,
      BiBLiO(jRAPHT : Pagel, Biiiiimplii.tchiv Lc.ril;<iii. s v.

      s. F. T. II.

      GOTTSTEIN, JACOB: German physician;
      born at Lissa, Austria, Nov. 7, 1832; died at Bres-
      lau, Prussian Silesia, Jan. 10, 1895; graduated
      (.\I. D.) from the University of Breslau in 1850. Gott-
      stein devoted himself especially to diseases of the
      throat and ear, giving up his geiieial practise in
      1864. Admitted'in 1872 to the medical faculty of
      his alma mater as privat-doeent, he received the
      title of professor in 1890. He is the author of
      "Die Krankheiten des Kehlkopfi'S und der Luft-
      rohre," Vienna and Leipsic, 1st ed. 1884, 4th ed.

      Among his contributions as a specialist to the
      medical journals may be mentioned : " Ueber Ozaena
      und eine Einfaclie Behandlungsmethode Dersel-
      ben," in "Berliner Klinische Wnehenschrift." 1878;
      "Ueber die Abtraguiig der Adeuoiden Vegetation."
      ib. 1886.
      BiBLTOGRAPHY : Paget, Iliiiiiraphinclicx Lc.rilinii, .s.v.

      s. F. T. IT.

      ELHANAN : Gfrinan rabbi; born at Fraiikfort-oii-
      tlie-Oder about 1040; died at Jerusalem after 1701.
      In 1675 he was rabbi of his native town, and in 1687
      became rabbi of Kremsir, in Moravia, where in 1694.
      with David Oppenhcim as associate rabbi, he organ-
      ized the dLstriet rabbinate. In 1696 he resigned the
      rabbinate of Kremsir, and started toward Jeru-
      salem by way of Nikolsburg and Vienna. At
      Vienna he spent a short time at the house of Samson
      Wertheimer. Leaving Vienna, he spent two years
      at Venice before reaching Jerusalem. He wrote:
      " Arba' Harashim," cabalistic discourses and com-
      ments on the earlier Propliets, Praukfort-on-tiie
      Oder, 1680; "Sbeloshah Sarigim," comments on the
      Haftarot, Venice, 1701.

      BIBMOCRAPHT : Franljl-Griin. Oryrh. dn' Jnilrn in Krcmsier,
      p. 81. Brestau. 18S)li: .stuiiischnciftor, C(i^ 7?ori(. col. 14M; Bii-
      ber, Kiryah Nisuabah, p. 4!l, Cracow, 19(13.
      K. B. Fr.

      GOUDCHAUX, ABRAHAM. See Metz, Tt-

      GOUDCHAUX, MICHEL: French statesman;
      born at Nancy Marcli 18, 1797; died at Paris Dec.
      27, 1862. After having been established for some
      time as banker in his native town, ho settled in
      Paris in 1826. His reputation for probity and phi-
      laiilhropy won for him the confidence of his corelig-
      ionists in Paris, and he was soon elected vice-presi-
      dent of tlie Central Consistory of France. A democrat
      by nature and education, Goudchaux was soon in-
      volved in the political movements of Ids time, and
      became one of the founders of the "National," a
      paper established in the interests of tlie woiUing
      classes. He took an active part in the Revolution
      of July (1830), and fought at the barricades. In 1831
      the government of Louis Philippe appointed hira
      jiaymaster-geueral at Strasburg, a position which
      he resigned in 1834, being dissatisfied with the pol-
      icy of the government. In 1848, urged by Lamar-
      fine and Arago, Goudchaux accepted the portfolio
      of minister of finance in the provisional government,
      but resigned his office ten days later. Recalled by
      General Cavaignac, he remained in the ministry
      until Dec. 20 of the same year. As the representa-
      tive of Paris in the Constituent Asisembly, he op-
      posed the politics of the Elysee. In 1857 he was
      elected deputy to the legislature, but did not take
      his seat because of his refusal to swear allegiance to
      Napoleon III.

      Bibliography : La Grande Encudnpedie ; Carmoly. in yl rch.
      Jsr. 1^63, p. (j()8, where the year of Goudchaux's birth is given
      as 1789 ; Univ. hr. 18113, p. 200.

      s. L Br.

      rist ; born in Leydeu J uiie 13, 1813 ; died there March
      17, 1882. He graduated in law May 12, 1843. After
      practising law for some time he was, on the rec-
      ommendation of his former teacher. Van Assen, ap-
      pointed professor of Roman law atUie University of
      Leyden (Dec. 31, 1858). As a writer Goudsmit Is
      especially known through his "Pandect System,"
      the first volume of which appeared in 1866, the
      second in 1880. This work was never completed;
      it was the first to treat the system in the Dutch
      language, and was translated into the French, Eng-
      lish, and Russian languages. In 1873 Goudsmit
      made a tour of the United States, and described his
      impressions and experiences, especially those of
      New York, in "De Gids," 1874, ii. 79. He was
      made a member of the Dutch Royal Academy of
      Sciences, the Utrecht Society, the Society of Liter-
      ature (Leyden), and the Academy of Jurisprudence
      (Madrid), and a knight of the Order of the Nether-
      lands Lion. Goudsirit was also active in all Jew-
      ish matters; in 1863 lie addressed an open letter on
      the Jewish question to J. J. L. van d. Bnigghen,
      and lie also exerted his eflorts in behalf of the
      Jews of Rumania. He was president of the board
      of examiners of rabbis and Hebrew teachers in Ley-
      den, and chairman of the Society for the Promotion
      of the Interests of the Jews of Holland.

      Bibliography: J. A. hevY, in Manncn van Beteeltenis in
      Onzc Danen; Ally. Zeit. das Jud. 1882, pp. 231-232; A.
      Winkler Prins, GeiUustreerde Encyclopedic, vU.
      8. A. R.

      GOURD. See Botany.




      GOVERNMENT.— Biblical Data: The only
      kind of pulilical institution extant among the
      Israelites before the time of the Kind's was the ilivi-
      sion into tribes, according to tradition twelve in
      number corresponding to the sons of Jacob, who
      were regarded as the respective progenitors of the
      tribes. Organized, therefore, liU<! the modern Bed-
      ouins, the pastoral Hebrews held the theory, also
      found in the genealogies of the ancient Arabs, that
      the family grows into the elan by natural accessions;
      the clan develops into the tribe; and the tribe be-
      comes a people and splits up into several constitu-
      ent tribes. This theor_\- is based among the He-
      brews and Arabians on tlie correct assumption that
      the tribe is not held together by some external bond
      of union, but prim.arily by the sense of blood relation-
      ship. "Our blood has been spilled," the^' say when
      one of them has been slain; and the duty of aven-
      giugthe blood wasoriginully notconlined to the next
      of kin, in tlie true sense of the word, but was in-
      cumbent upon all the members of the tribe. Blood
      relationship, however, was not necessarily natural;
      it was regarded as existing also among persons that
      had entered into the "blood covenant."

      The family also enlarges through the acquisition
      of slaves, the accession of freedmen, and the absorp-
      tion of isolated families; all these "artiticial " adop-
      tions, taking the tribal name, regard and revere the
      father of the tribe as their progenitor. Tribes hav-
      ing their tixed pasture districts enlertain clo.se rela-
      tions with neighboring clans and families that share
      with them the privileges of watering their flocks at
      certain wells. Moreover, a permanent or accidental
      community of other intere.sts occasionally unites
      entire tribes into one body, called "hilf," existing
      for a longer or shorter period. A tribe of this kind
      has no actual organized government ; its head is a
      sheik, who.5c authority, however, is largely moral.
      In case of war only, the sheik asstnnes command,
      and determines, together with the divan of the heads
      of families, when and where the tents shall be pitched
      or camp broken. But the sheik is without author-
      ity in time of peace. The members of the tribe
      listen to his counsel because he is respected, and he
      is called upon to decide disputes because his wis-
      dom is recognized; but his decision is final only if
      both parties are willing to submit to it; he can not
      enforce it against the will of either, since there is no
      executive body to carry out his commands. The
      family one of whose members commits any offense
      ntust judge in the matter. Furthermore, each fam-
      ily is perfectly free and independent, as regards the
      tribe, in time of peace, and may at any time secede
      from it. But in time of war it is a measure of se-
      curity to remain within the tribe.

      The tribes of Israel were probably organized
      along these lines at the time of their entry into
      Canaan. The bond that united them more strongly
      than any sense of a common origin could was the
      worship of Ynwn and his cult (see Tiieocr.\cy).
      which endured notwith.standing all differences of
      see\ilar interests. The sense of unity among all the
      worshipers of Ynwn was more or less strong; the
      wars that Israel waged were Y'iiwti's wars, and
      lieiice a matter of common concern (.Indges v. 23).
      This common religion held the tribes together, even

      after the period of settlement and the resultiint

      Many things connected with the settlement in
      Canaan tended to increa.se the dillieulties of this
      trilial union, and to favor its final (lis-
      Settlement solutitm. The idea of blood relali<.n-
      in Canaan, sliip became more and more secondary.
      As the Canaanites continued to live
      among the new settlers (Judges ii. S nt seq.). many
      mixed marriages occurred, and the two peoples were
      at last peaceably fused into one. Naturally th(!
      sense of conuuunity of interest among the inhab-
      itants of a given locality asserted itsi'lf and led to
      the instituting of local governments; in fact, the
      Canaanites had developed such before the Israelitish
      invasion. The heads of the most pi-ominent fami-
      lies of a city constituted its administration as elders
      of the city ("zikne ha-'ir"; Judges viii. 1-1). The
      factthatcitiesan<l villages arc freqiK'utly designated
      in their interrehitious as "mother" and "daughter,"
      and that cities and " their " villages are mentioned
      (Num. xxi. 25, o2; Josh. xvii. 11; H Sam. xx. 19),
      indicates that the beginnings of the territorial organ-
      ization of Israel go back to the earliest time, and
      were adopted from the Canaanites. The surround-
      ing smaller villages were in some way dc-pendent
      on the cities that in time of need offered protect ion be-
      hind tiieir walls to those who dwelt in the open coun-
      try. This, in time, resulted in a clo.ser political or-
      ganization, but tended to weaken tin; national con-
      sciousness, since local interests divided the country
      into separate communities. The physical features of
      the country were more favorable to segregation, as,
      for instance, in the case of the tribes in the east-
      Jordauic districts, where, owing to the character of
      the land, the dwellers remained nomadic henlsn'ieii
      to a greater extent and for a longer period of time
      than their neighbors across the stream, w'hich was
      difficult to cross. These circumstances contrived to
      loosen the bond of union between the tribes on each
      side of the river (comp. Judges v. 16 et sc(j.. viii. 4
      etseg., xu.l et set/.). But among the tribes in the
      country west of the .lordan tlie feeling of union also
      weakened greath' after their settlement, and even
      a war of Y^iiwit like that to which Deborah sum-
      moned the people did not unite them all (Judges
      V. 16 ct. xcq ).

      Notwithstanding the fact that the bond that united
      the several tribes was the common worship of Yiiwii,
      there was great danger that Israel might split up
      into a nutnber of sm;dl "kingdoms," such as existed
      among the Canaanites. The El-Amarna tablets
      show that before the advent of tiie Isr.aelitcs a num-
      ber of these petty princes recognized the King of
      Egypt as their common overlord, though they waged
      wars among themselves frequently. The stoiy of
      Gideon illustrates the prevalence of similar disin-
      tegrating tendencies in Israel. For the fact is em-
      phasized that he succeeded in retaining rulership
      over his tribe even in time of peace, while other so-
      called "judges" were leaders only in tim(! of war.

      The check to this disintegrating tendency was
      due mainly to external influences. So long as
      the Israelites had to contend only with the no-
      madic hordes on the east and south, the Midianites,
      Amalekites, etc., as in the wars in the time of




      tlie Judges, the strength of a single tribe or of

      several united tribes sufBced for repulsing the

      enemy. But the scattered forces of

      Origin of the Israelites were not a match fur the
      the organized armies of the Philistines

      Kingdom, advancing upon them from the west.
      After the battle of Aphek, many
      of their districts fell under Philistine control (I
      Sam. passim). These reverses evoked a deciiled
      feeling in favor of a stronger national union, and
      when Saul, a nobleman from the tribe of Benjamin,
      had licen presented by Samuel to the people as a
      suitable chief of the state, and liad proved his fitness
      in the war with the Ammonites, the peojjle unani-
      mously elected him king. In its origin, therefore,
      the Isiaelitish national kingdom does not differ essen-
      tially from the tribal kingdom established by Gideon,
      for tlie people primarily demanded from the king
      aid against a foreign enemy (see King). But Saul
      in time of peace acted also as judge for liis subjects.
      Under the oak at Gibeah he judged the controver-
      sies that they brought before hira. In order to as-
      sure the security of the throne it became necessary
      that the power of the old family and tribal chiefs,
      and hence that of the tribes themselves, sl]otdd be
      broken ; for the rivalry among the tribes did not die
      out, even when tlie idea of nationality became dom-
      inant for the nonce and resulted in the establish-
      ment of the kingdom. This rivalry flashed up in
      the refusal of the Judahites to recognize the Benja-
      niite house of Saul, and the uprising of Ephraim
      together with the other tribes against the Judean
      family of David.

      Under David and Solomon the government was
      put on a firmer basis, for now there were a small
      standing army, oflicials, ta.xes, etc. (see Ar.my).

      There is little information regarding the king's

      officials ("sarim "). A list of them, preserved in II

      Sam. x.v. 23 ct seq.. is headed by the

      Officials, general of the army ("sar 'alhazaba")
      or the commander of the royal body-
      guard. Among the admini-strative officials the
      "mazkir" occupies the first position; as the title im-
      plies ("who brings into remembrance"), he was a kind
      of chief councilor, corresponding to the modern grand
      vizier in the Oriental states (II Kings xviii. 18, 37;
      Isa. .\xxi. 3, 22; II Chron. xxxiv. 8). His assistant
      was the secretary of state ("sofcr"), who had to at-
      tend to the king's correspondence. The overseer of
      labor is also mentioned in the list of David's officials
      (II Sain. viii. I't et seq., xx. 23 et seq.). The high
      priest likewise belonged to the royal officials. It
      a]ipears from other allusions that there was also a
      minister of the palace (1 Kings iv. G; II Kings xviii.
      18; Is.a. xxii. 15), who is perhaps identical with the
      " soken " (Isa. xxii. 15). " 'Ebed ha-melek " (.servant
      of the king) also seems, according to II Kings xxii.
      13. to have been the title of a high dignitarj', per-
      haps the chief eunuch. Among the inferior olficials
      were the prefects ("nezibim ") ot the 13 provinces
      (1 Kings iv. 7); and at the court itself, the cupbearer
      ("mashkeh"; I Kings x. 5), the keeper of the robes
      (11 Kings X. 32), the treasurer ("sar ha-rekush";
      I Chron. xxvii. 25 et seq.). and the chamberlain
      ("saris"; I Kings xxii. 9; II Kings vii. G, ix. 32 et

      With the exception of the first ministers of the
      king, no such diflerence was made in assigning work
      to the olficials as obtains in modern times. The
      government was not divided into different depart-
      ments. Every ollicial was in his district a sort of
      representative of the king, exercising tlie latter's
      prerogatives as militarj' commander, governor, tax-
      collector, and judge. According to the Prophets, it
      appears that these oflicials often abused the power
      placed in their hands; they combined bribery, op-
      pression, and cruelty toward their subordinates with
      servility toward their superiors (II Sam. xi. 14 et
      seq. ; I Kings xii. 10 et seq.).

      Tlie details that are known regarding the admin-
      istration of internal affairs relate almost entirely to
      the collection of taxes. David made a census of the
      people evidently for the purpose of having a basis
      for apportioning the taxes and for recruiting (II
      Sam. xxiv. 1 ct seq.). Solomon divided the country
      into districts; in the passage referring to this meas-
      ure (I Kings iv. 7), itisexprcssly connected with the
      imposts for the court. In the list of the twelve dis-
      tricts Judah is omitted; it is uncertain whether be-
      cause Judah was exempt, as the tribe to which the
      royal house belonged, or becau.se the narrator made
      a mistake. It is in any case noteworthy that the
      ancient division into tribes was ignored in tliis new
      division. The amount of these taxes is unknown;
      under SolouKm the people regarded them as an op-
      pressive burden. The tithe is apportioned to the
      king in the so-called " King's Law " (ISam. viii. 17);
      this " King's Law," however, may be of later origin.
      Crown lands, Avhich the king eventually gave to his
      servants as fiefs, are mentioned at an early date
      (I Sam. viii. 13). Traders' caravans had to pay toll
      (I Kings X. 1.5) ; lands of the condemned were seized
      in some cases by the king (I Kings xxi. 1 et seq.).
      The first cut of fodder went to the support of his
      chariot-horses (Amos vii. 1). Poll and income taxes
      seem to have been levied only in times of sijecial need
      (II Kings xxiii. 35).

      There was no regular constitution determining
      the rights of the king and his subjects. The so-
      called ■' King's Rights " which Samuel laid before the
      people (I Sam. viii. 10 et seq.) is not a
      Con- legal document determining the rights

      stitution. and prerogatives of the king, but a
      somewhat prejudiced account of what
      the kings actually did. The "King's Law " (i)eut.
      xvii. 14-20), on the other hand, contains moral and
      religious precepts rather than legal enactments: the
      king shall diligently study the Law, and shall not
      possess much silver or gold, many wives, or many
      horses. The principle of heredity, also, was not le-
      gally establi.shed, although from the beginning it was
      accepted as a matter of course. When the Judeans
      raised David upon the shield, in opposition to Esh-
      baal, and when the northern tribes chose Jeroboam,
      these acts were considered as rebellions against the
      legitimate royal house. On the other hand, it is
      evident that for a long time the people retained the
      idea that the king existed for the sake of the people,
      and not vice versa.

      The communal government was at all times nearly
      unrestricted. The royal government had a greater
      sway only at Jerusalem, the capital, where of neces-




      sily it coincided with the city government, iind wlierc
      11 royal oflicer \yus iippointed iis fjovernor of tlic
      city (1 Kings xxii. 2G). Otlierwise 1li(^ royal ollici-rs
      do n<it seem to have interfered much ollicially in the
      affairs of the communities so long as the taxes were
      promptly paid. The zikno ha-'ir (see above), the
      elders of the community, constituted the local gov-
      ernment, and still retained their judicial functions
      (Deut. xix. 13, x x i. 2 <■< m/. , xxii. l.") (C.srr/.); node-
      tails, however, are known regarding this local coun-
      cil. The number of its members corresponded to
      that of the prominent familiesof tlie place; e.g., the
      77 ciders of the small city of Succoth arc mentioned
      (Judges viii. 14).

      The ancient tribal constitution was revived during

      the Exile, after the national kingdom hail perished;

      and the heads of the families iipi)ear

      Constitu- again as the representatives of the

      tion Under community (Ezra viii. 1, x. 1). The

      Persian leturu to Palestine was also a matter
      Rule. of the various families or communi-
      ties (coniii. Ezra i. 5); and after the
      Exile this democratic family organization naturally
      was revived among the Jews. The Persian king
      did not intend to restore national autonomy; the
      country remained with the Persian empire as a part
      ("medinah"; Neh. vii. 6; Ezra ii. 1) of the west-
      Euphratic province (Ezra v. 3). There was, at least
      part of the time, a special Persian governor
      ("pehah," " tirshata ") for Judea, under the satrap
      of the province. Nchemiah speaks of himself as
      being such a governor (Neh. v. 15 et stq.), but no
      mention is made of any of his successors. The
      Persian officer, who resided at Samaria, seems to
      have had a representative at .Jerusalem (Neh. xi. 'ii).

      These Persian satraps in any case did notinteifere
      greatly in the internal affairs of the people, having
      no reason for doing so as long as the tribute-money
      and their salaries were paid regularly. They gave
      attention only to the building of temples and walls.
      The freedom of worship granted to the Jews entailed
      necessarily great freedom in the government, and
      especially in the administration of justice. The
      courts and the police were in the hands of the Jew-
      ish provincial authorities, designated as "sabe Yehu-
      daye " (elders of the Jews), who represented the
      people before the Persian governor (Ezra v. 9 ct seq.,
      vi. 7 et seq.); it is not known whether this body
      is identical with the frequently mentioned "sega-
      nini " (prefects). In addition to them, the ancient
      local form of government was revi\-ed under the
      elders of the towns, who administered justice as in
      olden times. In relation to them the so-called col-
      lego of the " elders of Judah " at Jerusalem may
      have constituted a certain supreme authority. It is
      noteworthy that the priests and the Levites did not
      belong to this body (comp., e.g., Neh. viii. 9, 38;
      X. 37).

      The development of the government from Ezra to

      the Greek period is shrouded in darkness. But the

      basis on which it rested was the law

      Hellenic that came into force in 444 B.C.
      Time. through Ezra-Nehemiah. It is not
      known how much time elapsed be-
      fore this constitution was completely enforced: in
      the Hellenic period affairs were arranged as pre-

      scribed by that law. The high priest was the head
      of the entire conununity ; he was the president of I he
      gerusia, the ancient aristocratic senate, the assembly
      of the elders. The Ptolemies and .Seleucids recog-
      nized him as ethnarch. He was empowered to levy
      taxes, and was responsible for the tribute of the peo-
      ple (Jo.sephus, "Aut."xii. 4, t'< let neq.). In view of
      this importance the Ptolemies and Seleucids claimed
      the right of ap])ointing and dismissing the high
      priest. But otherwise these overlords, like the Per-
      sians, so long as their supremacy was recognized,
      interfered little in the inner affairs of the iieople.

      The rise of the llasmonean house marked no
      change in government. From the time of Jonathan,
      except during war, when the JIaceabees exercised
      a .sort of dictatorship, its members took their ])laces
      at tlie head of the people as high priests (I Mace. xi.
      27), for wiiich, however, they did not have the legal
      qualilications. The gerusia continued to exist in the
      meanwhile (I JIacc. xi. 23; xii. G. 3."); xiii. 30, etc.), al-
      though its inlluence was greatly diminished. Nor
      was the constitution actually changed when Aristo-
      bulus (10.")-104 B.C.) took the title of king; the fact
      tliat the Hasmoneans called themselves kings was
      merely an external indication that the spiritual im-
      plications of their office had long .since become for
      them a minor matter. The gerusia had little power
      under rulers like Hyrcanus and Janna;us, but its
      authority under Alexander was very great. It is
      not known when the term "Sauliedrin" lirst came
      into use.

      Under the Romans the high priest, excepting for

      a short time, was also ethnarch, and again shared

      his functions with the gerusia. But it soon became

      apparent that strong rulers like Antip-

      Roman ater and Herod had complete control

      Period. of this body; Herod simplified mat-
      ters for himself by removing his op-
      ponents in council (Josephus. "Ant." xiv. 9, §4;
      comp. XV. 1, t; 2).

      Soon after Herod's death Archela\is was deposed
      as King of Judea and the country changed into a
      Konian province under a procurator, who in some
      instances was under the governor of the province of
      Syria, but had entire ccmtrol of military and civil
      affairs. The Romans left the Jews full freedom in
      their internal affairs. The Sanhedrin then hail more
      power than it had formerly possessed under the na-
      tive princes. The oHice of high priest was no longer
      hereditary after the time of Herod. He as well as
      the Romans appointed and deposed high iiriests in
      quick succession, and thus this ofliee lost more and
      more its political importance, as did the gerusia(the
      Sanhedrin), over which the liigh priest continued to
      preside. See S.^nheduin.

      Buu.iocRAPny: Saalscliiitz, Mominches RccM. anct Mii-liaelis,
      Mnxiii.^i-hiv h'rcitt : alsntheliistorie-i(if Israeltiy Wcllliaiisen.
      Kiltcl. Klnstcniiiinn, Sl:i(le, fiiithe, Gnietz : tlic airlimlogies
      liy I)e Wcttc, K.waki. Keil. Nowac-k, lieiizinRcr: lirii/inper,
      art. (iDCcnimenl. in Cheyne ami Black, t'liO/c. Ililil.-.Sel-
      den, Synalria Veterum Hcbncorum.
      E. o. n. I- I^K

      In Rabbinical Literature: The IMishnah

      (B. B. i. 5) says: "They Uncv liim [any citizenl to
      build for the town walls, gate, doors, and bolls.
      How long must one have been there to become lia-
      ble as a citizen? Twelvemonths; but one who buys




      a dwt41ing-liouse in the town becomes a citizen at
      once." Tlius tliere is a local authoiity wliicb can
      and sliould levy taxes in monej- or work for the
      common defense. The Talmud {ib. 7b-lla) throws
      no light on the question whence the judicial body
      which enforces llie tax derives its appointment or
      upon whose initiative it acts. It says that the " dis-
      ciples of the wise" should be free from all taxes for
      the security of the place; but tiiat all are bound for
      the cost of wells or aqueducts, and of paving the
      streets and squares. It also speaks of a tax for poor-
      reliel ; but this must not beimposed on the estate of
      fatherless minors. It shows that some at least of
      the burdens of the citizen must be borne by all who
      have dwelt within the town for thirty days.

      Tiiere is no trace in tlie Mishnah or Talmud of
      any popular elections for local purposes, nor is
      there any of elections of kings or high priests by the
      boily of the people. It is probable that the admin-
      istrative olliccs, corresponding to those of the mayor
      and council and taxing officers of modern towns, the
      non-judicial elders, as distinguished from "the eld-
      ers of the court" (Sotah ix. 6), were handed down in
      certain families from father to son (ICeritot 5b).
      Upon the measure or method of taxation which the
      king might employ tor the purposesof tlie state the
      Jlishnah is silent; the Talmud intimates that it
      might be in the nature of a tithe on the products of
      the soil (Sanh. 201)). In connection with the ex-
      emption from taxes claimed by the learned class
      (B. B. 8a) these imposts are cited as the supposed
      equivalents of those mentioned in Ezra vii. 24;
      namely, gifts to the king, wliicli were of Persian in-
      stitvUion ; a capitation tax ; and the "arnona " (Latin
      " annona "), a contribution in grain, fruits, etc. , in the
      nature of a tithe.

      E. c. L. N. D.



      GOT. See Gentii.e.

      GRACE, DIVINE: One of the attributes of
      God, signifying His loving-kindness and mercy, and
      particularly His compassion for the weak, the un-
      fortunate, and the sinful. It is in contrast with the
      attribute of justice, inasmuch as grace is granted
      even to the undeserving. The most significant
      Scriptural passage is in Exodus (xxxiv. 0): "The
      Lord, The Lord God. merciful and gracious, long-
      sulTeriug, andabundant in goodnessand truth." Tlie
      relation of this attribute of grace to God's justice is
      not always clearly defined in the Old Testament,
      liigliteousness, however, is taken to be so compre-
      hensive that it includes all moral perfection, of which
      all virtues are a necessary corollary. Often grace
      and justice are u.sed in parallel construction (Ps.
      Ixxxix. 15; ci. 1; ciii. G, 8). Jonah found it ditficult
      to reconcile grace and righteousness (see Hamburger,
      "H. B. T." i., s.». "Gnade und Barmherzigkeit ";
      Joruih iii. 8-9; iv. 2, 11), and the divine answer states
      that grace divine is extended not only to the chosen
      peojile, but also to the heathen; it is conditioned,
      liowever, on sincere repentance. The Book of
      Jonah is particularly intended to teach divine grace
      in its universal aspect (see Driver, "Introduction
      to the Literature of the Old Testament," p. 3U3).

      However, the other books of the Bible are alsa
      replete with this idea, as Deuteronomy, where the
      existence of divine grace is cited as a guaranty
      that God will keep His covenant with Israel (iv. 31),
      and grace is projuised as a result of obedience (xiii.

      The Prophets, while emphasizing God's judgment
      and righteousness, also proclaim His mercy. Isaiah
      repeatedly teaches that divine grace will be granted
      to the repentant (Ix. 7), God's loving-kindness to
      Israel (Ixiii. 7-9). Jeremiah and Ezekiel, while de-
      nouncing Judah for its sins, hold before it the
      same picture of divine forgiveness (Jer. xviii. 8;
      Lam. iii. 32; Ezek. xxxiii. 11). Joel expressly
      states that sincere repentance is the price of divine
      grace and mercy (ii. 18; comp. Ilosea xiv. 2-9).
      Amos, while speaking burning words to sinful Israel,
      still promises divine grace to the saving remnant of
      Joseph (V. l."); comp. Jlicah vii. 18-20).

      The P.salms abound in expressions of hope for and
      confidence in divine grace. It is found in conjunc-
      tion with righteousness (cxvi. 5) and mercy (ciii. 8)
      and compassion (cxi. 4; comp. Ixxxv. 10, where
      there may be an effort toward harmonizing the two
      attributes of God, grace and righteousness). In the
      Psalms there can be traced a gradual extension of
      the bestowal of divine grace from the anointed king
      and his seed (xviii. 50) to the poor and the needy
      (cxiii. 7), then to all Israel (c.xxx. 7), to all the nations
      (cxvii.), and finally to all creatures (cxlv. 9). Di-
      vine grace is accorded because God desires to keep
      His covenant (evi. 45), and also out of consideration
      for human weakness (Ixxviii. 39) . It is vouchsafed
      to the persecuted (ix. 13), to the fatherless, the
      widow, and the stranger (cxivi. 9).

      The apocryphal writings, too, commemorate and
      appeal to this divine attribute. Divine grace is ex-
      tended over all; "the mercy of the Lord is upon
      all flesh" (Ecelu-s. [Sirach] xviii. 13) out of com-
      passion to weak, sinful, and sliort-lived man. Grace
      is given to tlio.se who forgive the wrongs done to
      them by their fellow men (ib. xxviii. 3, 5).

      In the Talmud divine grace is designated by the
      term D''Dmn mO. the attribute of mercy, in contra-
      distinction to inn me. the attribute of justice. In
      creating the world God combined the two attributes:
      "Thus said the Holy One, blessed
      In the be His name! 'If I create the world
      Talmud, with the attribute of mercy, sin will
      abound ; and if I create it with the at-
      tribute of justice, how can the world exist? There-
      fore I create it with both attributes, mercy and jus-
      tice, and may it thus endure ' " (Gen. U. xii. 15).
      The same is asserted about the creation of man (Gen.
      R. xxi. 8). This interpretation is based on the sup-
      position, often expressed by the sages, that "Elo-
      hiui " i:nplies the quality of justice, and the Tetra-
      graramiton tin; attribute of mercy (s'je Ex. R. vi 2;
      Ber. GOb). God is sometimes called D''Dmn 7^2
      ("the Merciful One": Lev. R. xvii. 4).

      According to the sages, divine grace is given to
      those who are merciful to their fellow men (Gen. R.
      XXX. 3: Sliab. 15Ih); about those who study the I;aw
      God draws a cord of grace (non ijC Din) in the
      future world (Hag. 12b). Grace is given to some
      because of the merit of their ancestors, to others be-




      cause of the merit of their desceiiiiiinis ((Im. R.
      xxix. 5). The rislitcDUS have tlie power to change
      the attribute of justice to tlie attribute of mercy (ib.
      xxxiii. 4). Th(! contrast between man's cruelty anil
      God's grace is shown in Men. 99b; 'Er. l!)a. As
      laws of grace and mercy are interpreted Lev. xxii.
      27, 28; XXV. 0; Deut. xxii. 7 (sec Dent. ]{. vi. 1).
      Rabbi Jose, however, declares that these coinmand-
      nieuts arc not founded on grace, but are divine de-
      crees for which no reason may he given (Ber. 33b;
      Meg. 25a).

      From the above it i.s clear that the frequent as-
      sertion that tlie idea of divine grace is not fully ex-
      pres.scd in the Old Testament and in the Talmud
      lias no foundation. As to the Paulinian idea of
      grace see CnuisTi.vNiTV and Saul op Tarsus. The
      medieval Jewish philosophers treating of the at-
      tributes of God did not mention grace. Saadia, the
      first to treat of attributes, enumerates only those
      wliich express the very essence of God without in-
      fringing upon the idea of His unity. The other
      philosopliers followed Saadia's example. Judaii ha-
      Levi, however, mentions the attributes Dimi ]MT\
      (" merciful and gracious ") among the so-called "act-
      ive attributes " (" Cuzari," ed. Cassel, pp. 87 et seq.).

      The Jewish liturgy is full of the idea of divine
      grace. It is expressed in praise and adoration, in sup-
      plication ("Ahabah Rabbah"), and in thanksgiving
      ("Shemoneh 'Esreh "). God is addressed as " merci-
      ful God," "merciful Father." and ''merciful King."
      The long prayer recited on Jloudaysand Thursdays,
      beginning " Wehu I'ahum," is particularly a prayer
      for grace in times of persecution. The liturgy for
      the New -Year and the Daj' of Atonement is jienne-
      ated with this idea.

      4S;i; Hastings, DM.

      M. M. E

      GRACE AT MEALS: Benedictions before and
      after meals. In the prayer-book of the Spanish
      Jews grace after meals is called "bendicioii cle la
      mesa" (benediction of the table); the German Jews
      speak of "benschen." a corruption of the Latin
      " benedict io."

      The duty of saying grace after the meal is derived
      from Deut. viii. 10: "And thou shalt eat and be
      sated and shalt, bless the Lord thy God for the
      goodly land which he has given thee." Verse 8 of
      the same chapter says; "The laud of wheat and
      barley, of the vine, the fig and the pomegranate, the
      laud of the oil olive and of [ilate] syrup." Hence
      only bread made of wheat (which embraces spelt) or
      of barley (which for this jMirpose includes rye and
      oats) is deemed worthy of the blessing commanded
      in vcr.se 10; bread made of rice, millet, or Indian
      corn is not included. Preparations of wheat or
      barley other than bread, and grapes, figs, pomegran-
      ates, olives, dates, wine, and oil do indeed come
      within the Scriptural coinmanil ; but the grace after
      eating or drinking such articles is condensed into
      one benediction out of the three (or four) that are
      spoken after a meal which includes bread proper.

      \Vhen three or more men (a boy over thirteen is
      reckoned as a man) cat together, one of them, ac-
      cording to the Mishnah. says grace for all; in mod-
      ern practise he only leads, the others joining. Two

      BiuLioGR.\piIY: Hamhurpor, li. Tt. T
      Bihle. ii. ;.'.54.

      men of jiroper age and a boy old enough to have
      ideas about God are deemeil by others sullicii'nt;
      also two men who have had their meal and a third
      man who has eaten with them any food the size of
      an olive.

      The leader, after asking perini.ssion in the words
      "by permission [bi-rcshut] of my masters" or "of
      my father and my masters " or " of the master of the
      house and my masters," opens thus: "Let us bless
      Him of whose bounty we have eaten." The otliers
      answer: "Blessed lie He of whose bounty we have
      eaten and through whose goodness we live." The
      leader repeats this, and then proceeds with the bene-
      dictions. When ten are at the table the formula
      contains also the name of God, running thus: "Let
      us bless our God of," etc., and "Blessed be our God
      of," etc.

      A baraita (Ber. 4.")b; 'Ar. Sa) teaches that three
      women may in like manner choose a leailer and have
      the like address an<l response among themselves;
      but this custom has fallen into disuse in modern
      times. When ten men meet at a wedding-meal they
      add after "our God " the words "in whose dwelling
      there is joy" (see Ber. vii. 1, 3, ;j, and Geiiiara on

      The grace probably consisted originally of three
      benedictions: (1) The benediction closing" blessed."
      etc., " who feedest all," an ackuowledgment of God
      as provider and sustainerof the world. It has no ref-
      erence to Israel, to its history or Law, and it may be
      recited by men of any race or creed who believe in
      God. (2) The benediction closing " blessed be Thou,
      O Lord, for the laud and for the food," and contain-
      ing Deut. viii. 10. It opens with words of thanks for
      the heritage of the Holy Land, for the deliverance
      from Egypt, for the Covenant and the Law ; lastly,
      for the food. Special thanks for the
      The Bene- "miracles and salvation " that are re-
      dictions, membered on Purim and Hanukkah
      are introduced here. (3) The benedic-
      tion calling for God's mercy on Israel, on Jerusalem,
      on the kingdom of the house of David, and on the
      Temple ; it proceeds with a request for plentiful .•ind
      honorable maintenance, and lastly with one for the
      building of tlie Holy City, and closes: "Blessed be
      thou, O Lord, who in Thy mercy buildest Jerusalem.
      Amen." On the Sabbath a petition for rest undis-
      turbed by sadness or sorrow is inserted ; on festivals
      and new moons the same formula ("ya'aleh we-
      _vabo"), which on these days forms a part of the
      " 'amidali" or prayer proper (see Siie.moneii 'Esukii).
      These three benedictions are spoken of in the Tal-
      mud as of high antiquity. The words "who build-
      est Jerusalem " do not militate against this; they
      occur in the 147th Psalm. There is a fourth bene-
      diction of later origin and growth. According to a
      tradition, it was instituted after the massacre of the
      brave defenders of Belhar; wh.m the Jews received
      permission to bury their bleaching bones, the fourth
      benediction, " who is good and doetli good." already
      in use ujjon the receipt of good news, was added to
      the grace, and was soon enlarged to a length equal-
      ing that of the three others, especially by a number
      of petitions beginning: "The jMerciful " (pmn)-

      Grace as printed in pmyer-books of either the
      German or Sepliardic ritual runs up to over 350 Ho-




      brew words, aside from the insertions for Sabbatli,
      new moons, etc. Maimouides gives in liis "Order
      of Prayer" (part of liis code) a much shorter form,
      each benediction being abridged, and tlie petitions
      corameucing "The Merciful" being cut down to
      three. B.ier in his prayer-boolv " 'Abodat Yisrael "
      (p. r)G3, liiklellieim, 1888) also gives anotlicr short
      form of grace, especially composed for the benefit of
      "male ami female servants and otlier people who
      have not sufficient time to read tlie long grace with
      proper devotion "; while the Kol Bo has a form of
      grace still shorter. But one of the Babylonian wor-
      thies, Benjamin the Shepherd, contracted tlie whole
      of grace into five Aramaic words: "Berikrahamana,
      mara deliai pitta" — Blessed be the Merciful, the
      master of this bread (Ber. 40b) — and it was thou.ght
      that; in doing so he complied with his Scriptural
      duty. This formula is used by children.

      In the liouse of mourning a modified grace, as given
      in the"Siddur Rab Amram," is recited. The ad-
      dress runs : " Let us bless the Comforter of mourners, "
      etc. ; the first and second benedictions aie greatly
      shortened; the third reads thus: "Comfort, O Lord
      our God, thase that mourn, the mourners for Zion
      and the mourners in this sad inllictiou ; comfort them
      after their grief, gUuUleu them after their sorrow, as
      it is said: ' Like a man whom his mother comfort-
      eth, so I will comfort you, and in Ziou you shall
      be comforted.' Blessed," etc., "the comforter of
      mourners aild builder of Jerusalem. Amen." In the
      fourth benediction the words "the truthful judge,"
      used I'.pon the receipt of sad news, are inserted;
      otherwise it is much shortened.

      At the festive breakfast following a circuuieisi(m
      grace is usually chanted with many poetical addi-
      tions; these are of no great antiquity.

      Gr.iee may be spoken in iiny language (Sotah vii.
      1). Itshouldalways be recited atthc table atwhich
      the meal was taken.

      Grace before meals is spoken on eating the first
      morsel of bread and runs thus: "Blessed be Thou,
      O Lord our God. King of the world, who bringest
      bread forth from the earth. "

      For the wine after the meal see Clt of Bi:xe-
      DICTION ; for the " seven benedictions " at a wedding-
      meal see M.*.RRIAGE CETiEMONiEs; for mclodies used
      in reciting grace see ZEMiiiOT.

      BIBLior.RAPnv : OrnhHayiiim. §§ 184-201 ; Tad, Berakot and
      Seder Tcfilhtt; Demhitz. JewisJ) St:rviccs, bk. v., ch. :t.
      s. s. L. N. D.

      GiiAcr.v Menhesi.'V.

      GRACIAN (Ilebr. "Hen"): A prominent
      SlKUiish .Icwish family descended from Judah beu
      Barzilai. the members of which are known to have
      lived chiefly at Barcelona from the thirteenth to the
      si.xteenth century. Most of the members used the
      name "Hen"; one of them, Solomon ben Moses,
      signed himself twice "Solomon b. Closes Hen"
      ("Minhat Kena'ot," pp. 134, 157) and once "Solo-
      mon Graeian " (ih. p. 10;!). Several members of this
      fanuly signed in 130.'), together with Solomon Adret,
      the protestation against the teaching of iihllosophv
      (ih. pp. 61, 74, l.-)4ri.57,162, 163). The following are
      the iirini'i|Kil rnendiers of the family:

      Astruc Vidal Graeian: Flourished at tln' end

      of the fourteenth century. There is a responsum
      of his on the subject of taxes to be puid by persons
      who left Gerona and settled at Perpignau (Neubauer.
      "Cat. BckII. llebr. MSS." No. 2218-'').

      Bonsenor Graeian : Contemporary of Astruc
      Vidal Graeian; wrote a responsum on the same sub-
      ject (//'.).

      Elijah Hen : Flourished at Candia in the si.x-
      teenth century; mentioned by Jacob ha-Levi in his
      Responsa, No. 38, and by Joseph di Trani in his Re-
      sponsa, ii., No. 15 (Conforle, " Kore ha-Dorot," pp.
      47a, 48b).

      Isaac Hen : Lived at Candia in the sixteenth
      century; mentioned in the Respon.sa of Joseph b.
      Loeb, iii., Nos. 2. 102 (ib. ji. 38a).

      Isaac b. Moses ben Shealtiel Hen : Signer
      of the ]iroti'Statiiin<jf 1305 (" ,Miid,iat Kena'ot," p. 61).

      Jacob en Shealtiel Hen : Signer of the pro-
      testation of 1305 (///. pp. (il. 162).

      Judah. b. Immanuel Hen : Flourished at Can-
      dia in the si.xteenth century, frequently mentioned
      in the Responsa of Joseph Caro (Conforte, I.e. 36b).

      Makir ben Sheshet Hen : Signer of the pro-
      testation of 1305 ("Minhat Kena'ot," pp. 61, 157).

      Shealtiel Hen. See Gu.\ci.\N, Shealtiei,.

      Shealtiel ben Samuel : Probably a grandson
      of the preceding.

      Sheshet b. Shealtiel Hen : Signer of the pro-
      test;itic>n «( i;!05.

      Solomon ben Moses Hen. See Gkacian, Sol-
      omon' HEN Moses.

      Zerahiah ben Isaac b. Shealtiel Hen. See


      Zerahiah ben Sheshet Hen : Signer of the
      protestation of 1305 (" Minhat Kena'ot," p. 157).

      Bnn.inoRAPHY: Zunz, Notat on Benjamin of Tudelcu ed.
      Astier, ii. 5.
      G. • M. Seu

      GKACIAN, SHEALTIEL (HEN) : Rabbi of
      Barcelona; nourished in t)ie beginning of the thir-
      teenth century. During the lifetime of R. Nissim
      Gerondi, Shealtiel Graeian was rabbi of Fi'aga,
      Spain. Owing to his great learning, he was nom-
      inated rabbi at Alcala, and the Jews of that town
      made him swear that he would never leave them.
      Shealtiel afterw:ird regretted his oath, and applied
      to R. Nissim and his pupil, Isaac ben Sheshet, to
      absolve him from it. Both refused; yet afterward,
      probably after R. Nissim's death, Shealtiel is
      found at Barcelona. Isaac b. Sheshet applied to
      him to be the mediator between his daughter anil
      her father-in-law. MS. No. 3218 of tlie Bodleian
      Library (p. 156b) contains a responsum .signed by
      Shealtiel Hen, together with seven other rabbis.
      He is besides frequently mentioned by Isaac b.
      Sheshet in his responsa.

      Bibliography : Weiss, Dor Dnr wc-Dnrshaw, i. 161 : Neu-
      luviier, ('(!(. Biidl. Hchr. MSS. No. 221S*>-; Zunz, Autcs tin
      Bcnjatfiin of TndeJa, ed. Aslier, ii. 5.
      c. M. Sei,.


      (HEN): Taliiiudist of Barcelona; lived :it the end
      of the thirteenth and beginning of the fourteenth
      centuries: died in 1307. He was one of the synod
      that signed with R. Solomon 1>. Adret the dcerec; of
      excommunication against Maimonides' partizans.




      He was also one of those who, after Bedersi's let-
      ter to Adret. tried to reconcile tlie two purlies (see
      Jew. E.nc. ii. 6:30). His name occurs tliree times in
      the " Minl.i;it Kcnii'ot," under letters 81, 83, and 87.

      U'ttiTs SI, 83, 87: (iriitz.

      BniLIocRAI'HY : Mitihal ^cnn'iil
      Gcsch. d. Jutlcit. M ed., vii. 'M\.


      SHEALTIEL (HEN): IMiysiiiuii. philosoplier,
      trausl;itor, llebniisl ; tloiuislied about the end of
      the thirteenth century; born either at Barcelona or
      at Toledo. Confounded with Zerahiah b. Isaac ha-

      BluLiOGUArilY : Sleinsclmclder, IIel>r. I'chets. pp. 111-lH, 12.'i,
      H(i, lliU, a>L'. ^"95. Ii."i:i, TW, TB5: i<lem, lli:lir. Ililil. Iv. IZX vlll.
      89, X. .1". xl. ■1-',!II. l:!(i. xii. 4a, 47, xvl. Ml: '/Mux.d. S. ill. a.!);
      idem, iV'jfcs on llcnjdmin nf Tudchi, ed. .\^ln^t■, li. -12 ; <}znr
      Nchimid. 11. 2211 24ri, Iji. Irti-lll ; (.clKcr. in ./))(/. Zcil. vil.
      14!l: ( armiily, Itcriir (Iriintale. 1.44.1-44.'): Michael, Or /ict-
      Ihiiiifini, |). :i70 : 1- iiciin. Kt lie-net Yl-ivaeX, pp. Ij;J7, :i:t8.
      o. M. Slit,.

      GRADIS : Name of a family of prominent mer-
      chanls in southern France, orij^inally from Spain;
      (lourislied in Boideau.x in the eighteenth cenluiy.
      The followiiif; family tree indicates the relation.ship
      of the members of the great Bordeau.\ lirm;

      Diego Gradis (laW) = Sara Henriques Bocarro

      Antoine :


      . Mt'iides

      Samuel =


      . Mendes

      David (d. 17.il)


      Abraham (d. 17:SS)



      Mosi-s (d. 178,S)

      (d. 17801

      (d. 1732)

      r I

      David II. (1743-1811) Moses II. td. 1825)



      Benjamin the




      Henry Moses



      Benjamin the Elder
      (b. 1780)

      Esther :



      = HaliJvy




      (■• Mary

      Fit;;yer.ild '*)

      Levi Saladin, a translator. Zerahiali went to Rome
      about 1277, and wrote all his works tliere before
      1290. In writing to the physician Hillel of Veiona
      he makes the point that while commenting upon
      the dillicult passages of the " Jloreh" he followed
      the criticisms of Nahmanides. It may be inferred
      from his commentary to Job that Arabic was his
      native language. He wrote a philosophical com-
      mentary to Proverbs, fiuished Nov. 28, 1288; an-
      other to Job, in which he derives many words from
      the Arabic. Both commentaries were published by
      Schwarz: the former in " Ila-Shahar " (ii. 60-8O,
      IO0-II2, 109-176, 209-240, 2t?l-3S8,'300-314) under
      the title of " Imre Da'at " ; the latter in his " Tikwat
      Enosh" (Berlin, 1868). He wrote also a commen-
      tary ou ditficult passages of tlie "JIoreh"of Jlai-
      monides, comparing the work with that of Aristotle.
      Zerahiah was a prolific translator from Arabic into
      Hebrew of philosophical and medical works. Among
      his translations are the following:

      (1) Aristotle's "Physics" under the Hebrew title "Sefer ha-
      Teba**'; (2) " Metaphysics *' under the title of "Mah she-Ahar
      ha-Teba'"; (:i) "' De Ccelo et Mundo " under the title ot " Ha-
      Shamayim weha-'(tlani '' : (4) "De Anima" uiidir the title of
      " Sefer ha-Nefesh " : (5) "De Causis" under the title of " Ha-
      Bi'ur ha-Tob ha-(;ainur" ; (f)) Averroes' Middle Cominent;iries
      to Arist^)tle's "Physics," "Metaphysics," and " De ccelo et
      Mundo," and the commentary of Themistius to the last-named
      work : (7) the llrst two books of .\vicenna's "Canon" : (8) Al-
      Farabi's " lUsalali 11 Mahiyyat al-.Nafs " (Treatise on the Sub-
      stance of the Soul), the Hebrew title of which is " Ma'mar be-
      Mabut ha-.\efesh" (piiWished by Edelmann in his " Hemdah
      Genuzah," Koni?sbers, l&ili); (0) a medical work of Galen
      under the title of "Sefer he-ltola'im weha-Mlkrim" (The Book
      of Diseases and Accidents), from the Arabic of ttunain ibn
      Ishak; (10) three chapt^'rs of Galen's KaTayer^, with the same
      title In Hebrew characters ; (ID Maimonides' treatise on sexual
      Intercourse ("Fial-Jima"'); (12) the "Aphorisms" of Maimon-
      ides (" liLsul Musa "), termiuated at Rome in 1277. Zerahiah'a
      translations were mostly made for shabbethai )>. Solomon la 1284.

      n. GtT.

      David Gradis: Naturalized in Biii<leau-\ in 17;il ;
      died in 1751. In 1696 he had tstablished the great
      mercantile house whose trade relations extended to
      England, Holland, southern Fiance, Ctiiiaila, and
      the French West Indies, nearly all the transoceanic
      trade being in its hands. In return for sugar and
      indigo, the lirm exported to Cayenne, jMartinitjue,
      and Santo Domingo cargoes of alcohol, linen, meal,
      pickled meat, and wine. The serious financial crises
      of the years 1715 and 1719 did not materially in-
      jure any of the firm's commercial interests. In 1724
      David (jradis, known as "the Portuguese merchant."
      opened a branch in Santo Domingo, despite the
      antagonisin toward Jews on the island, where the
      Jesuits held sway. The influence of the firm of
      Gradis soon stifled all race feeling, and when Samuel
      Gradis, son of David and the representative of ihe
      family at St. Pieri-e, ^lartiniqiie, died there, in 1732,
      he was buried in the garden of the Brothers of

      Abraham Gradis : Eldest son of David, who on
      his father's death became the senior member of the
      firm. He isdescribed asaman of great genius, who
      not only maintained but vastly increased the pres-
      tige of the firm of Gradis in the commercial world.
      He became intimate with personages of the highest
      official rank, M. JIaurepas, confidant of Louis X\'I..
      among thetn. In the wars between England and
      France he. despatched vessels carrj-ing valtiable car-
      goes of war supplies to Canada at the expense of
      the firm, being reimbursed only in part after hostil-
      ities had ceased. In 1748 he founded the Society of
      Canada, a commercial organi/tition under the aus-
      pices of the French government, and erected maga-
      zines in Quebec. In 17.")8 the trade of the firm with
      the French colonies alone aggregated 2.369,326




      francs. From 1759 to 1763, after Canada had ceased
      to be a French possession, the export trade of the
      firm amounted to 9,000,000 francs. Nor is it unim-
      portant to mention tlie activity of the firm of Gradis
      in tlie exchange of Frencli prisoners held in Eng-
      land ; tliese prisoners were supplied witli food and
      cloUiing at the expense of the firm through agents
      stationed in London.

      The coffers of the state having been depleted ow-
      ing to the cost of the wars, tlie house of Gradis was
      more than once seriously embarrassed. Upon one
      occasion, being hard pressed for funds, Alnaham
      Gradis urged Minister Berryer to honor his claims.
      The latter insinuating that the request was but a
      pretext to extort payment, Gradis proudly replied:
      "The nameof Gradi.s, better known in the four (|uar-
      tersof the globe than that of the minister of France,
      is free from dishonor." Berryer relented, presented
      his claims, and they were duly honored, Louis XV.,
      through his miuister, acknowledging in glowing
      terms Gradis' services to the stale. Exceptional
      privileges were granted him and his family in the
      colonies; full civil rights were accorded him in Mar-
      tini(iue in 1779. The abbe Gregoire, in commenting
      upon Gradis' generosity and benevolence, urged, as
      one of his pleas in favor of Jewish emanciptition,
      the fact tliat during the fearful famine in the French
      colonies Gradis hail despatched seventeen shiploads
      of supplies to the sulfercrs.

      Tlie insurrections in Santo Doiuingo and j\Iar-
      tinifine, where the firm of Gradis owned considera-
      ble ]iroperty, together with losses at homo occasioned
      by the French Revolution, caused the downfall of
      the house. Their West-Indian estates, estimated at
      3,000,000 francs, were utterly ruined. The other
      memliers of the firm involved in the fall of the house
      were Benjamin, David (the second), and Moses

      BlBi.iooRAPHY: Henri (iniilis, Notice xur la FamiUc Gradis
      ct snr la Maisnn Gradis et Fits de B'irdeanr, 1875: (jratz,
      JJic Fanidic (jvadix. in Monatssdnift^ x.\iv. 44T-4r)9: ih.
      XXV. 7S-a"); idem, (itsril. .Ni. UKI, -JIU. LIB. S!, Leipsic. 1870;
      Aljrahani Cuhiin, Lis Jiiifs dc la Martiitiijue au XVIT^
      Sit'dc^ in It. K. ./. ii. *♦:>: Cienry:!^ A. Kohut, Kiiterprifie and
      l)ijl\tcuc(' Iff lltt' tlntdis Fnniilii in t}ie Wrst liidiis^ an<l
      Durinij lite Canailiaii \Vai.\m s. Wolf's The American
      Jew as Palritil. Soldier, and Cid'ze", lip. 47tv482, I'lillade!-
      phia, 1.S9.5; Jacobs, Hourccs, xiii.-xiv. 5; R. Gotthell, in J. Q.
      R. XT. 23:!.
      1). G. A. K.

      GRABS, ORTUIN DE (railed also Ortui-
      ntis Gratius) : Anti-.Tewish writer of the six-
      teenth century; born at lloUwick in Westphalia in
      1491 ; died at Cologne May 21, 1542. He was the
      son of a priest, and became one of the chiefs of the
      Dominican part}' in Cokigue. Ortuin was a rabid
      Jew-hater, and wrote much against the Jews. He
      took sides with Pfeft'erkorn during the latter's con-
      troversy with Reuehlin, and with the assistance of
      Victor von Karben, a baptized Jew, wrote " De Vita
      et Moribus Judicorum " (l.'J04); he afterward trans-
      lated it into German. This book is a fanatical dia-
      tribt! against Jews and Judaism. Ortuin translated
      Pfellerkorn's anti-Jewish writings into Latin.

      Bim.TOfiUAPiiY: Gratz, Oesch. ix.. passim ; T,. Geiper, TIevch-
      Vnrs hclicn tnid Werke, in ITIr. Hvlleni (tprra, ill. S.")!)-
      361, Leipsif, 1871 : idem, in All(i, Denlsche Itioiirajiliie, ix.
      600-602; Koliut, Gcscli. der Dculscln:n Jnilrn. p. 466.

      D. A. M. F.

      historian and exegete; born Oct. Ml, 1817, at Xions,
      province of Posen; died at Munich Sept. 7, 1891.
      He received his first instruction at Zerkov, whither
      his parents had removed, and in 1831 was sent to
      WoUstein, wliere he attended the 3'e.shibah up to
      1836, acquiring. secular knowledge by private study.
      The "Neunzehn Briefe vcni Ben Uziel" (see S;imson
      Raphael Ilinscii) made a powerful impression on
      him; and he resolved to prepare himself for aca-
      demic studies in order to champion the cause of Or-
      thodox Judaism. His first intention was to go to
      Plague, to which place he was attracted by the fame
      of its old j'cshibah and the facilities afforded by the
      university. Being rejected by the immigration oHi-
      cers, he returned to Zerkov and wrote to 8. R.
      Hirsch, then rabbi of Oldenburg, intimating li'S de-
      sire. Ilirsch oft'ered him a home in his house.
      Graetz arrived there May 8, 1837, and spent three
      years with his patron as pupil, companion, and
      amanuensis. In 1840 he accepted a tutorship with
      a family at Ostrowo, and in Oct., 1843, he entered
      the University of Breskiu.

      At that time the controversy between Orthodoxy
      and Reform wasat its height, and Graetz, true to the
      principles which he had imbibed from Ilirsch, began
      liis literary career by contributions to the "Orient,"
      edited liy Julius FUrst, in which he severel_y criti-
      cized the Reform party, as well as Geiger's text-
      book of the Mishnah ("Orient," 1844). These con-
      tributions and his chaiupionshipof the Conservative
      cause during the time of the rabbin-
      Orthodox ieal conferences made him popular with
      Champion, the Orthodox party. This was espe-
      cially the case when ho agitated for a
      vote of confidence to be given to Zacharias Frankel
      after he had left the Frankfort conference because
      of the stand which the majority had taken on the
      cpiestion of the Hebrew language. After Graetz
      had obtained his degree of Ph.D. from the Univer-
      sity of Jena (his di.ssertation being " De Auctoritate
      ct Vi Quam Gnosis in Judaismum Habuerit," 1845;
      published a year later under the title " Gnosticis-
      mus und Judenllium"), he was made principal of a
      religious school founded by the Conservatives. In
      the same year he was invited to preach a trial ser-
      mon before the congregation of Gleiwitz, Silesia,
      but failed completely ("AUg. Zeit. des Jiid." 1845,
      p. 683).

      He remained in Bre.slau until 1848, when, upon
      the advice of a friend, he went to Vienna, purposing
      to follow a journalistic career. On the way ho
      stopped at Nikolsburg, where S. P. Hirsch w.as resi-
      ding as Moravian chief rabbi. Hirsch, who then con-
      templated theestablishmenlof a rabbinical semi narv,
      employed Graetz temporarily as teacher at Nikols-
      burg, and afterward gave him a position as princi-
      pal of the Jewish scliool in the neighboring city of
      Luudenburg (1850). In Oct., 1850,'Graetz married
      Marie Monasch of Krotoschin. It seems that Hinsch's
      departure from Nikolsburg liad an inlluence on
      Graetz's position ; for in 1853 the latter left Lunden-
      biirg and went to Bf'riin. where he delivered a course
      of lectures on Jewish history before rabbinical stu-
      dents. They do not seem to liave been successful
      {ib. 1853, p. 506). Meantime liis advocacy of Fran-


      THE .IHWLSH I<:N<;Y(;I,()PEDIA


      kel's course liad brought him intoclosn fonliict with
      the Iiitler, for whose iimgii/iiie he frequently wrote
      artieles; and aeeordiiigly in l^o-i Ii<' was appointed
      a member of tlie teaehiim: stall of the seminary at
      lireslau, over whieli Frankel presided.
      Professor In this position lie remained up to his
      at Breslau. di'ath, teaching history and Jiible exe-
      gesis, wil h a i)reparatory course in Tal-
      mud. In 1809 the government conl'<Micd iijion him
      the title of professor, and theneel'orward he leetureil

      at Breslau Univer-


      In 1872 Oraetz
      ■went to Palestine in
      the company of liis
      friend Gottsehalel
      Levy of Berlin, foi
      the purpose of study
      ing the scenes of tip
      earliest period ol
      Jewish history,
      which he treated in
      vohnncs i. and ii.
      of his history, pub-
      lished in 1874-76;
      these volumes
      brought that great
      work to a close.
      While in Palestine
      he gave the first im-
      petus to the founda
      tion of an orphim
      asylum there. Ilealsu
      took a great interest
      in the progress of
      the Alliance! Israelite
      Univer.selle, and par-
      ticipated as a dele-
      gate in the eonven
      tion assembled at
      Paris in 1878 in the
      interest of the Ruma-
      nian Jews. Giiietz's
      name was promi-
      nently mentioned in
      the anti-Semitic con-
      troversy, especially
      after Treitschke had
      published his "Kin
      Wort Tiber Unser
      Jndenthum" {1«79-
      1880), in which the latter, referring
      volume f)f the history

      Ilclnrieli (,'raetz.

      to the eleventh

      accused Oraetz

      Attacked of hatred of Christianity and of bias

      by against the German people, quo-

      Treitschke. ting him as a procif that the Jews

      could never assimilate themselves to

      their surroundings.

      This anaignnient of Graetz had a decided effeet
      upon the public. Even friends of the Jews, like
      Monimsen, and advocates of Judaism within the
      Jewish fold expressed their condemnation of
      Graetz's passionate language. It was due to this
      comparativi! unpopularity that Graetz was not in-
      viteil to join the commission created by the union
      of German Jewish congregations (Deutsch-Israeli-
      VI.— .1

      tisch(a' Gemcindebund) for t he promotion of t he st udy
      of the history of the Jews of Germany (188")). On
      the oilier hand, his fame spread to foreign countries;
      and the iiroiiioters of the Anglo-Jewisli Exhibitiim
      invited him in 1887 to open the Exhibition with a
      lecture. The seventieth anniversary of his birlhday
      was the occasion for his friendsand disciples to bear
      testimony to the universal cstc'em in which lie was
      held among them; ami a volume of scientitic essays
      was publislii'd in bis honor ("Jubelsihrift zuni 70.

      Geburtstagedes Prof.
      Dr. II. Graetz," lires-
      lau, 1887). A year
      later (Oct. 27, 1888)
      he was appointed an
      honorary ineniber of
      the Spanish Acad-
      emy, to which, as a
      tciken (if his grati-
      tude, lu! dedicated
      the third e<litioii of
      he eighth volume of
      ills history.

      The summer of
      1891 he spent as iisu
      al in Carlsbad; but
      alarming symptoms
      of heart di.sease forced
      him to discontinue
      the use of the waters.
      He went to Munich
      to visit his son Leo,
      a professor at the
      university of that
      city, and dieil there
      after a brief illness.
      He was buried at
      Breslau. Besides Leo,
      Graetz left three sons
      and one daughter.

      To posterity Graetz
      will becliietly known
      as the Jewish histo-
      rian, althimgh he did
      considerable work in
      the field of exegesis
      also. II is " Ge-
      schiehte der Juden "
      has superseded all
      former works of its
      kind, notabl.v that of
      Jost, in its day a very remarkable ]ir<i(lu(tion ; and
      it has been translated into English, Russian, and
      Hebrew, and partly into Yiddish and Frcneli. The
      fourth volume, beginning with the
      His period following the destruction of

      History of Jerusalem, was publislieil first. It
      the Jews, appeared in 1853; but the jiublieation
      was not a financial success, and the
      ]iublisher refused to continue it. Fortniiiitely the
      publication society Institut zur Forderung der Isra-
      elitischen Litteratur, founded by Ludwig Philipp-
      son, had just come into existeiu-e, and it unilcrtodk
      the iMiblieation of the snbseepient volumes, b<'gin-
      ning with the third, whirh covc'i'd the period (rom
      the death of Judas :Maceabeus to the; (lestruction of




      the Temple. This was published in 1856 iiiul was
      followed by the fifth, after which the vokinies ap-
      peared in regular succession up to the eleventh,
      which was published in 1870 and brought the history
      down to 1848, with which year the author closed, not
      wishing to include living persons.

      In sjiite of this reserve he gravely offended the
      Liberal party, which, from articles that Graetz con-
      tributed to the "Monatsschrift," inferred that he
      would show little sympathy with the Reform ele-
      ment, and therefore refused to publish the volume
      unless the manuscript was submitted for examina-
      tion. This Graetz refused; and the volume there-
      fore appeared without the support of the publica-
      tion society. Volumes 1. and ii. were published, as
      stated above, after Graetz had returned from Pales-
      tine. These volumes, of which the second practi-
      cally consisted of two, appeared in 1873-75, and
      completed the stupendous undertaking. For more
      popular purposes Graetz published later an abstract
      of his work under the title " Volksthiimliche Ge-
      schichte der Juden" (3 vols., Leipsic, 1888), in which
      he brought the history down to his own time.

      A translation into English was begun by S. Tuska,
      who in 1867 published in Cincinnati a trauslation of
      part of vol. i.\. under the title " Inlluence of Judaism
      on the Protestant Reformation." The fourth volume
      was translated by James K. Gutheim under the aus-
      pices of the American Jewish Publication Society,
      the title being "History of the Jews from the Down-
      fall of the Jewish State to the Conclusion of the
      Talmud " (New York, 1873).

      A new translation into English of the complete
      work, in five volumes, by Bella LOwy, was pub-
      lished in 1891-92 in Loudon, and was republished by
      the Jewish Publication Society of America (Philadel-
      phia, 1891-98), with an additional volume containing
      a copious indc.\' (lacking in the German original) to
      the whole work, made by Henrietta Szold; it also
      contains an extensive biography of the author by
      Philipp Bloeh. In this translation the foot-notes
      and appendi.xes to the original are omitted. The
      French translation is fragmentary. Moses Hess, an
      admirer of Graetz, published the third volume under
      the title "Sinai ct Golgotha" (Paris, 1867), and the
      si.\th volume under the title "Les Juifsd'Es\ agne "
      (ib. 1872). From 1888 onward the translation was
      continued by L. Wogue and Moise

      Transla- Bloch. The first Hebrew translation,
      tions. undertaken by Kaplan, gave only the
      third volume, under the title " Dibre
      Yeme ha-Y'ehudim " (Vienna, 1875). A translation
      of the first ten volumes, with very valuable original
      notes by Harkavy, was published in eight volumes
      at Warsaw, 1890-98. It is the work of S. P. Rab-
      binowicz. The eleventh volume the translator would
      not translate, because he considered it too biased.

      A great number of historical essays were pub-
      lished by Graetz in the annual reports of the Bres-
      lau Seminary and in the ".Monatsschrift," to which
      he contributed from the beginning, and of which
      he was the editor from the time of Frankel's retire-
      ment (1869) until he abandoned its publication (1^87).

      Graetz's historical studies, e.\tenditig Ijack to Bib-
      lical times, naturally led him into the field of exege-
      sis. As early as the fifties he had written in the

      "Monatsschrift" essays dealing with exegetical
      subjects, as " Fillscliuugen in dem Texte der LXX."
      (1853) and "Die Grosse Versammlung: Keneset
      Hagedola" (1857); and with his translation of and
      commentaries on Ecclesiastesand Canticles (Breslau,
      1871) hel)egan the publication of separate exegetical
      works. A commentary and translation of the Psalms
      followed (ih. 1882-83). Toward the end of his life
      he planned an edition of the whole Hebrew Bible
      with his own textual emendations. A prospectvis
      of this work appeared in 1891. Shortly before the
      author's death, a part of it, I.saiah and
      As Jeremiah, was issued in the form in

      Exegete. which the autiior had intended to pub-
      lish it; the rest contained only the
      textual notes, not the text itself. It was edited,
      under the title "Emendationes in Plerosque SacroB
      Scripturai VeterisTestamenti Libros, " by W. Bacher
      (Breslau, 1893-94).

      The most characteristic features of Graetz's exe-
      gesis are his bold textual emendations, which often
      substitute something entirely arbitrary for the Maso-
      retic text, although he always carefully consulted
      the ancient versions. He al.so determined with too
      much certainty the period of a Biblical book or a
      certain passage, when at best there could only be a
      probable hypotheses. Thus his hypothesis of the
      origin of Ecclesiastes at the time of Herod, while
      brilliant in its presentation, is hardly tenable. His
      textual emendations display fine tact, and of late
      they have become more and more respected and

      Graetz's activity was not limited to his special
      field. He enriched other branches of Jewish science,
      and wrote here and there on general literature or oo
      questions of the day. His es.say "Die Verjungung
      des Jlidischen Stammes," in Wertheimer-Kompert's
      "Jahrbuch filr Israeliteu," vol. x., Vienna, 1863
      (reprinted with comments by Th. Zlocisti, in " Jud.
      Volks-Kalender," p. 99, Briinn, 1903), caused a
      suit to be brought against him by the clerical
      anti-Semite Sebastian Brunner for libeling tlie
      Jewish religion. As Graetz was not an Austrian
      subject the suit was nominally brought against
      Kompert as editor, and the latter was fined (Dec. 30,
      1863). Within the Jewish fold the lawsuit had also
      its con.sequenccs, as the Orthodox raised against
      Graetz the accusation of heresy be-
      Other cause he had denied the personal char-
      Literary acter of the prophetic Messiah. To
      Work. the field of general literature belongs
      also his essay on "Shy lock, "published
      in the ""Monatsschrift," 1880. In the early years of
      the anti-Semitic movement he wrote, besides the
      articles in which he defended himself against the
      accusations of Treitschke, an anonymous essaj' en-
      titled " Brief wechsel einer Englischen Dame fiber
      Judentlnnn und Setnitismus," Stuttgart, 1883. To
      supplement his lectures on Jewish literature lie pub-
      lished an anthology of Neo-Hebraic poetry under
      the title "Leket Shoshannim" (Breslau, 1862), in
      which he committed the mistake of reading the
      verses of a poem horizontally instead of vertically,
      which mistake Geiger mercilessly criticized ("JUd.
      Zeit." i. 68-75). A very meritorious work was his
      edition of the Palestinian Talmud in one volume




      (Krotoscliin, 18G6). A hibliojjnipliy of liis works
      has been given by Israel Abniliains in "Tbe Jcwisb
      QuiUterlf Hevicw" (iv. lS»4--^():i).

      The fuels tliat. (Jraetz's history has become veiy

      popular, that it has lielil iiiulispiiteil rank as an au

      tiiority, that it has been traiislateil into three lan-

      i^uages. and that some volumes liave

      His been edited three <n' four times — a

      History very rare oeeurreuee in Jewish litera-
      Critically ture— are in themselves iirool's of the
      Considered, worth of the work. The material for
      Jewish history being so varied, the
      sources .so scattered in the literatures of all nations,
      and thechronologieal sequence so often interrupted.
      made the presentation of this history as a whole a
      very diflicult undertaking; and it can not be denied
      that Graetz jierformed his task with consummate
      skill, that he mastered tnost of the details while not
      losing sight of the whole. Another reason for the
      popularity of the work is its sympathetic treatment.
      This history of the Jews is not written by a cool
      observer, but by a warm-hearted Jew. On the otiier
      hand, some of these commendable features are at
      tlie Siimc time shortcomings. The impossibility of
      mastering all the details made Graetz inaccurate
      in many instances. A certain imaginative faculty,
      wliieh so markedly assisted him in his textual emen-
      dations of the Bible, led him to make a great num-
      ber of purely arbitrary statements. Typical in this
      respect is the introductory statement in the tirst
      volume: "On a blight morning in spring nomadic
      tribes penetrated into Palestine." while the Bible,
      which is his only source, states neither that it was in
      spring nor that it was on a bright morning. His
      passionate temper often carried him away, and
      because of this the eleventh volume is certainl3'
      marred, Graetz does not seem to possess the fair-
      ness necessary for a historian, who has to understand
      every movement as au outgrowth of given condi-
      tions, when he calls David Friedlander a "Flach-
      kopf" (xi. 173) and "Mendelssohn's ape" (('4. p.
      130), or when he says of Samuel Holdheimthat since
      the days of Paul of Tarsus Jtidaism never had such
      a bitter enemy {if>. p. 505). His preconceived opin-
      ions very often led him to conclusions which were
      not borne out and were even frequeuth- disproved
      by the sources. His feelings often led him to make
      unwarranted attacks on Cliristianity which have
      given rise to very bitter complaints. All these short-
      comings, however, are outbalanced by the facts that
      the work of presenting the whole of Jewish histoiy
      was undertaken, that it was executed in a readable
      form, and that the author enriched Jewish history
      by the discovery of many an important detail.

      BiBLiOf:RAPHV : Rippner, in the third edition of the first volume
      of Gnietz's tirsrhichte ; Ahmhants, as above: I*h. Blocli, in
      the Inde.x voliiine of the Epfflish translation of Graetz's work,
      Historii iif the Jews, I'hiladelphia. 189S; M. Wiener, Zur
      WUrdiouhg des Verfahretis G. . .. inUeii Chanatija, l&o3,
      Nos. 22,23.
      s. D.

      GRAETZ, LEO: Germau physicist; son of
      Heinrich Gk.\etz; born at Breslau Sept. 26, 1856.
      Graduating from the Elizabeth gymnasium at Bres-
      lau in 187.5. he studied physics and matheiuatics at
      Breslau, Berlin, and Strasburg, taking his degree
      (Ph.D.) at the first-named university in 1879. In

      >1882 he became privat-docent in physics at the Uni-
      versity of ^lunieli ; in 1893 he was apjiointed pro-
      fessor. His scientilic papers, published chiefly in
      the " Annaleu der Physik und Cheniie." include
      treatises on the conduetiim and ra<liation of heat, on
      mechanics and hydiodynamics, but ])iinci|)ally on
      eleclrieity. He originated a method, now much
      used, for converting alternat(! into continuous cur-
      rents, and was the tjrst to experiment on tlie dis-
      persion of electric waves. He contributed a uuni
      ber of articles to A. Winkelniann's " Handbueli der
      Physik," especially to the part dealing with heat
      and electricity.

      .\nioiig his larger works aie: "Die Elektrieitat
      und Ihre Anwendung " (Stuttgart, 1st ed. 1883, 10th
      ed. 1903), the most jiopidar work on electricity in
      Germany , " Kurzer Abriss der Elektrieitiil " {ib. 3d
      ed. 1903); " Compendium der Physik " (Leipsic and
      Vienna, 3d ed. 19U2): "Das Licht und' die Farben "
      (Leipsie, 1900).

      BiBi.KMiUAPHY: ,T. C. Pogseudorft. liiimrniihi-irh-Litcra-
      ri.vc/its Ilanduortertmch.m. (to IK«), iv. (lSft4-1902); Eck-
      stein, Das Geistiae Deutachlami. Berlin.



      GRAMMAR, HEBREW: Although Hebrew
      gianiiuar, tugetlier with Hebrew lexico.giapliy — the
      two constituting Hebrew philology, and aimin.g
      at the systematic investigation and presentation of
      Biblical Hebrew — originated as au auxiliary science
      to Bible exegesis, and was studied as such, it soon
      acquired an independent character that found ex-
      pression in important literary works. It may be eim-
      sidered as the only science originated by the Jewish
      intellect of the Middle Ages. Cultivated by Jews
      alone for centuries, it was brought by them to a •
      higli degree f)f perfection. The historic task of the
      Jewish people — to preserve the sacred literature
      that they themselves had originated, and to assure
      to it a correct interpretation — is perhaps nowhere
      else seen so clearly as in the fact that Hebrew phi-
      lology is a product of the Jewish mind. The stimu-
      lus for the study of Hebrew philology was, it is
      true, strengthened by external inlluence, namely,
      tlie example furnished b}^ Arabic philology, which
      continued to influence materially the characler of
      the Hebrew science; and it was the Arabic model
      wUich, being that of a kindred language, directed
      the development of Hebrew philology into the right
      path and led it to permanent results. But, notwith-
      standing this foreign stimulus, Hebrew philology
      retained its independence and its own character, to
      which its connection with the Jlasorah, the peculiar
      collection of old traditions regarding the spelling
      and pronunciation of the Biblical text, contrilnifed
      not a little.

      The term applied to Hebrew grammar a-s a sclentinc stiidv Is
      "dikiiuk." In the tannaitie tradition this word, tlie "nmm'n
      aetionis " of the verb p-ipi (from the root ppt), inean.s the de-
      tails of religious law as found by careful investigation of the
      Biblical text; for e.\ample : "dikduk ehad^' (Saiih. 'Mi): "dik-
      duke Torah " (Suk. 28a); "dikciuke ha-pariuihah " (sifra. Lev.
      .xviii. 5, XX. 8); "dlkduke mizwot " (IJul.4al. (in "itikduke
      Jsoferim *' see Bacher, " Die AeltesteTerminoIogie der .liidischeii
      Bibelexegese," p. 24. The verb p-ipi was also used loilesigiiate
      the exact and correct pronunciation of the text of the liihle (see
      Ber. ii. H; Ver. tier. 4it, 42), corresponding to the Aramaic
      "davyek lishana " CF.i-. -"Mbi; and it was tbi- bdler meaning of

      Orammar, Hebrew



      the word which frave risft to Its subseqtient use as the term for
      the grammatical iuvestigation of Hebrew, the language of the

      It is possible that the tferm '^ dikduk." in the sense of the care-
      ful reading of the Bible text, with all the subtleties which were
      handed down concerning it. was in use among
      Probable the Masorites and the teachers of the Bible
      Early Use of at a very early period. Later, when, under the
      "Dikduk." inllueiu-e of Arabic grammar, Hebrew gram-
      mar grew out of the Masoretic rules foi' read-
      ing, this expression offered Itself as a designation fur the new
      science. Although it is not proved that .Saadia Gaon knew the
      word. It may be assumed that he did ; for in the century after
      him " dikdnk " was the generally accepted term for " grammar,"
      both among the Karaites and among the Uabbinites. Japheth
      b. All, the great Karaite e.vegete, calls grammarians "ahl al-
      dikduk" (the people of the dikduk), and grammar, "dik-
      duk" (see introduction to IJarges' edition of Japheth b. All's
      Commentary on Canticles, p. xvi.), A contemporary of Japheth.
      Abu Ya'kub Joseph b. Noah, wrote a grammar entuied " Al-
      Dikduk " (see " R. E. J." xxx. -.51 : on the date of the author
      .see "J. Q. li." viil. 1109, ix. 4;i9; "E. E. J." xxxiii. ai.5). The
      Hebrew expression is therefore used also in Aral)ic texts as a
      fixed term. Abu al-Faraj Harun. the '"grammarian of Jerusa-
      lem," as he Is known to Abraham ihn Ezra, speaks of the
      "method of the language and of the dikduk" ("tarlkat al-lu-
      Khali wiLl-dikduk" : "R. E. J." xxx. 2J1). In a geonic respon-
      sum. perhaps by Sherira or his son Hal ("Responsi-n der (;a-
      onen," pp. ^00, 37ij), the expression "min ha-dikduk " (from
      the grammatical side) is used in a grammatical explanation.

      Abu al-Walid Merwan ihn Janah calls the sciencH' of graiiminr
      "•"11m al-dikdnk" (*"Luma', " p. 3™0, line 14 = *'Rikmah." p.
      in.5. line 3'/), and a large work consisting of a grammar and
      SI dictionary he calls in Ai'abic " Kitab al-Tankit," remark-
      ing that the Arabian "tankit" means the same as the He-
      brew ** dikduk," that is, "examination" and "itivestigation "
      <"Luma'," p. 17, line 14= "Rikmah," p. xiv. line 8; comp.
      *■ Kitab al-Usul," 13, 8) . For the use of the w"ord *' dikduk "in
      Spain before the time of Abu al-Walid. see the tiuotalions from
      Menahem b. Saruk, Dunash ben Laliiat. anii tln-ir pupils, in
      B.acher, " Die (iraminatiscbe Teiiniiiologie des
      Mentioned Hajjug," p. 13; idem, "Lcben und Werke des
      "by "Various Abulwalld," etc., p. 34 ; iihin, " Die Anfiinge
      Authors, der Hebriiischen Grammatik," p. 114. Moses
      ibn Gikatilla, in the first line of his ti'anslation
      of Hayyuj's work, speaks of "dikduk lashon YehudU."'
      Abraham ibn Ezra piefers the full form "dikduk ha-lashon"
      (see Bacher, "Abraham ibn Ek:ra als (Iranunatiker," p. 40).
      In his list of the mastei's of Hebrew philology in the introdm'-
      tion to the "Moznayiin" he calls woi"l;s on grammar "sifre
      ha-dikduk." His commentary to the Pentateuch is " bound in
      the fetters of the dikduk," that is, it is based throughout on
      grammatical explanations. One of his text-books on grammar
      lie calls " Yesod Dikduk " (Basis of Grammar: see "Abraham
      ibn Ezra als Grammatiker," pp. 10 ct scrj.). Ibn Ezra's Karaite
      contemporary, Judah Hadassi, calls works on grammar "sifre
      b.a-dikdukim " (" Monatsschrlft,"xl. 09).

      Mention may also be made of Judah ibn Tibbon's use of the
      wor'd " dikduk " in his translation of Abu al-Waliri's dictionary
      <see the index in Bacher's edition of the ".Sefer ha-Shorashira."
      p. .V)2). Jost'ph Kimhi, in the introduction to his Hebrew gram-
      mar, mentions both the Ijatln and the Arabic names of the sci-
      ence of grammar ("grammatica." "al-nahw"), but not th"
      Hebrew term "dikduk." David Kimhl gave to the first part of
      bus " Miklol " the title " Helck ha-Dik<iuk." and designated the
      three sections of this part " Dikduk ba-1'e'alim " ; " Dikduk ha-
      Sliemot": and "Dikduk ha-Millim" '(irammar of the Verbs;
      Orammar of the Nouns; (irammar of the Paiticles). For the
      use of tlie word in titles of the works of Hebrew grammarians,
      see Beniaf'ob, "Ozar h.a-Sefarlm," pp. Ill c/ see/. On pip^ii as
      ji synonym for nnr'T see Zunz, "Z. G." p. 201 ; Steinschneider,
      •'Jewish Literature," p. 327.

      The Masnrah "wjis tlie cradle projier of Plcbrew
      grammar. The Masorites, as subsequently the graiii-
      iiiarians, had to dilTereutiato between the several
      forms of tlie words found in the Bib-
      Masorab.. lical text, to unite the similar ones into
      groups, to register the peculiarities of
      the text, and to formulate ruh^s for .spelling and
      reading. But tlieir work shows no traces of gram-
      matical categories, nor of any examination of the

      forms of tlie language as such. The care that they
      bestowed upon the faithful preservation of the Bib-
      lical te.\t drew their attention to tlie most delicate
      shades of pronunciation, for the preservation of
      which they finally introduced punctuation; but
      they were interested only in tlie correct reading of
      tin.' traditional orthography of the te.vt, and did not
      intend to investigate the langnage and its laws.
      The ]\Iasorah, however, paved the way for gram-
      mar; Masoretic vocalization and the invention of the
      various .signs enabled the giammarians to determine
      the laws of Hebrew phonetics and etymology. The
      Masorah, which flourished even after the science of
      grammar came into e.\i.stence, was actutdly consid-
      ered liy the grammarians as a necessary foundation
      and, in a way, a constituent part of grammar; and
      the later representatives of the JIasorah, the so called
      "nakdanim," occupied themselves "with grammar

      The old Jewish Bible exegesis, the Midrash, like-
      wise, did not consciously de.il W"ith Hebrew gram-
      mar. The voluminous traditional literature, through
      which is known the Biblical exposition of the Tan-
      naim and the Amoraim, furnishes only a small
      number of very genei"al designations of linguistic
      categories, "which were incorporated later into the
      grammatical terminology. The details of that exe-
      gesis, from which it has been assumed that its au-
      thors "Were acquainted with grammar, ehow merely
      that they were thoroughly acquainted wilh the lan-
      guage and that they closely studied its idioms; but
      neither the Tannaiin nor the Amoraim made any
      attempt to study the language as such, or to deter-
      mine tlie jirinci pies of word-formation. The Midrash
      and the Masorah — those two great branches of Bible
      study which flourished within Judaism during the
      long period in which the traditional literature orig-
      inated— kept the knowledge of the Biblical language
      alive, and preserved with minute care the text of
      the Bible; but it remained for a subsequent age to
      create, by a systematic treatment of the Biblical lan-
      guage, a new basis for Biblical study.

      Long before Hebi"ew had become a subject of
      grammatical study there appeared what may be re-
      garded as the earliest products within Judaism of
      retlection on the elements of the language; iiamely,
      the classilicatiouof the consonants (letters), which is
      found as part of the peculiar cosmogony of the
      "Sefer i'ezirah,"and theclassilicationof the vowels,
      as seen in the ]\Iasoretic system of punctuation.
      Both classifications pa.ssed into the later grammar,
      that of the vowels, which fixed the vowel-marks,
      being the most important legacy that the Masorites
      bequeathed to the grammarians. Ben Asher, the
      great Masorite of Tiberias, who fonmilated tlie
      iNIasoretic notes to the Bible text and laid down gen-
      eral rules, dealt in particular with the consonants
      and vowels; but in his work, " Dikduke ha-Te'a-
      mim," the theory of forms is lai<l down in a few
      sentences that already show the influence of Arabic
      grammar. In Ben Asher Hebrew grammar appears,
      as it were, in its shell, a witness to the fact that
      grammar ("iroceeded from the Masorah.

      Ben Asher's contemporary, the gaon Saadia (d.
      042). transformed Hebrew grammar into a science
      independent of the Masorah. He wrote his " Kitab



      Grammar, Hebrew

      alLiigliah" (BodU of tlio Language) in Arabic and
      iiiiili-rtlR' iiilliicm-iMif Arabic pliilolo.^y, for tlie pur-
      pose of "I'xplainiiig the graininalical iiitlcctioii
      ["i'rab"]of lliu language of llic Ik'ljrcws." This
      worlv, no longer extant, consisted of
      Saadia. twelve parts, the substance of which
      can be lai'gely gathered from refer-
      ences iu Saadia's own works, and especially from
      those of his pupil, Dunashben Labrat. Saadia made
      contributions to grannnar in his olher writings also,
      especially in his conuncntary to the " Seler Yezirah "
      and iu the introduction to "Agron," Ins first pliilo-
      logical work. Saiulia's division of the letters into
      root and fimctional letters is of primary importance,
      and was adopted b_v all his successors: it is tiie fun-
      damental principle of the theory of word-formation,
      leading, on the one hand, to a knowledge of the
      rootas tlie essential and permanent part of the word
      form, and, on the other, to the exact deterunnation
      of the grammatical functions of the other elements
      thereof. One of the twelve books of Saadia's work
      dealt with the iufiections of the verb, giving a sys-
      tematic review of the forms that maj' be produced
      by inllection and atlixion from the several root
      words. Tliese are the first paradigms iu Hebrew
      grammar, and Saadia used as the paradigm- word tlie
      verb JJOK*. Saadia also dealt in his work with tlie
      anotnalies of grammar, to which much attention was
      devoted by latc^r grammarians.

      It is impossible, since all data an; lacking, to dc-
      teimine at present how much Karaite scholars con
      tributed to the be.ginnings of Hebrew grammar.
      Even before the time of Saadia there may have been
      Karaites who treated Hebrew from a gramtnatical
      point of view in the manner of Arabic philology ;
      but so far no predecessors of Saadia in this field
      have been discovered. The first Karaite to whom
      the title of " grannnarian " (" medakdek ") is given is
      Abu Ya'kub Joseph ibu Bahtawi, who must have
      beeu a younger contemporary of Saadia and iden-
      tical with Abu Ya'kub Joseph ibn
      Karaites. Nuh (Noah). He wrote a Hebrew
      grammar in Arabic under the title
      "Al-Dikduk"'("R. E. J."xxx. 2.-)7; "J. Q. R." viii.
      698 et seq., ix. 438 ct seq.). His pupil, Sa'id Shiran.
      wrote a grammatical work under the same title as
      Saadia's "Kitab al-Lughah" ("J. Q. R." viii. 6fl8).
      Abu al-Faraj Haruu was another pupil of Ibn Nid.i
      (sec "J. Q. R." ix. 430), whose work, " Al-Mushta
      mil" (That Which Comprehends), finished in 1020,
      deals with several divisions of grammar. This
      Karaite linguist was included as "grammarian of
      Jerusalem" in the list of the earliest Hebrew gram-
      marians made by Abraham ibn Ezra, but at the
      wrong place and without being designated as a Ka-
      raite ("R. E. J." XXX. 23'2-2.5(5). All the Karaite
      grammarians evidence Saadia's influence, even these
      who attack him; and the same remark applies to
      the Karaite exegetes of the tenth and eleventh cen-
      turies who touch upon grammar in their Bible exe-
      gesis, as well as to the greatest lexicographer of the
      Karaites, David b. Abraham of Fez. whose " Agron,"
      like all works of this kind, contains much grammat-
      ical material.

      The works of the Karaites did not infiuence the
      subsequent dcvelo|iinciil of Hebrew grammar. This

      was carried further, some decades after Saadia's
      death, in Arabic Spain, where the intellectual clllo-
      rescence of Judaism stinudated primarily grannnat-
      ical studies. These studies were especially ju-omoted
      by two nu^n of African origin who lived in Spain:
      Dunash lien Labrat. and Judah b. David Mayyuj.
      In North Africa Judah ibu Kuraish of Taliort, an
      elder contemporary of Saadia, had appeared as early
      as the beginning of tin; tenth century. He empha-
      size<l, even mole than Sa;idia, the c<imiiarative study
      of tlu^ kindred Senntic languages; in his work deal-
      ing with the comparison of Bil)lical llebrc^w with
      the Nco-llebrew of the jMishnali, Aramaic, and Ara-
      bic, lietreatsof the relation between the grammatical
      forms of Hebrew and Arabic. Dunash b. Tamim,
      a pupil of the philoso]dier and physician, Isaac
      Israeli of Kairwan, follows along the same lines.
      Dunash ben Labrat of Fez, mentioned aliove, made
      a specialty of the phiUdogical cxandnation of the
      Bible text. He exerted an extraordinary influence
      on the sUaping of the Hebrew literatme of the Mid-
      dle Ages by introducing Arabic meters into Hebrew
      poetrj' ; and he occupies a prominent place in the
      Instory of Hebrew grammar, especiallj' through his
      criticism of Jlenalu'nv b. Saruk's lexicon.

      Menahem b. Saruk, the first to emidoy Hebrew
      itself in treating Hebrew philology (his predecessors
      having written in Arabic), offers only a few notes
      that may be called grammatical in his lexicon ("Jlah-
      beret"). He is primarily occupied with determining
      the roots of all the words contained in the Bible,
      carrying to the extreme the difierentiation, intro-
      duced by Saadia, between the radical and the
      other parts of a word. All other grammatical
      material appears in chaotic juxtaposition, without ii
      trace of any systematic conception of the forms of
      the langnage and their mutations, although he him-
      self constantly refers to the ti.xed laws of the lan-
      guage and to the regularity of its various forms.
      Dunash's criticism of Menahem's lexicon, also in
      Hebrew and partly in metrical fin-m, marks a d«-
      cided advance in the knowledge of roots as well as
      in the more strict separation of the root-forms.
      Fundamentally important is especially the use of the
      term "nnshkal " (weight), which was
      Menahem destined to take a prounnent place in
      b. Saruk Hebrew grammar, Dunash designa-
      and ling by it the grammatical mo<lel.

      Dunash. either of the verb or the noun. In the
      introduction to his criticism he drew
      up apian which he considered should have been fol-
      lowed iu a work like Menahem's lexicon, and in
      which grammatical categories and themes stand in
      the foreground as a table of contents for a Hebrew
      grammar. In another, incomplete, work Dunasli
      undertook to criticize Saadia's writings, especially
      from a grammatical point of view. In this work
      the nature of the weak vowel-roots is first pointeii
      out, though it was left for a pupil of Menahem to
      develop this point more fully.

      Dunash's criticism of !\teuahem gave; occasion for
      acontroversy between the latter's inipils and a pupil
      of Dunash. Although the two polenncal treatises
      expressing the views of the respective; parties did
      not materially extend grammatic;d knowledge be-
      yond the |)oint reached by Menahem and Dunash,

      Grammar, Hebrewr



      they are highly important as evidences of umisual
      intellectual activity and interest in grammatical
      problems. The polemical treatise of .Mcnaliem's
      three pupils is esjiecially remarkable from the fact
      that one of them. Judah b. David, was none other
      than Dunash's countryman Judah ben David (Abu
      Zechariah Yahya) Hayyuj, who tinally. after the be-
      ginnings which have been described
      Hayyuj. in tlie foregoing paragraphs, placed
      Hebrew grammaronafirm, permanent
      basis. In his two works discussing the weak and the
      double verb-roots Hayyuj at once put an end to all
      arbitrariness and chaos in dealing witli linguistic
      phenomena. He applied to these roots the law of
      triliteralness, methodically carried out the laws of
      vowel-mutation, and separated the grammatical
      forms from one anollier. Creating in this way a
      scieutitic grammar of the most important and most
      ditlicvdt part of the Hebrew language, he became
      the creator of scientific Hebrew granuuar as a whole,
      which his disciples and suc('e.ssors in Spain in the
      eleventh century develo])ed zealously and with bril-
      liant success. ]n his small work entitled "Taukit"
      (Punctuation = "Nikkud ") Hayyuj made some con-
      tributions to the granunar of the noun, and to the
      rules on vowels and a<-ccnt. Hayyuj's works are
      writt<'n in Arabic, and Helirew grauniiars continued
      to be written in that hoiguage in Spain. Tlie influ-
      ence of Aral)ic granunar l)ecame evident also in the
      terndnology borrowed from it.

      Acc<irding to the well-founded assertion of the old
      iiistorian Abraham ibn Daud, Abu al Walid Merwau
      ibn Janal.i (R. Jonah) completed the wcn-k begun by
      Hayyuj. His tirst l}ook, " Al-jNIustalhak," was a
      criticism and supplement to Hayyuj's two main
      works. His own chief work he named " Al-Taiikit "
      (minute examination or investigation), the Arabic
      equivalent of the Hebrew word "dik-
      Ibn Janah. duk"; but it is better known under
      the separate designations of its two
      parts, le.\ical and granunatical respectively. The
      latter is called " Al-Luma" " (in the Hebrew transla-
      tion, "Rikmah"), meaning the book of the " varie
      gated tlower-beds," because, in view of their diver-
      sified contents, the sections resemble such beds. In
      this standard book Abu al-\Valid treats of all the
      branches of grammar proper, and he fiunislies valu-
      able contributi(.ins to syntax, rhetoric, and Biblical
      hermeneutics. In smaller preceding works, also, he
      touched on some (piestions of grammar. In the
      polemical work " Al-Tashwir," which has unfortu-
      nately been lost, he defended himself against the at-
      tacks of Sanuiel ibn Xagdela, the Nagid, in the so-
      oalled "Circular Letter of the Friends " ("Rasa'il
      al-Rifak"). As Abu alWalid said himself, he had
      occasion in this book "to touch upon many linguis-
      tic laws and to elucidate many jirinciples of Hebrew

      Samuel ibn Xagdela, the statesman and scholar,
      and a pupil of Hayyuj. wrote, in addition to the
      above-mentioned polemical treatises, other gram-
      matical works, twenty in all, which, under the
      comprehensive name " Kitab al-Istighna' " (Hebr.
      "Sefer ha-'Osher "), were at one time among the
      standard works on Hebrew philology, but were
      lost at an early dale. The zeal with which gram

      mar was studied at the time of Sanuiel and his great
      •antagonists in Spain is evident from the didactic
      poem, written in thi' form of an acrostic "kasidah,"
      and entitled "' 'Anak," which Solomon ibn Gabirol de-
      voted to this science. A cent my later another great
      poet and thinker, Judah ha-Levi, devoted a portion
      of his " Cuzari " to phonetics and the grammatical
      structure of Hebrew. From the middle of the elev-
      entli to the tirst half of the twelfth century there
      were a number of philologists amcmg the leading
      Jews of Spain, who continued along the lines laid
      down by Hayyuj and Aim al-Walid, treating larger
      or smaller portions of the granunar in independent
      works. The most important granunarian among
      these immediate successors of Abu al- Walid was
      Moses ibn Gikatilla (Chiquitilla), called also Moses
      ha-Kohen, who wrote a book on grammatical gen-
      der, and translated Hayyuj's writings for the first
      time into Hebrew, adding commentsand notes. His
      literarj' opponent, Judah ibn Bal'am,
      Gram- wrote, in addition to lexical works, a
      marians of Ijook on the Masoretic rules of vowels
      the ISth and accents. Isaac ibn Yashush of
      Century. Toledo, known for his daring exege-
      sis, wrote a book on the inflections;
      David ibn Hagar, rabbi at Granada, one on the vow-
      els: and Levi ibn al-Tabbau of Saragossa, a gram-
      matical work under the title "Al-Miftah," while Ibn
      Barun, his pupil, pointed out the grammatical rela-
      tion between Hebrew and Araljic in his "Kitab al-
      Muwazanah," on the relation between the two lan-
      guages — the most important monograph on this
      subject, part of which has been preserved. Another
      Spanish grammarian of tlie first half of the twelfth
      century is Abraham ibn Kamnial of Saragossa.

      As tlie grammatical works of the Spanish philolo-
      gists were written in Arabic, they could e.xert no
      influence in countries speaking a different language.
      Hence ^lenahem and Dunash remained the gram-
      matical authorities in northern France, where in the
      .second half of the eleventh and in the first half of
      the twelfth century Bible exe.gesis became an inde-
      pendent science dealing with the literal sense of the
      text. The same holds good for Italy, where Jlena-
      liem b. Solomon also treated grammar in his "Eben
      Bohan." a manual for the study of the Bible, com-
      pleted in 1143. Abraham ibn Ezra, the genial and
      many-sided writer, was the first to carry the gram-
      matical knowledge that had been perfected in Spain
      to the other Eurojiean countries that offered him
      refuge between 1140 and 116T; namely, Italy, south-
      ern and northern France, and England. He offered
      full and interesting information, in pure Hebrew
      diction, not only in his exegetical works, in which
      the grammatical comments at times become entire
      treatises, but also in special grammatical works.
      The most popular of these are "Moznayim," writ-
      ten about 1140 at Rome, where he translated Hay-
      yuj's works; and " Sefer Zahot," a work on linguis-
      tic "purity" or "correctness," written in 1145 at
      Mantua. His other grammatical works
      Abraham are : " Yesod Dikduk" (c, 1 14.5) ; " Safah
      ibn Ezra. Berurah." written in southern France;
      "Yesod Mispar"; the "Sefer ha-
      Sliem," in part grammatical; and "Sefat Y'eter," a
      defense of Saadia against Dunash. Ibn Ezra's gram-



      Grammar, Hebrew

      niaticiil works, the tiisl of tliis kind written in He-
      brew, iiltlionj;li based for tlie jj:ri'ater part on liis
      Arabic sources, bear the stamp of his original mind.
      'I'hey also have the merit of present ingflie essentials
      of jrraminar within a small ennijiass and in an inter-
      estinj;- way.

      Xe.xt to Ihn Ezra's works, .loseph Kind.ii's gram-
      mar ('•. lloO) is llie tirst e\]K)sition of Hebrew gram-
      mar in Hebrew. His " 8el'er Zikkaron " swrpasses
      Ibn Ezra's works in the methodical clearness of the
      ]>resentation and in the even treatment of the whole
      matei'ial, and was the first real manual of Hebrew
      grammar. It marked an epoch by introducing the
      division of vowels into live long and live short ones,
      a division derived by Kimhi from Latin grammar,
      which he mentions. This new vowel system, which
      it is dillicult to reconeih? with the old vowel system
      of the Jlasorah. came to be accepted in Hebrew
      grammar, especially through the manualsof Kind.ii's
      two sons. The elder, Moses Kindii, wrote the ".Ma-
      halak," a manual very well adapted to didactic
      purposes; it was the tirst eon<lenseil text-book of
      Hebrew grammar, giving the most essential rules
      and delinitions, and containing in addition only i)ar-
      adigms. This te.xt-book subseiiueutly took an im-
      portant place in tlie Hebrew studies of non-Jews in
      the sixteenth century. It may be noted that Closes
      Kimhi introduced as model form the verb Ipa, which
      was used for the paradigms of the
      The strong verb down to recent times (Jo

      Kiuihis. seph K'm'.d, following Ibn Ezra, liad
      used "IDL" for this purpose). I\Ioses
      Kimhi wrote also another grammatical text-book.
      "Sekel Tob." which has recently coineto li.ght again
      after having been lost for a long period ("R. E. J."
      xxviii., x.xx.). Jlore important than the text-books
      of his father and brother was the " Miklol " of David
      Kimhi. As in the ease of Abu al-Walid's chief work,
      this contained a lexicon in addition to the grammar,
      the latter forming the tirst ]iart of the work, and
      being subsequently designated .separately by the
      title of the whole work. David took the material
      for his grammar chielly from Hayyuj and Abu al
      Walid : but he arran.ned it independently, and
      worked it over with scholarly insight, adopting the
      paradigmatic method of his brother, and giving evi-
      dence throughout of the gift of teaching which
      he had inherited from liis father. David Kimhi's
      Hebrew granunar became in the following centuries
      the source from which the results of the classic Jew-
      ish philology of the Jliddle Ages were drawn, the
      Avorks of the founders of this science having been
      forgotten. It is eharacterislie that theauthorof the
      latest historico-critical work on the Hebrew lan-
      guage, Ed. K(')nig, draws solely upon Kimhi's gram-
      mar, although its sources, Hayyuj and Abu al-
      Walid, liav(' long since become accessible in the
      Arabic originals and in the Helncw translations.

      Contemporaneously with the Kimhis.otherscholars
      continued Ibn Ezra's work, jiroviding aids in He-
      brew for the study of Hebrew grammar. Solomon
      ibn Parhon (11 flO) prefaced his lexicon by a gram-
      matical summary; Jmlahibn Tibbou translated Abu
      al-Walid's chief work (1171); Isaac lia-Levi. other-
      wise unknown, wrote a grammatical text-book
      imder the title "Sefer lia-Makor"; and Jloses b.

      Isaac, in England, pretixc<l to his lexicon "Sholiam "
      a grammar entillid " Leshon Liuunudim," Jloses'
      teacher was Moses b. 'i'om-Tob of London, called
      also Mo.ses ha-Nakdau, who wrot(' "'Sefer lia-Nik-
      kud," on punctuation, and notes to Joseph Ivindii's
      grammar. The interest in grammatical studies
      which arose in northern France is evident in Hut
      work of the greatest Talmudist of his time, Jacob
      b. Me'ir Tain, a grandson of Rashi, who defended
      Menahem against Dunash, at the same time present-
      ing a complete theory of the classification of root-
      words. His "Ilakraot" is attacked by Jose]>h
      Kimhi from a more advanced scientific standpoint
      in his "Ha-Galui." The East |)roduced no great
      granuuarians in the twelfth century, though th<re
      has been preserved a grammar hy the " Maliy Ionian
      grammarian " Abraham (ha-Babli), which was quoted
      as early as Ibn Ezra. The Karaite Judah Iladassi
      of Constantinople incorjxirated rules of grammar in
      his eucycloiH'dic work "Eshkol ha Kofer" (c. 1148),
      which he took without acknowledgment from Ilin
      Ezra's "Moznayim" ("Mcmalsschrift," 18!)(>, xl. (i8
      tt !<('([.). The grammar of another Karaite author of
      Constantinople may be mentioned here, nanlely,
      that of Aarcm b, Joseph (end of thirteenth century)
      entitled '' Kelil Yofi," published at Conslantinoi)le
      in 1581 — the only Hebrew grammar by a Karaite
      that has lieen printed.

      With the thirteenth century begins for Hebrew

      granunar the epoch of the Epigoni, whose works

      but rarely evince any independence.

      The Judah al-IIarizi wrote a grammar, of

      Epigoni. which only the title, "Ha-Mebo li-
      Leshon ha-Kodesh," is known. An
      anonymous grammatical work, "Petal.i Debarai,"
      called after the initial words of Ps. exix. 130, was
      written about the middle of the thirteenth century
      by a Spanish scholar, whose name was probably
      David. This w'ell-written grammar shows the in-
      fluence of the valuable text-book of David Kindii, to
      whom the work has been erroneously ascrilied. The
      thirteenth century also produced another anonymous
      grammar (edited by Poznauski in 1894; see " ]\Ionats-
      schrift," .xxxviii. 335). Jacob b. Elca/ar of Toledo,
      who lived at the beginning of this century, wrote
      ■'Al-Kamil," which includes a .grammar and a lexi-
      con; it is now known only from quotations. Isaac
      ha-Levi b. Eleazar, who lived in the same century
      at Bagdad, wrote a work under the title "Sefat
      Yeter," for which the works of Hayyuj together
      with the "Supplementer" of Abu al-Walid weie
      used. Grammar w'as studied in the thirteenth cen-
      tury in Germany also. The "uakdanim " (punctu-
      ators), prominent among whom are Samson and
      Jekutliiel (called also Solomon), wrote grammatical
      text-books, in which also the Spanish authorities
      were quoted. Mordecai b. Hillel. the halakist.
      wrote two Masoretico-giammatical didactic poems,
      in which he mentions the rules ("hilkot sefarad ")
      formulated by Hayyuj.

      To the beginning of the fourteenth century be-
      longs a grammatical treatise intended to serve as an
      introduction to the larger grammatical manuals.
      This "Introduction" (" Hakdamah ''). which was
      afterward frequently printed together with Moses
      Kimlii's grammar, was written by Benjamin b. Ju-

      Grammar, Hebrew



      (lali of Rome, who also wrote a complete summary
      of Hebrew grammar under the title "Mebo lia-Dik-
      duk." Anol her Uoniaii. of the same time, the poet Im-
      iiraiuiel b. Solomon, discussed, KkeJIeuahem b. Solo-
      mou's work of the same title mentioned above, gram-
      matical subjects in his " Eben Bohan," a handbook of
      Biblical hermencutics. In the lirst third of the four-
      teenth centiny the prolilic Joseph ibu Caspi of
      Provence wrote a synopsis of logic as a guide to
      correct speaking, as well as a grammar; he censured
      philologists wlio preceded him for neglecting logic.
      Solomon b. Abba Mari Yarl.ii of Lunel wrote a gram-
      mar under the title •' Leshon Limmudiin," in which
      for the first lime there appeared, with exception of
      the "po'cl," the seven verbal-stems (conjugations)
      which later came into general use. Samuel Bcnvc-
      niste is mentioned as au "excellent grammarian"
      of the fourteenth century, although the name of the
      work in which he attacked David Kimhi is not
      known. The summary in Arabic of the theories of
      punctuation and accentuation which is extant in
      Yemen manuscripts, and of wliich the material is
      taken from granunatical works, probably dates also
      from the fourteenth century, as does another, larger,
      work of this kind in Hebrew, a "handbook for the
      Bible reader " (" manuel dii lecteur "), as it was called
      by its editor, J. Derenbourg.

      At the beginning of the fifteenth century (1403)
      Proliat Durau wrote his grammar, "Ma'aseh Efod,"
      in which au attempt is made to carry out Jose]ih
      Caspi's idea of basing the study of language on
      logic. He also undertakes to refute the erroneous
      opinions of later granunarians. especially those of
      David Kimhi. Duran's grammar in-

      Profiat fluenced David ibn Yahya's grammar,

      Duran. "Leshon Linmiudim," written toward
      the end of the century at Li-sbon, and
      wliich is remarkable for its adequate and methodical
      arrangement of the material. Duran also influenced
      Moses b. Sbeni-Tob ibn Habib, who had gone to
      southern Italy from Portugal before 1488, and who
      wrote a larger grauunar, " Perah Sboshan," besides a
      smaller text-book on language, in the form of a cate-
      chism, entitled "jMarpe Lashon." In lolT Elishab.
      Abraham of Constantinople wrote his granunatical
      work, "Magen Dawid." in defense of David Kimhi
      against Duran and David ibn Yahya. Menliou must
      be made of two other grammatical manuals of the
      fifteenth century, written by Italian scholars, and
      extant only iu manuscript; namely, Joseph Sarco's
      " Pal) Pe'alim," and the large work "Libnat ha-
      Sappir." by Judah b. Jehiel (Messer Leon), the au-
      thor of the Biblical rhetoric " Nofet Zulim."

      The Reformation marks a great change in the his-
      tory of Hebrew grammar. The study of the holy
      language became a part of Christian scholarship
      and, because of the return to Scripture demanded by
      the Reformation, an important factor in the relig-
      ious movement by which Germany was the lirst to
      be alfected and transformed. The transfer of the
      leadership in the field of Hebrew gram-
      The Refor- mar from the Jews to the Christians is

      mation. in a way per.sonified in Elijah Levita
      (14(;'.)-1.54'.:i). of whom Sebastian Jliin-
      ster, one of the most prominent of tlie Christian He-
      braists, writes in l.WO: "Whoever possesses to-day

      solid knowledge of Hebrew owes it to Elijah's work
      or to the sources proceeding from it." Levita's text-
      book on grammar, called "Sefer ha-Bahur" after
      Levita's cognomen, is confined to the theory of the
      noun and the verb, while he treats the theory of
      vowels and other special graiumatical subjects in
      four partly metrical treatises entitled "Pirke Eli-
      yahu." He also wrotea commentary to Jloses Kim-
      iii's brief grammar, which through him became one
      of the most popular manuals. Levita's works were
      especially useful in the schoolroom, as he avoided on
      principle all abstract discu.ssions of grammatical
      categoi-ies, on the grotmd that he was "a gram-
      marian and not a philo.sophcr." Five years after
      Levita's grammar had appeared at Rome there was
      published in Venice ( 102;!) the work " Jlikne Abrain,"
      by Abraham Balmes, the last independent wcu'k of
      this ]K'rioil based on thorough knowledge and criti-
      cism of its predecessors. Balmes' pre.seutation of
      grammatical questions may in a certain sense be
      designated as liistorico-critical. He attempts to ap-
      ply the methods and terms of Latin grammar to
      Hebrew, and adds to phonetics and morphology a
      treatise on syntax, for which he coins the Hebrew
      name "harkabah." The book was, however, very
      complex and clumsy, and its terminology dillicult to
      understand; and although it was issued at the same
      time iu a Latin ti'anslation, it did not have much in-
      fluence on the early Hebrew studies of the Cliris-

      The great humanist, Johann Reuchlin, "is hon-
      ored by history as the father of Hebrew philology
      among the Christians " (Gesenius). His " Rudimenta
      Lingute Ilebraica;," published in 150(3, was the first
      successful work of its kind written by a Christian to
      introduce Christians to the Hebrew language, the
      attempt made by Conrad Pellican two years previ-
      ously having been entirely inadeciuate. Reuchlin,
      who honored as his teachers two Jewish scholars,
      Jacob Jehiel Loans and Obadiah Sforno, took the
      material for his work from David Kimhi's" Jliklol ";
      and for a long time thereafter Chris-

      Johann tian writers on Hebrew grauunar owed
      Reuchlin. their knowledge to Jewish teachers
      and Jewish works. The works of
      Christians, even in earlj' times, dilTered from the
      works of Jewish authors only in the Latinized ter-
      minology (introduced in part by Reuchlin) and in
      the method of presentation.

      It is not the object of this article to <lescribe the
      development of Hebrew grammar and the related
      literature which has been produced by Christian
      scholars during the last four centuries; but the list
      which follows after a short notice of the principal
      works of this period, and which includes the titles
      of nearly 400 Hebrew grammars, many of which
      have passed through a number of editions, will give
      an idea of the extent of this literature, and hence of
      the great inqiortance of the study t)f Hebrew philol-
      ogy in the non-Jewish world.

      Of greatest importance in the sixteenth century
      were the works of Sebastian Mitnster ("Epitome
      Ilebr. Gram." 1.T30; " Institutiones Granunatica?,"
      1.~)'24), who, following Elijah Levita, perfected the
      science of Hebrew grammar as regards both its ma-
      terial and its methods of presentation. In the .sev-



      Grammar, Hebrew

      entccntli century the grammar of the cltlei- I'uxtorf,
      " I'ni'eeplii (Jruiii. llelir." (1005), enjoyed a high
      reputation. W. Schiekard's " lloroUj^iiim Ilchr."
      (Ki'.'S), on account of its brevity and phrasing ar-
      rangement, passed through even a greater number
      of editions. The grammar by Glass (" Instil. Gram.
      Ilebr.") was dislinguislied by its treatment of syn-
      tax. In Holland, Alting's " Fundamenla Puneta-
      tionis" (10")!) was the favorite work after the middle
      of the seventeen til century. Opi I z's manual." Atrium
      Linguic Sanetie " (1(174), although baaed entirely on
      Wasniuth's " Ilebraismus Uestitutus" (IGOfi), passed
      through many editions in the course of an entire
      centnr)'. A great inlluence was exerted by Danz,
      who. in addition to his " Compendium " (1G9!)), wrote
      various (realises in which he carried

      From the out a system of vowel-mutalion of
      16th to the his own. In the eighteenth century
      20th Can- Schultens wrote his epocli-making
      tury. "Institutiones" (1737), in which he

      put the treatment of grammar on a
      new basis and introduced the comparison of kindred
      languages, especially Arabic. He was succeeded by
      Schroder, who.se grammar, "Institutiones ad Fund.
      Ling. Ilebr." (170(!), was much used. Vater, in his
      "Hebr. Spr.achlelire" (171)7), prefixed " philologicu!
      introductions " to the main divisions of the granmiar.

      The greatest advance since the beginning of this
      period was made by the grammar of W. Gescnius
      (181H), which became the most popular and useful
      manual of Hebrew philology of the nineteentli cen-
      tury, and was several times translated (since 1874 ed.
      by Kautzscli). The new method of studying lan-
      guage as an organism, introduced at the beginning
      of the centm-y, was applied by Ewald to Hebrew
      granunar. Ids "Kritischc Grammatik " (1837) and
      "Gramnialik der Hebr. Sprache" (1829) enjoying
      wilh the work of Gesenius tlie greatest popidarity.
      Olshausen, in bis "Lehrbuch der Hebr. Sprache"
      (18(il), treated Hebrew grammar throughout wilh
      reference to Arabic. Bottcher's manual, "Ansfiihr-
      liclies Lehrbuch der Ilebr. Sprache " (1800). is distin-
      guislied by thorough and detailed treatment, as are
      also more recently Kimig's " Lehrgebilude " and
      "Ilistorisch-Comparative Syntax" (fsSl-O"), 1897).
      Slade's "Lehrbuch" (1879) has not been completed.
      Strack's grannnar (1883) is very popular on account
      of its brevity and superior critical method.

      The lion's .share in the subjoined list belongs to
      Germany, where after the Reformation Hebrew phi-
      lology received an vmusual degree of attention, espe-
      cially as an integral part of the .science of theology;
      and where in modern limes it has been given its
      proper place also in general philology, so (hat
      (iermany still retains the leader.sbip in this branch
      of science. Thi' first Hebrew granmiars written in
      languages other than Latin apjieared at thi' end of
      the sixteenth century; namely, one in Italian by
      Franchi, a eonverled Jew, "Sole della Lingua
      Sancta" (1591), and one in English by Udall, "The
      Key of the Holy Tcmgue " (1593). A HebniW' gram-
      mar in German, "Tentsche Dikduk " (1013). was
      written by Josepbus, a converted Jew. 15ut far into
      the eightecMith century Latin remained the principal
      language td' these manuals, primarily designed to
      assist the le.-irned in their studies.

      The following is a chronological list of manuals
      of Hebrew grammar written by Christians from the
      begimdng of the sixteenth to the beginning of the
      twentieth century. It is based chielly on Slein-
      schneider's " Hibliographisches Handbuch " (Leipsie.
      1859), with corrections and additions both by him
      ("CentralblattfurHibliothekswesen," 1890, xii'i. ;i4.5-
      379, 441-48!)) and by Porges (/A. 1898, xv. 493-.508,
      500-578). For the period covering the last lifty
      years it was necessaiy to seek the titles elsewhere,
      and the list does not ]iretend to completeness. The
      date firs'c given is that of the first publication of
      the book; dates of later editions are given in paren-
      theses. Autliors wdio were baptized Jews are in-
      dicated by an asterisk.

      1504. Pellican, Conr.— Do Modo I.OKcndl ct Intetlij,'cnill He-

      ItraMun. stra.stjurff (in IltMiscirs Marparila I'hitos.

      Nova; rcedited tiy Nestle, 'I'iiliinjrfil, 1S7T).
      luOfi. Reueliliu (Capiiiu), .lull.— Uudiiienta IJiiKiiip Uet)nik*ao

      Una cam Le.xieo. Pforzlieiiii. (lid. Selj. .Miiiistin-, 1537.

      Coiiip. (iranim. llct)r. 1.5SI.)
      1.508. Tlssardus, Franc— Gramm. Hetiraica ct Gricea. I'aris.
      1513-21. (iuidacci'rius, Affalliius.— Institutiones Gr. Hetir. Koine.

      (Paris, 1539, 15'i'J, 1.51G ; see lienjaeob, Ozar lia-Scfarim,

      p. 3(iS, No. 2170.)
      ISlrt. Capito, W. I''.— InslilMtiiineula In Hetir. Llnsriiani. Ba.scl.
      1518. Capito, \V. F.— Ileliraicanini Institiilioiiuin I.iltri Duo.

      ISasel. (ritrastmrs,', 1-525.)
      1518. Boesclionsteiii, Joti.— Ili'ltraifieliraiiiiuaticie Inslitulii'iies.

      Wittenberg. (Cotnnne, l.')21,)
      1520. Miinster, Seb.— Epitunic Ilel)r. (irainmatii:a3. Basel.
      1520. Pa;^niniis, Sanct.— Institutiones liebraic-.e. Lyons. {I.52G;

      Paris. 15-19.1
      1522. Anonymous.— Iludimenta Ilebr. (Irainni. Basel.

      1524. Miinster, Sebastian.— Institut. Gramiu. in Hebr. Liiigu.


      1525. Auriirailus, Matthew. — Conipeudiuin Ilebr. Clialda^ivque

      (iranini. AVittenberfj.
      1.521i. ZaiMorensis, Alptionsus*.--Introdiietiones Artis Ciraniin.

      Mebr. Coniplutum.
      1.528. Cainpensis (van Campen), Job.— Ex Variis I.iliellis Ellae

      . . . Quidc|iiid ad Gr. Helir. Kst Necessarium. Louvain.

      (Paris, 15)9, 1.5J3.)
      1528. Faliriiius, Tbeod.— Institutiones Lingiiie Sanctie. Cologne.

      1528. Papniniis, Sanet.— Inst. Hebr. Abbreviatio. Lyons.

      (Paris, 1.54(1, 155ij.)

      1529. Cleiiardiis, Nic.— Talnilie in Gr. Hebr. Louvain. (Paris,

      1.534, 1510, 1.5.50, 1.555, 1550, 1557, 1559, 1564, 15C7, 1571,

      1574, I5S2, 1591.)
      15.30. Seba.siiauiis, Augustus (Nouzenus).— Gramin. I.inguic

      Ebr. JIarlmrg.
      1535. Bililiander (liiichmann), Theod.— Inst. Gram, di! Lingua

      Hebr. Zuricli.
      1.535. Miinster, Sebastian.— Isagoge Elementalis in Hebr. Lin-

      guam. Basel. (1510.)
      1.541. Caligniis, AtanusRetTautrte.— Instit. Hebr. Paris. (1545.)

      1511. Tremellius, Emanuel*.— Kudiineaia Lingiue Ilebr. Wit-


      1541. Uranius, Henricus.— Compendium Hebr. Gramin. Basid.

      (1,545, 1548, 1559, 15C8. 157(1.)

      1512. Bihliander. Theod.— De Optimo Genera Grammaticorum

      IIebr;eorum Conimentarius. Ilasel.

      1542. Miinster. Sebastian.— Opus (inunmalieuin Consumuiatuin.

      Biusel. (1.544, 1.549, 1.55:i, 1.503, 1570, 1570.)

      1543. Arlop.'ieus (lieliker). Petrus.— Lat. Gr;Bc. et Hebr. Linguas

      Gramm. Basel. (1545, 1558.)

      c. 1545. Vallensis. .loannes.— tTramin. Hebr. Paris.

      1547. Quinquarboreus, Joannes.— De Re Graminatiea Iletiraica
      Opus. Pari.s. (1549, 15.55, 1.582. 158S, 1009.)

      1547. Stancarus. Kranoiscus.— Ebr. Graiimiaticie. lustllutio. Ba-
      sel. (1.5.55.)

      1.548. Martinez, Martinus.— Institutiones in Linguaiu Ilebr. et
      ("halU. Paris. (Satainanea, 1571.)

      1.552. Kyberus, David.— De Re (ir. Ilebr. l.inguiT!. Basel.

      1.552. Placus, Andreas. -Instil. Gr. Ili'br. Viennii.

      1.5.53. Isaacus, .loannes (.lobanan Levi •).— Absolut, in Hebr.
      Lingu. Institutiones. Cologne. (1.5.J4: ed. iv., Ant-
      werp, 15IU, 1570.)

      1.554. I!;iynus, Kudotpbus. Compendium Miehlol Hebr. Gr. Da-
      viitis ( initii. Paris.

      Grammar, Hebrew






      Pnetmius, Alxlias.-Gramm. Hebr. Llbri viii. Basel.
      Qiilnquarboreus, Joannes.— Lingusp Hebr. Instil. Paris.

      (15sa, 1609, 1621.)
      Cavallerius (Clievhlier>, Antonius R.— Rudimenta Hehi-.
      Lingua-. Geneva. (1567 : Wittenberg, 1571 ; Leyden,
      I57.V; Geneva. 1590.)
      Kersseniiroich, Hermanus.— Epitome Gr. Hebr. Colosiie.

      1561. Aretiiis, Benedictus.— Partitiones jMethodica? Gramni.
      Heiir. Basel.

      1561. Happelius, Witrand.— LlngusE S. Canones Gramra. Basel.

      1563. Avenarius (Habennann), Joannes.— Grainin. Hebr. Wit-
      tenberg. (1570, 1.57.5, 1581, 1.597, lliSi.)

      1.568. Martinins, Petrus.— Graram. Hebr. Libri ii. Paris. (1.5.H0;
      Leyden, 1591), 1591, 1.597, 16U;5, 1613, 161S. 16J1. 1684.)

      15B9. Osiander, Lne.— Comp. Hebr. Grainin. Wittenberg.
      (1.579, 1581, 1,589, 1612, 1623.)

      c. 1570. Fortius, llorlensius*.— Gramm. Helir. (in Hetjrew).

      1573. Clajus, Joannes.— Elementa Linguie Helir. Wittenberg.
      (1.577, 1.581, 1.597.)

      157.5. Scliindlerus, Valentinus.— Instit. Hebr. Libri v. Witten-
      berg. (1581,1.596,1603,1612.)

      1578. Bellarmimis, Robertus.-Instit. Linguce Hebr. Rome.
      (158(1, 1.585, 1.596, 1606, 1609, 1616, 161S, 1619, 1633, 1640,

      1580. Junius, Franciscus.—(ir. Hebr. I.lnguCB. Frankfort. (1590,

      1580. Marinus, Marcus.— Hortus Eden sive Graminatica Lingua'
      Saactae. Basel. (1.585. 1593.)

      1.584. Selnecoerius, Nicolaus.— Isagoge in Libros Granirn. Ling.
      Hebr. Leipsic.

      1.5&5. Bnnmenis, Jos.— Rudimenta Hebr. L. Freiburg. (1605.)

      1.586. Mellissander, Casparus. - Prima L. Hebr. Elementa. Ant-

      1.586. Reudenius, Aiulirosius.— Comp. Gramm. Helir. Witten-

      1587. Blebelius, Thorn.— Gramm. Hebr. Sanct. Lingu;p lustitu-
      tiones. Wittenberg. (1594.)

      1.589. Neander, Tonradus.— Isagoge Lingua; Sancta?. Witten-

      berg. 11.591.)

      1.590. Gualtperius, Otto.— Graminatica Linguae Sancta? per CJua-s-

      tiones et Responsiones. Wittenberg. (1611.)

      1.590. Rosenbergius.— Gramm. Hebr. Wittenberg.

      1.591. Fraticlii, Gnglielmo*.— Sole della Lingua Sancta. Ber-

      gamo. (1.594, 1603, 1800.)
      1.591. Ki:bad:i?us, Elias.— Gramm. L. Sancta?. Strasburg.
      1.591. Wolderus, David.— Donatus Hebraicus, Cont. Rudimenta

      Ling. Helir. Hamburg.
      1.593. Weiganmeier, Ge.— Inst. Hebraicse Lingufe per Talnilas

      Digest£B Libri ii. Strasburg. (1603.)
      1.593. Udall, John.— Tlie Key o( the Holy Tongue (transl. from

      Martinins). Leyden.
      1600. HnttiMUs. El.— Prima Elementa Gr. Hebr. Nuremberg.
      1600. Knowlles, Richard us.— Gramm. Ling, ("rrneca? et Hebr. Com-
      pendium. London. (16;5.5.)
      Wiisers, Casp.— Archetypus Gramm. Hebr. Basel. (1611,

      1613, 1635.)
      Beringerus, Jlichael.— Graram. Hebr. Priecepta. Tii-

      Scliindlerus, Valentinus.— Comp. V,r. Hebr. Wittenberg.


      1603. Gibelius, Al)r.— Gramm. Sanct. Ling. Hebr. Wittenberg.

      1604. Reudenius, Ambroslus.— Isagoge Gramm. in Linguam

      Hebraicam. Wittenberg.
      Buxtnrf, Johann (the elder).— Pr.T?centa (Epitome)

      Gianiiii. Hebr. Basel. (1613, 1616, I(i20, 1639, 1633, 1040,

      11)15, 1646, 16)7. 1653. 1658, 1665, 1666, 1669, 1673, 1675,

      1701, 170.5, 1710, 1716.)
      Otto, Julius Conradus*.— (iramm. Hebr. Nuremberg.
      Aslacus, roiiradiis.— (Jrainm. Hebr. Libri ii. Copenhagen.

      (1608, 1684.)
      Trilles, Vincentius.— Instit. Linguee Hebr. Valencia.
      1607. Meeltiihrer, Joannes.— Compendlosa Instltutio Granima-

      tic'a' EbriiiciE. Anspacli. (Jena, 1633; Nuremberg,

      Blancaceius, Benedictus.— Institutiones in Ling. Sanct.

      Hebr. Rome.
      Helviciis, Christophorus.— Compendlosa Institutio Lingua'

      Ebraii'a>. Wittenberg. (Giessen, 1609, 1618, 1636. i

      1609. Buxtorf. Johann (the elder).— Thesaurus (irainin. Ling.

      Sanct. Ba.sel. (161.5,1630,1629,16.50,1651,1663.)

      1610. Frischlin, Nicodemus.— Gramm. Hebr. Strasburg.

      1612. DrusOis. .10. (the elder).— Gramm. Ling. Sanct. Nova.


      1613. Josephus, Paul*.- Teutsche Dikduk. Nuremberg.









      1614. Schickardus, Wilh.— Methodus Linguae Sacrte. Tiibingen.

      1615. Rachelius, Joach.- Compendlosa Linguam Sanctam Addi-

      scendi Via. Rostock.
      <■. 1615. Schramm, David (Agricola).— Libri iv. de Gr. Hebr.

      1616. Calasius, Mar.— Canones Generates L. H. Rome.

      1616. Mayr, George.— Inst. L. Hebr. Partibus vi. Augsburg.
      (1633, 1623, 1634, 1649, 1&52, 1659, 1693.)

      1618. Rosselius, Paul.— Canones Helir. (Wittenberg, 1621.)

      1619. Hambranis, Jon.Ts.- Institutio Helir. Comp. Rostock.
      1631. Eriienius, Thorn.- Grainmatica Ebraica Generalis. Ley-
      den. (1637, 1651, 1659.)

      1633. Glassius. Sal.— Inst. Gr. Hebr. Jena. 1634. — Pbilologia
      Sacra Lib. iii. et iv., in Quibus Gr. Sacra Comprehcndi-
      tur. .lena. (1635.)

      I(i33. Schickardus, Wilhelm.— Horologium Hebraicum. Tii-
      bingen. (1634. 1635, 1636, 1633, 1636, 1639, etc.: 4,3d ed.
      Nova et Plenior Gramm. Hebr. 1731.)

      16'34. Hamius, Jac— 'PaSioniSeKi Linguae Hebr., h. e., Ciramiu.
      Helir. Compendiosissiraa. Hamburg.

      163.5. Alstedius, Job. Henr.— Gramm, Hebr. Frankfort. (1643,

      163.5. .\maiiia, Sixtus.— Gramm. Helir. Martinio-BiLxtorflana.
      Amsterdam. (1634, 1637, 1677.)

      1635. Blankenburgius, Fridericus.— Gramm. L. S. per Qntest. et

      Hesp. Strasburg.
      162.5. Keckermannus, Balth, -SystemaGr. Hebr. Hanau.
      1(536. Dieu, Ludov. de.— Comp. Gr. Hebr. Leyden. (16.50.)

      1636. Faber, George.— Inst. Hebr. Gr. Libri iv. Nuremberg.
      1626. Kromayer, Jo.— Comp. Gr. Hebr. Jena.

      1637. Petneus, Nic— Compend. Gr. Hebr. Copenhagen. (1633.)
      1637. Schickardus, Wilh.— Der Hebriiisehe Trichter. Tubingen.

      (1630, 1633.)
      1637, Trostius, Martinus.— Gramm. Hebr. Universalis. Copen-

      liagen. (Wittenberg, 1633, 1637, 1643, 16.53, 1655,1664,

      16:38. Dieu, Ludov. de.— Gramm. Linguarum Orientalium, Hebr.

      Chald. et Syrorum. Leyden. (1683.)
      1031. Vallensis, Theophilus.— Enclilridion L. S. Hebr. Gramm.

      1635. Bythnerus, Victorlnus.— Lingua Eruditorum sive Instit.

      Metliodica L. Sacras. London. (1(538, 1639, 1645, 16.50,

      1664, 1670, 1(575; English, 1.847, 18,53.)

      1635. Altstedius, J. H.— Rudimenta LinguiB Hebr. et Chald. Alb:B

      JuliiB (Gyulafehervar).

      1636. Baldoviiis, Jo.— Medulla Gramm. Hebr. Leipsic. (1664.)
      1636. Bohemus. Johann.— Comp. Grainin. Hebr. Wittenlierg.


      16'36. Hanewinkel, Gerhardus.— Elementa Gr. Hebr. Bremen.

      1(537. Ron, Jo.— Inst. L. Hebr. Comp. London. (1644. 1649.)

      1639. Mylins, Andreas.— Syntaxis Hebr. KOnigsberg.

      1643. Dufour, Thom.— Linguae Hebr. Opus (iramm. Paris.

      1643. Petraeus, Severns. — Gramm. Hebr. I'openhagen.

      1643. Waltherus, Michael.— Gramra. Lingua? Sacne. Nurem-

      1643. W. (Weszelin). Kis-Mariai Panlus.— Brevis Institutio ad
      Locutionem L. Hebr. Franeker.

      1645. Abrahamus, Nicolaus.— Ep'itome Rudim. Linguae Ebr. Ver-
      sibus Latinis. Paris.

      1645. Mitternacht, Jo. Seb.-Comp. Gr. Hebr. Jena. (1666.)

      1646. Bohlius, Samuelis.— Gramm. Hebr. Rostock. (16.58.)
      1646. Realis, Andr.— Brevis ac Facilis Introd. ad Linguam Sa-

      cram. Leyden.

      1646. Vasseur, Joshua le.— Gramm. Hebr. Sedan.

      1647. Gezelius, Jo.— Comp. Gr. Hebr. Dorpat.

      1648. Knollys, Hanserd.— Rudiments of the Hebrew Grammar.

      1(551. Slonkovic, Martinus.— Synopsis Gr. Helir. Cracow.

      16.53. Robertson, William.— .\ Gate or Door to the Holy Tongue

      Opened in English. London.
      1654. Altingius, Jac— Fundamenta Punrtationis Ling. Sanct. sen
      (damm. Elir. (ironingen. (1658, 167.5,1686,1687,1692,
      1701, 1717, 1730; Claudiopolis, 1698; Dutch, 1664.)

      16.54. ('siiikes-Comaromi, Georglns.— Schola Eliraica. Utrecht.
      16.56. Davis, Johannus.— English translatiim of Buxtorf's Pne-

      cepta. London.
      1658. Fuecklerus, Jo.— Fundamenta ad Ling. Sanct. Accurate

      Docendam. Amsterdam.
      1660. Sclierzer. Job. .\dam.— Nucleus Grainmaticarum Hebr.

      1663. Parschitius. Daniel.— Octo Taliuhe (iramm. Ling. Sanct.


      1665. Dlest. Henriciis van.— Gr. Hebr. cum lUuiiin. Ling. Chald.

      et Syr. Daventria?.

      1666. Wasmiith, Mattheus.— Hehraismus . . . Restitutus (Nova

      Graminatica). Kiel. (1669.167.5,1695,1713.)



      Grainmur, Hebrew




      1667. SznthinHi-Ni-nifitlii, Midmcl.— Tynxiniuin lli'linuciim.

      1670. HulslU!!. Anioniiis.— romp. Itcjruluriiin (ir. llelir. Li-yck'ti.
      1670. Kiwlhiias. Jo. ClirisKipli.— Cniriiin. Hi'hr. . . . sivi- Kbrii-

      Isi'licr TiU'liIiT, ('i)liur),'.
      1670. .NU'dhii, Job. Kr. -llcdtvclinim Orifiiljilt' HiiriuDTiicuin

      (U., <(rHiiiiii.). .lenu,
      1674. Opiliiis. Ileiir. Atrinin I.iii!;rtiiv Siiin-I-.i'. .Jerm. (lt)81,

      U\>i'. lliit', lti!«). 1704, 17l»i, 1711). ITS}. IT.i'J. 174(1. 1745,

      1677. Piliirik. Esfiias, — ,Siiiiiiiiitnu)i) Liii^ruii* SaticUi'. Wittcn-

      1681. .\ii(in.vmoiis. Kudimenta (Jianim. Ili'lir. Vcniic.
      1681. cellaniis, Clir.— (iramm. llcbr. in Talaili.s .syriiipliris.

      liii'sscn. (ll!Sl, lliStt).)

      1684. CkKliu.s Day.- (iramm. l.im;. Hebr. (iiessen. (17-'il.)

      1685. Viwcs;, Cbr.- HiKli'frt'ia Diilai'lU'iis Kbra-u.-i. Jena. (lij.s>t,

      1680. HcKifihl, KyiT. Viinilfr.- Janiiul.insr. Sani't. (Diitrli)

      1688. Kfltninel, Casp.— selmla llcliniica. Wiirzlmisr.

      1691. Mains. Jo. Hem-.— Institutio I.ing. Mcbr. Frankfurt.


      1692. Panliniis, Sinuin.— (irammalica Hcbnca. .\Ik».

      1693. UicssiT. Jdli. -('(imp. (trarnni. Helir. MarlinrR.

      1694. Hardl, Herminnis yan dcr.— Brcyia at(pu' Soliila

      Lint'. Fnnilaiiu'iita. HcliusUidl. (Kill,-*. 17(J(). 17():
      1694. Lnd\yis (Liid()vi(Uis), Clir.— liebraisnni.'i Cunipimdiarins.
      Leipsio. (Ml!)!). I

      1698. Miohaelis. Joli. ih'inr. (.riindlirlif .\ri\y(MsnnK znr Hebr.

      Spraebe. Halle.

      1699. Bnreklinus. lie. Chr. -Inslimtio L. Hebr. Frankforr.
      1699. Danzitis. Jo. Andr.— Coiripendinm (ir. Ebr.-Cbald. Jena.

      (17(Hi, 17*'), I7:!8. 1742, 174,s, 17.51, 176,5, 177:).)— KiSC. Nnei-

      fmnpibnlnm. Jena. — lii!)4. Literator Heltr. -('bald.

      Jena.— 1694. Interpres. Ilebr.-Ctiald. (Syntax) .lena.
      1699. Slaugbter, Ed.-firamm. Helir. Amsterdam. ( 1760, 1!'34,

      1702. Micbtielis, Job. Heinr. — Erleielilerte Heln-. (irammalik.

      Halle. (1708. 1733, 17:31, 17:i3. 17:38, 17,59; Latin, Breslan,


      1704. Ueinet'cins. Cbrist.— Gnimm. Hebr.-Cbald. Leipsie. (1778.)

      1705. Levi. Philipp*.— .1 Cotnpendinm of ilelirew (iranimar.

      170,5. Starkins (Srarkei. Hem'. Bened. Lii.k (ir.-Heln-. Leipsie.

      (i7i:i, 1717, 1737, 1764.)
      1707. Hurens. Car.— Grannnaire Saeri-e. i*ai'i.s.

      1707. llnseliat, .\brabam. -(ininun. Hebr. Nova Eafpie Faeili

      Metbodo Uigesta. Leyden. (1711.)

      1708. Arnd, Carol.- (irainmatieu .\nalysi

      1708. Sebmidt. Joaeli. Frid.- Mamalnctii
      Linj^nam Ktiraieam. Frankfort.

      1708. Knipe. — H. (ir. Rudimenui. o.'sfonl.

      1709. Sebiinnemann, Cbr. Heinr.— Leicbte .Anweisunyznr Hebr.

      Grammatik. Leipsie.
      1711. Hillenis, Mattb,— Institiitiones Ling, Sanct. Tiibingen,

      1716. MaseleQns. Franc.— (iraiamat. Hebr. a Piinetis Libra.

      Paris. (1730, 174:3, 1750, 1781.)

      1716. Sebaiif, Carol.— Epitome (ir. Hebr. Leyden.

      1717, Anonymons.— He)»r. (iramm. Hiid. in Usnm SelioUe West-

      monaster. London.
      1717. Bongetins, Jo.— Und. (inimmat. Hebr. Home. (174(1.

      1731. rjisinns. Jos. —(iramm. Ling. Sani-t. Padua. ( 17:39, I7;56,


      1732. Anonymons. — Fimdamenta Ling. Het)r. Berlin. (17:32.)
      1723. Bernard, Clirist, David *,—Hiitle Davids . . . .\lletiramm.

      Kegein der Hebifiiscben Spraebe ( Hebrew and Ger-
      man). Tiitiingen.

      1724-2(i. (inarin, Petr.— Gramm. Hehr. et Cliald. 2 vols.

      1726. Bennet, Thoin.— Gramm. Hebr. London. (1728, 17:31.)

      1737. Braemson (or Brnnehmann), Andr. Henrikson, -(iramm.

      Helir, Copenliagen, (173:3.)

      1738. Vieira, Eman.— Coinp. Gramm. Hebr. Leyden.

      1739. Jetzins, Pan).— Ktidimenta Lingua' Hettne. Stettin.
      1731. Speidelins. Jo. Cbr.— Nfivaet Pleniortir. Helir. TUliingen.

      1733. Engesti'oem, Jo.— Gi'amni. Helii'. Hiiiliea. Lund.

      1733. Quadros, Didaens de. Eni'tiiridion sen Manuale Hebr.

      1735. Mollis, Jndah*.— A Grammar of tbe Helirew Tongue, Bos-
      ton. (Tbe tlrst Hetirew grammar iirinied in America. i

      Hebr. Inserviens.


















      Waeliner, Andr. (ie.-iiriindllelie Gmmtnatlk der Meliiii-

      iselien Spraebe. (ii'itlitigen.
      Hertel, W. Cbr.— Anweisnng zur Heliriilscben Spnielie.

      Scbullen.s, Alli, — Institiitiones ad Fundam. L. H, Leyden.

      (174:3, 1750, 175:!. 17.5(i; Claudlopolis, 174:!.)
      Grey, Hii-liaid.- A Neiv and Easy .Metliod of U'anilng

      Hebn'w Witliout Point,s. London. (17:)!), 1751.)
      Li'-Long, Jae.— Nouvelle Mt'-tbode pour Apiirendre Faeile-

      nient les Langues Elir. et Cliald. Paris.
      Ran, J.iacli. Just. Kurzgefa.sste .^nfangsgriinde der He-

      briiisclien Grammatik. KOnigslierg. (1719, 1777, 1780.)
      Burell, Andiew.— A New Method toObtain Ibe KnoH'U'dge

      of tbe Hebrew Tongue. London.
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      Ktieb. Fi'ied. Christ.- Fundamenta L. Hebr. . . . sen

      (iramm. Hebr. Pbilosophjea. .lena.
      Anonymous.- Inst. Hebr. FiiiiiUiiiienla. Hildliurgbausen.
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      Sisti (iennaro. -Lingua Santji. V'eniee. (1777.)
      SteinersdorlT, Jo. Christ.— (iriimm. llebi'. Breviter. Halle.

      (17.52, 177:2.)
      Biittner. Cbristopb. Andr. — (ii'amm. Hebr. Stettin.
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      H(!briiiseben Sprai-be. Hall(\
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      Steinei^dorlT, Jo. Christ. Hebriiisebe (iranimatik. Halle.

      (1707, I7!K).)
      Kypke, (ieorge Dav.— Hebriii.sclie und Cliiddiiisithe (irain-

      niatik (after Danz). Bre.slan. (1784.)
      Caleio, Ignazio,— Linguie S. Itudimenta. Naples.
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      L'Advoeat, Jean Bapt. — (iramm. Hebr. Paris. (1,H32.)
      Traegard, E.— Comji. Gramm. H. Hibl. (ireifswalde.
      Zeleny, Franc— Institutiones L. S. Pi-agiie.
      Hardl, .\nt. Jul. van der.— (iramm. Hebr. Helmstjidt,
      Wartba, Jo, Paid.- (iramm. Nova Hebr. -Cliald. Styria.
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      Kals, Jo. (iuL— (iiamm. Hebrseo-Harmonica cum Arab, et

      Aram. .Amsterdam.
      Miiller, Jo. Mart.— AiifangsgrQnde der Hebriiischen

      Spraebe. Hambiu'g.
      liobertson.Jac— (iramm. L. Hebr. Edinliurgh. (1764.)
      (iireandean. Bonar.— Abr(.^gt? de la (ii'amm. Hi^br. Paris.

      Engotler, Jos. -Institutiones Lingua^ Saenv. Gratz.

      Kalmar, (ieo. (Hungarus).— Gennina Lingua? Hebr. Gram-

      matica. Geneva.
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      braiscben Spraebe. Leipsie. (1785.1
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      Babi'dt. (^br. Fried.— Comp. (irammar Hebr. Leipsie.
      Schroder, N. \V.— Institutiones ad Fundamenta Lingmfi

      Hebr. cum Syntaxi. (irouingen. (1772— Claudiopolis,

      1775, 177,8, 17.'<.5, I7!)2, 1810, 1S24.)
      Hollmann, Jo. Ge.— Gr. H. Prineip. (iie.ssen. (1776.)
      Vogel, Ge. Job. Lud.- Institulio Hebraic^a in Sebolis Sus-

      eipienda. Halle.— 1769. Anfangsgriinde der HebriiLscben

      Spraebkunst. Halle.
      Boscb, Jac— Onderwi.iz in d. H. Taalknnst. Leeuwarden.
      Barker, W. H.— Grammar of tbe lleliri'W Language. Lon-
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      Hebrew Language. London.
      Rola, Orazio.— Gramm. della Lingua Santji. 'Venice.
      Hempel, Ernst Willi.— Prima L. H. Elementa. Leipsie.

      Sancto .\quilino (Eisentraut).— dpustiiam. Hebi'. etChald.

      Hetzel, Willi. Friedr.— Ausfiibrlicbe Hebriiisebe Spracb-

      lelire. Halle.
      Diedericbs, Jo, Cbri.st, 5Vilh.— Hebriiisebe (iranimatik fiir

      Anfiinger. Lemgo. (1785.)
      Patzschins, H. I). Institiitio L. Hebr. Liinebnrg.
      PfeilTer. Aug. Fr. -Heliriiische Grammatik. Krlangen.

      (I7!)0, Mm.)
      (ii'ile, Heinr. Ernst.— Anfangsgriinde der Heliriiischen

      spraebe. Halle. (1791, 1,820.)

      Gramiuar, Hebrew






      Wilson, Charles.— Elements of Hebrew Grammar. Lon-

      ilon. (Mil ed.. 1834.)
      Bnvley, C— Entrance into the Sacred Language. Loudon.
      Klenim, Jac. Friedr.— Hebrilisches Elemeatarbuch. Tu-
      17S4. Tirseh, Lenpold.— Grainm. Hebr. Prague.
      1781. Uri, Johannes.— Pbarus Artis Ciramrn. Hebr. Oxford.
      178ii. Hasse, Jo. Gottfrieil.— Hie Hehriiische Spnu'hlehre nach
      den Leiehtesten tJnindsiitzen. Jena.
      Fessler, Ign. Aur.— Institutiones L. Hebr. Breslau.
      Hetzel.W. Fr. — Kiirzere Hehriiische Sprachlehre. Duisburg.
      Ries. Man. Christ.- Institutiones Hebr. Mayence.
      1788. Hails, Jo. Gottfried.— Kiirze und FasslicheAnweisungzur

      HebriiischeM Spraclie. Leipsic.
      1788. Otto, Gottlieb.— Der Kurzeste Weg Hebraisch zu Lernen.

      1788. Volborth, Jo. Car.— Primae LineiE Gramni. Hebr. Leipsic.
      17S9. Schmidt, Karl Benjamin.- Praktischer Unterricht in der
      Hebriiischen Sprache. Lemgo.

      1790. Jehne, Lehr. H. S.— Hebriiische Sprachlehre. Altona.

      1791. Kiisziiniczki, Adam die Nagy Selmecz).— Gramm. Linguie

      8acr:e Inst. Vienna.

      1791. Seiilenstiicker, Jo. Ileinr.— Philologischer Leitfaden fiir

      den Ereien Unterricht in der Heliriiisc.heu Sprache.

      1792. Anonvinous. — The Hebrew Grammar. London. (5tb ed.,


      1793. Jahn, Job.- Hebriiische Sprachlehre. Vienna. (1799 ;

      Latin, law.)

      1793. Scheidius, i;ver.--Elementa Hebr. Harderwick.

      1795. Thiele, E. E.— Anleitung zur Erlernung der Hebriiisclien
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      1795. Bulnian, E.— Introduction to the Hebrew Language. Lon-

      1791!. Wetz?l, Jo. Chr. Frid.— Hebriiische Spnichlehre. Berlin.

      17'.Ki. Blocli, Soren Nikl. Job.- Rudimenta Inst. L. Hebr. Co-

      1797. Dowling, Ed. Dowman.— The Elements and Tlieory of the
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      1797. Jacobi, J. Ad.— Elementarbuch der Hebraischen Spraclie.

      1797. Vater. Jo. Sever.— Hi*rilische Sprachlehre. Leipsic. (1814.)

      1797. Weckherlin, Clir. Christ. Ferd.- Hebriiische Grauimatik.
      Parti., Stuttgart (1798, 1818, 183:.'); part ii.. 180,) (1819).
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      Spraclie. Marburg. (1819.)
      Vater, Jo. Sever. — Kleinere Hebriiische Sprachlehre. Leip-

      1799. Fitz-Gerald, Gerald.— A Hebrew (Jraniniar. Dublin.

      1801. Vater. Jo. Sever. — Graraniatik der Hebraischen Sprache.
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      1803. Wittig, Jo. Sigm— Hebriiische Sprachlehre. Wittenberg.
      18ir3. Bloch. S. N. J.— Det Hebraiske Sprogs Formlaere. Copen-
      hagen. (1819.)

      180.1. Smith, John.— Boston.

      1804. Hetzel, W. Friedr.— N'eue Hebr. Sprachlehre fiir Anfiinger.

      Auilriiii, Prosper Gabr.— Graiiiniaire I Ichraique en Ta-

      hli-aii.t. Paris. (1818.)
      Valperga, Tommaso.— Prime Lezioni di (iramm. Hebr.

      Turin. (1830.)
      Mall, Sebastian. — Hebriiische Sprachlehre. Landsliut.
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      Plan of (irammar iu General. Limdon. (1809.)

      1812. Dereser, Thadd. Ant. — Lateinisch-Hebrilische Grammatik.


      1813. Frey, Jos. S. Chr. Fr.*— A Hebrew Grammar in the Eng-

      lish Langnage. London, (isi.i, 182:!.)
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      (Hebriiische Grammatik). Halle. (18111, 1817, 1819,
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      1842): revised by Riidiger IStl (1848, 1S.M, 18.-|4. 18."i7,
      . . . 31.st ed. 1873): worked over liv E. Kautzsch, 33d ed.
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      1813. Fellmoser, Andr. lien. — Ausziig der Ileliriiischen Sprach-

      lehre nach Jahn. Innsbruck.
      1814-16. Gyles, J. F.— A New Hebrew Grammar, in Two Parts.

      1814. Setters, L. P.-Grammaire Helirai'que. Paris.

      1817. tiesenius, Fr. H. W.--Aus(iilirliches (irammatlsch-Kri-
      tisches Lehrgebiiude der Heliriiischen Spniche. Leipsic.

      1S19. ,\noiiynioiis. — Gniminaire H('*l)r:(iqiie par iin Professeur du
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      1820. Cellcrier, Jac. Elis^e. — Eli^ments de la Granimaire H^bra-

      icpie. Geneva. (1834.)
      1831. Stuart, Moses.— A Hebrew Grammar with a Copious Syn

      ta.t. Andover. (I82:i, 18:11, l,s38.)
      1833. Doeleke, W. H.— Kleine Hebriiische Grammatik. Leipsic.
      18','3. Lindlierg, Christian.— Hebrdsk Grammatik. (Copenhagen.
      1.S34. Boeckel, E. G. Ad.— Anfangsgriinde der Hebraischen

      Sprache. Berlin.
      183.">. Barnard, Sam.— A Polyglot Grammar of the Hebrew. Chal-

      dee, etc. Philadelphia.
      182.5. Key worth, Tliom. -The Analytical Part of the Princiiiles

      of Hebrew. London.
      1825. Reyher, C. — Formenlehre der Hebriiischen Sprache.


      1825. Salome, S. C. — \ Grammar of the Hebrew Tongue. Lon-


      1826. Bekker, Ge. Jo. — I^udimenta Lingua> Helir. Lowen.
      1826. Benzelin.— Nouvelle Methode pour Etudier THt'-breu.

      1826. Boettcher, F.— Hebrilisches Elementarbuch fiir Schulen.

      1826. Chiarini, L. A. — Grammatyka Hebrayska. Warsaw.

      1827. Ewald, Ge. Heinrich Aug.— Krilische Grammatik der He-

      briiischen Sprache. Leipsic.

      1827. Lee, Sam.— A Grammar of the Hebrew Language. Lon-
      don. (18:!3. 1,H41, . . . 1844.)

      1827. Uhlemann, Fried. — Hebriiische Sprachlehre. Berlin.

      1838. Szigmondy, Sam.— (iramm. Hebr. Usui Scholaruiii. Vi-


      1829. Ewald, G. H. A. — Grammatik der Hebraischen Sprache

      des A. T. Leipsic. (1835, 1838; Engl, transl. by J.
      Nicholson : see below.)

      1839. Pettersson, J.— FullstandigHebraisk Grammatica. Lund.

      1830. Philipps, Wilh. Thomas.— Elements of Hebrew Grammar.


      1830. Schubert, Heinr. Fr. W.— Grammatik der Hebriiischen

      Siirachc. Schneeberg.

      1831. Roorda, Taco.— Grammatica Hebnea. Leyden. (1833.)
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      tik. Copenhagen. (1837 ; Swedisti. Upsula. 184:^ 1.844.)

      1832. Glaeser, Jos.— Grammatik der Hebriiischen sprache. Rat-

      isbon. (WIS, 1842, 1844.)
      18.32. Glaire, J. B. — Principes de Granimaire Hebraiqiie et
      Chald. Paris. (1837.)

      1833. Hincks, Edw.— Grammar of the Hebrew Langnage. Lon-

      1832. Noble, James.— Rudiments of the Hebrew Langflage.

      Glasgow. (1848.)
      I8:J2. Somosi,Junos.—Sid6 Grammatica (after Gesenins) . Buda.
      18;i2. Wilson, John.— Rudiments of Hebrew Grammar in Ma-

      rathi. Bombay.
      183;i. Stier, Rud — Neugeordnetes Lehrgebiiude der Hebriiischen

      Sprache. Leipsic. (1849.)

      1834. Groenewoud, Jac. Corn. Swyghuisen.— Institutio ad

      Gramin. H. Ducens. Utrecht.
      1834. Scots. David. — F.Ieineuts of Hebrew Grammar. Edinburgh.
      1S;M. TuUberg, Hamp. Kr.— HebralskSpraklara. Lund. (1835.)
      1834. Willis, Arthur.— An Elementary (irammar for the Use of

      Shrewsliury School. London.

      1834. Miiller, Liidv. Christian. — Kortfattet Hebraisk Grammatik.


      1835. Frevtiig, (ieorg Wilh. — Kurzgefasste (irammatik der He-

      briiischen Sprache. Halle.
      18:15. Johannson, Th. Carl. — Hebraisk Formhere. Copenhagen.
      18:1.5. Riegler. (i.— HebriiischeSprachschule. Parti., Hebriiische

      Sprachlehre. IJamberg.

      18.36. Latouche, Auguste.— Granimaire Hehra'ique. Paris.

      1836. Leo, Christopher.— Hebrew Grammar. Cambridge.

      1836. Nicholson, I.— A (iramiuiir of the Hebrew Language of the
      0. T. (transl. from Ewald). London.

      1836. Seidenstiicker, W. F. F.— Elementarbuch der Hebraischen

      Sprache. Soest.
      1.830. s.iiibring. P.— Hebraisk Sprakliira. Upsala.

      1837. D'Allemanii, J. D.— Hebraische Grammatik. Munich.
      1837. KaltholT, J. A.— Grammatik der Hebraischen Sprache.


      18.37. Lowndes, Is. — Tpafi.fji, t^s 'E^p. rAoio-ajjy eiy \pri(Ttv TuiV

      'EAAyji'uji'. Malta.

      1837. Sebestyeii. Istviin.— Kezikonyvecske. Biida.

      1838. Fritsch, Ernst Aug.— Kritik der Bisherigen Grammatikeii.

      . . . Frankfort.
      1838. Prelswerk, S.— Grammaire H^bra'ique. Geneva. (Basel,

      18:18. Prosser. James.— A Key to the Hebrew Scripture, with a

      Hebrew (irammar. London.



      Grammar, Hebrew

      1S39. Bush, George.— A Oramniar of the Hebrew Languiipe.

      New York.
      is;i9. ConunI, T. 1.— (iesenius' Hebrew (Iniiniiiiir Triiiishilecl.

      London. (I»40, IWIi, isar.)
      1340. liailhe. WlUhnn.— A (Irainniar of the llchrew L!in(;n:ig(\


      1841. Hupfi'lil. Ileriiiiinn.— Aiisfiilirllrlie Hebiiijsche (initnnintik

      (nnly the Hl-st iiarl, l;.'S pp., n|ipe!irecl). ( iussel.
      1S41. Stengel, Lib.— liehriiisi-hc^ (iniinrniitik. Freibnrg.

      1842. Ewiilil, (i. H. !•;.— Hebriiisehe .sprachlehrc fiir Anfiinger.

      Leipsle. (ISnV).)

      1842. Thiersch, II. Wilh. .los.— Craimniitisehesl.ehrlnieh fiinlen
      Krsten Unterricht in dei- Ilebi-iiiscben Spi-iu-he. Kr-

      184:1. neeslon, Willhun.— llieronyinian Hebrew, or a (Iramniar
      of llie sjici-ed Language on the System ... of St. Je-
      rome. London.

      1^43. Rohrbaeher.— Klenientsdefiramniaire HehraVque. Metz.

      1844. Ewald, (J. H. E.— .\usfulniiehes Lehrbuch der Hebiaischen

      Sprache des Alton liundes. .lib ed., Leipsic. (IS.O.'i,
      IS(;:i, 1,S70.)

      1845. Seller, (i. A.— Elementarbmii del' Hebriiisehen Sprache.

      Leipsic. (18,1+. isiis, 1874, 1H81 ; Uth ed.. 1801.)

      1846. Davies. Beni-— Cesenius' Hebrew Grammar Translated.

      London. '(1W2, 18IIH.)
      184(5. Dietrich, Fr. E. fhr.— Abhandhmgen fiir Hebriiisehe (ir.am-

      matik. Leipsic.
      1840. Stuart, Moses.- Gesenius" Hebrew Grammar Translated.


      1847. Bm-gh, William.— A rompendium of H(!brew Grammar.

      1847. Priifer. K. F..— Kritik der Hebriiischen Graminatologie.

      1847. Vetli, P. J. — Beknopte Hebr. Spraakkunst. Amsterdam.

      1850. Wheeier, H. M.— Hebrew for Self-Instruction. London.
      1852. Schaulllcr, W. G.— Grammatlca de la Lengua Santa.

      1855. Ransom. Samuel. — A Hebrew Grammar. London.
      1854. Vosen, C. H.— Kurze Anleitung zinn Erlerncn der Hebia-
      ischen Sprache. Freiburg. (18ih ed.. I'.iilii.)
      IS."*. Nilgelsbaeh, Carl W. E.— Hebriiisehe Grammatik. Leipsic.

      185(5. Ballagi Mor (Bloch).— A Hebcr Nyely Elemi Tan-Kdnyve.

      Prague. (F.d. Goldziher, liudapest, 1872.)
      1850. Geitlin, Gabriel.— Hebraisk Gnunmalik. Helsingfors.

      1800. Vosen, C. IL— Kudimenta Liiiguaj Hebr. Freiburg.

      (Au.xit I'Y. Kaulcn, 1884.)
      c. 1800. Wolfe, J. Robert.-London.
      1861. Olshausen, .lustus.— Lehrbuch der Hebriiischen Sprache.

      1861. Hollenberg, W.— Heliriiisclies Scliiilbuch. Berlin. (8tb

      ed., isa-).) •

      1801. Reinke, Laurent.— Rudimenta Linguie Hebr. Miinster.
      1861. Green, W. U.—A Grammar of the Hebrew Language.

      New York. (1870, 1889.)

      1803. Pagtri, Angiolo.— (frammalica Ebraica Ilagionata. . . .

      1864. Blech, W. Ph.— Gramm. der Hebriiischen gprache. Dan-

      1866. Boettcber, Friedrich.— Ausfiihrliches Lehrbuch der Hebra-

      isehen Sprache. Leipsic. (1868.)

      1867. Scholz, Hermann.— Abriss der Hebriiischen Laut- und

      Formenlehre. Leipsic. (187!).)
      1808. Gelbe, H.— Hebraisclie (irammatik. Li-ipsic.

      1868. Petermann, H. — Versiich einer Hebriiisclien Formenlehre

      nach der Aussprache der Heutigen Samarltaner. Leip-

      l.%9. Land, .1. P. N. — Hebreeuwsehe Gramm. Amsterdam.

      18;!!), 1.870. Bickell, ("rustav.- Gniudriss der Hebriiischen (iram-
      matik. Leipsic. (Encrl. transl., 1877.)

      1870. Ewald.— Introductory Hebrew Grammar, Translated by

      Fred. Smith. London.

      1871. Friedrichson, D.— Elementarbuch der Hebriiischen Sprache.


      1873. Martinet. A., and Rigeler, G.— Hebriiisehe Sprach-Schule.


      1874. Driver, S. R.— A Treatise on the Use of the Tenses in He-

      brew. Oxford. (1874, 1881, 1892.)
      1874. Green, W. H.— An Elementary Hebrew Grammar. New

      1876. Land. J. P. N.— The Principles of Hebrew Grammar.

      Trails], from tbi' fmicli liv 11. L. Poole. London.

      1877. nickell, (iustav.- Ouilin.'S of the Helirew Grammar. . . .

      Annotated by the translator, S. I. furtiss. Leipsic.

      1878. iMQller. August.— Hebriiisehe SchulgramiTuillk. Halle.
      1870. StadH, liernhard.— Lehrbuch der Hebriiischen (irammatik.

      187!). Ewalil, (;, II. A.-Syntax of the Helirew Language. Transl.

      by Kemiecly. EdinburL'h.
      1880. Balizer, T.— Hebiiiisrbe Sihulgramiiiallk. Stuttgart.

      IHSl. Balliii, A. S.— .\ Ib'brew Grammar. London.
      1S81-1.S1).5. Kouig, Eduard.-Hlstoiisi'li-Kritisches Lehrgebiiude

      der lieliijiischi'ii Sprache. Leijisic.
      18SI. Slier, (;. KurzL'efassie Hebriiisehe Grammatik. Leipsic.
      l.HSl. Harper. \V. II. — Kleincnlsof Hebrew. Many latercclitions.
      I.SS2. Ball, C. I. -The MiMvhant Tailors' Hebrew Grammar.

      I.s,f2. Bowman. T.— Edinburgh.
      1883. Strack, H. L.— Hebriuscbe Grammatik (Porta LInguarnm

      i.). Carlsruhe anil Leijislc. (1.S85, 1880, l.soi, ls!i;i, isiw.

      liKli), 11102: Engl, ed., 18Si">, 1.880; French ed., I.hso.)
      1.S83. Shilling. Nouvelle Methode pour Apprentire la I.angue

      Hebr. Lyons.

      1883. Siegfried, Carl.— Grammatik der Neuhebriiischen Sprache

      (Strack-Sicgfried, Lehrbuch der N'euhebiilischen Sprache
      und I.iteratur, i.). (-'aiisnilie and Leipsic.
      18.S4. Philippe. E.— Principes Gi'ni'rau.\ de la Gr. Ilelir. (intro-
      duction by Bickell). Paris.

      1884, iaS5. Waliber, F.— Grundziigeder Hebiaischen Formlehre.

      18.8.-,. Kihn, H. (and Shilling. I).).— Praktische Methode zur Er-

      li-iiiung der Heliiiiischen Sprache. Freibuig. (18!)8.)
      188-*. Scerlio.— (iramm. della Lingua flbraica. Florence.
      18S8. Senepin.— (jrammaire Ilebi'. Eleinentaire. Freiburg.
      1889. Harper, W. 11.— Elements of Hebrew Syntax. New York.
      18!)1. Bisscll, E. C. — .\ Practical Introductory Hebrew (iramiiiar.


      1803. Mitchell, E. C. (and I. Price).— Gesenius' Uehnnv (Jram-

      mar (2d American ed.). Poston.

      1893. Prill, L— Einfiihrung in die Hebriiisehe Sprai-he. Bnnn.
      1394. Ball, C. I.— An Elementary Hebrew Grammar. New


      1894. Davidson, A. B.— An Introductory Hebrew Grammar. 2

      vols. I^dinbur.'.^li.
      I89L Drelier, Th. — Kleine (ii'ammatik lier Hebriiischen Sprache.

      1804. .Maggs. I. T. L.— An Introduction to the Study of Hebrew.


      1894. PiikanozUy, Bela.— Heber Nyelotan. Pozsony.

      180t!. Kautzsch, liinil. —Kleine Ausgabt; von Gesenius' llebrii-
      ischeriiiamiiiatik. Leipsic.

      1897. KOnig. Kduard. — Historisch-t'omparative Syntax der Ilc-
      briiisolieii spraclie. Leipsic.

      1900. ('habot. A.— (Ti'amiiiaire Hebr. F.lementaire. Freiburg.

      19 d. Duir, A.— A Ilebiew (iiammar. Loudon.

      19(11. Gicen. Samuel G.— A Haiidliook to tlie Old Test. . . . Ele-
      mentary (irammarof (he Language. London.

      1003. Steiiernagel, Carl.— Hebriiisehe Grammatik. Berlin.

      A period of neglect of letters iiiitoiig the Jews of

      Europe followed tlie death of Levita. It lusted for

      two centuries, and manifested itself in the exclusive

      study of tlie Talmud and the Cabala,

      Later and in the neglectof the r.ilional si iidy

      Jewish of the Bible and conseijuently of the

      Works. cognate grammatical studies. No
      attenlion was paid to the ancient (das-
      sics of Hebrew philology; and the very scant outiiut
      along philological lines contained not a. single p?-oiii-
      inent work. Among the Ihirly-six works which
      were produced from the middle of tliesi.vtcentli cen-
      tury to the middle of the eighteenth centuiy those
      of Solomon Ilanau are probably llic most im]iorlant.

      ]\Iendelssolin's e.xposilion of the Bible gave a new
      impulse lo the study of Hebrew grammar. The
      most prominent in that department was Ben Ze'el).
      wlio.se grammatical works rendered valuable serv-
      ices to the Kast-Enroiiean Jews duriiiii the first
      half of the nineteenth century. Besi<les Ben-Ze'eb,
      Shalom Kolm advanced Ihe study of Ilelireu- gram-
      mar by his grammatical work, written in German,
      but printed witli llchrew letters. The new science

      G-rammar, Hebrew



      of Judaism inaugurateii by the labors of Zunz ami
      Rapoport included a tliorough study of the older
      gruiiimariaus, l)ut it has produced no iudepeudeut
      work that could be placed favorably by the side of
      the presentations of Hebrew granunar by Christian
      scholars. Nevertheless Samuel David Luzzatto's
      works deserve especial mention ; and of more recent
      writers Jacob Barth has published tlie most impor-
      tant contributions to this science.

      Up to the middle of the eighteenth century tlie
      language of the te.\t-books was chiefly Hebrew ; but
      as early as 16IJ3 — manifestly out of regard to the
      Portuguese Maranos, who hail returned to their old
      faith — the Portuguese language came into use and
      was followed by the Spanish. The first Cierman
      grammar with Hebrew characters appeared in 1710,
      and was soon succeeded Ijy others. In 1735 tlie tirst
      te.xt-book in Englisli appeared ; in 1741 the first in
      Dutch ; and in 1751 that in Italian. Beginning with
      the Mentlelssolmiau period, te.xt-books written in
      languages other than Hebrew began to predominate.
      The following is a chronological list of Hebrew
      te.xt-books on Hebrew gi'ammar written by Jews
      from the middle of the sixteenth to the beginning
      of the twentieth century:
      1.554. Meir ihn .lair.— D-'j'ja n:i3'i'.i ^d 'JD'a. SabbUmetta.

      U.W7: |in|-n.)
      15.57. Immanuel Beuevento.— jn pii^. Mantua.
      1597. Heilprin, Joseph b. Ellianan.— i^-n dn. Prague. (1702;

      Cracow, 1.59S: pn|-nn ni^.)
      1602. Archevolti, Samuel.— D'^lin njny. Venice. (Amsterdam,

      1G05, FiDZi, Jacob. — iij,s '■13^. Venice.
      1627. Fsaac b. Samuel ha-Levl.— pns' n'i'. Pi-ague.
      1627. Uzziel, Isaiic- jis'^ nyj::. Amsterdam. (1710; Groningen,

      e. 1720.)
      1633. Abudiente, Moses ben GidBon.- (iramm. Hebr. Part 1..

      Onde se Miistrao Todas as Kegi-as. . . . Hamburg.
      16.5.'>. Anon.vmous. — .^::n now*. Amsterdam.
      1660. Aguilar, Moses Raphael. — Kpitome da (ir. Hebr. parBi'eve

      Methodo. Leyden. (KiOl.)

      1675. 167B. Altaras, David b. Solomon. — Gramm. Compendium

      (Hebrew; in the quarto Bible). Venice.

      1676. Castillo, Martyr.— Gramm. Hebr. y Espati. Leon de Fran-


      1677. Spinoza, Benedict. — Compendium (iramm. Ebr. (opera

      posthuma). Amsterdam.
      1683. Helman, Tobiah ((Jutmann) b. Samuel.— pnp-in ni'?.

      Amsterdam. (A supplement to n>3vj 'n^i.)
      168S. Oliveyra, Solomon b. David.— p;;'^ t. Libro de Gramm.

      Hebr. (Portuguese). Amsterdam.
      c. 1688. Anonymous.— |-inpT -ii5|i (at the endof :--nj mn.i, ed.

      Mordecai b. Israel i . Prague.
      1692. Neumark, Judali b. David (Lob Hanau).— min' anir.

      169.'. Oppenheim, Judah b. Samuel.— n'',:' •^^^. (Compendium of

      Isaac ben Samuel ha-Levi's work.)
      1704. Duschenes, Gedaliah b. Jacob.— mn3 nsi:'. Prague.

      1708. Hanau (Heua, Hene), Solomon b. Judah.— nc'^S' pj3.

      Frankfort-on-the-Main. (1786.)
      1710. Bochner, Hayyim b. Benjamin.- D"n niNXl.^. Hamburg.
      1710. Phoeljus of Metz.— nnon -jd:: (in German with Hebrew

      letters). Amsterdam.
      171.3. Abina, Israel b. Abraham*.— ciipn )W7 n.iDD (in German

      with Hebrew letters). Amsterdam.
      Ale.xander (Susskind) ben Samuel.— U'lipn ^^^. Kothen.


      1718. Auerbach, Isaac b. Isaiah.— xpu'T Np-i'J (Hebrew and

      JudiEO-German). Wilmer.sdorf.
      1718. Hanau, Solomon b.Judab.-mi.-Tiy;;'. Hamburg. (1799.)
      1723. Lonsano, Abraham b. Raphael.— om^s pj,-'. Zolklev.
      1728. Auerbach, Isaac b. Isaiab.-Npu'i XP12' (Jud:eo-<iennani.

      1730. Hanau, Solomon ben Judah.— -iip':n iiD'. Amsterdam.

      (Uilna, 180K.I.— I7:!:i. n::'nn ->ns. Berlin. (1749,17.5.5,

      1769, 17H7, 180.5, 1819.)
      1734. Mordecai b. Jehiel. -a':'3 njp (together with N'Di NTi:).


      173.5. Lyons, Israel.— The Scholar's Instructor on Hebrew Gram-
      mar. Cambridge. (Amsterdam, 1751 ; London, 1810.)

      1736. Uriel, Judah h. Kliezer.— pnp-iri i-'-'d r-BH'. Mantua. (1769.)

      1739. Callmani, Simon (Simhah b. Abraham).— p;:''^ p'l'^p'' ''SSd
      -13;. Venice (in Bible edition). (Wilna, 1840, 1848.)

      1741. UOilelsheim, Eliezer Soe.smann.— ^NT.;" ^pc. Onderwys
      der Helir. Spraak-Kunst . . . (Part i.. Grammar). Am-

      1744. drie.sshaber, Reuben Seligmann b. Aaron.— .ii3S yn t]:);.

      1751. Calimani, Simon.— Grammatica Ebrea Spiegata in Ling.
      Ital. Venice. (Pisa, 1815.)

      17.59. Sctiak, Hayyim b. Moses.— D"n i". Prague. (Grodno. 1808.)

      1764. Aaron (M".ses) b. Zebi (of Lemberg).— n-i-cS r\2^n (to-

      gether with n:;"-inm'r). Zolkiev. (Bttrth, 1771; Lem-
      berg, 1790.).— 1765. ns-n ^ns. Zolklev. (Salzburg, 1771.1

      1765. Teikos, Gedaliah b. Abraham Menahem. —pi'^n jn (Ger-

      man with a Hebrew preface). Amsterdam.

      1766. Sofer, Jacob b. .Meir.— ^Nii!" ps ((jerman with Hebrew

      chai\acters) . Metz.
      1787. Schw.ab, Abraham b. Menahem.— ii;'!' 'TDt (German with

      Hebrew characters). Amsterdam.
      1773. Benjamin Simon ha-Levi. -□■';:*"ip p;n. London.
      1773. Satanow, Isaac.— nun <ns;:'. Berlin.
      1773. Sulaiman, Jehiel.— r)U hd' (seven songs, Ave of which are

      on grammar). Leghorn.
      1783. Abigdor b. Simhah ha-Levi.— 3V.3 im. Prague.
      1783. Levi, David.— Lingua Sacra in Three Parts (grammar and

      lexicon). London (1785, 1789, 1803).

      1787. Mori. Raffaello.— Grammatica Ebr. ad Uso del Seminarlo

      Florentino. Florence.

      1788. Koeslin, Hayyim b.Naphtali.—''i'^Dc. Hamburg. (Briinn,

      1796; Zolklev, 1798; Wilna, 1825, 1847, 1859.)
      1790. Hei'him (Hochheim), Moses b. Hayyim Cohen. — ns;:'

      n-in3. FQrth.
      1790. Wolfsohu, Aaron h. Wolf.— p<SiD3N, Abtalion (including
      also the elements of Hebrew grammar). Berlin. (Vi-
      enna, 1799; Prague, 1806; Vienna, 1814.)

      1793. Judah b. Moses ha-Levi (Edel).— D-jCvSj"? hdu'. Lemberg.

      1794. Liiwe, Joel b. Judah.— p'i'':'.! 'nicy. Berlin. (Prague,

      1796. Jacob (Hayyim) b. Joshua Cohen.— a>'n 'pn. Berlin.
      1796. Bensew (Ben-Ze'eb), Judah L^jb.—>^3y p;''' iicSn. Bres-

      lau. (Vienna, 18(36, 1810, 1818, 1827; Sudilkov, 1836;

      Wilna, 1832, 1847, 18.57. 1866, 1879 [with additions by A.

      B. Lebeusohn] ; Krmigsberix, 1860.)
      1799. Lyon. Solomon.— A Compendious Hebrew Grammar.

      1799. Romanelli, Samuel.— Gramm. Ragionata Italianaed Ebra-

      icu. Triest.

      1802. Cohen (Kohn), Shalom b. Jacob. -n^^Di) ]v,V^ min (Ger-

      man witli Hebrew characters). Berlin. (Dessau, 1807-
      1809; Vienna, 1816; revised by Wolf Mayer. Prague.
      1816; Vienna, 1825; Prague, 1827. 1834, 1838, 1842. 1850.)

      1803. Eliakim, London b. Abraham. -Nii^ri py. Berlin.— 1803.

      )OD'y^ TV. ROdelheim.

      1807. Hurwitz, Hyman.— Elements of the Hebrew Language.

      London. (1829.1850.)

      1808. Baruch (Bendet) b. Michael Moses Meserltz. -spun xni).

      Altona. (Breslau, 1814.)
      1808. Hananiah (Elhanan Hai) Cohen (Coen).— -.i-ipn p^''' ^-\yz'.

      1808. Neumann, Moses Samuel.- t.;" "^jyi:. Prague. (1816:

      Vienna, 1831.)
      1810. Blogg, Solomon b. Ephraim.— Abregi? de la Grammalre

      Hebraique. Berlin.

      1812. Polak, MeIr b. Gabriel.— p'.:''^ 3'nj tn:: ((iermau with

      Hebrew characters) . Amsterdam.

      1813. Pergamenter. Solomon b. Shalom.— p;r''^n <-iiD' ((ierman

      with Hebrew characters) . Vienna.
      1815. Lyon. Solomon.— A Theological Hebrew Grammar and
      Lexicon. Liverpool.

      1819. Wolf. Joseph (and G. Solomon).— im'^n 'iiD'. Heljraisches

      Element^rbuch (Hebrew and German). Dessau.

      1820. Lambert, Lion Maver.— Abr^ge de la Grammalre Hebra-

      ique. Metz. (1843, 1857.)
      1820. Lemans. Moses b. Treitel.— Rudimenta of Gronden der

      Hebr. 'rajil. Amsterdam.
      1H20. Mulder, Samuel Israel. — ji.s Sy D'lDi^rn pu—n 'ii::y ^l!lp

      pviin. Amsterdam.
      1822. Dob-liaeriisch ha-Kohen.— pu'^'H '3-n. Warsaw.

      1822. Po|i|ier. Mordecai.— '.I'np.T ps''^ P11P ((ierman with He-

      brew characters). Vienna.

      1823. Israel b. Hayyim (of Belgrade).- 3"nn isi.S'. Vienna.



      Orammar, Hebrew

      1825. BlOKc, Sdlcpinon b. Epliraini.— mirn t^0'. HiinoviT.
      Ih2.j. Lissjiur. Daviil. — Veraugenaamde Hebr. Spniak-Kunst.

      182S. Sart'bi. I'bilippe (Samuel Marpurpoi. — (irammain^ Hebra-

      iqm' Uaisonnoe et Comparef . Paris.
      1829. Stprn, Mendel K. — \t; ^rz'"^ ''i-D". I.eitfailen iler Kbhi-

      iseben Spracbe. Vienna. (1844,1852; Wilna, 1854.1

      1829. Biichner, Abrabam.— U'-tpn iir'' -isiN (Lirainuiar and

      Le,\icon). Warsaw.

      1830. Heineinann. Moses b. Meinster ha-Levi.— p;;'S tti n^']'^

      ^^^•;. linilu.
      1832. Uunvitz, Ilj-njann.— A Gramraarot the Hebrew Lanjruiitre.
      London. (1835, 1841, 1S4S^51).)

      1832. Moses (Aryeb) b. Ze'eb Wolf.— )up pnp-i.n isD. Wilna.

      1833. Elijab Wilna.-in''SN p^-^pt. Wilna. (.-inj;'n p-z-"^ OD'Z-::.

      ed. Gordon, Wilna, 1874.)

      1834. Franck, Adolplie.— Nouvelle M<?thode pour Apprendre la

      Langue Uebraique. Paris.
      1834. Her.xbeimer, Solomon.— Anleitung zum Schnellen Erler-
      nen des Hebriiiscben. Berlin. (1843, 1848, 1857, 1864.)

      1831. Samdsr, David.— ti C'N (Part 1., m ''Hn). ISreslan.

      1836. Luzzatto, Samuel David. — Prolegomeni ad Una Gramin.

      Ragionata della L. Hebr. Padua.

      1837. Creizenach, Micbael.— Bililisches Lehrbuch der Hebrii-

      iscben Spracbe (1st imniber). Mayence.

      1837. Marcus, Leeser.- Elementarbuch zur Erlernung der He-

      briiiscben Spracbe. Miinster.

      1838. Joblsohn, Joseph.— Hebriiische Sprachlehre fiir Schulen.


      1838, 1841. Nordheimer, Isaac— A Critical Grammar ot the He-
      brew Language. New York.

      18:58. Pressburger, L.- Elementarbuch. Frankfort-on-the-Main.

      1839. Mannheim, M.— Leichtfassliche Hebraische Sprachlehre.

      18,39. Wolff, J. F.— A Manual of Hebrew Grammar. London.

      1840. Mulder, Sam. Israel.— Rudimenta of Gronden der Hebr.

      Taal. Amsterdam. (1848.)
      1813. Recanati, Enian.— Graram. Ebraica in L. Italiana. Verona.
      1812. Scheyer, Simon B. — Die Lehre vom Tetnpus und Modus in

      der Hebraiscben Spracbe. Frankfort-on-the-Main.

      1844. Reggio, Leon di Zaccaria. — Gramm. Ragionata della L.

      Ebr. Leghorn.

      1845. Bondi, E.— Theoretisch-Praktisches Elementarbuch der

      Hebriiiscben Spraclie. Prague.

      1846. Klein, Solomon.— Nouvelle Grammalre Ilebraique Raison-

      nije et Comparfe. Miilhausen.

      1847. Anonymous.— |ii-ip-in -iisp. St. Petersburg. (Wilna, 1854.)
      1648. Goldstein, H.— Schulgrammatik der Hebriiischen Spracbe.


      1848. Schwarz, Gottlieb.— Hiilfsbuch fiir Lehrer der Hebriiischen

      Sprache. Vienna.
      1848. Leyy, M. W.— Hebriiische Sprachlehre. Hamburg.
      1851. Rabbinowicz, Israel Michael.— Hebraische Grammatik.

      1&53. Letteris, M.— Hebraische Sprachlehre. Vienna.

      1853. Luzzatto, Sam. David.— Grammailca della Lingua Ebraica.


      1854. Enser, Moses Zebi.— n',:>D PHZ'Ji. Lemberg.
      1853. Mayer, J.— Hebrew Grammar. Cincinnati.
      18.57. SulUinski, M.— .-iipn nnc. Goslow.

      1858. Nagel, El. (and M.Goldmann).- Lehrbuch der Hebraiscben

      Sprache. Prague.

      1859. Lerner, Hayyim Zebi.— p^'Sn mio. Leipslc. (Jitomir,

      IStw, 1873.)
      1859. Hecht, Em.— Klelne Hebraische Grammatik. Kreuznach.
      1859. Levy, M. A.— Elementarbuch der Hebriiischen Sprache.


      1859. Deutsch, Heinrich.— Leitfaden zur (iriindlichen Erlernung

      der Hebraischen Sprache. Budapest.

      1860. Einstein, L.— Elementarbuch der Hebraischen Sprache.


      1860. Reggio, Leone.— Studio Pratico della Lingua Ebraica.

      1860. Steinschneider, Moritz.— irc'^n r'';:'X-\. A Systematii- He-
      brew Primer for the David Sassoon Benevolent Institu-
      tion of Bombay. Berlin. (1877.)

      1860. Wilmersdorf, A.— Hebraische Sprachlehre. Emmendingen


      1861. Cardo2o, I. Lopes.— Hebr. Spel-on Loesbockje. Amster-

      1861. Klingenstein, T.— Der Unterricht Im Hebraischen. Op-
      pen heim-on-the-i; bine.

      1861. Ziltz.—Heliriiische Sprachlehre. Budapest.

      1862, 1863. Kallsch, M. M.— A Hebrew Grammar. London.

      1862, Rabbinowicz, Israel Mi<-hel.— (irammalre H(-braI(|ue Tra-
      ilulte de rAllcmand par ('lenient Mueller. Paris.

      1862. Trollen, Israel.— I'laktiscber Lebrgang zur Erlernung der

      lleillgen Sprache. lirilnn.

      1863. Siebenberg, T.- t,;'ii ^j>-5. Warsaw.

      1863. (ioldmanii, M.-PraktlscLer Unteirieht In der Hebriiischen

      Spracbe. Prague.

      1864. Beidierssobn, M.- iip:n npSn. Wilna. 1884; Dii'n np^n.


      1808. Felsenthul, B.-A Practical (irammar of the Hebrew Lan-
      guage. New York.

      1868. Mappo, Alirabam. jijTO I1!:n. Konlgsberg.

      1868. Koliak, Joseph.— Prakti.sclier Lehrgang der Hebriiischen

      Sprache. Itanilterg.

      1869. Kassas, 1.— 3-n'-\T Sji^. Hebrew Grammar, with expla-

      nations in TaUir. Odessa.

      -.-n3^D \Ti'


      Gyakoriatl Heber Nyelotan.
      nacb ollendorfs Me-

      1870. Goldberger, 1.-

      1870. Sachs, N.- Hebriiische (irammatik

      thode. Frankfort.

      1871. Goldschmldt.—Kurzgefasste Hebriiische Grammatik. Ber-


      1872. Arnheim, H.-Granunatik der Hebriiischen Sprache, Her-

      ausgegeben von I(. Cassel. Berlin.

      1874. Papirna, Abraham. -jii'^a 13;) r<Bt!f p^'\p'\ SS3 iix-p

      N"Dn (Russian). Warsaw.

      1875. Bak, Isr.- Magyar-H^ber Nyelotan. Budapest.

      1876. Deutsch, Solomon.— Helirew Grammar. New York.
      1879. Goldbergel-, I.— icy Jl-'^a l^icn. Cracow.
      1884.-Steinbei'g, I.— "i3v' \y-'h '^^>■::.

      1889. Cassel, David.— Kurzgefasste Hebraische Grammatik.

      1889. Manassevvitsch, B. — Die Kunst die Hebriiische Sprache

      Durch Selbstunterricht zu Erlernen. Vienna.
      18'<9. Stern, Aliraliam.— Hebei- Nyelotan. Budapest.
      1893. Kahana, Z. A.— a;:Ti riDD;:. Wilna.

      1893. Margolis, Ma.\ L.— An Elementiiry Text-Book of Hebrew

      Accidence. Cincinnati.

      1894. Unna, Simon.— Kurzgefasste Grammatik der Hebriiischen

      Sprache. Frankfort-on-the-Main. (1901.)
      1897.— Levi, I.— Grammatica ed Eserciti Piat. dl Lingua Ebra-
      ica. Milan.

      1897. Wijnkoop, 1. D.— Manual of Hebrew Syntax. London.—

      1897. Manual of Hebiew Grammar. London.

      1898. Rosenberg, J.— Hebriii.sche Couversationsgrammatik. Vi-

      1900. Adler, Michael.— Students' Hebrew Grammar. Loudon.
      1900. Fischniann, P. L. (and M. Liebermann). -n-n ns;;'. Riga.

      1900. Kahana, A.— r'-i3l' (v.:'^ pnpT (after Luzzatto). Warsaw.
      ISIOI). Rosenfeld, Henr.—Rendszeres Heber Nyelotan. Paks.

      1901. Szenbok, Samuel.— Gramatyka Jezyka Hebrajskiego.

      1903. Lucas, Alice, and Abrahams, Israel.- Ilebiew Lesson
      Book. London.

      The grammar of Neo-IIebrcw, ns found in the
      Mishoah and coguate works, lias been
      Neo- treated by the .lewish scholai-s Dukes.

      Hebraic Geiger, and J. II. Weiss. The text-
      and. book of Siegfried has been mentioned

      Aramaic above in tlie lirst list.
      Grammars. The Aramaic of the booTjs of Daniel
      and Ezra was not graminatical!}' treat-
      ed during the e.vclusivel}' Jewish ]ieriod of Hebrew
      philology. Some Christian grammarians iit an early
      period treatetl this so-ealled Chaldee in couneetion
      with the Ilebi-ew. Among tlie Aramaic woiks of
      more recent times are the following:

      Wiener, G. B.— Grammatik des Bibliscben und Targiimischen
      Chaldaismus. (3d ed., Leipslc, 1842; 3cl ed., I8N2.)

      Petermann.— Porta Chaldaica. (2d ed., 1872.)

      Kautzsch, E.— Grammatik des Biblisch-Aramiiischen. Leipslc.

      Strack, H. L.— Grammatik des Biblisch-Aramiiischen. (3d
      ed.. Leipsie, IdOl.)

      Turpi!-, David McCalman.— A Manual ot the Clialdee Lan-
      guage, l.cmdon, 1879.

      Bidwn, C. It.- An Aramaic Method. Morgan Park, III., 1884,

      Marti. K.— Kurzgefasste Grammatik der BIbl.-Aram. Sprache.
      Berlin, 1896.




      By Jewish authors:

      Fiirst, Julius.— Lehrgebaudeder A raraalscbea Idiome. Lelp-
      sic, 1S«.

      Bliiclier, E. I.->id-in pi:''? nbic. VienBa, 1838.

      Luzzatto, S. D.— Elementi Grammatlcali del Caldeo Biblico
      e del Uialetto Talmiidico Babilonese. Padua, 1865 (German
      1)V Kriiger, IJreslau, 1873; Enfflish bv Goldammer, New York,

      Lerner, H. Zebl.— .T'S-is iv,;'^ P'TT ">i3D. War-saw, IS'ii.

      The iibove-nnmed Aramaic grammar.s partly in-
      clude also the Targumic dialect. A larger field of
      Jewish-Aramaic literature is comprised in the work
      by G. Dalman, "Grammatik des Jiidisch-Palilsti-
      ncnsischeu Aramiiisch " (Leipsic, 1894). After tlie
      compendium of Luzzatto, the Aramaic dialect of
      the Babylonian Talmud was first treated .system-
      atically from tlic point of view of grammar in C.
      Ijcvias' "A Grammar of the Aramaic Idiom Con-
      tained in the Babjdonian Talmud " (in "Am. Jour.
      Semit. Lang." xiii., xiv. ; reprinted separately,
      Chicago, 1899). See Auamaic Language Among
      THE Jews.

      BrBLiocRAPHY: W. TiaclnT. Dir Atifi'liiiir 'Itr }Iihn'liAcheii
      Gnuniiuilili. I,ci|isic, isi)."): iilem, liir Ilehnlis'hr S/ndch-
      ivisKi )/siliiil'l mm 10. Ills zmn 10. Jithrliunilrii, Treves, l.S9:i ;
      (iescniils. (ic.^chii'lile d,-r llrhriliselnn Siimchr iiml Schri.ft.
      Leipsie, 1S1.5; l)U-^{f]. lif.^ifucjilt ihs Allfii Tf.staiitrnlts in
      cier Chri.-^IUcht II Kirrlu. .U-na. Isti'.l; Ludwi^' Gei^'er. Z>a.s
      SfiiiUuin ilfi- Uihriiiselii II ."^iinirfie in rvn/sr/Wn.?.*?,
      Breslati, ISTO; I,n/z;itto, I'lolignnirni a<f iitiii ijiitnitiiaticti
      liiifliimaltt ihllii Lhii.tiia FJnaini, Tadua, 18!*j; Stein-
      sehneidef. Bililingiriiihi.-^rlir^ Ihtinlliiiifi, Leipsio, 1S.'>1>, with
      tbe additions and corrections thereto cited above,
      o. W. B.

      GRANADA (nOJSIl mjnj: also pDT or pm
      TiDD) : Capital of the Spanish province of the same
      name. It is said to have been inhabited by Jews
      from the earliest times ; hence it was also called " Villa
      (le Judios" (City of Jews), and, like Cordova, it was
      entrusted by the Arabian conquerors to the Jews for
      guardianship. Granada, which was chosen for the
      capital of the ancient kingdom of the same name
      (1013), instead of the neighboring Elvira, reached
      the height of its glory under the calif Habus, who
      raised Samuel ibn Nagdcla to the position of vizier
      or minister of state. As in all Mohammedan coun-
      tries, the .lews lived in Granada in perfect freedom;
      and several of them — Joseph ibn Migash (wlio was
      sent on diplomatic missions), Isaac ben Leon, and
      Neliemiah Ashcafa, for example — occupied influen-
      tial positions. Since the Jews of Granada were rich
      and powerful, they interfered at times in the dynas-
      tic quarrels. " Who did not see the splendor of the
      .lews in Granada, their good fortune, and their
      glory," says a Jewish chronicler, "never saw true
      glory ; for they were great through wisdom and
      piety" ("Sliebet Yehudah," p. 3).

      Willi the downfall and niui'der of Joseph ibn
      Xagdela, who bad succeeded his father as vizier,
      an outbreak against the Jews occurred : their houses
      wei'O plundci-ed; and all of the Jews, except a few
      who escaped by flight, were killed. More than 1 ,500
      Jewish families, numbering 4,000 persons, fell in
      one day, Tebet 9 (- Dec. 30), 1066. This was the
      lirst pei-secution of the Jews since the dominion
      of Islam in the Pyrenean peninsula. The Jews
      throughout the kingdom were forced to sell their
      houses and lands and to leave the country; but they
      soon returned.

      The Jews in Granada sulTered severely, also, from
      the persecutions of the Almohades; and only on
      pretending to accept Islam were they
      Under the allowed to remain in the city. In
      Al- order to shake off the hai'd yoke and

      mohades. to overthrow the dominion of the
      fanatical Almohades the Jews formed
      a conspiracy with the Christians, who were likewi.se
      pei'secuted. On a certain day the revolutionists ad-
      vanced with a considerable following before Gra-
      nada, and the Jews of that place, under the leader-
      ship of a champion of fi'eedom named Alien Ruiz
      aben Dahii, helped them to captui'e this important
      stronghold. Their joy was, however, of short dura-
      tion: the Almohades reentered the city, and the
      Jews were severely punished. They were more
      successful a few years later. The brother of the
      emir Al-Ma'mun, Ya'kub al-Mansur, advanced with
      an armed force, and, with the aid of the Jews, drove
      the Almohades out of Granada and back to Africa

      The situation of the Jews in Granada, the only
      Spanish kingdom that remained independent under
      the califs for some centuries longer, took on its
      former aspect. Of their political status very little
      is known. In 1306 the calif Mohammed built his
      bath out of the inccmie from Jews and Clii'istians in
      Granada ; and in 1312 his successor levied a new tax
      on their houses iind baths. It is difficult to believe
      what the Arabian chroniclers state, that Isma'il
      Abu al-W-ilid ibn Abu-Zaid Faiaj (131.'")-26) com-
      manded trie Jews to wear a badge distinguishing
      them from Mohammedans. In the gi'eat persecution
      of the Jews in 1391 many refugees found shelter
      and protection in Granada.

      After a long struggle Granada was foi-ccd to suc-
      cumb to Castilian power (Jan. 2, 1492). Tire Jews
      also had a part in the victory. According to a com-
      pact entered into Nov. 25, 1491, by the contending
      rulei's, all Jews in the city and suburbs of Granada,
      as well as all living in other cities and towns in the
      kingdom, were allowed to depart like the Moors.
      Those Jews who had accepted Chi-istianity were
      granted a month for withdrawal. It was in Gra-
      nada, at the Alhanibru, that Ferdinand and Isabella
      signed the edict (March 31, 1492) expelling the
      Jews from Spain.

      Granada was for some time a seat of Jewish learn-
      ing. Samuel ibn Nagdcla, who himself had written
      grammatical, cxegetical, and poetical

      Jewish works, and who, like his son, sup-
      Scholars of jiorted Jewish scholars, gatlrci-ed
      Granada, about him a large circle of Jewish
      grammarians and poets. Granada \vas
      the birthplace of the synagogal poet Moses ben Ezra,
      of Judah ibn Tibbon, of Saadia ben Maimon ibn
      Danan, of Solomon ben Joseph ibn Ayyub, and of
      other famous authors. It was the home, too, of
      Isaac Ilamon, of Abraham ben Isaac, atithor of a
      cabalistic work, and of the Gavison family.

      Bini.iofiRAPHY: Shehrt YeJiiidah, passim: Scfer ha-Kah.
      lialali, ed. Neubarrer, p. 73: Munk. Nnlice mr Ahnnl
      Witliil Mcrwan ihn Djana'h. p. 9:! : AlfasI, /?e«pnri.«fl. No.
      l:tl : Doy.v^Ge^ch.iJerMnurftiinSpntiieruU'^^: Erscb and
      Grnber. Encyc. section ii., part 37, p. 308: Kios. ff^^■^ i. 334,
      317: ii. 198; id. 303; Griltz, Gcsch. vi. 59, 190; Schechter, in
      J. Q. R. xii. 113.
      G. M. K.





      GRAPE: Tliofruit of tJie grape-vine. Tliegen-
      eral Hebrew term for ripe grapes wlien not in clus-
      ters is 3JJ? (Gen. .\1. 10-11), anil of grapes in elii.s-
      ters, i)13C'X (N'lini. xiii. 2;i). There are other terms
      for JilVerent Idnds of grapesantl for yrapesin ditl'er-
      ent stages of development; as -id3 for unripe or
      sour grapes (Isa. xviii. 5): D''t;''l«3 lor wild grapes
      (Isa. V. 2, 4); t2"l3 for grapes that fall o(T when rijie
      (Lev xi.v. 10); Tvhbv for gleaned grapes (.ludges
      viii. 3); D'plSDV for dried grapes or raisins (I Sam.
      XXV. 18; 11 Sam. .\vi. 1). Aeeording to U. Judah.
      D'JVTn and Jf (Xum. vi. 4) respectively represent
      the skin and the seed of the grape; but according li>
      R. Jose, whose interiiretation has been accepted liy
      later commentators, Jf is the skin, D'JVTn the seed
      (Naz. 341)). A word which has given rise to discus-
      sion is mOD (Cant. ii. 13, 15; vii. 12). According
      to Gesenius ("Th."), who is f(dlowed by other com
      meutators, it means •'grape-blossom," while Ibn
      Janah and David Kimhi thouglit it meant the
      young grape which appears immediately after the
      opening of the blossom (see Rubens Duval iu " R.
      E. J." xiv. 277 et srq.). R. Jose, prohibiting the
      "semadar" in the first three years, likewise consid-
      ered it as a fruit ('Orlah i. 7).

      Grapes are referred to iu the Bible an<I Talmud in
      symbolical senses. As grapes can not be found after
      vintage, neither can the good and upright man be
      discovered by diligent searching in Israel (Micali vii.
      1, 2). "The fathers have eaten sour grapes and the
      children's teeth are set on edge" (Ezek. xviii. 2);
      " When the vintagers come to thee they will not
      leave even the grape-gleanings " (Jer. xlix. 9, Hebr.) ;
      that is, when the enemy comes lie will carry off every -
      thing. A man who marries his daughter to a scholar
      ("talmid hakam") is like one who mingles vine
      grapes with vine grapes, but he who marries his
      daughter to an ignorant man (" 'am ha-arez ") is like
      one who mingles vine grapes with the berries of the
      thorn-bush (Pes. 49a). According to R. Aibu, the
      forbidden fruit which Eve ate was that of the vine
      (Gen. R. xix. 8).

      J. M. Ski..

      GRASSHOPPER. See Locust.

      GRATZ : Town in the province of Posen, Prus-
      sia, with a population of 3,784, of whom 319 are
      Jews (1903). The Jewish community there is one
      of the oldest in the province. Jews are mentioned
      in the city charter of April 9, 1.594. In 1634 the
      tailors' gild of Griitz permitted two Jews of Posen
      to settle in tlie city and to open a tailor-shop. The
      Chmiclnicki rebellion brought disa.ster upon the
      Jews of Gratz. On May 14, IGtio. tiie overlord of
      the city issued a "Jews' privilege." regulating the
      affairs of the Jews. During the "northern war"
      (1700-21) the community was almost entirely des-
      troyed, and its rabbi, Judah LiJb, who had been
      called in 1701, was obliged to flee to Frankfort-on-
      the-Oder. The great conflagration of 1711 was also
      a heavy affliction to the community, which had to
      apply for aid to coreligionists at Posen, who afforded
      relief to the best of their ability, although them-
      selves impoverished and in debt through a succes-
      sion of misfortunes.
      VI.— 6

      111 1797 it was dccide<l that the ollicials of the
      community should consist of the following: one
      chief rabbi, one assistant rabbi (dayyan), three ciders,
      one "sehulkloiifer," one .synagogue attendant, two
      luidertakers, three hospital nurses, two cantors,
      three school-teachers, and one bathhouse sii|MTin-
      lendeut. The debts of the communily in that year
      amounted to 10,151 tlialers, repayable in yearly sums
      of 441 thalers. For that year, also, the rabbi re
      ceived a salary of 88 thalers. whik; (100 thalers were
      paid to the overlord. Li 1798 a Jew was iicrmitted
      to live iu the house of a Christian. At the, end of
      the eighteenth century there were 1, 135 Jews, nearly
      half of the whole number of inhabitants; thc^ num-
      ber had risen from 1.499 in 1810 to 1,034 in 1820, the
      largest in the history of the city; by 1840 and 18,50
      the number had decreased to 1,,548 and 1,.532 re
      spectively. The Polish uprising of 1848, during
      which the Jews on the wliole remained neutral or
      sided willi the (Jermans, destroyed much jiroperly
      in the city.

      The following were raliliis in the scvenlci'iitli and
      eighteenth centuries; Simon b. Israel Ashkenazi
      (c. 1677); Benjamin Wolf b. Joseph Joske (c.
      1689); Judah 1.6b b. Solomon, previously dar-
      shan at Prague, and sul)sei|uerilly rabbiat .Schneide-
      miilil (c. 1699); Phinehas Selig b. Moses (dayyan
      of the German communitv at Amslcrdam in 17(IS);
      Sanvel Spira of Lemberg ; Gershon b. Jehiel
      of Landsberg', who at Friedberg iu 174',' c:illcd
      himself cx-rnlilii of Griitz; Jacob b. Zebi Hirsch
      (1743); Marcus Baruch Auerbach. Amc^ng those
      of the nineteenth eiiilury were; Benjamin Schrei-
      ber (d. 1839); Elijah Guttmacher of Borek, for-
      merly at Plescheii, the "Griltzer Rav," whose
      counsel and aid were sought by thousands from far
      and near (d. 1874); Dr. B. Friedmann, subse-
      quently at Berlin (d. 1902); Dr. Silberberg, subse-
      quently at Kijiiigsberg: and the present (1903) in-
      cumbent. Dr. J. Friedmann.

      In the tirst half of the nineteenth century there
      was a faiiKnis Talmudic school at Griitz. The liter-
      ary and pliilanthro])ic .societies include; siikkat
      Shalom, l.iebra kaddisha. and bikkur liolim — united
      in 1901 ; in 1898 a society for the study of Jewish
      history and literature was fcnnided; and there are
      also a women's society, and funds for the poor, in-
      cluding one especiall}' f.or poor travelers. The large
      citj- hospital, built by the heirs of Dr. 31. Mos.se,
      receives patients regardless of creed.

      Bibmorrapht: WuttliP, SlildUhuch iles Landit: i'(..sr,ii. I.T)4;
      Wnrsohaiier, Die Stikltischen Archive rier I'nn-inz Pasen,
      liino ; Perles, Gesch. der JXLdcn in Pnxen, 1864-B"i.
      n. .1. Fni.

      GRATZ: American family prominent in the af-
      fairs of the city of Philadelphia and of the state of
      Pennsylvania. According to some authorities, the
      name "Gratz" is derived from a town in Slyria,
      Austria; according toothers, from a city in Posen,
      Prussian Poland. Both suppositions, how^ever, are
      probably wrong. The true place of origin is most
      likely the town of Gratz in Austrian Silesia, whence
      the family or some of its members removed to Lang-
      endorf (.since 1745 in Prussian Silesia), which town
      was known then and later by its old Slavonic name.
      The iiaiiu' of the familv was then "Griitza," that




      is, "of Giatz." Tlieorigiual members of this family
      in the United States wei-e Barnard Gratz and
      his brothel' Michael Gratz ; tlie former liad two
      children: Rachel Gratz, who married Solomon

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      BIBHOGRAPHY; Morals, Tlie Jews of Pliilatiiiphia, Pliilaiiel-
      phia, 1894.
      J. E. N. S.

      Etting of Baltimore; and Fanny Gratz, who died
      at au early age. Michael Gratz, who married Miriam
      Simon, daughter of Joseph Simon of Lancaster, had

      twelve children, of whom the following may be
      mentioned: Frances ("Fanny"), wife of Reuben
      EUing; Simon; Richea, wife of Samuel Hays;
      Hyman, Sarah, and Rebecca, all unmarried;
      Rachel, the wife of Solomon Moses; Benjamin,
      who removed to Lexington, Ky.

      Barnard Gratz: American merchant; born at
      Langendorf, Ui)per Silesia, German)', 1738; died at
      Baltimore, Md., April 20, ISOl. When about seven-
      teen years of age he emigrated to the United States,
      arriving in Philadelphia in 17'54. Fora time he was
      engaged in the counting-house of David Franks,
      hut subsequently he entered into partnersliip with
      his brother Michael, trading with the Indians and
      supplying the governmeut with Indian goods. On
      Oct. 11, 1768, lie became a naturalized British sub-
      ject. He was one of the merchants who signed the
      Non-Importation Resolutions adopted Oct. 25, 170.5.
      After the outbreak of the Revolutionary war he
      took the oath of allegiance to the commonwealth
      of Pennsylvania (Nov. 6, 1777). Gratz was also one
      of the signers of a petition presented to the govern-
      ment in 17.S3 for the abolition of au olijectiouable
      oalh of oftice. About the time of the outbreak of
      the American Revolution he was appointed parnas
      of an unorganized congregation of Philadelphia
      Jews, whieli was ultimately known as the Congre-
      gation Jlickveh Israel, on whose board of trustees he
      later served.

      Benjamin Gratz : American soldier and lawyer;
      bora ill Pliiladelphia, Pa., Sept. 4, 1792; died at
      Le.vington, Ky., March 17, 1884; educated at the
      University of Pennsylvania, graduating (M.A.) in
      1815. At the outbreak of the AVar of 1S13 Gratz
      enlisted under Gen. Thomas Cadwalader, and in 1813
      joined Capt. John Smith'scompan}' of Pennsylvania
      Volunteers as second lieutenant. Soon after the
      close of the war he was admitted to the bar of Penn-
      sylvania (1817). He subsequently removed to Ken-
      tucky, and was elected trustee of the Transylvania
      Univeisiiy, I'iy.

      Hyman Gratz : American raeix-hant and philan-
      thropist; born in Philadelphia Sept. 23, 1776; died
      Jan. 27, 18.57; educated in the public schools of his
      native city. In 1798 he joined his brother Simon in
      partnership as wholesale grocer, and later turned his
      attention to life-insurance. In 1818 he was elected
      director of the Pennsylvania Company for Insur-
      ance on Lives and Granting Annuities, and twenty
      years later was elected president of the company.
      On the fotuiding of the Pennsylvania Academy for
      Fine Arts, in wjiieli his brother Simon Gratz took
      some part, he served on the directorate of the insti-
      tution (1836 to 1837), and held the office of treas-
      urer from l'S41 to 1857. On the retirement of
      Hyman Jtarks as treasurer of the Congregation
      Mickveh Israel of Philadelphia Sept. 19, 1824, Gratz
      succeeded liiin, and was reelected annually until
      18'56. When the first Jewish Publication Society of
      America was projected in Philadelphia (1845) he was
      one of its manager.s. On the receipt in the United
      States of the news of the persecution of Jews in
      Damascus, Gratz was elected chairman of the meet-
      ing of the Congregation Mickveh Israel, called Aug.
      27, 1840, to protest against that iiersecution.

      By a deed dated Dec. 18, 1856, Gratz set aside




      stocks, bonds, and other property for the purpose
      of estabhshiug "a coHego for the ediu'iition of .lews
      residing in the city and county of Philadelphia" (see
      Ghatz Coi.leuk).

      Jacob Gratz: American merchant; born in Phil-
      adelphia Dec. -M, 1TS8; died there Feb. 3, lSo6;
      educated in the University of Pennsylvania (M.A.
      1811). He was president of the Union Canal Com-
      pany, and a director of the Instilulion for the In-
      struction of the Deaf and Dumb (1800). He became
      a member of the Peuns\'lvania legislature and en-
      tered the state senate in 1830. Jacob was also one
      of tlie ollieers of the Congregation jNIickveh Israel.
      Of Joseph Gratz little is known except that he
      was secretary of the Congregation Mickveh Israel
      for a long period and a director of the Institution
      for the Instruction of the Deaf and Dmnb.

      Michael Gratz : American trader and merchant;
      born in Langendorf, Upper Silesia, Germany, 1740;
      emigrated to London, England, and thence to the
      United States (1759), where he resided in Philadel-
      phia and in Lancaster, Pa. With his brother Bar-
      nard lie engaged in trade with the Indians, supply-
      ing the United States government with Indian
      goods. Gratz was a signer of the Non-Importation
      Resolutions adopted Oct. 35, 17G5. He M-as also one
      of the signers of the memorial of the .lewish Con-
      gregation of Philadelphia to the President of the
      United States, dated Sept. 13, 1783, announcing that
      the Congregation Jlickveh Israel had erected "a
      place of public worship which they intend to con-
      secrate," asking "the Protection and Countenance
      of the Chief Magistrates in this State to give sanc-
      tion to their design, "and stating that the petitioners
      "will deem themselves highly Honoured by their
      Presence in the Svnagogue whenever they judge
      proper to favour them." He succeeded his brother
      Barntird in the counting-house of David Franks.

      Rebecca Gratz : American educator and philan-
      thropist; born in Philadelphia iMarch 4, 1781; died
      Aug. 27, 180!). She
      consecrated her life and
      labors to the well-being
      of her kind, and was
      the promoter of relig-
      iou.s, educational, and
      charitable institutions
      for their benefit.
      Elected (1801) secretary
      of the Female Associa-
      tion for the Relief of
      Women and Children
      in Reduced Circum-
      stances, Rebecca Gratz
      soon saw the need
      of an institution for
      orphans in Philadel-
      l)hia. and she was among those' instrumental
      in founding the Philadeliihia Orphan Asylum in
      1815. Four years later she was elected secretary of
      its board of managers, which office she continued to
      liold for forty years. Under her auspices were
      started a Hebrew Sunday-school (of which she sub-
      seijuently became superintendent and president,
      resigning in 1864) and a Female Hebrew Benevolent
      Society (about Nov., 1819). In 1850 she advocated

      Rebel ca Gratz

      (By permiss ii of D A] pletoii & Co )

      in "The Occident," over the signature "A Daughter
      of Israel," the foundation of a Jewish Foster llcjme;
      and her advocacy was largely instrumental in the
      establishment of such a home in 1855. Other organ-
      izations due to her efforts were the Fuel Siiciely and
      the Sewing Society.

      Rebecca Gratz is .said to have been llie model of
      Rebecat, the heroine of the novel "Ivanhoe" by .Sir
      Walter Scott, whose attention had been drawn to
      her cliaracter by Washington Irving, witli whom
      she was acquainted. The claim has been disputed,
      but it has also been well sustained in an article en-
      titled "The Original of R<\becca in Ivanhoe," which
      appeared in "The Century Magazine." 1882, pp.

      Of Simon Gratz little is known beyond tlie fact
      that he was one of the founders of the Penn.sylvania
      Academj' of Fine Arts, and acted as treasurer of the
      Congregation Mickveh Israel about 1830 and trustee
      of the same congregation in 1828.

      BiBMoruiAPUY : Morals, T/fc ./"((/'s "f Ph'thuhlphiii \ .hniriinl»
      of the Ciiiiliiiental (Vihi)iv.ss, vols. 11., v.; I'mnstilvniiia Ar-
      chives. 1st series, X. 731; Procec<ii)tgs A)n. Jew. Hist. Snc.
      A. F. H. V.

      GRATZ COLLEGE (Philadelphia): Jewish
      institution of higher learning, founded under a di'cd
      of trust e.\ecuted by Hyman Gratz, dated December.
      1856, which, under certain contingencies that after
      ward arose, became vested in the Congregation
      Jlickveh Israel of Philadelphia. This trust, became
      operative in 1893, and the congregation appointed a
      board of trustees for its management. In accord
      ance with the terms of the deed requiring the estab-
      lishment of a "college for the education of Jews
      residing in the city and county of Philadelphia," it
      was decided that the college should be devoted to
      the dissemination of the knowledge of Jewish his
      tory, the Hebrew language, Jewish literature, and
      the Jewish religion, with the understanding thai the
      curriculum should be especially designed for teach-
      ers, thus creating it a Jevvi.sh teachers' college.
      Pending the beginning of actual instruction, three
      courses of lectures were given; the first in 1895 by
      Prof. S. Schechter, then of Cambridge, England, on
      " Rabbinic Theology" ; the second, a general course of
      lectures by American scholars ; and tlie third, a course
      on the "Philosophy of Jew'ish History," by Joseph
      Jacobs, then of London, England. Regular instruc-
      tion began in 1898, the teaching stalf consisting
      of Rabbi Henry M. Speaker, Arlhur A. Dembitz,
      A.B., and Isaac Iliisik, Ph.D. There have been
      in attendance 27 pupils, and nine graduates liave
      received teachers' certificates. Gratz College also
      has a course preparatory to the Jewish Theological
      Seminary of America. Jloses A. Dropsie has been
      the president of the board of trustees since the
      foundation of the trust.
      Bibliography: Puhlieatio)is of the Gratz Collcac. No. 1,

      riiilatlclpbiii, IS'.l" ; American Jewish Year Bonk. StiGO and



      GRATZER, JONAS : German physician ; born
      at Tost, Up|ier Sile.sia. Oct. 19, 1800; died at Bres-
      lau Nov. 35, 18S9. He graduated (M.D.) from the
      University of Breslau in 1833. The following year
      he settled as a physician in Breslau. where he prac-
      tised until his death.

      Greek Langniage



      He wrote: " Die Krankheiteu des Fu!tus,"Breslau,
      1837; "Gescli. der Israelitischen Krankenverpfle-
      gungsanstalt." ib. 1841 ; " Ueber die Organisatiou der
      Armen-Kraukenpflege in Gnisseren Stadten," ib.
      1851; "Gedankcn Ubcr die Zukunft der Armen-
      Krankcnpflege," ib. 1853: "Edmund Halley uiid
      Caspar Neumann: Zur Gesch. der Bevolkerungssta-
      tistik," ib. 1S83: " Daniel Gold und Clivislian Kund-
      niaini: Zur Gesch. der Medicinalstatistik," ib. 1884;
      "Lebensbilder Hcrvorragender Sclik'siselier Aerzte
      aii3 den Letzten Vier Jalirhunderten," ib. 1889.

      Bibliography : Pasel, Buig. Lex.

      F. T. H.

      GRAVESTONES. See Tombstones.

      GRAZIANI, AUGUSTO: Italian economist;
      born at .Modeua Jan. G, 1805. He obtained his educa-
      tion at the university of his native town, devoting
      iiimself especially to economic studies, and gradu-
      ating as doctor of laws in 1886. lie became suc-
      cessively privat-docent (1887), docent (1888). and as-
      sistant professor of political economy (1890), in his
      home university, professor of financial science at
      the University of .Sienna (1894); professor of polit-
      ical economy at the University of Naples (1899),
      which position he still occupies. He is correspond-
      ing member of the Accademia dei Liucei.

      In addition to numerous essays in Italian and
      American journals, Graziani wrote: " Di Alcune
      Queslioni Intorno alle Imposte ed Egli EHetti Beo-
      nomici" (1889); "Sulla Teoria Gunerale del Pro-
      fitto" (1887); "Storia Criticadella Teoria del Valore
      in Italia" (1890); "SulleOperationidi Borsa" (1890);
      "Istituoni di Scienza dclla Finanze " (1897); "Studi
      Bull Teoria deir Interese " (1898); "Tratto di Eco-
      nomica Polilica" (1904). S.

      MON BEN MORDECAI : Italian rabbi ; died at
      Modena in 168.">; cousin of Nathanael b. Benjamin
      Trabot. He probably belonged to the Gallico family,
      the name " Graziano " being the Italian efpiivalent of
      "Johanan." Graziano, who was rabbi of Modena,
      was the author of the following works: " Sha'are
      Efrayim," explaining all the passages in which the
      particles DN and DJ are found in the Pentateuch;
      " Haggahot we-IIiddushim," annotations and novelise
      on the Shulhan 'Aruk, cited by Ishmael Coen in
      " Zera' Emet " ; " Likkute Dinim," various halakic de-
      cisions; and a collection of |)i)ems. Of these works
      there have been published only two elegies on the
      death of Kabbi Aaron Benoit Modena, inserted in the
      "Ma'abar Yabbok," and some respon.sa included in
      the " 'Afar Ya'akob " of Nathanael ben Aaron Jacob

      Graziano was very broad-minded, and the ultra-
      orthodox rabbis disapproved of .some of his halakic
      decisions. He permitted the use of an organ in the
      synagogue (" Haggahot we-IIiddu.shim " on Shulhan
      'Aruk, Orah Hayyim, 5(50, t; 'A). As a poet lie was
      Lighly appreciated, his style being both easy and
      elegant. Graziano .signed his works I'J fN. the
      Initials of his name and that of his father.

      Bini.IooRAPIIT: Nepl-Ctiirondi, Tolcrlnt Orihilc Ybirnel, p. :!;
      Mortara, Indicc. p. 38; S. .l(mu, in Kiv. Et. Juivcs, iv. 179;
      KauImanD, In Mi)nal>isc)irifl, xxxix. 3.JU.
      G. I. Bu.

      GREAT SYNAGOGUE. See Synagogue,

      GREECE : Country of southeastern Europe.
      The nuniliei' <if its Jews is not moie than 9,000,
      distributed as follows: Corfu, 3,500; Zante, 175;
      Chalcis, on the Island of Eubcea or Negropont, 200;
      Volo, 1,100; Larissa, 2,500; Trikala, 1,000; Arta,
      300; Athens, 300. Besides these Jews of Greece
      pi-oper — who form the subject of this article — there
      is also a Jewish population of about 4,000 in Janina
      and Prevesa in Epir\is; these people are really
      Greeks, for thev have lived in the country since a
      very nnnote period, and speak only the Greek Ian
      guage. TIk; term " Greek Jews " might also be made
      to include the Jews of the island of Crete and those
      of Chilis, oil Smyrna.

      Jews settled in Greek territories in early days, as
      is proved by numerous anecdotes in the rabbin-
      ical literat\ire (see Levy, "Neuliebr. Worterb." .i.r.
      XrnX)- In the Acts of the Apostles it is said that
      Jews had synagogues at Corinth and Athen.s, where
      they lived peaceably and enjoyed social intiuence.
      The Greeks seem to have taken great interest in tlic
      new rcligiiin, brought from Judea, that had made
      proselytes even on the ancient Areopagus.

      The Jews, on their side, held Greek culture in
      high esteem, and during the pre-Christian time
      many of their number, including Josephus, Philo,
      Aristobuhis, and Ezekiel the tragedian, enriched
      classical literature with their works. But there
      was more than mere social and intellectual inter-
      course between the two peoples: for, according to
      Josephus, King Arius of Sparta made an alliance
      with the high priest Jonathan ("Ant." xiii. 5, §8;
      comp. Sclrurer, "Gesch." 3d cd., i. 236). Alexander
      the Great, who through his education had thor-
      oughly iuibibcd the Greek spirit, treated the Jews
      with great kindness. Under the Roman emperors,
      too, the Greek Jews enjoyed the same privileges as
      the other citizens. But their position was not so
      pleasant under the Byzantine einperors: at first they
      were even forliidden the free exercise of their relig-
      ion (733). Many were converted to (^Jhristianity,
      while others left the country. Gratz ("Gesch." v.
      328) thinks that the permission for the free exercise
      of their religion was probably granted to them by the
      empress Irene (780-797). In 840 the Jews of Greece
      were very prosperous, and were engaged in rearing
      silkworms, planting mulberry-trees, and in silk-

      With the exception of theirenjoyraent of religious
      liberty, the Greek Jews were alwaj^s subjected to
      the same political restrictions as under the first em-
      perors, and were not allowed to hold any positions
      under the state. Pethahiah of Regensburg. who
      visited Greece in the twelfth century, relates that
      there were almost as many Jews there as Palestine
      could have held. Benjamin of Tudela, on visiting
      Greece about the same time, also found many Jews
      there, especially in Arta, Patras, Corinth, Crissa
      (where they were engaged in farming), and Thebes,
      whose 3.000 Jews included the best dyers and silk-
      manufacturers of Greece. The silk industry must
      have been of great importance, and the Jews en-
      gaged in it were very rich; for, according to the
      Greek historian Nicetas, even the Byzantine em-



      Greek Lang^ua^e

      perors liad to buy their costly goods in AthcMis.
      Tlit'lx'S. and Corintli. Tlie downfall of the conimii
      iiity at Thebes was due cliiclly to King Roger of
      Sieily, who, after capturing the city (1147), led the
      best silk-weavers as prisoners to Palermo and prob-
      ably to the island of Corfu (which lie liad also con-
      quered), where they taught their art to the Normans.

      The Jews of Greece proper, who seem to have
      enjoyed great tranquillity at all times, cultivated
      Hebrew stud_y so thoroughly that even before the
      Spanish emigration several renowned rabbis were
      designated as Greeks. Among these were : Baruch
      ha- Yewaui (" the Greek "), in the fourteenth century ;
      Zechariah ha-Yewani, author of the "Sefer ha-
      Yashar" (1340); Dossa ben Rabbi Moses ha-Yewani,
      in the fifteenth century, author of "Perushe we-
      Tosafot." Franco, in his "Essai sur rilistoire dcs
      Israelites de I'Empire Ottoman," p. 41, Paris, 1897,
      says that during the same period the Jews of Thebes
      were renowned for their Talmudical learning; and
      he mentions David ben Hayyini ha-Kohen, grand
      rabbi of Patras — originallv from Corfu — whose in-
      fluence extended to Italy and throughout the Orient.
      Moses Capsali was grand rabbi of Constantinople at
      the time of the Ottoman conquest (14."j3): another
      rabbi of the same period was Eliezer Capsali.

      Theodore Reinach, in his " Ilistoire des Israelites,"
      pp. 225. 226, relates that, beginning with the fifteenth
      century, there was a revival of Talmudical studies
      in Turkey, caused by a twofold current coming
      from Spain and Greece, the communities of which
      — especially those of the Morea — took on a sudden
      growth after the conquest of the Morea by the Vene-
      tians in 1.516. Isaac Abravanel. who visited Corfu
      toward the end of the fifteenth century, remained
      there some time in order to complete his commentary
      on Deuteronomy (.^ee his preface thereto), whicli
      proves that he must have found a library and learned
      men there. Considering, however, that there are
      now only 5,000 Greek Jews who speak Greek — i.e.,
      those of Janina, Prevcsa, Zante, Arta and Chalcis —
      the question arises what has become of the pre-
      Spanish Greco-Jewish population. It has evidently
      been absorbed by the Spanish, which was far more
      numerous in Thessaly and the Turkish territories,
      while the Jud;eo-Greck population of Corfu has
      been absorbed by the Apulians. Traces of the an-
      cient Greek origin of the Judreo-Greek population
      still exist. Thus there are Greek synagogues
      ("kebal Gregos" or "de los Javanim ") in Corfu,
      Constantinople, Saloniea. and Adrianople; and
      many Greek words are found in the Spanish lan-
      guage of the Oriental Jews and in the Apulian
      of the Corfiotes. Many Greek feminine proper
      names are also used, such as KaAouoFpa (''Calomira "
      = " good hick ") and Kupa (" Kyra " = " princess ") ;
      and there are fannly names of .similar origin, as
      Politi, Roditi, Mustachi, and Maurogonato. Fur-
      ther, there are still to be foimd in Corfu songs and
      elegies in the Greek language which were recited
      in the synagogue until about thirty years ago.

      Up to the time of the Greek insurrection (1821) there
      were .several .Tewish congregations in Greece proper,
      namely, in Vrachori (.\grinion). Patras. Tripolitza.
      Mistra, Tln'bes. and Livadia; but most of tbi'irnicm-
      bers were killed by the insurgents, who thus vented

      upon these peaceful citizens their inveterate hatred
      of the tyrant of their fatherland. A few of those
      who escaped went to Corfu ; others to Chalcis, which
      remaini'il under Turkish dominion until 1832.

      Very little is known t.o-day of these congregation.?
      tliat have disappeared, but there are still some He-
      brew epitaphs, which have not yet been collected.
      Of all these communities Thebes was undoubtedly
      tile most celebrated, owing to its distinguished Tal-
      niudic scholars and its extensive? silk-manufactories.
      Dubois, a Frenchman who visited the city in the
      seventeenth century, praises in a letter to the f.anious
      Menage the beauty of the Jewish women of Thebes
      (Pougueriche, "Voyage en Grece," vol. iv., book xi.,
      ch. iii.).

      To the history of the Jews of Greece belongs also
      Don Joseph Nasi (Juan Miques), who was created
      Duke of Naxos and of the twelve most import;int
      Cyclades by Selini II. (1574). It was probably due
      to his having noted the great success attending the
      manufacture of silk in Greece, that Nasi, who al-
      ways had the welfare of his coreli.gionists ,-it heart,
      introduced the trade into the city of Tiberias, which
      had been granted to him and which he raised from
      its ruins.

      The existing Jewish communities of Greece may
      be divided into five groups: (1) Arta (Epirus); (2)
      Chalcis (Eubo'a); (3) Athens (Attica); (4) Volo,
      Larissa, and Trikala (Thessaly) ; (5) Corfu and Zante
      (Ionian Islands).

      The community of Arta is the oldest in Greece.
      It has a small elementary school and a benevolent
      society. Children desiring an education attend the
      Greek higher schools. There are also two syna-
      gogues, the older of which is called the Grecian ; and
      a very ancient cemetery, no longer used, called the
      cemetery of " Rabbane Ajta." See Akta; Athens;
      Chalcis; Coupd.

      n M. C.

      This article will b(,' confined to the Greek material
      found in rabbinical works, since the language of the
      Septuagint and the New Testament requires sep-
      arate discussion, and does not belong here. Latin
      was made accessible to the Jews in Talmudic times
      by means of Greek, and will be treated here in this
      relation. For general cultural conditions see Al-
      Ex.\NDRiAN Phllosophy ; Btzamtine Empiue; Hel-

      In the Talmud, Midrash, and Targum the Greek
      and Latin letters are transcribed according to purely
      phonetic principles; this transcription may there-
      fore assist in some measure the work of solving
      the probable original pronunciation of Greek, still a
      matter of dispute. While the Greek elements found
      in rabbinical works must be.classed for the greater
      part with the veruacular, they are for that reason
      most instructive from a phonetic point of view.

      The pronunciation of the Greek sounds has in
      general been faithfully preserved ; and only in a few
      points — -including, however, the im-
      Surds and portantone of iotacism — does the pro-
      Sonants, nunciation represent that .stage which
      is generally designated as modern
      Greek, but which, nevertlieless. may have been the
      original one. Surds and sonants are always distir-

      Greek Language



      guislied; e.g., t was vvrittfii aud pronuunct'd t3, aud
      iS, T, not vice versa, a practise that must be espe-
      cially noted in view of tlie fact that sonants and
      surds are confounded in Egyptian Greek (Blass,
      "Ausspraclie des Griechischen," 3d ed., 1895), in
      demotic papyri, and in Gnostic manuscripts (Thumb.
      in " Indogerm. Forschungen," viii. 189), as well as
      in the Coptic; in Syriac the same accuracy has been
      observed. On tlie other hand, as in the Egyptian
      Kuivli {e.g., koIkov := x'^'-KO''), surds and aspirates are
      frequently confounded; thus ;fd?.Kai'i9of always ap-
      pears as DinJp7p; iStarpoK is represented by jnDN'D.
      though the form with n also occurs. This is all the
      more striking as surds and aspirates represent the
      same sounds in both languages, and this leads to
      the important conclusion that in Hebrew 3 and p.
      D and n. were similar in sound. The aspirate ip,
      which occurs not only as 3 but also as a and even IV
      had already become a fricative sound, aud hence had
      reached in Hebrew mouths the modern Greek stage.
      The same is not true in the case of 6, however, but
      fricative pronunciation appears in the sonants /3, y,
      (!; since, for example, IJIDT occurs for ofihimydog side
      by side with TJ"iO|, the modern Greek pronvinciation
      of (5 as a voiced sfiirant, corresponding to the Eng-
      lish " th " in " these." " bathe," must be assumed.

      As regards the nasals, the exact pronunciation of
      the sovmds ly, yK, yx is reproduced in a manner en-
      tirely analogous to the Latin, Syriac,
      Nasals and Arabic. Romanic, etc., as can be seen
      .Sibilants, in * Nf'JJN* (ayyeM), 'p^JN ('"'"y«'/),
      '331p (KiJ] xi), «tc. Otherwise, the

      -nasals were treated with considerable license, and
      were frequently stqjpressed by assimilation and re-

      ■ dnction, as in modern Greek. For example, just as
      TT^Trrof is used for n-//;i7-of, so the Jews said D''3D iu-

      . stead of Mc/i((iir, X'"njsp for compendiaria, etc.
      From trauscriiitions such as * pDPE> for * ir-a/lri) -

      :fiiov and J'^JTIC^ (or * aa/n^ovvxiov there must be as-

      '.sumed for the letter a (which is in other cases tran-
      scribed by D, t. i^rid S) the pronunciation "sh,"a
      sound the existence of which in Greek philologists
      have denied. Further proof in this regard is fur-
      nished by the transcription of Xn'C'D as Meanla^
      (comp. Schhrer, "Geseh." 3d ed., ii. .526, note).

      lotacism of the vowels t, i, r/, aud the diphthongs ii,
      o: is found in almost all cases, except before ?•; hence,
      lITi. Ntpuv, must be pronounced "Neron," and not
      " Niron." But m, iiv, fuhad very nearly reached the
      modern Greek stage. In contrast with
      lotacism this is the scrupulous retention of both
      and As- thespirituslenisand thespiritiisasper;
      piration. and the aspirated p is also clearly in-
      dicated by means of preaspiration ;
      while even internal aspiration occurs, as, for ex-
      ample, in the frequently repeated word [''"nnjD,
      cmiiyuov. There are even some almost certain ex-
      amples of the digamma, a soimd peculiar to archaic
      Greek and to some dialects.

      The vowels are not always kept intact, but are
      often interchanged without regard to rule. The
      Jewish idiom shares vowel-resolution {e.g., n'DOVT
      instead of (hj/iocin, where i has been resolved into in)
      with Syriac ((^..c/.. DIPVtDD. oruAof, in Bar-Bahlul) and
      Armenian ("Tiiiros" = Ti'ipof), As generally in ver-
      nacular idioms, hiatus does not occur.

      The omission of the hiatus, together with the
      frequently occurring elision of syllables by apocope,
      apheresis, and especially syncope, gives to the for-
      eign word-forms a certain Semitic coloring; D10713
      for povlijin^ is more in agreement with Semitic
      phouetics than is the Syriac DIDI^U; N^tU for
      ,J//pr//«; is more acceptable than, for instance,
      * D1^1T3 would be. The other consonantal changes
      to which the Greek words have been subjected are
      such as may occur also in Greek, as, for instance,
      adequation, assimilation, dissimilation, metathesis,
      elision, prothesis, etc. In order to Semitize Greek
      words, new forms, analogous forms, and popular
      etymologies were resorted to. Espe-
      Semitiza- cially frequent is the Hebrew ending
      tion p; ('..'/.. ponpj. N/Kci(57/pof; JIDOp.raw-

      of Greek pus; but compare the Greek lianrpnv

      Words. for Kaarpa; and in Egypt t//iimiv is
      found for T/ftKjv, as well as ppx {i.e.,
      a^?Mi') for a/t?.n. Compare with this, furthermore,
      the frequent occurrence of diminutives in -lov, ex-
      amples of which are found in the Jewish idiom that
      have not been preserved elsewhere.

      Next in popidarity among ne%v formations was n' :
      hence n'jnDD, NrfJIlDO, occurs side by side with
      njnUD. iiiiitriinn ; n"0J17 was used for 'kivTiov = lin-
      tei.iin, etc. By the employment of such forms a
      certain Semitic coloring was given to the words.
      Other peculiarities of Semitic speech — e.g., the He-
      brew and Aramaic conjugation of verbs formed from
      Greek noun-stems, the employment of status em-
      phaticus and status coustructus, the addition of He-
      brew and Aramaic affixes and suffixes, the plural
      formations, the determination of grammatical gender
      (tliough seldom according to the regular laws of the
      language) — all these the borrowing lan,guage had to
      employ in so far as it had in view the needs of actual
      intercourse and not academic usage. As the Jew-
      ish idiom of the Talmudic period made use of
      Greek words only in case of need, its laws held good
      for the borrowed forms, at least as far as the con-
      struction of sentences was concerned.

      In addition to the forms of the words borrowed
      from the Greek, it is also important to determine
      their meanings; for some of these borrowed terms
      acquired in the mouth of tlie Jews a deeper religions
      and moral sense; e.g., yeufierpia, a certain norm for
      the interpretation of Scripture (but compare Gema-
      TRIA); jiifAov, Latin relum, "heaven"; axo^aariKdc,
      " teacher of the Law"; arparr/yd;, "soldier" in gen-
      eral; ahppnlov, "covenant" and "wedding present";
      Toiioq, "book of the Law." The Jewish usage is
      sometimes supported by the Septuagint and by the
      New Testament; e.g., Kari/yup, "Satan"; Tvanhun^
      "whore"; I3?.aa<pi/fiia, "blasphemy." These semasi-
      ological differences justify one in speaking of a
      rabbinic Greek.

      Other prominent characteristics that are also found

      in all the popidar Greek dialects are: the frequent

      occurrence of diminutives of material nouns in -ir(5c;

      the ending in -ii<6v; combinations with

      The Vo- o?.o- {6?i6xpvaog, o'AoariptKdc, etc. ) ; and the

      cabulary. ending -of instead of -ov. The Greek

      spoken by the Jews of Palestine

      was the Hellenic Knivi/; although it contains also

      elements that are not Attic, these had become Hel-



      Greek Languagre

      lenized at Uie time of their adoptiou. Some words
      found in rabbiiiieal works oei-iir elsewliere onlj' in
      uio<lcrn Grecl;.

      The Oii-eii words found in the idiom of the Tal-
      mud and tiie Midrasli refer to ail conditions of life,
      although, of course, there is a preponderance of po-
      litical concepts that came into Palestine only with the
      advent of the Greeks and the Romans, and of names
      of foreign products introduced into the country
      through commerce. Some of the borrowed words
      refer to cosmography and geography; e.g., a>ify =
      "air," introduced at an early date; others refer to
      minerals, plants, and animals; e.g., yvipn; = " gyp-
      sum "; iadrjf = a plant u.sed for d3'eing; jropr5a/.(f =
      "panther." Many refer to public life; e.g., ox^o^ —
      " mob " ; iin?.uvia = colon in, " colony "; na/.ariov =
      palatium, "palace"; ?.'iyarov = legatu7n, "legate";
      Kyvaoc = census, " census " ; ar/ueiov := " sign " or
      "standard." Others again refer to the house and
      the court; e.g., fia(n?uKi/ = ^^hasi\ica" : ff-oa = " stoa, "
      "colonnade"; others to commerce and intercourse,
      coins and weights; e.g., ^/"ijjua'fia = "commerce";
      camim, "wagon"; (J^wipioi' = "denarius"; fiorrira
      = moneta, "coin." There are also names of weap-
      ons, tools, vessels, raw material, furniture, food,
      ornaments, and jewelry. A large contingent of
      words refers to general culture, including literature
      and writing, physicians and medicines, religion and
      folk-lore, calendars and te.xts, music and the plastic
      arts; and, finally, there is a mass of proper names.
      It is estimated that more than 3.000 words borrowed
      from the Greek and Latin are found in the rabbinical

      After the completion of the chief works of the
      Midrashic and Targumic literature no new Greek
      words were adopted; but the words already assim-
      ilated cimtinued to be used — of course
      In Later less intelligently than formerl_v, thus

      Times. giving rise to frequent incorrect copy-
      ings and false etymologies. The Jews
      preserved the knowledge of the Greek language only
      in those countries where Greek was spoken. Jus-
      tinian's law of the 3-ear 553 ("Novella;." No. 146,
      ricpi 'E/3pniui') refers to the use of Greek in the lit-
      urgy. As late as the end of the Byzantine period
      the Book of Jonah was read in Greek at the after-
      noon haftarah of the Day of Atonement in Candia
      (Elijah Capsali. ed. Lattes, p. 2"J); the Bologna
      and Oxford libraries have copies of this transla-
      tion, which, according to Neubauer, was made in
      the twelfth century for the Jews of Corfu; so
      far as is known, it is the oldest complete text in
      modern Greek. There is also a Greek translation of
      the Pentateuch, of which there still exist copies of
      the edition made by Eliezer Soncino of Constanti-
      nople in 1547, and republished by D. C. Hesseling,
      Lej'dcn, 189T. This translation, in Hebrew charac-
      ters, forms ])art of a polyglot Pentateuch, which
      contains a Hebrew text with a Spanish translation.

      The only important Midrash or comraentar}' to the
      Pentateuch that is extant from the Byzantine coun-
      tries, the " Lekah Tob " by R. Tobias b. Eliezer of
      Castoria (ed. S. Buber), contains many Greek words
      (see J. Perles in "Byzantinische Zeitschi'ift," ii.
      570-584). The Jews of southern Italy are known to
      have been familiar with Greek (Gratz. "Gesrh." 3d

      ed., vi. 23S); the Sylvester disputation i)resuppo.ses
      a knowledge of Greek as well as of Latin among
      the Roman Jews (Vogelslein and Rieger. " Gesch.
      der Juden in Rom," i. 1.50, note 3).

      In Sicily the Jews curiously changed the meaning
      of hoiftaaia ("timisia") to jlesignale a chest for the
      Torah (Zunz, "G. V." L'd ed., p. 247; idem, "Z. G."
      p. 522); they had ollicials called "sufi " (to^'u) and
      "proti" (Giidemann, "Erziehungswesen . . . der
      Juden in Italien." ji. 2H1). Liturgical poems were
      generally designated by the Byzantine terms "piz-
      mon" and "darmosh" (Zunz,""S. P." pp. 5, Ciib).
      Other Greek words used were "latreg," "alpliabeta-
      rion " ("Byz. Zeit." I.e.), "sandek," etc. Similarly,
      there were Christian designations, such as "api-
      phyor" for "pope," and "hegmon" for "bishop"
      ("R. E. J."xxxiv. 218-238; compare " patriarch " in
      Benjamin of Tudela and in " Jlilhemet Hobah," p.
      4. Constantinople, 1710).

      Shabbethai Donnolo had a Greek education, and
      so to a certain extent had Nathan of Rome; the au-
      thor of the Ahimaaz t'hronicle often refers to the
      Greek-speaking Jews of southern Italy. Joseph,
      "the Greek," translated Greek works into Arabic
      pp. 39. 314). as did also Kilti, or Kelti {tdem. " Hebr.
      Llebers." p. 499; "J. Q. R." xi. 605). It is expressly
      said of Jacob ha-Levi that he was conversant with
      the Greek language (Neubauer, "The Fifty-third
      Chapter of Isaiah." p. xii., note 5). Greek words
      are found in the works of Jacob b. Reuben {ih. pp. 59,
      60), Judah Mo.sconi. and ^leyuhas b. Elijah (" Orien-
      talistischcLiteraturzeitung." 1900. p. 429; "R. E. J."
      xli. 303); and a knowledge of Greek in general must
      be assumed in the case of the Jewish authors living
      in Greece. The Karaites also knew classical Greek
      — e.g., Judah Iladassi (Fiirst, "Gesch. des Kariier-
      thums." i. 212) — and modern Greek, as, for exam|)le,
      Caleb Afendopolo in the fifteenth century. "Wise
      men from Greece "and single scholars with the sur-
      name "Greek" are not unfrequently mentioned by
      Western Jewish authors.

      The Oriental and the Western Jews, on the other
      hand, were mostly ignorant of Greek. A gaon ad-
      mitted, in regard to a Greek expression in the
      Talmud, that he did not know Greek (Harkavy,
      "Teshubot ha-Geonini," No. 47, p. 23); and "aspar-
      gon " was explained as a Persian word (ib. p. 374).
      Scholars from Greece could, however, be consulted
      (ih. No. 225, p. 105), as was done by Moses Nal.i-
      mani (B. B. 8a). Eliezer b. Elijah, who knew twelve
      languages, had only a smattering of Greek (.lost,
      "Jahrb." ii. 30). The Samaritan Abu al Fath, in
      the fourteenth century, also admitted that he did not
      know Greek ("Annales."ed.E. Vilmar. p. xc.,Gotha,
      186,5). The statement in the Chronicle of Jerahmeel
      (ed. Gaster, p. 200) that Judah and half of Simeon
      spoke Hebrew and Greek among themselves, must
      either be a fable or be based on a misunderstanding.

      Greek (Etymologies, generally false ones, are noted
      by Rashi. Abraham ibn Ezra, Simeon b. Zeniah
      Diiran, Elijah Levita (in " Tishbi," n.v. D'prO ; comp.
      Grilnbaum. "Jud.-Deut. ChrestOTnathie." p. 494),
      and Abraham Zacuto, as well as by other medieval
      authors. R. Isaac of Siponte was more successful
      in explaiinng several expressions in the Mishnah

      Greek Law



      iu Greek; (•.(/., Ma'as. v. 8. There were no Greek
      works by Jews in the Middle Ages, aside from the
      new translations of tlie Bible. But
      Greek Ety- Jews read Greek authors in the original
      mologies. at Byzantium; e.g., Asaph, who ren-
      ders botanical names in Greek, and
      Jiidah Hadassi the ICaraite, who quotes entire sen-
      tences from the philosopliical works of the Greeks
      (P. Frankl, in ".Monatsschrift," 1884. xx.xiii. 449.
      ^XZetfcq.). In regard to some translations from the
      Middle Ages it is still doubtful whether they were
      made directly from the Greek text. It has by no
      means been proved that terms occurring iu Jewish
      philosophical works have been borrowed from the
      Greek, as Steinschneider asserts ("Hebr. Uebers."
      p. 420, Berlin. 1893) ; <:(i. , rh'h^' fd' a-ipyaii;, found in
      Samuel ibn Tibbon, is merely a translation of the
      corresponding Latin or Arabic word. Although
      Jose]ib b. Abraham (Steinschueider, I.e. p. ^'t'i,
      55 267) us(!S Greek words, it nuist be assumed that he
      lived iu the vicinity of Greece; for only Jews so
      situated could have been familiar with that language.

      Bibmockapiiy: s. Kniuss, Lrhnin'trtcr. Berlin, 189R-'.W ; A.
      Tluiiuli, hie Oriecltisiin- Spnu-lii- im Zcitalter de.t HiUiiiix-
      mus, passim, Stra.shurs,', I'.Ml; I'eiles, in Bi/z. Zeit. li. 570-
      G. S. Kit.


      See Roman a.nh Gheicic Law, Infh excio of tuk.

      GREEN, AARON LEVY: English rabbi;
      born in Loudcju Aug., 1S21 ; died March 11, 1883.
      A precocious student, at the age of fourteen he was
      successful as candidate for the post of reader in the
      Gi'cat Synagogue, and at seventeen was appointed
      minister of the Bristol congiegation. One of liis
      first composilions, entitled " Dr. Ci'oly, LL.D., versus
      Civil and Ucligious liberty." 18.50, was an attack
      on Dr. Cioly, wlio had opposed the admission of Jews
      to Parliament. In March, 1851, Green was elected
      second reader of the Great Synagogue, London; and
      wlieu in 1855 the OKI Portland Street branch syna-
      gogue was opened. Green was elected its tirst reader
      and preacher. In that capacity he made many im-
      provements in the service of the synagogue, and for
      nearly thirty j-eai's cooperated in all the new move-
      ments that helped to organize the Loudon Jewish

      Green was a member of the council and of the edu-
      cation committee of the Anglo-Jewish Association,
      and assumed a leading part iu the foundation of Jews'
      College, acting as honorary seci'etary from 1852, and
      for some years iis chairman of the education com-
      miltec. He vvas one of the first to arouse public
      interest in the Russian atrocities of 1881. and was
      a member of tlie Rumainan Mansion House and
      Russo-Turkish relief committees.

      In religion Green was extremely liberal-minded.
      In 1808 he delivered a series of sermons which
      evoked many ren!onstrances; and ten years later an-
      other series by him, on " Jtiracles," so agitated cer-
      lain circles that a movement was set on foot to de-
      nounce the pi'eachcr at public inilignation meetings.
      He was a legular corresponilentof the Jewish news-
      papers, and, under the pseudonym "Nemo." wrote
      for the "Jewish Chronicle" manv severe criticisms
      of contemporary movements which atti'acted con-

      siderable attention. He collected a large and valu-
      able library of Judaica and Hebraica, which is now
      iu Jews' College, London.

      Uiiu.icKUiAPnv : Jew. Citron, and Jew. World, Marcli 10, 1883.
      .,, G. L.

      GREENBAUM, SAMUEL : American lawyer
      and jurist; born Jan. 23, 1854, in Jjondou; went to
      the i'nited States with his parents in his infancy;
      educated at the New York public schools and the
      College of the City of New York, gi-adualing in
      1872. Thereafter he studied law at the Columbia
      College Law School until 1875, and from 1872 to
      1877 was a teacher iu Grammar School No. 59, New
      Yoi-k. Tlicn he commeuceil to pi-actise law, which
      he did alone until 1894, when he entei-eil into part-
      nership with Daniel P. Hays. In Jlay, 1901, he re-
      sumed separate practise, which he continued until
      he was elected judge of the Supreme Court of the
      State of New Ylirk Jan. 1, 1903.

      Greenbaum is a member of the New Y''ork State
      Bar Association; the Society of Medical Jurispru-
      dence; the Jewish Historical Society, etc. He was
      picsidcnt of the Aguilar Free Library Association,
      and is tirst vice-president of the Eilucatioiial Alli-
      ance, and trustee of the New York Public Libi-ary
      andof the Jewish Theological Seminary of America.

      .7. F. H. V.

      GREENHUT, JOSEPH B. : American soldier;
      boru in Germany. He enlisted as a private in the
      12th Illinois Infantry at Chicago Apiil, 18G1. He
      served with this regiment throughout Grant's cam-
      ])aignsin Kentucky and Tennessee. At Foit Douel-
      son, Gi'eeuhut was badly wounded in the )ight arin
      and had to retire. In Aug., 1802, he was appointed
      captain of Company K, 82d Illinois Infantry. He
      then fought in tlie Virginia campaigns under Burn-
      side, Hooker, and !Meade, and was at Gettysburg.
      He was transferred to Ilecker's stall as adjutant-
      general, and with this command he took part in
      some very severe battles, notably that of Lookout
      Mountain. Grcenhut resigned his commission on
      Feb. 24, 1804, and entered mercantile life. He was
      one of the tliree Illinois commissioners for monu-
      ments on the battle-field of Gettysburg.

      BiBi.iocUAPiiy : Puhlicnti'inx Amer. Jew. HM. Soc. iii. 33;
      Wolf, 'llir Ami rirdit Jew as Patriot, Soldier, ami Citizen,
      p. Ul, Pliilaih-lpliia, 18U5.
      A. A. M. P.

      GREETING, FORMS OF: Fixed modes of
      address on meeting acquaintances. With the an-
      cient Hebrews the form of greeting depended upon
      the relationship of the per.sons. It exiuessed in-
      terest and sympathy, love and affection, or rever-
      ence and honor. It included any or all of the fol-
      lowing: ini|uiry regarding health; embracing and
      kissing; blessing; Ijowing; kneeling; prostration.

      Biblical Data : Joseph asked his brothers

      about their welfare (Gen. xliii. 27) when they sup-
      posed him to be a stranger. David sent a message
      of greeting to Nabal : "Peace be both to thee, and
      peace be to thine house, and peace be unto all that
      thou hast" (I Sam. xxv. G). Elisha sent Gehazi
      when meeting the Shunammite to in(|uire; " Is it
      well with thee? is it well with thy husband? is it
      well with the child?" When hastening Gehazi to
      revive the child, Elisha told him: "Go thy way: if



      Greek Law

      thou meet any iiiaii, salute liim not; and if any
      salute thee, answer him not" (II Ivinss iv. 2(i, 2!)).
      Ko time eoiild be lost iji so ui'senl a matter.

      A more intimate form of welcome was to emliraee
      and kiss, as haban did Jacob (Gen. .\\i.\. 18). David
      and Jonathan c.\clianged ki.sses (I Sam. x.\.41). A
      more pas.sionate form was to fall on the neck and cry
      fm- joy (lien. .\.\.\iii. 4). Kissing a female in public
      was apparently against the prevailing custom (Cant,
      viii. 1; but comp. Gen. x.xi.x. 11). The kissing of
      the hand is mentioned in Job xx.xi. 27 (see KissIiNG).

      A specially reverential fcn-in of greeting was to
      bow toward the ground (Gen. xviii. 2). Jacob ren-
      dered homage to his brother by bowing seven times
      as he approached (Gen. xxxiii. 3). On meeting a
      prince or a king the custom was to bless him, as
      Melehizedek blessed Abraham, and Jacob bles.scd
      Pharaoh (Gen. xiv. 10, xlvii. 7). The angel greeted
      Gideon with the words: "The Lord is with thee,
      thou mighty man of valor" (Judges vi. 12). Boaz
      greeted liis field-workers with: "The Lord be with
      you," and they answered him, "The Lord bless
      thee" (Until ii. 4; see Ber. ix. 1).

      In Rabbinical Literature : In the ethics of

      the Fathers it is said: " lie beforehand in the saluta-
      tion of peace to all men " (Abot iv. 2t)). Greeting to
      Gentiles is the road leading to peace (Git. v. 9).
      Jobanan b. Zakkai anticipated in salutation those
      whom he met. evenGentileson the street (Ber. 17a).
      K. Jiidah greeted the Gentiles at work by saying
      "Ahaziku" (strength to you). R. Sheshet greeted
      them with " Asharta " (success). R. Kalianah said
      "Peace, sir" (Git. 62a). The dignity of a teacher
      must not be lowered by greeting him or by answer-
      ing Ills greeting in the ordinary manner. A teacher
      should be greeted with, " Peace to thee, my master! "
      His greeting .should be answered by, " P«ace be with
      thee, my master and teaclier" (15er. 27b and Rashi
      arl Inc. ; iJ. 3a; comp. Shulhan 'Aruk, Yoreh De'ah,
      242. Ifi). R. Joshua b. Levi gives an object-lesson
      by relating this legend: "When Moses ascended
      to heaven he found the Almighty en-
      Moses' .gaged in crowning the letters of the
      Greeting. Law. Moses was silent, and God said
      to him: ' Bringest thou no peace from
      thy town ? ' Moses replied. ' May a servant greet his
      lord?' to wdiich God rejoined, 'Even so. it was
      proper to wish Me success. ' Then Moses said : 'And
      now, I beseech Thee, let the power of my Lord be
      great, according as Thou hast spoken ' " (Shab. 8!)a ;
      see Num. xiv. 17).

      The Babylonian rabbis held, contrary to the opin-
      ion of the Palestinians, tb;it it is improper for one
      person to greet anocher more prominent than him-
      self befoie being recognizee' li\' him (Yer. Shek. ii. 7).

      Other rules are: "One must not send a message of
      greeting to a woman, unless through her husband "
      (B. M. 87a). One must not greet a person at ni.ght
      if thespeakcrcan not be recognized (Mog. 3a). One
      nuist not greet a person in a bath-ho\ise or in a
      lavatory (Sliab. 10b). Onecnga.ged in his work need
      not greet nor answer greetings. Abba Hilkiali, the
      grandson of Honi ha-Me'aggel. being a very |iious
      man. the rabbis sent two of their representatives to
      request him to pray for rain. They found him
      ]itowing in the field and greeted him, but he di<l

      not turn his face toward them. Afterward he apolo-
      gized by explaining that Vicing a laborer for hire he
      <li<l not wish to waste Ins master's time (Ta'an.
      2;t:i, b).

      Greeting by kissing on the mouth or cheek was

      not approved by the rabbis. They usually kissed

      on the forehead. R. Akiba said he

      Methiods. favored tliecustomof the Medians, who
      kis.sed only the back of the hand (lier.
      8b). 'Ula, on his return home from the r.dilnnieal
      academy, kissed his sisters on the clicst or bosom;
      according to another statement, on tin; band (Shab.
      I3a). The wife of R. Akiba, meeting him after a
      prolonged absence, kissed him on the knee, as did Ins
      I'alher-in law Kalba Sbalnia' (Ket. (!l!a).

      Prostration was deemed the most reverential form
      of greeting. It is related of R. Simeon b. Gamaliel
      that he prostrated himself in the following maimer:
      He stuck his big toes in the ground and. bowing
      straight dow'nward. kissed the earth. There was no
      one who could imitate this "kidali"; R. Levi, an
      athlete, who atlempted to do .so before Rabbi lia-
      Nasi, became a cripple (Suk. 53a). On taking leave
      of a dignitary it was the custom to take three steps
      backward, and to bow with each step, to right, left,
      and center respectively. This form is observed at
      the end of the "Sliemoneh 'Esreh " prayer, as though
      the worshiper were taking leave of the Almighty
      King (Yoma SSb).

      At the consecration of the New Jloon, after re-
      citing the outdoor benediction, the members of the
      congregation greet each other with "Shalom 'ale-
      kem," and answer "'Alekem siialom," which is the
      form of greeting used on returning from a journey,
      or when meeting a stranger. When
      Formulas, meeting on New-Year's eve the usual
      greeting is: "A good year," or, "May
      thou be inscribed [in the Book <d' Jjil'e] for a good
      year." I^ate in the nineteenth century it became
      the custom to send to acijuaintances New-Year's
      greeting-cards of various desi.gns, colors, and in-

      The ordinary daily greetings are: "Good morn-
      ing " ; " Good (lay " (not " Good evening," as night is
      ominous); "Good Shabbat " ; on the eve following
      Sabbath, "Good week"; "Good hodesh" (new
      moon); "Good yom-tob " (holiday). In Jerusalem
      and the Orient the Sephardio custom is for men to
      greet each other before prayers with, "Good morn-
      ing, sir," and, after prayers, with "Peace" ("Sha-
      lom"), answered by "Peace, blessing, and good"
      ("Shalom berakah we-tobali "). At night the form
      at parting is, "Sleep well, .sir"; it is answered by,
      "Awake, sir, with His help and grace": on Sab-
      bath, "A peaceful and blessed Shalibat"; on Sab-
      b.ith night, " A .good and blessed week." answeied
      bv, "On you and ourselves"; on holidays, "Time of
      gladness," answered liy, "Festivals and seasons of
      joy"; on intermediate holidays ("hoi ha-mo'ed "),
      " Many good ami sweet years," answered by, " Long
      life and happiness." The greetings to liride and
      groom and at births and on other joyful occasions
      is, "Mazzal toll" (good star, or luck), answered by.
      " .May God let tliee live to enjoy the same at thy off-
      spring's weddins." One who has linished reading
      the portion of theTorah assigned to him in the ,syna-




      gogue, or who has delivered a lecture, is greeted
      with, "Strength aud blessings," answered by, "Be
      strong and mighty " (Luncz, "Jerusalem," i. 10).

      On entering a house one is greeted with, "Blessed
      be he that cometh." If he lind the host at table lie
      says: "Blessed be he who sits [at the table]." It
      will be noticed that tlie answer invariably differs
      from the greeting. This is to distinguish the saluter
      from the one saluted, so that one may run no risk of
      being considered ill-bred through leaving a greeting
      unanswered. See Etiquette ; Puecedknce.
      Bibliography: Wunderbar, in OrientyLit. 18t6, pp. 215-S47.

      E. o. J. D. B.

      GB^GOIRE, HENRI: Jesuit priest, politi-
      cian, and advocate of the Jews; born at Velio, near
      Luneville, Dec. 4, 1750; died at Paris May 28, 1831.
      Gregoirc was a typical representative of the human-
      itarian ideas of the eighteenth century. Notwith-
      standing his Jesuit training and associations he
      stood consistently throughout his life for the inde-
      pendence of the Galilean Church, and for equal
      rights for all men regardless of creed and national-
      ity. When in 1788 the Royal Society for Arts and
      Sciences in Jlctz offered a prize for the best essay on
      the improvement of tlie condition of the Jews, Gre-
      goire wrote his famous " Sur la Regeneration Phy-
      sique, Morale, et Politique des Juif's" (Mctz, 1789).
      A year later he was elected a member of the Stales
      General, and was among those who agitated for the
      formation of the National Assembly, although he had
      been one of the clerical delegates. In the assembly
      he put the motion for the emancipation of the Jews
      ("Motion en Faveur des Juifs, par ]\I. Gregoire, cure
      d'Embermenil, depute de Nancy, precedee d'une
      notice historique surles persecutions qu'ils viennent
      d'essuyer en divers lieux," etc. ; Paris, 1789). In his
      somewhat theatrical style he exclaimed (Oct. 1,
      1789), when a special day was given to the deliber-
      ation of the bill concerning the Jews: "Fifty thou-
      sand Frenchmen arose this morning as slaves; it de-
      pends on you whether they .shall go to bed as free

      The arguments advanced in Ids book in favor of
      the Jews are in no way original; they repeat the
      often-advanced statements that the Jews are not
      worse than the average, aud that the injustice of
      medieval legislation was largely responsible for
      whatever faults are peculiar to the Jews. He there-
      fore demanded for them full enfranchisement, in-
      cluding political rights. What gave special weight
      to Gregoire's panqihlets was the fact tliat he spoke
      asa professing Catholic and as a Catholic priest who
      advocated the enfranchisement of the Jews from the
      point of view of canonical law, and desired to prove
      that the Church had always been favorable to the

      BIBLIOORAPIIY: La Grande Enc]iclnpedU \ Gratz, Omcli. xl.
      197; Kalin. Les Juifs a Paris, pp. Oi et sci;., Paris, 18S'.); It.
      E. J. iii. ;iiiS.


      GREGORY I., THE GREAT : Pope from 590
      toGOl; born about 540; died 604. Descended from
      an old Roman senatorial famil}', he had held various
      high official positions when he suddenly retired to
      one of the cloisters which he had founded. Sent as
      ambassador to Constantinople by Pelagius II., on

      his return became an abbot, and soon afterward,
      when Pelagius died fi'om the plague, he was elected
      pope. He materially strengthened the authoriiy of
      the papal see both by his personal influence and by
      his adroit policy ; and in many respects he deter-
      mineil the standards of the Catholic Church for the
      following centuries.

      Gregory hail a deep-seated aversion to Judaism,
      which to him was Jewish superstition (" superstitio "),
      depravity (" perditio"), and faithlessness (" pertidia").
      He discarded the literal interpretation of the Bible
      which prevailed among the Jews, aud designated
      their attacks upon Christianity as idle prattle. He
      forbade the literal observance of the Sabbath law,
      wide-spread among the Christians, on the ground
      tliatit was Jewish ; and his deepest grievance against
      the Nestorians was that the}' were like the Jews.
      He e-xtolled the Visigothic king Reccared for his
      severe measures against the Jews and for his firm-
      ness against their attempts at bribery.

      Gregory was very zealous in his efforts to con-
      vert the Jews, and tried to influence them by prom-
      ising a partial repeal of ta.xes aud by offering other
      material support to converts. He was very em-
      phatic against enforced baptism, however, prefer-
      ring conversions brought about by gentleness and
      kindness. He protected the rights of the Jews, and
      assured to them the unhindered celebration of their
      feasts and the undisturbed possession of their syna-
      gogues. On the other hand, he repeatedly opposed
      the possession by Jews of Christian slaves. Chris-
      tian slaves and those who wished to accept Chris-
      tianity were to be taken away from their Jewish
      masters. Indeed, he earnestly begged the Prankish
      kings to issue a decree forbidding Jews to liold
      Christian slaves. He was obliged, however, to mit-
      igate the strictness of some of his measures.

      The principle of Gregory's policy in regard to the
      Jews is expressed in the following sentence, which
      was adopted by later popes as a fixed introductory
      formula to bulls in favor of the Jews: "Just as no
      freedom may be granted to the Jews in their com-
      munities to exceed the limits legally set for them,
      so they .should in no way suffer through a violation of
      their rights" ("Epistohr," vii. 25, "Sicut Judads,"
      etc.). Centuries later his polic}' toward the Jews
      was still designated as the standard (Jaffe, " Biblio-
      theoa Rerum Germanaruin," p. 338).

      Bibliography: Orennrii I. Pajxr liedistnun Epu^tnlarum,
      eel. EvvalJ and Hartmann (Miinumcnta Oerm. fl/.sdir. :
      Epistnia', i.. ii.); Gregory's works Sq Migne, Patrohigkv
      Curatis Complelus, Latin Series, lxxv.-I.\xi.\.: Wiggei-s, De
      Gregorio ilaynn, 1838-40; I,au, Grc(i'>r I. 184.5; Pfablcr,
      Greunr (Ur ^;rn.s.<:c und Seine Zeit, 18")2: Baxniann. Die
      PiWidVf cJcr P<V(K(i-, ISiis. vol. i.; Plnfrautl. Ln Putitiiiurile
      St. Gn'-ooirc If tiratid. is::.'; chuisicr, St. fwn'nitire if Grand,
      1.^7: Voffclsteiii and Rigger. Grsch. ilir .Juden in Rom, i.
      133; (irisar, Gesch. Horns ttnd des Papsttnnis, Ithll, vol. i.
      o. H. V.

      PAGNI): Pope from l."i72 toi:i85; born ut Bo-
      logna Feb. 7, 1502; died at Rome April 10, 1585.
      His attitude toward the .lews was that of a man
      possessed of natural goodness warped by strong
      feelings of intolerance and fanaticism. Soon after
      his election Gregory, in spite of ecclesiastical oppo-
      sition, allowed the Jews to return to Venais.sin, from
      which they had been banished by a decree issued




      Feb. 26, 1569. Like Paul IIL. Gregory gnuitcil
      (15S1) safe-conduct to Jews traveling through Italy ;
      he also repealed the prohibition against interest. Hy
      a writ issued Jan. 10, l")"", he contirtned tlie regula-
      tions of Cleincint VII. which organized the eonunu-
      uity under a eoiincil of sixty, and he sanetioned a
      system of communal ta.\ation by which each mem-
      ber was assessed according to the degree of his

      Gregory, however, was the autlior of a series of
      bulls and ordinances of the most hostile character.
      He compelled (Sept. 4, 1578) the Jews of Rome to
      contribute 1,100 scudi toward the maintenance of
      tlie Casa dei Cateciuneni (Home for Converts to
      Christianity); renewed (1581) the prohibition against
      the attendance of Jewisli physicians upon Chris-
      tian patients; ordered (1581) the surrender to the in-
      quisitors of all copies of the Talmud; and com-
      manded (1584) all Jews to listen every Saturday in
      their synagogues to the sermons of missionaries.

      BiBLiOfiRAPHT: &tem,Url:undlicheBeUr<'wcznrfilcUuno(lir
      P('(p>:fe, etc., p. 15;3; GrJitz, Gf-seft. i.x. 4(m: Berliner. G€s<'li.
      der Juden in Rom. ii. 17 ; Vogelstein and Rieger. Gesch. dcr
      Juden in limn. ii. Iti9.
      D. I. Bu.

      GREGORY BAR HEBR-S:US ("son of a He
      brew "), ABU AL-FARAJ IBN HARUN : Jaco-
      bite Syrian historian, pliysician, pliilosopher, and the-
      ologian; born at Malatia, Asiatic Turkey, 1226; died
      at Maragha, Persia, 1286. Gregory tirststudied med-
      icine under his father, Aaron, a Jewish physician
      who embraced Christianity ; he then devoted himself
      to theology and philosophy, at the same time study-
      ing other sciences. He was successively Bishop of
      Guba (1246), of Lakaba (1247), and of Aleppo (1253).
      In 1264 lie was named "mafriana," or "primate," of
      the eastern Jacobites, with his seat at Tckrit on
      the Tigris. It does not appear that, beyond his
      surname, Gregory showed any traces of his Jewish
      origin; even his works (thirty -one) give no proof that,
      though master of S3'riac, Arabic, and perhaps of
      Greek, he had ever studied Hebrew. On the con-
      trary, in the beginning of his chronicle he ascribes
      to such Biblical names as Noah, Jacob, etc., a Syriac
      origin. Nor is there anything to show that his
      studies were pursued under Jewish influence, though
      he did not entirely ignore Jewisli doctrines.

      Gregory was a prolilic writer on theology, phi-
      losophy, ethics, history, grammar, medicine, mathe-
      matics, and astronomy. He was also a poet. Some
      of his works were written in Arabic, but most of them
      in S3M-iac. He was the last great Syriac writer,
      though he is important rather as a collector than as
      an independent writer. He is best known for his
      Syriac grammar (" Ketaba de Semhe ") ; his " Chroni-
      cle," in two parts, ecclesiastical and political; his
      "Menarat Kudshe," a compendium of theology,
      philosophy, medicine, physics, and metaphysics;
      and his scholia on the Old and the New Testa-
      ment ("Auzar Raze "). In the last-named he occa-
      sionally cites readings from the Samaritan te.xt; it is
      interesting to note that in a scholium to II Kings
      xvii. 28 he says: "The law [i.e.. text of the Penta-
      teuch] of the Samaritans does not agree with that of
      the Jews, but with the Septuagint." He occasion-
      ally cites opinions of Jews, but probably only at

      second hand {e.i;.. to Ps. viii. 2, on the "Shem lia-
      .Meforash"; comp. "Z. D. M. G." xxxii. 465). In
      the introduction to his commentary on Job he men-
      tions as a writer the priest Asaph (brother of Ezra
      tlie Scribe), who identities Job with Jobiih. In speak-
      ing of th(! apocryplialaccount of the ilcath of Isaiah,
      he cites "one of the Hebrew books" as authority
      (Nestle, "Marginalien," ii. 4S).

      liini.iOdRAPiiY: Asseniani, TSUilinlhrca Orieiilalia. 11. 244-
      ;l;JO : Klltr. Ilore. in .hiumat Asittluinr, '.id scries, vol. xiv.,

      . pp. tSl-rillR; K. OoUlicil, in Ilihmiai, iii. ;;i'.) ;;.-)l ; Nolrtckc.
      tJric.ntidi.iihi- .^kizzm, pp. S-Vicf.vcij., liwlin. \K'.H: J. (iijtts-
      lierper. liufiiilirtt it^^ nnd Siini- .^^ilioln-n. Fn'ilmtfcr-im-lireis-
      gau, l'.«KI; iind tlii' litcmuiri' ciicd in [invul, Litli'iature
      Si/rinqui:. p. -UfJ and pnssim, I'aris, IR!W.

      JI. Sei,.— G.

      GRENOBLE (sSmnj): Capital of the depart-
      ment of Iscie, France. It posses.sed a Jewish com-
      munity from the end of the thirteenth century.
      Jacob ben Solomon, a Grenoble Jew (Zunz, "Z. G."
      p. 208, erroneously calls him " Isaac "), died a mar-
      tyr to his faith in 1296.

      When the Jews were driven out of France (1306)
      by Philippe le Bel, a certain number of them fled
      to Grenoble, where they were hospitably received by
      the dauphin Humbert I., who allowed them to es-
      tablish banking-hou.ses there. Two of them espe-
      cially', Amyal of Tours and Morel of Amboise, ob-
      tained important privileges on payingan annual tax
      of 10 livres. In 1388, in conseijuence of numerous
      accusations against the Jewish bankers of the ri'gion
      addressed to the governor of the Dauphine, ;ill the
      Jews of the province were called together at Greno-
      ble, and on their refusal to comply with this sum-
      mons the dauphin condemned each of them to pay a
      silver mark anuuan3-. Further, he imposed a line
      of 10,000 francs on all the Jews, for the paj-ment of
      which the " maistre de la loy," Rabbi Samuel, ad-
      dressed an urgent appeal to all the Jewish bankers
      of the Dauphine. Among the most important of
      these were Moses Aaron and Samson of Yenne, resi-
      dents of Grenoble. In 1396, duiing the dauphinal
      council at Grenoble, a crimiuiil suit was instituted
      against three youths, Samson of Jerusalem, Crescent
      of Voiron, and Perret Levi, who were accused of
      having committed a crime against a Christian and of
      having blasphemed Jesus. Tlic^y were condemned
      to pay a tine of 200 francs in gold.

      On March 4, 1413, at the request of the states
      general of the province, the council decided that
      Jews should be obliged to keep their places of wor-
      ship, their ovens, their wells, and their markets
      separate from those of the Christians. In addition,
      the men were required to wear as a badge a round
      piece of variegated cloth, placed upon the outer gar-
      ment at the chest, and the women to put a dis-
      tinctive token in their heiid-dress. It was forbid-
      den for either men or women to appear in public
      or to keep their doors and windows open on Pas-
      sion Sunday or during Holy Week; and they were
      not allowed to employ Christian .servants.

      During the reign of Charles VII. the Jews of
      Grenoble and its environs were accused of having
      associated with the enemies of the dauphin during
      his exile and of having used disrespectful language
      concerning him. Tliey were therefore condemned
      by him to pay a tine of 1,500 crowns in gold. It was




      at this period that tlie Jews left Grenoble delini-
      tively. Only a few Israelite families now reside
      there (1903).'

      Bibuography: Viillioniiis. Hlstnirc dii Dmipliini, 1., II.;
      Prouves, No. lol ; Untimiiancfs de^i lioin dc France,
      xi.; I'rudhomme, LaJuifsen Daupliine. pp. 12,.'jl.r)4, ."..S;
      Deppinp, I^os Juifs ilans 1e Mntim ^If/c, pp. Iii3 and Iftti;
      j;. 10. J. iK. 23'J, 'ZM, 2.>6, aiO, 301 ; (iross, (lallia Judaira.
      p. 143.
      G. R. K.


      Polisli-IIuii_;;aiiuii rubbi at Pal^.s, Hungary ; born at
      Cracow. He was tlie author of "^lakkel No'ain "
      (Vienna, 171)9), in whieh lie sharply criticized Aaron
      CiioiiiN for declaring the sturgeon permissible food.

      niBLioGRAPiiY : Low, Gcfiammdte Scliriftcii, ii. 263-2i')T ;
      Schreiber, lirfaniiccl Jailiiisnu pp. 08-70; FiirsU Bibl. Jiid.
      1. MS ; Zeitim, ISdA. Put,t-Mendcls. p. 57.
      D. R. IMan.

      VICH: Kussian engraver; born at Wilna IS.'i'i ;
      educated at the Wilna rabbinical school; grad\i-
      ated from the Wihia School of Designs in 1809, and
      from the St. Petersburg Academy of Fine Ans in
      187G, when he was appointed engraver to the Impe-
      rial Mint. He became a noted medalist. Among the
      medals he engraved may be mentioned those in com-
      memoration of the deaths of Alexandra Feodorovna
      and Emperor Alexander II., the jubilee of Duke
      Nicholas Leuchtenljcrg, the catastrophe at the rail-
      road station of IJorki, Oct. 17, 1888, and the 200th
      anniversary of the 6jth Infantry Regiment of 5Ios-

      Griliches produced on onj'x portraits of Baron
      Horace Giinzburg, tlie Grand Duke Vladimir, the
      Grand Ducliess Alexandra Georgievna, the Emperor
      Nicholas II., Queen Louise of Denmark, Empress
      Alexandra Feodorovna, anil Emperor Alexander II.
      His exhibits were awarded a gold medal at the Paris
      Exposition of I'JOO. He now (1903) holds the posi-
      tion of senior engraver to the Imperial Mint with the
      rank of aulic councilor. H. R.


      Russian engraver; father of irVbraham Aveni'rovicli
      Griliches; born at Wilna April, 1823. Until the age
      of sixteen he studied the Talmud, and later, without
      the aid of a teacher, became an engraver. In 1871 he
      was employed as an engraver by the Imperial Mint
      of St. Petersburg; three years later his portrait of
      Leveusolm, engraved on rc)ck-cr3-stal, won him a
      nomination to tlie St. Petersburg Academy of Fine
      Arts; in the same year he was appointed engraver to
      the Imperial Mint. He soon gained a wide reputa-
      tion, and is now considered one of the best engravers
      in Russia. Among his engravings may be mentioned
      the state seals of the emperors Alexander HI. and
      Nicholas II.

      Avenir holds the rank of court councilor, and was
      decorated with the Order of St. Stanislas, second
      class. II. R.

      GRODNO: Russian city; capital of the govern-
      ment of tlie same name; formerly one of the chief
      cities of Lithuania and, later, of Poland. It had a Jew-
      ish community about the middle of the fourteenth
      century, for in the "Privilege" granted to the .lews
      of Grodno by Grand Duke Vitold of Lithuania, dated

      Lutsk, June 18, 1389 (document No. 2 in Bersliad-
      ski's "Russko-Yevreiski Arkhiv"), it is seen that
      the Jews occupied at that time a considerable area
      in the city, that they owned land and houses, and
      had a synagogue and a cemetery. This important
      document, which was later confirmed by Sigismund
      August (1547). by John Casimir (105o), and by Stan-
      islas August Poniatowski (178.")), is, with one excep-
      tion, the oldest one extant relating to the history of
      the Jews in Lithuania. It confirms the Jews in all
      their possessions and rights; permits tliem to engage
      in all business pursuits and occupations; exempts
      the synagogue and the cemetery from taxation ; and
      ends by conferring on the Jews "all rights, liberties,
      and privileges given to our Jews of Brest " in the pre-
      ceding year. The Jews, who were thus practically
      enjoying equal rights with the other inhabitants,
      apparently lived undisturbed, even after Casimir
      Jagellon in 1444 granted the city its independence
      in the form of the "JIagdeburg Law." Jews
      continued to farm the taxes and to own real estate
      until their unexpected expulsion by Alexander Ja-
      gellon in 1495.

      The estates and houses owned by Jews were then
      given bj' the grand duke to his favorites, but they
      were soon reclaimed. The decree issued by Alexan-
      der Jagellon when he became King of Poland, per-
      mitting the Jews to return to Lithuania, is dated
      March 22, 1503. It is Issued to two
      Expulsion Jews from Grodno, Lazar Moisheye-
      and vich (styled "our factor") and Isa.ac

      Return. Faishevich, and permits all Jews ulio
      had been ex|ielled to return to Grodno
      and once again enter into possession of their estates
      ((4. No. 39). A decree by Alexander, dated April,
      1503, in which the Jews of Grodno are especially
      mentioned, again orders that everything formerly
      belonging to Jews which had been sequestrated lor
      gifts must be returned to them, and tliat all the
      debts owing to them must be paid; and four years
      later (Nov. 3, 1507; ib. No. 50) an edict again decrees
      that whatever belonged to the Jews of Grodno be-
      fore their expulsion must be returned to tliem. In
      1525 the king confirmed the right of JudaU Bogdano-
      vich to land in the district of Grodno which his
      father Bogdan had acquired before tlie expulsion.
      The same subject is referred to in another document
      (ib. Nos. 94, 100).

      In a decision rendered by Queen Bona (Sforza),
      dated May 22. 1549, the following regulations, modi-
      fying and defining the rights of llie Jewish commu-
      nity of Grodno, are introduced; (1) Jews are to pa}-
      17 per cent of the taxes the government assessed
      against the city ; (2) they are freed from some spe-
      cial taxes paid in kind ; (3) houses and lands for-
      merly bought by Jews from citizens are freed from
      citizens' laxes; those bought by citizens from Jews
      are freed from Jewish taxes. But thenceforth no
      Jew m;iy buy a house from a citizen without spe-
      cial royal permission (ib. No. 352).

      Tli(? first rabbi and the first quarrel in the com-
      munily of Grodno date from the year 1549. It
      seems that the ir.tluenfial .ludich family had forced
      on the community as rabbi a relative of the name
      of Mordeeai. Queen Bona, on Oct. 28 of that year,
      ordered her governor Kimbar to assemble the Jews




      of Grodno lo elect ii rabbi who was uo rolativi^ to

      the Judicbs, ami dccrccil that in case tins could not

      be done wilbout opposition, the op-

      The First pouents of tlie Judicbs were to elect

      Rabbi. a separate rabbi wilb the same rights
      and privileges as enjoyed by llie one
      chosen by that faniil_v. Another decree, dated Nov.
      8 of that year, deals with the tro.uble caused because
      the Jews would notperniil Habbi Mordecai to oMici-
      ale in the synagogue (ib. Nos. SoH-iJ.M). Tlie name
      of Rabbi Jloses b. Aaron, Mordecai's rival, has also
      been preserved.

      -Vfter the Union of Lublin (I."i(!!)), when Lithuania
      b<'canie part of Poland, (Jrodno shared the general de-
      cline of that unliappy kingihjin. It (iourislied again
      under King Stephen Bathori (15T0-y6), who was the
      friend of the Jews who resided there; and the great
      synagogue, which was destroyed by tire Aug. 3,
      1599, was erected at that period. The arrival of
      the Jesuits in 1610 marks the beginning of oppress-
      ive measures and exactions, and fre(iuent rccur-
      rencesof blood accusations. Groduo was saved from
      the devastation and massacres of the tirst Cossack
      war ia 1C48-49, but suffered terribly in ICiS, when
      it was taken by the Russians and held two years;
      and its lot was not improved during the four years
      following, when it was held by the Swedes. The
      community was impoverished and sunk heavily in
      debt, from which it has not been freed oven to this
      day^. From 1703 to ITOS Grodno was held by Charles
      XII. of Sweden, and the Jews suffered as they al-
      ways suffered in times of war and disord<'r. Jews
      did not share in the benefit Grodno derived from the
      administration of the starost Anton Tiesenhaus
      (1763-8.5), who made an effort tovevive the commerce
      and industry of the decaying city. He was hostile
      to the Jews, and wiien lie became bankrupt his in-
      debtedness to the .Jewish community, representing
      only a part of the money which he had extorted
      from it, was declared by a court to be over 31,000
      rubles. Two of his estates in the district of Pinsk
      were given to the "kahal" of Grodno in lieu of tlie
      debt, but they were confiscated on a technicality by
      the Russian government in 179.5.

      The last tragedy in Grodno of which there is
      record occurred on the second day of Pentecost,
      May 20, 1790, when Eleazarb. Solomon of Wirballen
      was quartered for the alleged murder of a Christian
      girl. The king refused to sign the death-warrant,
      being convinced of the man's iuno-

      Blurder cence. but could not prevent the ex-
      Ac- ecution. A ritual murder trial is also
      cusations. known to have occurred there in 1S20,
      but the details have not been pre-
      served. Grodno came under the dominion of Rus-
      sia in 1795. The most important event in its recent
      history is the disastrous conllagration of 1885, when
      about half of the city was destroyed.

      A complete list of the Jewish inhabitants of
      Grodno in 1560 is reproduced in the above-mentioned
      " Arkhiv " (ii.). It includes the names of about sixty
      Jews, who lived mostly in the "Jewish street" and
      in the "Jewish School street." It also gives the loca-
      tion of the Jewish hospital, which was then on " Ple-
      banski street." The total number of houses in
      Grodno at that time was 543; if figured at one fam-

      ily for each house, this would make the Jewish pop-
      ulation about 10 per cent of the inhabitants. The
      "Russian Encyclopedia " (.<.('.), which gives feu- the
      second half of the sixteenth century 5(i Jewish
      liouses out of a total of 712. makes the proportion
      still smaller. 15iit the Jewish population increasc'd
      in the following two centuries nuieh faster than the
      Christian, and of the 4,000 inliabitanis in 1793 a
      majority weie Jews. The incre.-ise went on under
      Russian rule, and in 1816 the city had ^A'~i Jewish,
      and only 1,451 non-Jewish, inhabitants. In 1890
      there were 29,779 Jews in a total iiopiilation of 49,-
      952, and in 1897 about 25,000 Jews in a total pop-
      ulation of 4(5,871.

      Tlie r;il)l)in;ile "t (Jrotlno w;is ne.\t in iniport;ince to Hint of
      nrest-I.itovslv, and in tlie rwionls uf Uw i-iiniull of l.iilmiinia
      tbe rabbi of Brosl-I.itovsk always signed llrsi and iln' nilibl

      of (irndiu) second, Uabbis Mordecai and
      Rabbis. Moses ben Aaron, wlio are liiiuun only

      tliiongli rei-(.)ols of lit lmUoii, were followed
      by an eminent ralibmieal autliurily. Natlian Spira Ash-
      kenazi (d. l.jrT), aiiUior i)f " Mc-bo Sli.-'arini." He was sue-
      iiM'iled by Mordecai Jaffa, anUior of tin: " Lebushhii," who
      is known tti have been in (irodno diirini^ the reijj:ii of Stephen
      Bathori. When be left (irodno is not known, and the dale of
      the rabbinate of his successor. JuJah, who is known only
      from the mention made of him in eonteniponiry res[n)iisa. is also
      some\yhat uncertain. The next rabbi was Ephraim Solo-
      mon Shor, author of "Tehn'ot Shoi" (d. Idti. lie wa^ sue.
      ceided by Abraliam b. Meir ha-Levi Epstein, who left
      (;rndno in h'i'A to become rabbi of llicst-Litoysk. Isaac b,
      Abraham is known t" have been rabbi of Grodno in lti.j4-44,
      but part of that tune Joshua b. Joseph, author of " Maginne
      Shelomoh," later of Leinberg and (raeow, was also in (irodno,
      before he went to Tikotzyn. Jonah b. Isaiah Teomim,
      author of "f<ikayon de-Yonah." was rabbi lu loit .>:>. when
      he left Poland, dying in Metz in IGli'J, aged ?:!. Moses Spira,
      son of R. Nathan, author of "Megalleli 'Aiuukoi," and u'reat-
      grandson of the above-named Nathan Spira, was rabia ;ifter
      l(j5.5, and Judah b. Benjamin Wolf of Troppau held
      that position about 1IJIJ4. JSaika b. Samuel Hurwitz was
      rabbi from ItiBT to 167a, and was follmvi'd by Moses Zebi,
      author of "Tiferet le-Mosheh," who dieii in lijsl. His suc-
      cessor. Mordecai Siisskind Rothenberg-, remained in
      (iroiino until lilbl. when he went to Luiilin. Simhah b.
      Nahman Rapoport, formerly of Dubno. who succeetled
      Mtjrileeai, held the position for nearly a quarter of a century
      until he too became rabbi of IjUblin (about 1714). Baruch
      Kahana Rapoport was called from Fiirth to assume the
      rabbinate of (irodno, but he preferred the "small ralibinate"
      of the (ierman town and soon returned there. Aiyeh liob
      b. Nathan Nata of Slutsk (d. W.^.n became rabbi of
      tirndii" in 17^1. and was succeeiled by his son Zechariah
      Mendel (d. 174li, ageil ;»). Jehiel Marg-aliot Id. ll.'ili,
      a disciple of Israel Ri'al Shem. became rabiri. He wa,s followed
      by Moses Joshua Hui-witz. The hitter's successor, Ben-
      jamin Braudo (Broda) id. 18:8, aged 7111. was tbe last
      rabbi lit (irodno. the olllce being then abolkshed. as was the
      case in Wilna, as the result of quarrels between two factions of
      the cominimity.

      Among the rabbinical scholars and other eminent
      Jews of Grodno were; Elhanan Bei liner, who corre-
      sponded with Zebi Ashkenazi early in the eighteenth
      century; Elisha b. Abraham, jiuthor of " Kab we-
      Naki." on the iMishnah, and of " I'i Shenayim," on
      Zera'iiji, who died at an advanced age in 1749;
      Alexander Stisskind, the author of "Yesod we-Sho-
      resh ha-'Abodah"; Daniel b. Jacob, who wasaday-
      yau or " luoreh zedek " for forty years, and died in

      1807; J(yse)ih Jozel Rubiiiovich, phy-

      Scholars, sician ;ind favorite of King Poniatow-

      etc. ski, died 1810; Simhah b. IMordecai,

      who was head of ayesliibah and died
      in 1813; his son Hillel, who was a son-in-law of R.
      Hayyim of Volozhin and died in 1833; Tanhtim, the
      son of Rabbi Eliezer of Uile. who was a candidate




      for the rabbinate, was "rosli bet-din." and became
      the rival to some extent of R. Benjamin Brando,
      mentioned above; Ids name is signed first on the
      record of the convention held in Wilna in 1818 for
      the purpose of selecting delegates to St. Petersburg ;
      Suudel Sonenberg, head of the delegation referred to
      above, died 1853; Jacob b. Moses Frumkin, died in
      Grodno 1873, Eliezer Bregman and his son Shab
      bethai are among the prominent citizens of Grodno,
      as are the Epsteins, the Neches, and the Hatners.

      The best-known Hebrew writers in the city of
      Grodno were: Meir Ostriuski, Menaliem Bendetsou,
      Israel David Miller, Abraham Shalom Friedberg,
      the poet Is.sacliar Baer Ilurwitz, Samuel Yevnin.
      Isaac Andres, Simon Friedenstein (the historian of
      the Grodno community), and Hirsch Ratner. Hur-
      witz, the translator of the Siddur into Russian, was
      the city's " government rabbi " in the seventies. He
      was succeeded by Moses Kotkind, who in his turn
      was followed by Shemariah Lewin. Among the five
      "more hora'ah," R. Eliakim Shapira, and R. Wolf,
      a son-in-law of R. Nahum, are the best known.

      The Jewish community of Grodno is one of the
      poorest in Russia. There is little industry, and a
      large percentage of the business establishments is
      comlucted by women. It has the usual number of
      educational and charitable institutions, two Tal-
      mud Torahs (the older one having a trade-school as
      an adjunct), a gemilut hasadim, a " Volkskiiche" for
      the poor, and a similar institution to provide kasher
      food for Jewish soldiers. There is also an f)lder
      trade-school founded by Samuel Lapin. In addition
      to the government school there are (1903) an excel-
      lent private school conducted by B. Shapira, and a
      modern heder founded by the Zionists, who have re-
      cently developed great activity in communal work.
      Typography : Baruch b. Menahem, a book-
      dealer, established a Hebrew printing-press in
      Grodno, the first in Lithuania, in 1789. Ten years
      later he removed to Wilna, where he died in 1803.
      The establishment was inherited by his son Mena-
      hem ]\Ian Ronun, who in ISSo commenced, in part-
      nersliip with Simhah Zimmel of Grodno, to publish
      a new edition of the Talmud, The first few volumes
      bear the imprint of Wilua-Grodno, but in 1837 the
      business was removed to Wilna, and, under the man-
      agement of tlie Ro.MM family, became one of the
      largest of its kind in the world. P, Wi.

      The following is a list of the Jewish agricultural
      coloniesin the government of Grodno, from "Selsko-
      Khazaistvenny Kalendar Dlya Yevreyev Kolonis-
      tov" (ii, 281, Wilna, 1902):







      Name of







      • Hlolsk










      d t

































      M. R.

      Population by Districts op the Goveunment
      OP Ghodno (Census 1897).




















      V, R.

      Bini.iO(;RAPHT: Bershadski, Busukii-YeA^reWii ,4rWuD,' St.
      ivtereburg, 1882; EntzikhrpcrlicheuM Slnvar; Friedenstein,
      '/;■ (iililKn-im. Wilna, M^m; idem, inKenesrt lia-diilnlnh, li,
      12.5-127, iii. 66-69 ; Hurwitz, Itdiiihol 'Ir (crltirisni of Frieden-
      stein, based on revinw m IJriilf's Jahrh. vii. l.'^2-18:J}, Wilna^
      1890 ; Ha-Shfihar, No, 5. pp. 268 et xeq.: Ha-Meliz. 1S79, No.
      42; Ha-Zetirah, 1899, Nos. 166, 167; 1900, No. 143, '

      II. I! P. Wl.

      GRONEMANN, SELIG : German rabbi ; born
      at Flijtenstein. West Pru.ssia, Dec. 7, 1843; attended
      the gymnasium at Kouitz and the seminary and
      university at Breslau ; became ralibi at Strasburg
      (1872) and at Danzig (1878), and district rabbi of Han-
      over (1884). His works include: "Do Profiafii
      Durani (Ephodwi) Vita et Studiis," inaugural dis-
      sertation (I3reslau, 18fi9); "Die Jonathan 'sche Pen-
      tateuchiibersetzimg in Ihrem Verhaltnisse zur Ha-
      lacha" (Leipsic, "l879); "Zibl.ie Shelamin : Die
      Vorschriften fiber das Schiichten und die Untersuch-
      ung der Lunge von R. Jakob Beck, Neu Heratis-
      gegeben, Durch Zusiitze Erg^nzt und mit einer
      Deutschen Bearbeitung Versehen " (Frankfort-on-
      the-Main, 1899). He also contributed to Frankel's
      " Monatsschrift " and Rahmer's " Familienblatt, " and
      published some sermons in the hitter's "Predigt-
      Ma.gazin," Gronemann is(1903) a member of the Cen-
      tral Committee of the German Zionist or.ganization,

      G. ' M. K.

      GROSS, CHARLES : American author ; born
      at Troy, N, Y., Feb. 10, 1857; educated at the Troy
      High School ; at Williams College, from which he
      received the degree of M.A. ; and at the universities
      of Paris, Berlin, and Gottingen, receiving from the
      last-named the Ph.D. degree for his study on the
      "Gilda Mercatoria." He is also an lionorary M.A.
      of Harvard, in which university he has held a pro-
      fessorship of history since 1888. Gross has shown
      great originality and industry as an investigator in
      medieval and English history, in which field he has
      written the following: "Gild Merchant," 2 vols.,
      1890; "Select Cases from the Coroners' Rolls," 1896
      (for the Selden Society); " Bibliograplij' of British
      Municipal History," 1897;
      of English Ilistoi-y," 1900
      the Ballot in England," in "Political Science Quar
      terly,"1898; "Modes of Trial in the Medieval Bor-
      oughsof England " (Harvard Law Series, May, 1902),
      Gross lectured at the Anglo-Jewish Exliiliition of
      1887 on "Exchequer of the Jews in England in the
      Middle A.ges," this lecture being a valuable contri-
      bution both to English and to Jewish history. He
      translated inio English Kayserling's "Christopher

      Sources and Literature
      " The Early History of




      Coltimbus," New York, 1893. He is a vice-presi-
      dent of tlie American Jewisli Historical Society, and
      a member of tlie piililication committee of tlie Jew-
      ish Publication Society of America.

      Bihi,[oi:rai'ht: Ihirvnrd (Iraduates^ Magazine, x. 1G9;
      jr/io'a Who in Amcrk-a, s.v.


      GROSS, FERDINAND: Austrian writer; born
      in Vienna April .s, isii); died at Kaltenleutgeben,
      near Vienna. Dec. 21, 1900. His ancestors lived
      in Italy ; his father emigrated from Padua to Hun-
      gary, and went from there to Vienna. Ferdinand
      began his literary activit.v wlien a boy of fifteen. He
      joined the editorial staff "of the " Extrablatt " in 1873,
      and in 1877 won the first prize of the Berliner Lite-
      rarisches Centralbureau for his feuilleton "Littc-
      rarische Zukunftsmusik." In 1879 he went toFrank-
      fort-on-the-Main to become feuilleton editor of the
      "Frankfurter Zeitung." In 1881 Gross returned to
      Vienna and joined the editorial staff of the " Wiener
      Allgemeine Zeitung." For a time he was the feuil-
      letonist of the "Neue Wiener Tageblatt," and ed-
      itor of the "E.xtra- Post." He was president of the
      Concordia, an association of Vienna journalists, from
      1898 until 1900. Among his works are the follow-
      ing: "Geheimnisse," one-act comedietta, Vienna,
      1877; "Kleine IMiinze," sketches. Breslau, 1878;
      "Obcrammergauer Passionsbriefc," 2'S. 1880, new ed.
      1900; "Nichtig und Flilchtig," sketches, Leipsic,
      1880; "Die Neuen Journalisten," comedy, with Max
      Nordau, Leipsic.1880; " j\Iit dem Bleistift," sketches,
      Breslau. 1881; " Der Erste Brief," comedy, Vienna,
      1883; "HeutuudGostern " and " Aus der Bi'icherei,"
      Vienna, 1888; "Blatter im AVinde," Vienna, 1884 (M
      cd., 1888); "Aus Mcinem Wiener Winkcl." Leipsic,
      188.i; " Liederaus dem Gebirge," Vienna, 1880; "Lit-
      terarischeModellc." Berlin, 1887; "Gedichte," 1887;
      " Goethe's Werther in Frankreich " ; " Was die Bi'ich-
      erei Erzahlt," Leipsic, 1889 ; " Zum Nachtisch," Leip-
      sic, 1889. In 1891 Gross began his editorial connection
      with the "Wiener Fremdenblatt," and on Dec. 21 of
      the .same year his adaptation of Daiidet's " L'Obsta-
      cle" was produced at the Hofburg Theater. In
      1892 another collection of stories and sketches, " Im
      Vorbeigehen," was published at Leipsic, and his
      drama, "Um Drei Uhr," was produced. His later
      works are: " Augenblicksbilder " and "Ungebun-
      den," Vienna. 1895; "Biiltterim Walde," Leipsic,
      1896; '■ Wer 1st Frei von Selmld?" (one-act sketch),
      189fi; "In Lachen und Lacheln," Stuttgart, 1898;
      "Von den Leichten Seiten," Leipsic, 1900.

      BiBLiOGR.iPHY : Eisenberg, Das Gcistige Wien, s.v.; Jfei/O'S
      s. M. Co.

      GROSS, HEINRICH : German ral)hi ; born at
      Szenicz, Himgarj-, Nov. 6, 183.j; pupil in rabbin-
      ical literature of Judah Aszod. After graduating
      from the Breslau seniinarj' and from the University
      of Halle (Ph.D. 1866; his thesis on Leibnitz obtain-
      ing the university prize), he was engaged as private
      teacher by Baron Horace Giinzburg at Paris. Dur-
      ing a residence of two years in that city Gross col-
      lected in the Bibliotbeque Nationalc the material for
      his great work " Gallia Judaica." In 1869 lie went to
      Berlin, where he associated much with Zunz, who.se
      methods of research lie admired and adopted. In

      1870 he was called to the rabbinate of GrossStrelitz,
      Silesia; and since 1875 he lias occupied the ral)binate
      of Augsburg.

      Gross's activity in the domain of literary history,
      especially of that of the French Jews of the Middle
      Ages, has been very extensive. His "Gallia Ju-
      daica" (Paris, 1897), which deals with the medieval
      geography and literary history of the Jews of
      France, has become a standard work. Gio.ss has
      also enriched the Jewish seicntitic periodicals with
      many valuable contributions, which of themselves
      constitute important works. Of theses the most note
      worthy are: "Abraham ben David aus Pi)S()uieres,
      ein Literarhistorischer Versueh,'' in " ^lonatssehrift,"
      1873-74; "Zur Gesch. der Juden in Aries," ih. 1878,
      1879, 1880; " Eliezer ben Joel ha-Levi, ein Literar-
      historischer Versueh," j'i. 1885, 1886; "Jehudah Sir
      Leon aus Paris: Aualekten." in"Magazin," 1S77,
      1878, iv. 174, V. 179; "Etude sur Siinson ben Abra-
      ham de Sens," in "R. E. J." 1883.

      Gross is also the author of "Lehrbuch der Israe-
      liti-schen Religion fi'ir die Oberen Klassen der .Mittel-

      s. I. Bk.

      GROSS, JENNY: Austrian actress; liorn at
      Szanto, Hungaiy. Educated for the stage by Ce.sa-
      rina Kupfer, she made her debut in 1878 at the Carl-
      theater at Vienna; in 1880 she appeared at the
      Stadttheater, and in 1885 at the Berlin court theater,
      from which she went in 1889 to the Lessings Thea-
      ter, where she is at present (1903) engaged. Her
      rolesinchide: Madame Sdim Gene, Kanitcinie Giickcrl,
      Js'iohe, JoscpJiine, Sonja in " Raskolnikow." Wolfgnn;/
      in "KiJnigsleutnant," Jeanne in "Die Welt in der
      jNIan sieh Langweilt." Marianne in "Die Gesehwis-
      ter," Emire in "Tartlille," and the well-known
      women in Shakespeare.

      niHi.ioiiRAPHV: Eiseuherfr, B'ut{i. Lii.
      s. F. T. H.

      GROSS-KANIZSA. See Nagt-Kanizs.\.

      GROSSER, JULIUS : German physician ; born
      at Freistadt, Prussian Silesia, Oct. 25, 1835: died at
      Prenzlau, Prussia. Oct. 25, 1901. He studied at the
      University of Berlin, where he graduated in 18.59 as
      doctor of medicine. In 1861 he established a prac-
      tise in Prenzlau. He served through the Franco-
      Prussiau war in the capacity of surgeon, and was
      decorated with the Iron Cross. In 1880 he founded
      the "Deutsche Medizinal-Zeitung." which he edited
      until his death, contributing many articles to this
      and other medical journals.
      BiBLiociRAPUT: Paget, Biog. Lex. s.v.. Vieuna, inni.

      s. F. T. H.

      GROSSMAN, RUDOLPH: American rabbi;
      born at Vienna, Austria, July 24, 1867; B.L., Uni-
      versity of Cincinnati, Ohio, and Rabbi and D.D., He-
      brew Union College, Cincinnati. Grossman was as-
      sociate rabbi of Temple Beth-El, New York, from
      1889 to 1«)0, and since the latter year he has been
      rabbi of Temple Rodef Sholoin. in the same city.
      He was corresponding secretary of the Central Con-
      ference of American Rabbis (1902), and has written
      a number of essays for Jewi.sh and other magazines.
      He was grand chaplain of the grand lodge of the
      Masonic Order, New York (1898-1900). A.




      GROSSMANN, IGNACZ: Hungarian physi-
      cist; born in Goncz-Kus/,ku, AbauJ county, Fub. IG,
      18i3; died in Budapest May 21, 180G, Hu attended
      tlie University of Prague, devoting himself espe-
      cially to mathematics and pedagogics. From 1847
      to 1851 he was a teaclier in Gy or-Sziget ; for the two
      following years he attended the Josef technical
      school in Budapest, and in 1834 he was appointed
      principal of the girls' school of the Pester Israelitischc

      In 1857 Grossmann was called to a professorship
      in the commercial school, where he remained until
      18(i2. when he was made engineer of the Pest-Losoncz-
      Zolyom Railroad ('ompauy. Grossmann was the
      actual inventor of the mercurial pneumatic pump.
      In 1854 he discovered a new method of gasometer
      constructicm. He wrote "Ftihrer in dcr Geometri-
      schen Analyse der Krystallographie," Leipsic, 1857.

      B. M. W.

      GROSSMANN, IGNAZ : American rabbi;
      born at Trencseu, Hungary, July HO, 1825; died
      March 18, 1897, in New Ycn-k city. He received his
      educatiou at the yesliibah of Presburg, and in 18(53
      was called as rabbi to Koritschan, Moravia, which
      position he in 18GG changed for that at Warasdin,
      Croatia. In 1873 he was called to Brooklyn, N. Y.,
      where he olhciated in the Congregation Beth Elo-
      Iiim, and later in the C'ougregalion B'uai Abraliam.
      He wrote: " Drei Predigten," Warasdin, 18C8; "Die
      Sprache der Wahrlicit," «A. 1870; "Jlikraot Ketan-
      not," Cincinnali, 18!t2. The lastwork is a presenta-
      tion of the G13 conniiandmcnts with tlieir Biblical
      bases, their rabbinical definitions, and their moral
      Icsson.s. He also contributed very frequently to
      "Deborah." Of his sons, Louis Grossmann, in Cin-
      cinnati, Ohio; Rudolph Grossman, in New York
      city; and Julius Grossmann, inlpolysagh, Hungary,
      are rabbis.

      Bibliography : Deborah, April 1, 1897.

      B. D.

      GROSSMANN, liOTTIS : American rabbi and
      author; boin at Vieiuia. Austria, Feb. 24, 1863; edu-
      cated at the University of Cincinnati (B.A.) and at
      the Hebrew Union College (l).D.). Grossmann is
      descended from a family of rabbis. In 1884 lie be-
      came rabbi of the Temple Beth El at Detroit, Mich-
      igan, retaining this ollice tuitil 1808. He then suc-
      ceeded Isaac JI. Wise as rabbi of the Congregation
      B"nai Yeshurun at Cincinnati, and also as professor
      of theology at the Hebrew Union College. Gross-
      mann is the author of the following: "Judaism and
      the Science of Religion," New York and London,
      1889; "Maimonides," New York and London, 1890;
      "Hymns, Praj'ers, and Responses," Detroit, 1892;
      "The Jewish Pulpit," Detroit, 1894; "Isaac M.
      Wise, His Life and Writings," Cincinnati, 1900. He
      has also coiitrilmted to Jewish periodicals. A.

      GROSSMANN, LUDWIG : Austrian mathe-
      matician and political economist ; born at Leito-
      mischl, Bohemia, JIarcIi 14. 1854. As a boy he
      showed mi usual aptitude for |iliysicsand mathemat-
      ics; and lie continued his studies in these branches
      at the University of Vienna, graduating as doctor of
      philosophy in 1878. In the same year he founded and
      edited the " Mathematisch-Plivsikalisclie Zeitschrift "

      at Vienna. He is the discoverer of the mathematical
      analytical curve of the jirobable length of the age
      of man. Grossmann has devoted himself largely to
      literary work, and is an active opponent of anti-
      Semitism. He is now (1903) a resident of Vienna,
      and editor of the "Controlle," a journal devoted to
      political economy.

      Of Grossmann 's works maybe mentioned: "Die
      JIathematik im Dienste der Nationalokonomie," Vi-
      enna, 1886-1900; " Allgemeine Integral ion der Line-
      aren Dilftrentialgleichungcn Iliilierer Orilnung,"
      Leipsic, 1889-91; "Compendium der Praktisehen
      Volkswirthschaft und Hirer Mathematischeu Disci-
      plinen," Vienna, 1892-1903.

      8. F. T. H.

      gari;in city, w illi a population of 51,000, about one-
      fourth of whom are Jews. The hebra kaddisliawas
      founded in 1735, the first .synagogue in 1803, and the
      first commund school in 1839. The old .Jewish
      quarter, known as tlie "Katona Varos," is in the
      neighborhood of the fort. It still bears its ancient
      aspect and is still occupied mainly by Jews. The
      old synagogue remains, though no longer used for
      worsliip. The Jewish hospital also stands there.
      Not until the beginning of the nineteenth century
      were Jews permitted to do business in any other part
      of the city, and even then they were required to
      withdrawal nightfall to their own quarter. In 1835
      permission to live at will in any part of the city was
      granted them.

      The Jewish community of Grosswardein is divided
      into an Orthodo-K and a Reform congregation. While
      the members of the Reform congregation still retain
      their membership in the hebra kaddisha, they have
      used a cemetery of tlieir own since 1899. The Jews
      of Grosswardein have won prominence in the public
      life of the city; there are Jewish manufacturers,
      merchants, lawyers, physicians, and farmers: the
      present cliief of police (1902) is a Jew ; and in the
      municipal council the Jewish element is proportion-
      ately represented. The community possesses, in ad-
      dition to the liospital and hebra kaddisha already
      mentioned, a Jewish women's association, a gram-
      mar-school, an industrial school for boys and girls,
      a yeshibah, a soup-kitchen, etc.

      The following are among those who have held tlie
      rabbinate of Grosswardein: Joseph Rosenfeld
      (Orthodox); David Joseph Wahrmann (Ortiio-
      dox); Aaron Landesberg (Orthodo.x); Moricz
      Fuchs (()rtlicHlo.\: still (jIHciating, 1903); Alexan-
      der Rosenberg (Reform: removed to Arad); Al-
      exander Kohut (Reform : removed to New York,
      1885; died, 1894); Iieopold Kecskemety (Reform :
      still officiating, 1903).

      D. G. Ke.


      Dutcli t'lirislian diplomat, theologian, and .scholar;
      born at Delft, Holland, April 10, 1583; died at Ros-
      tock, Germany, Aug. 28, 1G45. In the religious
      combat between the Gomarists and Arminians Gro-
      tius was a follower of Arminius. When in 1619 the
      Arminians were thrown into prison, he was sen-
      tenced to imprisonment for life, and escaped in
      1621 onlv through a stratagem of his wife. He be-




      lieved all Lis life in the doctrines of Arminius, and
      expounded Ills master's views in his religious
      writiiijfs, which were collected after his death in
      his "Opera Omnia Theologica," Anisteniani. 1679.

      Ill 1044 appeared in Paris in three volumes his
      " Annotationes in Veins Testainentum," including
      the Apocrypha (ed. Uoderlein, Halle, 1775-76).
      This great work -was at first read by the Anuinians
      only; but it soon became well known through its
      philological-historical character.

      In the course of his religio\is researches Grotius,
      through Isaac Vossius, became acciuainted with
      Manasseh ben Lsrael. He correspondeil with Jlanas-
      seh, askiug many questions concerning the Hebrew
      language, literature, and interpretation of the Old
      Testament. Manasseh answered his inquiries, and
      the two exchanged many letters.

      Not being a theologian proper. Grotius was not
      bound by any dogmatic views; and his e.xplanations
      of sentences and phrases are consequently based en-
      tirely upon the original text itself. The Jewish
      exegetes became known to Grotius through Manas-
      seh ben Israel; and he frequently cites and follows
      them in his annotations. He often mentions that
      the Hebrew scholars explain a sentence as he does;
      and even where he differs from them be gives their
      views. It was a favorite accusation against Gro-
      tius' conimentaiy that he Judaized, or followed Jew-
      ish rather than Christian methods of exegesis. It is
      possible that Grotius knew of JIaiiasseh's plan to
      induce Queen Christina of Sweden to open north
      Scandinavia to the Jews, as he was Swedish am-
      bassador at Paris from 103.5 to 1645.

      Grotius highly esteemed Manasseh. whom he
      compares with Ibn Ezra, Maimonidcs, and Abra-
      vauel. He studied his works, and was much im-
      pressed bj' them. Especially was 5Ianasseh's
      " Couciliador" (Amsterdam, 1041) admired by Gro-
      tius. Ill a letter to Manasseh he .says : "I implore
      j'ou to spend all \-our spare time in explaining the
      Law. You will do a great favor to all scholars"
      ("Grotii Epistola;," No. 564. Amsterdam. 1687).
      Again, in a letter to Vossius under date of Oct. 30,
      1638: "Manasseh, whom I wish well, is a man of
      great usefulness to the state and to science" (ib. No.
      476). Writing from Paiis, he sa_ys: "His books,
      which I know, are much read and highly thought of

      Bibliography: Ericiir. Brit, s.v.; Schall-Herzog, Encyc. s.v.;
      Gnwtz, J/i.s(i)j'j/ iif ilic Jcic.s (Am. transl.). V. 21, 2-_', Phila-
      delphia, 1SU5: Adler. A HonuuK to Miin(is!<e}t hen Itrael, in
      TratU!. Jew. Hist. S<ic. Engl. IS'.)-!-'.)!,, i., London, 1895; Kay-
      serlinj?. ^leim^xe hen Israel, in .Idlnhurh fUr die flc.seh.
      derjuden. 11., Leipsic, 18B1 ; (initii Eiii-ttiilct. Nos. 3fl0. 423,
      4.52, 454, 476, .51)4. .570, Amsterdam, 1BS7 ; (irolii Eiii-iUilte
      IncdiUi: (supplement to the foregoing), Levden. IsOU.
      E. c. F. T. H.

      Oriental as well as Occiileiitul penples. whether of
      Semitic or non-Semitic stock, groves and single trees
      (oaks, terebinths, tamarisks, palms, etc.) were re-
      garded and revered as favorite abodes of the gods,
      and were therefore set aside for worship and marked
      by the erection of altars in, under, or near them.
      Behind this conception was the belief, wide-spread
      among primitive races, that trees were animated
      (see Mannhardt, "Die Wald- und Peldkulte"),
      Modified, this idea reappears in the form in which
      VI.— 7

      the trees are held to be the dwellings, und groves
      the haunts, of benevolent or malevolent spirits and
      deities. Moreover, tre(« were suggestive of fertil-
      ity, of life, and (in winter) of death. This induced
      their worship as visible manifestations of the secret
      [lowers of nature coiilrolling generation and decay.

      Among till! Hebrews, also, this notion seems to
      have prevailed in remote times. At all events,
      groves and trees are found connected with thc-
      ophanies ((!en. xii. |A. V. 7]), and with the giving
      of judgment — that is, tlii^ oracular consultation of the
      deity (Judges iv. 5; I Sam. xxii. 6).

      The Hebrew "elon " and "esliel," denoting the oak
      and tamarisk respectively, ar<^ mentioned as groves,
      or perhaiis in stricter accuracy as sin-
      Trysting- gle trees, where Viiwii revealed Him-
      Trees. self (Gen. xii. 6 [A. V. 7], xxi. 33);
      more definitely described as "elon mo-
      reh" (="oak of the revealing oracle"; " nioreh "
      from the root HT. whence also "Torah"; but see
      Barth, "EtymologischeStudien," p]). 13-14); some-
      times in the plural "clone morch " (Deut. xi. 30);
      also "clone mature" (Gen. xiii. 18, xiv. 13, xviii. 1).
      " Elah " (Isa. i. 30), "allali " (Josh. xxiv. 2fi), "allon "
      (Gen. XXXV. 8), "tomer" (Judges iv. 5), and "rim-
      nion " (I Sam. xiv. 2) occur in connections indicating
      that trees which were regarded as sacred, either in
      groves or singlj', are meant. Under such sacred
      trees treaties were solemnly confirmed (Judges ix.
      6), sacrifices were offered (ih. vi. 11). and, as stated
      above, judgments were rendered {ib. iv. 5). The
      sound made by the trees is mentioned as an auspi-
      cious omen (II Sam. v. 24; comp. Gen. xii. 6;
      Judges ix. 37). Yiiwii is described as dwelling in
      the (burning) bush (Deut. xxxiii. 16; comp. Ex. iii.
      1-0). Joshua erects a memorial stone underneath an
      oak "that was by the sanctuary of Y'liwii " (Josh.
      xxiv. 20). Among the Patriarchs, Abraham is more
      especially brought into relations with such groves
      or sacred trees (Gen. xiii. 18, xviii. 1, xxi. 33).

      The opposition evinced by the Later Prophets
      to such groves and trees confirms the theory that
      originally they were connected with the cult of
      the deities presiding over tlie generative processes
      of nature. These deities and their worship (see
      Baai.im and comp. Deut. xii. 2) were dominant
      factors in the Canaanitish religion, the "high hills"
      and "green trees" being cbaracteristitally identified
      with the corrupt practises of the Israelites' neigh-
      bors and symbolic of their pernicious influence upon
      the people of Y'liwn (I Kings xiv. 23; II Kings xvi.
      4, xvii. 10; II Chron. xxviii. 4; Isa. Ivii. 5; Jer. ii.
      20; iii. 6, 13; .xvii. 2; Ezek. vi. 13, xx. 28; Hosea iv.
      13). The "gardens," which are also mentioned with
      disapproval, served similar purposes and for the
      same reasons (Isa. i. 29, Ixv. 3, Ixvi. 17).

      The ASHERAII— usually (following LX.X. and the Vulgate) ren-
      dered ■' grove " or, when in the plural, " groves " (" asherim " ;
      I Kings xiv. 23: II Kings xvii. 10; Jer. xvii. 2l,a.s even the con-
      text might have suggested, it not being likely that a "grove"
      would be " under every green tree " -modern scholars ac-
      knowledge to have been pillars or stakes, imiUitioiis of trees,
      probably trunks of trees " planted," i.e., Il.xed into the grounil.
      near the altars, and thus symbols of the deity, Baal or Asherali :
      perhaps even in their form suggestive of the obscene lasciv-
      iousness of the Canaanitish cult (Deut. vll. 5, xvi. 21 ; Judges
      vi. 28,;!0; I Kings XV. i;i: II Kings xvii. 10, x.xiii. 14; Micahv.
      12: Hosea iii. 4i. The giHiile.ss Asherali was not identical with


      G-i iiuebaum



      Astarte, as Sbuli ("Gesch. ties Volkes Israi-l," i. 460) contends,
      but was originally a tree-soiliiess, while Aslarte was a sidereal
      deity. They Lad many traits in common, iiowever.

      Tlie Asherah tree or pillar hud many forms, ranging from a
      real tree through variods imitations of parts of the tree to an-
      thropomorphic suggestions (see Max Ohnefalscli-Uichter, " Ky-
      pros, die liibel und Homer," 1893, plates lxi.\.; Ix.xv.. Nos. 1, 3. .'> ,
      Ixxxiii,, No. x'Oa, b). Compare Asherah.
      Bini.iOfiRAPHY : Schrader. in Zeitsriirift flir ylKsi/rin/iH/ic vml
      Vcrwatulte (lehicl(\m. W;! 3ilt; EiliianI Mi-mt, in llnsi-lin's
      Lexicon, i. W6, 64", ()o4; Itiehm, Hiindiruilnli. flex Bihli-
      sc)ien AUertums, i., s.v. Hain : iMannhanlt. Wnlil- uml
      Fcldhnlle. i vols., 1875, 1877; Frazer, The (Inhlen liinigh. 'M
      ed., 19110, vol. i. On Semitic tree-cults see I!;iiidissin. Sliulirii.
      zur Semitischen ReUgiinixiie.ifh. ii. l.'<4-~'a..' ; Movi-re, Die
      PWiiiizie?', vol. i.; Osiaiiiler, Sluilienlllier die VnrisUiiniselie
      Religion del- Arctlter, in Z. 2). J\L (i. vol. vii.; Wellhaiisen,
      fiesfe Arai\. Ileideiilumn, p. 101 : Tlie Saered Trees nf Ihe
      Axsiirian Monuments, in the Bnhiil. and Oriental lieennl,
      vols, iii., iv.; Tylor, Tiic Wingeil Fi(jurcs (if tlie Assjirinn
      and Otiier Anriciit Mnnurnents, in Pnirredings Sue. Bil'I.
      Arcti. vol. xii.; Jastrow, Rclifiimi of Tiahijtonia and As-
      syria, p. 063. For the Hebrews specially: Scholz, (liitzeii-
      die list unel Zaulierire^en lici elen Alten lJehrderii,p- «.);i;
      Baudissin, (.c. pp. ■2'S.i-U,iii. The best comparative study of
      Hebrew tree-worship is that of W. Kohertsou Smith, Rel. of
      Sent, lid ed., 1894, s.v. Trees.

      E. G. H,
      GROWTH OF THE BODY: Fromthe.stuilus
      of Majer fur (jalicia. Wcisseuberij fur Soulli Rus
      sia, Sack for M().sf:()w, and YaslicliinsUy for Poland,
      which sive uniform result':, it is found tiiat Jewisli
      children grow vci-y rapidly up to the ago of si.v,
      whereas usually development slackens at four; from
      si.x to eleven growth is slower; from eleven to six-
      teen tlie body again increases rapidly, wlien gi'owth
      again becomes slower, but still continues up to the
      age of tliirty. At this age the ma.xinuuu height is
      attained, whereas with Germans this height is
      reached at the age of twenty-three (Goidd). At
      forty the body begins to decline and grow shorter.
      This is seen from the figures in the talile, and in
      the diagram representing graphically the process of
      growth of .lewish childi-en in South Kussia and in
      Moscow, given by Weissenberg (" Die Siidrussischen
      Juden," p. 17).

      Growth ok thh Body.

      Jews of South
      Russia (Weis-

      .lews of Cen-
      tral Russia


      Jews of







      = 3

















      6 7









      1.5 It)





      21 -ai

      2(Kill .





      51 and over.


      Sack compared the stature of Jewish school-chil-
      dren in Moscow with lliat of non-Jewish children
      attending the same schools. lie found that tlie Jew

      ish children wen; sliorter. But Yashcliinsky, Avho
      tooli lueasuremeuts of Jewish and non-Jewish school-
      children in Warsaw, Poland, found the contrary.
      According to his investigations the Jews are taller
      than the Poles between the ages of twelve and sev-
      enteen notwithstanding the known fact that adult
      Poles are taller than adult Jews.

      In so far as Bavaria is concerned Ranke (" Kor-
      ]iergrosse in Bayern: Beitriige zur Anthropologie
      Bayerns," iv.) has shown that the stature is lowest
      ill those parts of the kingdom in which the infantile
      mortiility is highest.

      Fi'om measurements taken by Fishberg from Jew-
      ish school-children in New Y^ork eity, it appears
      that those born in the United States grow faster,
      and at maturity attain a greater stature, than those
      born in Europe. There are two reasons for this
      phenomenon. First, the Jewish child in America is
      brouglit up amid better sanitary and hygienic sur-
      roundings; it is better nurtured, and the unhealthy
      heder is replaced by modern hygienic public schools.
      The second and more important reason is that there
      is a process of selection at work. The stature of the
      Jewish immigrant to America is greater than the
      average of those left at home. This is a fact ob-
      served also among the immigrants of other races.
      It is the strongest pliysically who venture to change
      their place of abode. These taller Jews transmit
      their superior stature to their descendants.

      The body grows not only in height but also in
      GiiiTH, which is best measured by tlie chest. From
      the investigations of Sack and Weissenberg it has
      been found that tlie growth of the body in stature
      does not go hand in hand among Jews with its in-
      crease in lireadlh, but that they progress alternately.
      L'p to maturity the height increases at the expense
      of tlie girlh of the chest. After this period the
      body begins to broaden. The maximum girth of
      the chest is attained only between foity and fifty
      years of age. After tin's there is a recession.

      Tlie growth of the limlis has been shown to pro-
      gress rapidly up to sixteen years of age. It then
      proceeds slowly up to the age of thirty, when the
      maximum is attained. After this time there is a

      BiBLiOGR-vPiiY : J. Ma.ier, Uoeznii Przyrost Ciala n Zydnw
      Gedieiusliieh, Zhior Wiattoniosci do Antrn/ieil. Krajoirej,
      toni iv., dzial ii., Cracow, Isso : N. B. Sack, Fiziche.skoue Raz-
      rit lie Diietei. Moscow. 1802 ; S. Yashcliinsky. Antroponitt-
      riteliesliia Materialii h Iziielienin Razviliiia /ift.s)rr I'l/f.sa,
      etc., .s' roliieitiiiv i yevreijcv, Wareaw, 1.S.S9; s. Weisseiiiierg.
      Die Sildrnssi.srhen .Iiideii, in .4i(');in /)//■ Antiiropniogie.
      xxxiii. 3, 4; A. D. Elkind, Yerrei, Trudfj Antnipologicfie^-
      1.(1,1 lltdiirln, xxl., Mo.scow, liH13.

      .1. M. Fr.

      REUBEN: Russian Hebraist; born at Pogosti,
      government of Minsk, in ISOl. After having at-
      tendeil the yeshibah of Volozhin, Grozovski studied
      pedagogics in the Institute for Hebrew Teachers at
      Wilna. When twenty-seven years of age, he went
      to Palestine, teaching Hebrew in various places;
      ill 1896 lie received an aiipointment as tea9her of
      Hebrew in the agricultural school of Jaffa. Three
      years later he removed to the Mikweh Y'israel col-
      ony, and filled the same ollice there. Grozovski
      published a series of textbooks, among which are:
      "Bet ha-Sefer li-Bene Y'israel," Jerusalem, 1891;


      TlIK .lEWISlI ENCYC:L()PK1)1A


      •'Sha'ashu'im," 2"J. 1891; "Bet Sffcr 'Ibri," three

      >;Tiulcd courses in Hebrew, 1805-97; iiiul "Millon,"

      Ilebrew-Russian-Germau dictiouary, Warsaw, 1900.

      B. M. Fk.

      GRtTBER, JOSEPH : Austrian pliysician ; born
      ut Kosdlup, lioliriiiia, Aul;. 4. 1827; (lied at Vienna
      March 81, 1900. lie graduated (M.D.) from tlie
      University of Vienna in 1855. In 18C0 he settled in
      Vienna as a spcfiali.st in aural diseases, and bi'came
      prival-doeent in 1808. In the succeeding year lie
      became cliicf surgeon of tlie aural department at tlie
      Allgemeines Kraulvcnliaus. In 1870 he w.-is ap-
      point(;d assistant professor, and in 1873 became
      cliief surgeon of tlie newly founded aural clinic of
      the universit}'. In 1893 he was elected professor,
      which position he resigned in 1898.

      Grulier was the author of many essays and works
      (numbering in all nearly 200). and was for many
      years one of the editors of the "Monatsschrift fiir
      OhrenheilUunde Sowie fur Kehlkopf-, Nasen- uud
      KacheukranUheiten." Among his writings maybe
      mentioned; "Zur Pathologic der Hiimatocele," Vi-
      enna, 1859; " Zur Pathologic und Theiapie der Otitis
      Interna. " ih. 18G0 ; " Anatomisch-Physiologische Stu-
      dien liber das Trommel fell und die Gehorknochel-
      chen," ih. 1867; " Lelirbuch der Ohrenheilkunde."
      ih. 1870. 2d ed. 1888.

      Biblio(;rapht: Pagel. Rioj;. Lcrilntt. Vienna, 1901. .s-.r.
      s. F. T. H

      GRXJBY, DAVID: French physician; born at
      Neusatz (Ujvidck), Hungary. Oct. 10, 1810; died in
      Paris Nov. 16. 1898. He studied medicine at the
      University of Vienna, and graduated in 1884. Al-
      tliough at that time a. lew was rarely permitted to
      hold a position in the university hospital, Gruby was
      appointed assistant surgeon upon the recommenda-
      tion of the well-known physician Wattmann. Soon
      after, he went to London, and in 1889 to Paris, wliere
      he engaged in private practise.

      Gruby was one of the leaders in microscopical re-
      search, and gave free public lectures, which were
      largely attended, on microscop}-, experimental phys-
      iology, and pathology. The results of his ex]icri-
      ments are embodied in ; " Observationes Microsco-
      picse ad Morphologiam Pathologicam Spi'Ctantes,"
      Vienna, 1889; and " Jlorjihologia Fluidonim Patlio-
      logicorum." ih. 1840.

      As a practitioner Gruby was very successful. He
      was phvsician to the younger Dumas and to Hein-
      rich Heine.
      BiBLiOGUAPHT : Hlrsrh, Bing. Lex. s.v.; Pagel. Bing. Lex. s.v.

      8. F. T. H.

      GKUN, MAUSICE : Russian painter ; born at
      Reval. Russia, in 1870. He studied art at ]\Iuiiicli
      and Geneva, and in 1890 went to Paris. There he
      became a pupil of Jules Lefebre and Benjamin Con-
      stant, receiving the Academj' medal and several
      honorable mentions. When but twenty-four years
      of age Gri'in was appointed principal of the School
      of Arts at Baliia. Brazil. In 1S06 he returned to
      Europe and again settled in Paris, but removed in
      1898 to London, where he has since resided. Among
      his many paintings may be mentioned; "Brittany
      Interior," "Peaceful Moments." "For Queen and

      Empire." "Overhauling llie Nets." "Oh, IJollier!"
      ■'Idle JMoiiients," "The Unexpected Return," "First
      Start in Life." He is also well known as a portrait-
      It. H. F. T. H.

      GRUNBAUM, MAX (MAIER) : German Ori-
      entalist; born in Seligciistadt, Hesse. July 15, 1817;
      died in Munich Dec. 11, 1898. Gri'inbaum studied
      philology and philosophj- at Giessen and Bonn. In
      1858 he became suiierintendent, of the Hebrew Or-
      phan Asylum in New York city. He returned to
      Euro|)e in 1870, and spent the remainiler of his days
      in Muni(;li. Aftx^r 1803 m^arly all his jiapcr.s on
      Oriental jihilology and folk-lore appeared in the
      " Zeitschrift der Deutsdien MorgenUindisclien Gesell-
      scliaft"; and after his death they wen; reedited by
      Felix Perles under the title "Gesammcltc Aufsiltze
      zur Sprach- und Sagenkunde," Berlin, 1901. The
      following are among his larger works; "Jlidisch-
      Deutsche Chrcstomathie," 1882; " Mischsprachen
      und Sprachmischungen," 1885; " Neue Beitriige zur
      Semitischen Sagenkunde," 1893; "Die Jtidisch-
      Deutsche Litteratur in Deutschland, Poleii, tmd
      Amerika," 1894; " JiUlisch-Spanische Cliresloma-
      thie," Frankfort, 1890. He had nearly completetP
      the recataloguingof the works in the Hebrew dcjiart-
      ment of the Munich State Librarj' when lie dictl.

      Bibi.ioor.vpht: Bettellipiin. Bi'n.irophisrhr^ .Tattrhufti, 1S09.
      pp. ,"^J.i 2;ll) ; AlhieiDfiue ZcitniKl. Miiiiirli. l.^'.ls. IJeilai^eNo.
      i.'S.">. pp. .5-8: M'rnuliriur Xeiie.'<tr Xiulirirltlni. ISlls, No.
      .">!U. p. 4 : I*erles. in GcsotnmeUo Auf.-iolzc, Preface.

      s. N. D.

      GRtJNEBAUM, ELIAS : German rabbi; bono
      in tlie Palatinate Sept. 10. 1807; died in Landau
      Sept. 25, 1893. In 1828 he went to Mayence. where-
      he became a pupil of the Talmudist Liih Elliiiger.
      and in 1826 continued his Talmudic studies at Mann-
      heim; in 1827 he went to Frankfort-on-the-JIain.
      where he attended the rabbinical lectures of Solomon
      Trier. Aaron Fuld. and Bar Adler, and prejiared
      himself for the university. In 1831 lie entered the
      University of Bonn, where he became intimately
      aciiuainled with Abraham Geiger. In 1832 he went
      to Munich to continue his studies. In 1835 he was
      appointed to the rabbinate of Birkenfeld. and the
      next year became rabbi of the Landau tlistricf. a
      position which he held till his death. Gri'inebaum
      was one of the most zealous and determined repre-
      sentatives of Reform Judaism. It is due to his ef-
      forts that the so-called "Jews' oath " was abolished
      in Bavaria (1862). In appreciation of his work for
      the improvement of the Jewish school -S3'stem. Lud-
      wig 1 1, of Bavaria bestowed upon him the Order of St.
      Michael. Besides contributing to Geiger's various
      magazines and to the " AllgemeineZcitung desJuden-
      tums." Jost's "Aniialcn,"aiid Stein's" Volkslehrer,"
      Griinebaum published: "Die Siltenlelire ties Judcn-
      thums .'Vnilcrcn Bekenntnissen Gegeniiber Neb.st dem
      Gcschichtliehen Nachweise uber Entstehung des
      Pharisaisnius und Des.sen Verhiiltnis zum Stifler
      der Christlichen Religion." Mannheim. 1867; "Zu-
      stiinde und Kiimpfe der Juden, mit Besonderer Be-
      zieliungaufdieRheinpfalz,"zi!). 1843; "Gottesdienst-
      liche Vortrilge," Carlsrulic, 1844; " Isnaelit'sche
      Gemeiiide. Syuagoge und Schule." Landau, 1861 ;




      " Rfdcn " (delivered on various occasions). Many of
      his sermons were publisliod in Kayserling's " Biblio-
      theli J lid. Kanzelredner."
      s. M. K.

      GRUNFELD, ALFRED: Austrian pianist;
      born at I'nigue July 4, 18.")2; studied under lloger,
      uuder Krejci at the Prague Conservatoriura, and
      under Kullak at the Neue Akademie der Toukunst,
      Berlin. In 1873 he settled at Vienna, where he re-
      ceived the title of "Kammervirtuos." He lias made
      tours through Europe and the United States.

      During a visit to Germany Griinfeld was ap-
      pointed court pianist to Emperor William I. Since
      1897 he has been professor at the Vienna Conserva-
      torium. Of his compositions may be mentioned the
      following works for the pianoforte: Octave-study,
      op. 15 ; Minuet, op. 31 ; and Spanish Serenade, op. 37.

      Bibliography: Musikaliaches Wochenhlatt. xiv. 343; Ehr-
      llch, Celebrated Pianists of the Pttst and Present, pp.
      115, 116.
      S. J. So.

      GRUNFELD, HEINRICH: Austrian violon-
      cellist; bom at Prague April 21, 1855; a brother of
      Alfred Grunfeld. Educated at the Prague Conserva-
      torium, he went to Berlin in 1876, and for eight years
      taught at the Neue Ak;ulemie der Tonkiinst in that
      •city. In conjunction with Xaver Scharweuka and
      Gusfav Hollander (later with Sauret, M. Pauer, and
      P. Zajic), he arranged trio .soirees which became very
      popular. In 1866 Griinfeld was appointed court
      violoncellist to King William of Prus.sia.

      BiBLmr,R.\pnT: Rlemann. Miinik-LcxiJion; Baker, Biog.
      Diet, of Musie and Miisicianx.
      ». J. So.

      GRUNFELD, JOSEF : Austrian physician and
      writer; born at Gyiink, Hungary. Nov. 19, 1840.
      After graduating frosi the gymnasium at Kaschau,
      he went successively to the universities of Budapest
      (1801) and Vienna "(1863), graduating (M.D.) from
      the latter in 1867. He became privat-docent at Vi-
      enna in 1881, and chief of division at the Poliklinik
      of Vienna in 1885. He has publi.shed a "Compen-
      dium der Augeuheilkunde " that has gone through
      four editions, and (in "Deutsche Chirurgie") "Die
      Endoskopie der Harnrohre und Blase." He was the
      tirst to use the endoscope. He is known for his
      many surgical innovations as well as through nu-
      merous monographs in his special department. Pro-
      fessional activities did not hinder Griinfeld from
      interesting him.self in the affairs of the Jewish com-
      munity. He was one of the founders, and for more
      than eight years president, of the Oesterreichisch-
      Israelitische Union. S.

      GRUNHUT, DAVID: German rabbi of tlie
      seventeenth and eighteenth centuries; bornatFrank-
      fort-on-the-Main, where his father was secretary of
      the congregation, and his maternal grandfather,
      Simon Glinzburg, was a member of the rabbinate.
      In 1682 he edited Hayyim Vital's book on transmi-
      gration, "Gilgulim." This brought upon him the
      censure of the rabbinate, which was oppo.sed to Shab-
      bcthai Zebiand, therefore, to the Cabala. He never-
      theless reprinted this work in 1084. He also pub-
      lished "Tob Ro'i," rules on shel.iitah in the form of a
      catechism, together with "Migdal Dawid," homilies
      on the Pentateuch, and notes on some Talmudie trea-

      tises (Frankfort-on-theMain, 1713), and a commen-
      tary on Abraham ibn Ezra's grammatical puzzle in
      the 1713 (Frankfort) edition of the "Sefer Hasidiin,"
      which commentary was reprinted in the 1713 (ib.)
      editi(m of Samuel Uceda's commentary on Abot en-
      titled "Midrash Shemuel." He was rabbi in Aue,
      Ilesse-Nassau, and perhaps also in Heimerdiugeu.
      He was on good terras with the anti-Jewish writers
      J. J. Scbudt anil Johann A. Ei.senmeuger, and
      wrote a preface to the hitter's edition of the Bible.

      BiBi,iOGR.\PHY: Hnrowitz, Frini!,fitrter Rahhiner. ii. tii et
      set].: MiLS^Ul. Ztir (lisrii. tnn! fieneahigie der GUnzlniive.
      p. 15 ami Iude,x, St. PetiMshurp, ISUll.


      GRUNHUT, KARL SAMUEL : Austrian ju
      rist; born at Bur-St. Georgeu, Hungary, Aug. 3,
      1844. He became associate professor in the jurid-
      ical faculty of the University of Vienna in 1873,
      after having published " Die Lehre von der Wecli- ,
      selbegebung nach Verfall," Vienna, 1871. In 1873
      "Das Enteignuugsrecht " appeared, and he founded
      the "Zeitschrift flir das Privat- und Ocffentliche
      Recht der Gegenwart." a quarterly. In 1874 he was
      promoted to the professorship of commercial law.
      " Das Recht des Kommissionshandels " was pub-
      lished at Vienna in 1879, since which date his liter-
      ary activity has been devoted chiefly to the subjects
      of notes and bills, to the literature of which he has
      contributed " Wechselreeht." 3 vols., Leipsic, 1897,
      constituting part of the "Systeniatisches Haudlmch
      der Deutschen Rechtswissenschaft," edited by Karl
      Binding; in addition, he has published a short
      " Grundriss des Wechselrechts," ib. 1899, which simi-
      larly forms part of the " Grundriss des Oesterreich-
      isehen Reehts in Systematischer Bearbeitung," ed-
      ited by Finger, Frankl, and Ullman ; and, for
      practical purposes, "Lehrbuch des Wechselrechts,"
      ib. 1900. Grilnhut has the title of " Kaiserlicher
      Ilofrath," and has been since 1897 a life-member of
      the Austrian House of Lords (Herrenhaus). He has
      been decorated with tlie star of the Order of Francis
      Joseph (1903).

      BiBLior.RAPHT: Meuers Knmvrsations-Lexihon.s.v.; Kotiut,
      nrrllhmte Israeliti.sehe Manner und Frauen, part 16, p.
      s. M. Co.

      GRUNHUT, LAZAR: Hungarian rabbi and
      writer; born at Gereuda. Hungary, in 1850. Re-
      ceiving his diploma as rabbi while a mere youth, ho
      went to Berlin, where he attended the lectures of
      Dr, Israel Hildesheimer at the rabbinical seminary, as
      well as those at the univensity. He graduated (Ph. D.)
      from the University of Bern. For eleven years he
      olliciated as rabbi at Temcsvar, Hungary. In 1893
      he was appointed director of the Jewish orphan asy-
      lum at Jerusalem. Grlinhut's works include: " Kri-
      tisehe Untersuchuug des Midrasch Kohelet Rabbah"
      (Berlin, 1893); "Das Verbot des Genusses von Ge-
      sauertem am Rilsttage des Pessach testes," in "Zcit.
      fiir Evangelische Theologie," 1894-98; "Jlidrash
      Shir ha-Shirim" (Jerusalem, 1897); "Sefcr ha-Lik-
      kutim," i.-vi. (Jerusalem, 1898-1903); "Ezra und
      Ne'hemia, KritLsch Erlitutert," part 1 (ib. 1899);
      "Saadia Gaon und Sein Commentar zum Buche
      Daniel " (St. Petersburg, 1899); "Saadia (!aon und
      Sein Commentar zu (Daniel,) Ezra und Nehemia"
      (lb. 1903); " Yalkut ha-Maehiri zu den Spriichen




      Salomos" (Jerusalem, 1902); "Die Roisebcsrlirei-
      bungen des 1{. Benjamin von Tudcla," piil)lishc(l
      fionl man\iscripts, with translations ami introdue-
      tion (ib. 1903).

      BiBLioRBAPny: D<K Rabbiner-Seminar zu Bei-Uru p. 41.
      Berlin, ISUS.

      GBUNWAI.D, MAX : German rabbi antl folk-
      lorist; born at Zal)rze, I'russian Silesia, Oct. 10,
      1871; educated at the gymnasium of Glciwitz and
      (1889) at the university in Hreslau, where lie also
      attended the Iccturesof tlie Jewish theoloirical semi-
      nary. In 1895 he accepted the rabbinate of the
      Hamburg >'eue Danunlhor Synagogue, where he
      remained unlil 1903. when he became rabbi of the
      Fifteenth District of Vienna. Since Jan., 1898, he
      has been editor of the "Mittheiluugen der Gesell-
      schaft fiir Judische Volkskunde," which society was
      founded by him in 1897 and of which he is presi-
      dent (1908)". He was also one of the principal found-
      ers of the Hamburg Jewish JIviseum.

      In addition to a large number of essays on gen-
      eral literature, folk-lore, and Jewish history, which
      appeared chiefly in the " :Mittheiliuigen," Gruuwald
      wrote the following . " Das Verhiiltnis Malebranche's
      zu Spinoza," Breslau, 189'3; "Die Eigennamcu des
      Alten Testamentes in Ihrer Bedeutung fi'irdie Keunt-
      nis des Ilebraischen Volksglaubens," ib. 1895;
      "Spinoza in Deutschland," Berlin, 1897; " Portugie-
      sengraber auf Deutscher Erde," Hamburg, 1903;
      •'Juden als Rheder und Seefahrer," Berlin, 1900;
      "Hamburger Deutsche Juden bis zur Auflosung der
      Dreigemeinden in 1811," Hamburg, 1903; "Die Mo-
      derne Frauenbewegung und das Juden thum,"
      Vienna, 1903. " S.

      GKUNWALD, MOBITZ : Austrian rabbi ; born
      March 29, 1853, at L'ugarisch Hradisch, Moravia;
      died in London June 10, 1895. After a short stay
      in Prague he entered (1878) the Breslau Jewish the-
      ological seminary. In 1881 he was called to the rab-
      binate of Belovar, Croatia; in 1884-87 he was rabbi of
      Pisek, Bohemia, in 1887-93 of Juug-Bunzlau, Bohe-
      mia. In the latter year he became chief rabbi of
      Bulgaria, with his seat at Sofia. He was at the
      same time director of the national rabbinical semi-
      nary, teaching Talmud and iMidrash. Gruuwald was
      an able linguist, and a member of several scientific
      societies, including the Societe de Numisraatique
      etd'Areheologie, and was highly esteemed by Prince
      Ferdinand and the Bulgarian government.

      Of his numerous writings the following may be
      mentioned: "Die Bibel, der Talnmd und die Evan-
      gelien" (1877); "Zur Gesch. der Gemeinde Dyhern-
      furth " (1882); "Zur Gesch. der Jiidischen Gemeinde
      in Ragusa " (1883) ; " Gesch. der Juden in BOhmen "
      (1st part, 1886); "Ueberdas Verhiiltnissder Kirchen-
      vater zur Talmudischen und Midraschischen Lite-
      ratur" (1891); "Ueber den Einflussder P.salmen auf
      die Entwicklung der Christliclien Liturgie und
      Ilymnologie" (1892); "Rabbi Salomo Efraim Lunt-
      schitz" (1892); "Sitten und Brauche der Juden im
      Orient" (1894).

      Grtinwald was the founder and editor of the " Jii-

      disclies Centralblatt " (1882-85).

      BiBi.iOGiiAPHY: Jew. Clirim. June, 1895.


      GRiJN WALD - ZERKOWITZ (iwa Zerko-
      witz), SIDONIE : Austrian authoress ; born in To-
      bitschau, .Mor.[\ ia. Feb. 17, 1852, Her early educa-
      tion sh(' received from her father, a iiliysieian. With
      her parents she removed successively to llollesehau,
      Vienna, and Budapest. She is well versed in
      French, Italian, Hungarian, Czech, and English, and
      obtained a diploma as teacher of languages. After
      teaching for a few years, she received (1874) from
      Ludwig II. of Bavaria a free scholarship at his the-
      atrical school in Munich. Her studies were inter-
      rupted by her marriage to Prince Theodtnc Koloko-
      tronis of Greece. Joining the Greek Catholic ("hurcli.
      she accompanied her husband to Athens, where both
      she and her husliand were disowned by tlie lattur's
      family. Disapiiointcd, .she returned to Moravia, be-
      came a teacher, and, after securing a divorce, mar-
      ried (1877) a wealthy Vienna mer(-liaut by the name
      of Grimwald. Since then she has lived in Vienna,
      where for some time she edited "La Mode."

      When only thirteen yearsof age she published her
      first essays on literature, in German and Hungarian,
      in the newspapers of Budapest, In 1874 appeared,
      in Vienna. "Zwanzig Gedichte von Kiilmau Toth,"
      translated from the Hungarian. These were fol-
      lowed by "Die Licder der Alormonin," Dresden and
      Utah, 18S(i, 7th ed. 1900: "Die Mode in der Fraueu-
      kleidung," Vienna, 1889; " DasGietchen von Heute,"
      Zurich, 1890, 7th ed. 1900; "Achmed's Elie." 1900;
      "Doppel-Ehen," 1900; "Poctischer Hirt," 1901;
      •' Schattenseiten des Frauenstudiums," 1901. She is
      also the author of songs against anti-Semitism, and
      has contributed many articles to the newsjiajiers,
      among which may be mentioned those contributed
      to the Berlin "Buhne und Welt": "Toilettenkiinst-
      lerinnen auf der Bi'ilme " ; critical essays on Sarah
      Bernhardt, Wolter, Duse, Rejane, Jane Hading, etc.

      BiBLior.u.iPiiY : Wurzbacli. Biographifche.': Lcricnn. lis. 340-
      341 ; Maihnne Kiilol:ntri)ni.% in Neuc Frrie Prexnc. Dec.
      18T4, Nos. :t7li;i and 371)9 ; Blaustrumpf nnd Ftlmtcii, in Kak-
      (i«, 1874, Nil. ;M.
      s. F. T. H.

      G•"D■ADALAJARA(^-|S3^i^^?^^:1 ; ^-|XJ^i^^•^13):
      City in Castile, Spain. When Tarik ibu Zaid con-
      quered the city in 711, he found Jews there, as in
      Toledo and other places, and gave the conquered
      city to them to guard. In the "fuero" (charter)
      wliich Alfonso VII. gave to the city in 11.39, Jews
      were placed on an equality with the knights: two-
      thirds of them had to follow the king in liattlc,
      while the other third stayed behind for defense.
      Guadala.iara had a considerable JewMsli community
      in the thirteenth century, and in 1290 paid as much
      in taxes as Ciudad Real. It was very much reduced
      through the persecution of 1391 and through the
      enforced baptisms due to it, so that in 1470 it could
      hardly pay one-third of the former ta.\es. The num-
      ber of JIaranos in the city was so large that King
      Juan II. issued a command to the city to treat bap-
      tized .lews like persons who were liorn Christians and
      to give them ofticial positions.

      In 1482 a Jew established a Hebrew printing-
      press in Guadalajara, at which Solomon ben Moses
      Levi ibn Alkabiz was engaged as printer and cor-
      rector. He brought out in that year an edition of
      David Kimhi's commentary to the Later Prophets,




      and (c. 1482) Jacob ben Aslicr's Tur Ebon ha-'E/.er.
      Me'ir ben Solomon ben Saliulub, who carried on a
      correspondence witli Solomon Adret and Samuel
      Motot, lived in Guadalajara, and ]Moses de Leon
      and Isaac ben Harun Sulaimau were born there.
      Many of the Jews who were driven out of Guadala-
      jara in 14'J3 went to Algiers, where they had their
      own synagogue with a special ritual.

      BiBLKXiR-ii'iiY: liicis. Hist. i. 11)4, ii. 4I)S, ill. 131 ; Ersrli :iiui
      Grulier, Euaic seutiou ii., part 38, p. 87 ; Sachs, D/c lirliiiiosc
      Pnoiic ikr Jiiiliu ill Siianieiu p. 327; Steinscbneider, ('(i(.
      Bmil., col. .%M: lliililcr, Iniiniijiiiphie Picrique,, p. 4fl.
      G. M. K.

      GUARANTY. See Asmakt.\.


      Subjed ot a sloiy invented liy the Spanish Iiupusi-
      tion shortly after ils institution. A Christian boy,
      whose name, age, and family vary in different ac-
      counts, is said to have been crucified and killed by
      six Maranos and five Jews — not to use his blood for
      ritual purposes, but to employ bis heart for tlie pur-
      pose of working charms. The following persons
      were accused of the crime :

      Tlie four Franco brothers, who were draymen : the wool-
      comber I'enito (iarcia, a bapti/ied Jew, who had traveled a
      preat <ieal ; atid ,Iolin de Ocafia: also Ave Jews: <^a (Isaac)
      Franco, aj?»'d.s4 years, formerly resident iu 'remblequeand after-
      ward m Quintanar : !iis two sons. Mose and Yuce Franco, the
      latter a shoemaker in Ternbleque; David de Pereyon, a poor
      man in La Guardla, who appears to have bad charge of the ritnal
      ceremonies in the little conimnnity ; and the Tembleque physi-
      cian Maestre Ynce Tazarte.

      The accused were arrested by the Inquisition in
      1490, either in Segovia or Astorga, and were sum-
      moned befoi'C the tril)nnal at Avila. Tlie physician
      Yuce Tazarte, Mose Franco, and David do Pereyon
      died before the beginning of tlie trial, which lasted
      from Dec. 17, 1400, to Nov. 16, 1401, and terminated
      with the condemnation of the accused. The chief
      witness was Yuce Franco, a young
      Testimony man hardly twenty years old and of
      of Yuce limited intellect, upon whose tesfi-
      Franco. mony the tribunal laid especial em-
      phasis — all other testimony iu tlie case
      has been lost or destroyed. Another interesting
      character in the suit was Benito Garcia, who had
      been baptized \vhen he ^vas forty, but soon repented
      his apostasy and returned to Judaism. The confes-
      sion of Yuce Franco, either voluntary (as was pre-
      tended) or forced (through fear of martyrdom and
      the ap])lieation of Inrture), showed that the accused
      had crucified a child at night in a den situated on
      the street of La Guardia; that they had jiut a crown
      of thorns on his head, opened his veins, caught his
      blood in a basin, and then torn out his heart with
      imprecations upon Jesus. Thereupon they were
      said to have taken the dead child from the cross and
      to have buried him the same night in a place which
      could never be found again. Some days later the
      same persons again gathered at night in the same
      den to utter curses and, with the a.ssistanco of the
      physician Tazarte, to practise magic by means of
      the child's heart and a consecrated host. The object
      of these charms was to bring about the death of all
      luquisitors and Christians, to destroy the Christian
      faith, and to make the Jewi.sh faith prevail gener-
      ally. Since the charm had no effect, the conspira-

      tors met a third time, and sent Benito Garcia with
      the child's heart and a new host to Rabbi Moses
      Abenamius iu Zamora and to another rablii of that
      city, iu the hope that they luight be more successful
      in "their witchcraft. This was the crime laid to the
      charge of the Jews and Maranos.

      The accused and the witnesses, who were heard
      .separately by the Inquisitors without being brought
      face to face, contradicted one anotherinregard to the
      age of tlu! child, the names of his parents, the place
      of bis birtli and residence, and the place where the
      crime was committed. The child was
      Dis- niis.sed nowhere, was sought nowhere:

      crepancies one person testified that he had been
      in l;iken in Lille; another that he had

      the Story. Ijcen kidnaped iu Toledo; a third that
      .Moses Franco had seized him in Quin-
      tanar. Only one person knew that the child's father
      was c;illed Alonzo JIarliu and that he resided in

      Through fright the innocent Yuce Franco became
      seriously ill; and the Inquisitor sent a physician,
      Antonio de Avila, to attend him. Antonio under-
      stood Hebrew and was pirobably a baptized Jew.
      Franco asked that the Inqinsitor send a rabbi to him.
      Instead of a rabbi a priest was sent, who pretended
      to be the rabbi Abraham. In Antonio's presence
      Franco is said to have confessed to this priest that
      he had been arrested for the murder of an eleven-
      year-old boy. He made the priest promise to en-
      trust this confession to no one but Rabbi Abraham
      Senior. Abraham Senior is known to have been that
      business friend of Isaac Abravanel wdio later ac-
      cepted baptism. All the further proceedings were
      founded on this fabrication. The child of La
      Guardia never existed, but the unjustly accused
      persons were either strangled and then burned or
      were burned alive (Nov. 16, 1491).

      The supposed martyrdom of the child of La Guar-
      dia, iu which even Spanish scholars of modern and
      of most recent times still believe (Rios, "Ilist. " iii.
      318), has caused wide discussion.

      BinLiocRAPiiY : FA Nino Tfuircutc. hij ilr Tolnln tf ^ftn-tij-
      tic la (Juanlia imni Lifcimiiuhi S'haslian ilr ^,'irrii I'ulrtt,
      Coinisario dc S, Ulicio <lc hi Im^iiisirinn i/ X<tliiriil ili- 7- in-
      hlfiiuc, Toledo, 1(>3H: Antonio di^ tinznian, Uisturiii dil hio-
      cente. Triiiitario, cl Saiiln A'imo ih: la fjuanlia, M.idrid,
      1730; Martin Martinez Moreno, Hi-^tnriii di:l Maiiirio del
      Saiiin Nino dr- la ijuarditu Saciula Priitiiiudiiieide dc his
      Provcsos Cniitra Ins licos, etc., Madrid, 17sii; ranlino Iler-
      rcro, Urt'i'c ncsiiinen de la Historia del Saiiin JSiua Inn-
      eente, Cristi'ihal. pur 7iii Derrtto Sin/n, Toledo, It^.*); Felipe
      Garcia, El Sepulero del Saiiln Niiii} de la Giianlia, lb.
      1SS3; Lope de Vega. Vomcdia Faniosa del Niw> Iiioccnie
      de la Guardia ; Fidel Fita, in Bnlctin de la Real Aead.
      Jfist. xi., who gives the testimony, with many references:
      idem, Ei^huUni^ Histarieos, vii., Madrid, 18S7; Isidor Loeb,
      in K. E. J. XV. 203 ct sec/., who n-as the first to demonslratfi
      the folly of the accusation; Lea, in Eiidlish llisinriral lie-
      view, iv. 3.311, London, 1S89. The whole traKeilv is n'pri'senled
      on gla.ss in a painting at the entrance to the (.lathedral of
      G. M. K.

      GtTABDIAN AND -WABD : The Biblical px,
      or "nursing-father " (Is;i. .\lix. 23; Esth. ii. 7), is un-
      known to the Mishnah; a guardian is called "apo-
      tropos" (the Greek i--lT/ium>i); the ward is simply
      " yatom" (" orphan" or " fatherless "). The Jlishnah
      (Git. V. 4) says : " A guardian appointed by the father
      [which seems to include any other transmitter of in-
      heritance] must swear [at the end of his trust] that
      he has kept back nothing; one appointed by the


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      Page from the Tirst Edition of David KimiiTs CommEaNTAry on the Prophets, Printed nv Sui.umon ihn Ai.kahiz

      AT Guadalajara, 14X3.




      court need not swear." Abba Saul says just the
      contrary, and is sustained by tlie Talmud (Git. 53b).
      A man who has niinur ehililiun, or whose wife is
      pregnant, should, when nearing death.
      Appoint- name a guardian, which he may do
      nient. by word of mouth. He may appoint
      a minor, a woman, or a bondman (Git.
      51a), or, according to later views, he may order his
      estate to be turned over to his minor heirs direct.
      When the father fails to act, the court, as "father of
      the fatherless," should appoint a guardian, who
      must be a free man and of full age. He should be
      of good repute, trustworthy, able to assert the rights
      of his wards and plead their cause, and versed in
      worldh' affairs. If a kinsman, he can not take over
      real estate (Maimonides, " Yad," Nahalot, x. C; Shul-
      han 'Aruk, Hoshen Mishjiat, 200, 3). When the
      court finds that the guardian is wasting the estate
      of tiie wards, or when, in the case of a guardian ap-
      pointed by the court, he falls imder suspicion by
      living beycmd his own means, he should be removed
      (Git. 53b). Under later rulings the appointing court
      takes an inventory of the ward's estate, of which it
      keeps one copy, the guardian holding the other.

      Tlie rule regarding persons of unsound mind and
      deaf-mutes is the same as that regarding minors;
      and an apotropos, who in Anglo-American law
      would be known as a "committee," should be ap-
      pointed for them, with like powers
      Committee, and duties to those of guardians proper
      (Ket. 4Sa; Yeb. 113a). But if an or-
      phan adult shows tlie habits of a spendthrift, the
      couit has no power to keep his estate from him, or
      to appoint a committee for him, unless it was so or-
      dered by his father (Nahalot, .\. 8).

      A person appointed either by the father or l)y the
      court may resign his trust provided he has not taken
      possession of the ward's property ; but after taking
      possession he may not resign unless he is about to
      remove from the ^\'iird's place of residence ; in which
      case he should turn the property over to the court,
      in order that it may appoint another guardian. The
      Mishnah, in the section above quoted, speaks of
      "cliildren who rely on the master of the house," that
      is, oil some adult, man or woman, in whoso family
      they live. Tlie per.son so chosen assumes all the du-
      ties and has many of tlie powers of a guardian. Such
      a person can recover the cost of feeding and clothing
      the ward when the latter comes of age.

      Generally speaking, the guardian "receives and
      disburses, builds and tears down, leases or plants,
      and does whatever he finds to be in the interest of
      his wards; he gives them to eat and to drink, and
      makes all outlays according to the estate in hand
      and to their station — neither too liber-
      Powers ally nor too scantily" (Hoshen Mish-
      and Duties, pat, 290, 7, following Nahalot, xi. 4).
      For money left to infants a guardian is
      not necessary; the court may invest it upon proper
      security or in land ; but it is tlie later opinion that for
      money also a guardian should be found. Movable
      property may be sold by the court after an appraise-
      ment, but a guardian may sell it witliout the, inter-
      vention of a court. If a market is near at hand, he
      should take the movables there and sell them, and
      invest the proceeds. In cases of doubt — if. for in-

      stance, he has wine on hand which, kept, might
      sour, or which, taken to a distant maiket, would he
      exposed to risk of loss — the guardian should act as
      he would with his own. The guardian may and
      should sell cattle, slaves, fields, and vineyards if
      necessary to feed the ward, and should sell them in
      tlie order here given; but he should not sell such
      property to lay the money away, nor should he sell
      fields to buy slaves, or vice versa, or a poor field to
      buy a better one, for the venture might mi.scarry;
      but one field may be sold to get oxen with which to
      till the remainder.

      If the orphan is sued, the guardian should not
      himself undertake the defense, for he might lose;
      but if he does appear and defeats the claim, the
      judgment is binding. He has no power to manumit
      a slave, even on the prospect of the slave paying for
      himself afterward. He should (in Palestine) tithe
      and take out the "terumah " from the ward's crops.
      He provides the ward with sukk.ah, lulab, a scroll
      of the Law, phylacteries, etc., but does not dispense
      alms or charity in any form on his behalf, not even
      for the redemption of captives. But the court ap-
      pointing the committee for a lunatic or deaf-mute
      may assess payments for charity out of the estate
      (Git. 51a).

      As shown above, only an appointee of the court
      has to clear himself on oath — the "solemn oath."
      But when the ward, on coming of age, makes a dis-
      tinct claim of what is due him, every
      Ac- guardian must clear himself by oath.

      counting. A guardian is not required to render
      to the ward or to the court detailed
      accounts; but religion demands that he should keep
      a very accurate one for " the Father of the fatherless "
      who rides the lieaveus. The guardian is not liable
      for anything stolen or lost, but he is liable for neg-
      ligence or fraud.

      Shulhan 'Aruk, Hoshen Mishpat, 290, covers
      nearly the whole subject.

      s. s. L. N. D.

      GUASTALLA, ENRICO: Italian soldier; born
      at Guastalla 1S3S; died at Milan Sept. 2S, 1903.
      Though brought up to
      a commercial life, he
      joined the army as a
      volunteer in 1848. He
      took part in the de-
      fense of Rome, and for
      his bravery in the bat-
      tle of Vascello was ap-
      pointed lieutenant. He
      afterward went to
      Piedmont, but, sus-
      pected of revolutionary
      tendencies by the gov-
      ernment, fled to Lon-
      don, where be came in
      connection with Maz-
      zini. In 1859 he re-
      turned to Italy and
      joined Garibaldi at
      C'orao. He was Enrico Guastalla.

      wounded in the leg at

      "Volturno (Oct. 1, 1860). After a month's inaction
      he liecame a incniber of Garibaldi's staff. At




      Aspromonte the whole staff was captured ami im-

      Guastalla again saw active service in 18G(), and
      fought under Garibaldi at Conio, Brescia, Lonoto,
      Salo, and Desenzano. He retired from the army
      with the rank of major and the iusigina of kinglit
      conunandant of the Order of St. Maurice and St.
      Lazarus. He was member of the Italian Parliament
      for Varese.

      BiEi,i<>i4RAPHY : Jmlen al.i SnMalcn, 1897, p. 117 ; Jew. Clinm.
      (LtiiKion), May 10, 1893; Ullluslrazujne, Oct., liKB.
      S. J.

      GTJATEMAIiA. See Soutu akd Centkal


      GTJDEMANN, MORITZ : Austrian rabbi ; born
      at Hildesliiim, Grrniany, Feb. 19, 183.5. He was
      educated at Breslau (Ph.D. 1858), and took bis rab-
      binical diploma (1863) at the Jewish Theological
      Seminary of that city. In the latter year be was
      called to the rabbinate of
      "Magdeburg; in 18GG he
      went to Vienna as
      preacher, where he became
      rabbi in 1868, and chief
      rabbi in 1890. Gudeniann
      has especially distin-
      guished himself by his in-
      vestigations into the his-
      tory of Jewish education
      and culture. He has pub-
      lished; "Die Geschichte
      der Juden in Magdeburg,''
      1865; "Die Ncugestaltuug
      des Rabbineuweseus,"
      1866; "Sechs Predegten,"
      186 7; " J ii d i s c h e s i m
      Christenthum des Refor-
      matiouszeitalters," 1870;
      "Jlidisches Unterrichts-
      wesen Wiihrend der Spanisch-Arabisclien Periode."
      1873; "Religionsgeschichtliche Studien," 1876;
      "Gesch. des Erzieliungswcsens und der Kultur der
      Abendlandischen Juden." 3 vols., 1880-88; "Niich-
      stenliebe," 1890; "CJuellcnschriften zur Gesch. des
      Unterrichts und der Erziehung bei den Deutschen
      Juden," 1S94; " Das Juden t hum in Seinen Grundzli-
      gen und uach Seinen Geschichtliehen Grundlagen
      Dargestellt," 1903; "Das Judenthum ini Keutesta-
      nicntlichen Zeitalter in Christlicher Darstellung,"
      1903. In his " Nationaljudentum " (Vienna, 1897) he
      wrote against the tendencies of Zionism to lay more
      stress on the national than on the religious character
      of Judaism, for which ho was severely attacked by the
      friendsof the Zionist movement. As far back as 1871,
      however, he had strongly protested against the pro-
      posal of the Jewish community of Vienna to strike
      from the prayer-book all passages referring to the
      return of the Jews to the Holy Land (compare his
      sermon "Jerusalem, die Apfer und die Orgel," 1871),
      and had even gone so far as to threaten to resign from
      the board of trustees if his protest should remain
      s. L. B.

      GTJEN^E, ANTOINE: French priest and
      Christian apologist; born at Etampes 1717; died

      1803. He wrote, besides various apologetic works,
      " Jjcttres de Quehpies Juifs Portugais, AUeniands et
      Polonais, a M. d(^ Voltaire," Paris, 1769, often re-
      printed and translated into English and other lan-
      guages. The letters are a defense of the Bible, not
      of Judaism.

      1!iri,[oi;rapmv: La Grande Encuclupidie; Griitz, Ocsc/i. xi.


      GUERON, YAKIR (PRECIADO) : Turkish

      rabbi; liorn in 181:1; dii d ;il .li nisalcin Feb. 4, 1874.
      He was the si.xtli rabbi of Adrianople descended from
      the Gucron fanuly. He b<'(aine rabbi in 183.'), and
      eleven years later met Sultan 'Abd al-Majid, whom
      he induced to restore the privileges formerly con-
      ceded to the non-Mussulman communities. Gucron,
      witli the rabbis of Smyrna and Seres, was made an
      arbitrator in a rabbinical controversy at Constanti-
      nople, and was chosen acting chief rabbi of the
      Turkish capital in 1863. Both 'Abd al-jMajid and
      his successor 'Abd al-'Aziz conferred decorations
      upon him.

      Gucron resigned his office in 1873, and proceeded
      to Jerusalem, where he died two years later.
      BiBLiOGRAI'HV : Ha-Lflinniiii, x.. No. 30.

      E. A. D.

      GUERTA DE J:6rUSALAIM. See Period


      GUESTS. See Hospitai-ity.

      jurist; Ijorn at Konigsberg, East Prussia, April 18,
      1830. He studied history, later law, at the univer-
      sities of Konigsberg, Bonn, Jluuich, and Berlin,
      graduating in 1851, He was admitted to the bar in
      1859, and became a judge in his niitive town, where
      he was appointed privat-docent in Prussian law in
      1861. Two years later he was elected assistant pro-
      fessor, in 1868 professor, in which year he resigned
      his position as judge. He has embraced the Chris-
      tian faith.

      Gueterbock has written various essays for jour-
      nals, professional and general, and is the author of;
      " Die Englischen Aktiengesellschaftgesetze von 1856
      und 1857," Berlin, 1858; " Ueber Einigein der Praxis
      Hervorgetretene Mangel des Preussisehim Konkurs-
      verfahrens," ib. 1860; "Henrieus de Bracton und
      Seiu Verhiiltniss zura Romischcn Rccht," i/j. 1863
      (English transL by Coxe, Philadelphia, 1866); " De
      Jure Maritimo quod in Prussia Sa'culo XVI ct Or-
      tum Est ct in Usu Fuit," Konigsberg, 1866; "Die
      Entstehungsgeschichte der Carolina," Wiirzburg,
      Bibliography: Mejirm Konvcrsatiutix-Lexihoh ; De le Rol,

      Judcn-Mixaioiuii.Si'Z. -n rr

      GTJETTA, ISAAC : Talmudic scholar and pro-
      moter of Jewish learning, whose ancestors went to
      the Orient fronr Huete, Spain; born June 5, 1777;
      lived for several years in Triest. In his old age he
      went to Safed, Avhere, as in Tiberias, he founded
      Talmudic seminaries, and died Feb. 2, 1857 (8 Sbebat,
      5617). The scholiirs of Palestine extol him for his
      learning and generosity. He is the author of four
      volnmra of no'vella- to the Babylonian Talmud, jiub-
      lished in Leghorn 1846-47 and in Vienna 1851-56,
      under the title "Sedeh Yizliak." Tlie modern He-




      brew poet David Ara of Triest, author of the collec-
      tion "Kol Dawid " (Venice, 188U), is liis graudson.

      BiBLior.RAPiiy : S. D. Luzzatto. Note to Joseph ha-Koben's
      'bUncI; ha-Haka, p. 1; f5epi-Gl]iriin(ii, Tolntot Gcdnlc l'i8-
      raeL pp. 2ir) cl setf. ; Zedner. Caf, Ihttr, Booha Brit, Mus. pp.
      276, 809 ; David Ara, Kol l)a wid, p. 78.
      G. M. K.

      GUGGENHEIM, MEYER: American mer-
      chant ami mining' magnate; l>orn in Langeuau,
      Switzerland, 1H38. In 18-lT lie went to America
      with his father, who settled at Philadelphia; there
      Guggenheim began business life in the ]iiiml)lest
      way, dealing, as a traveling salesman, iu such com-
      modities as stove-polish and glue, which he after-
      ward learned to manufacture and thus sold at a
      greater proUt. Next lie turned his attention to em-
      broideries, gaining a large fortune by importing the
      Swiss products. In 18S1 he transferred his business
      to New York city under the name of "M. Guggen-
      lieim'sSous." About this time lie became interested
      in a silver-mine; iu order to work it jirofitably he
      bought up a smelting-jilant in Denver, Colo., and,
      with the aid of his sons, devoted himself almost ex-
      clusively to smelting operations, building a smelter,
      in 1888, at Pueblo, Colo. Tlie firm then e.Ntended
      its operations throughout the United States, and
      even into JMe.xico, where it built the first complete
      smelter at Monterey, and another at Agnas Calienfes.
      It was further found necessary to build refining-
      works, which was done at Perth Amboy, N. J. By
      this time the firm had become the most important
      silver-smelting company in the world ; it soon en-
      tered into a comliination of smelting firms known as
      the "American Sinelting and Refining Company"
      (1900), the firm of M. Guggenheim's Sons retaining
      a controlling interest. The firm naturally became
      interested in many mines, and a separate firm, called
      the "Guggenheim Exploration Company," has been
      formed to represent this side of its activity.

      Of Guggenheim's eight .sous, Daniel, horn iu
      1858. in Philadelphia, Pa., entered the embroidery
      business in Switzerland, but is now chairman of the
      executive committee of the American Smelting and
      Refining Company. Simon, also born in Philadel-
      phia, Dec. 30, 1807, entered the smelting business in
      1889, at Pueblo. Colo., and has since resided in
      Colorado, for whieli state he was nomin.atted lieuten-
      ant-governor in 1804 and governor in 1898.

      Bibliography: Natifmal Ciiclnpcdui of Amcrirnn Bio^ira-
      phu; The Co^rnnpiijittni, New Yorl;, Au^-. UtO;i; W}if>'f<
      Who in Ameriar,
      13. C. .1.

      can lawyer; born at Lynchburg, \'a., July 20. 1840.
      His family originally settled in Virginia, where his
      father was engaged in the cultivation of tobacco.
      Guggenheimer removed to New Y^ork city in 1865,
      and entered the law school of the New York Univer-
      sity, graduating in 1809. Making a specialty of cor-
      poration and real estate law, he soon built up a con-
      siderable practise. In 1883 he formed a partnership
      with Isaac and Samuel Untermyer ; by the accession
      of Louis ]\Iarshall in 1893 the firm became known
      as "Guggenheimer, Untermyer &. Marshall." Gug-
      genheimer in 1887 was appointed cominissioner of
      the common schools. anotHce he held for nine years,
      during which he originated the evening high-school

      (r/'o'.s Who in America, 1901-02.

      F. H. V.

      ■s^'stein peculiar to New York city. The establish-
      ment of the system of free lectures is likewise due
      largely to his efforts; and he secured the retention
      of the German language as a part of the school

      Guggenheimer was the pioneer iu introducing
      large olHce-buildings on Broadway, New York. In
      1897 he was nominated by the democracy of Greater
      New York to the oliice of ])resident of the mtmicipal
      council, and was elected. In that capacity Guggen-
      heimer acted as mayor of New York citj' during the
      absence of the incumbent.

      E. c.

      GUGLIELMO, BENJAMIN (?): Italian dan-
      cinginastci'; lluurished in the lllteeuth century at
      Pesaro. His master was Domenico di Ferrara, in
      wdiose "Liber Balloruiu" (1460) he is mentioned.
      Guglielmo himself wrote a treatise on dancing,
      " Trattato dell' Arte del Ballare," edited by F. Zam-
      brini, Bologna, 1873; 2d ed. by Messori Boncnglia,
      1885. It is one of the earliest in exi.stence; and in
      it Guglielmo refers to dances devised by himself
      and by one "Giuseppe Ebreo."

      Bibliography: M. liattes, in Mose, 1879. p. 26.1; Steinschnei-
      der, ia Hehr, Bihl. xix. 75; idem, in Monatasciirift, xlii.
      G. J.


      German phili)logist and writer; born at Boianowo,
      Pru.ssian Poland, 1809; died at Breslau Jan. 5, 1854.
      He studied philology and philosophy at Breslau and
      Berlin; and in 1837 passed his examination and be-
      came a teacher at the Kollinsche Gymnasium in Ber-
      lin. The following two years he spent in Paris,
      studying especially Leibnitz's works, and then re-
      turned to Germany to become librarian of the Uni-
      versity of Breslau. He became privat-docent in

      1842, and professor in 1843, which position he held
      until his death.

      Among his works may be mentioned: "Memoire
      sur le Projet de Leibnitz Relatif a I'Expedition
      d'Egypte Propose a Louis XIV. en 1072," Paris,
      1839; " ICurmainz iu der Epoche von 1073," Ham-
      burg, 1839; " Lessings Erziehung des Menschenge-
      schlechts, Kritisch und Philo.sophi.scli Erortert," ih,
      1841; "Das Heptaplomeres des Jean Bodiii," »4.
      1841; "G. W. V. Leibnitz, cine Biographic, "Breslau,

      1843, Supplement 1846; "Joachim Jungius und Sein
      Zeitalter." Stuttgart, 1850. He edited "Leibnitz's
      DeutsclieSchriften" (1838-40), and "Goethe's Brief-
      wechsel mit Knebel " (Leipsic, 1851), and completed
      Lessing's biography, begun by Danzel (3 vols.,
      Leipsic, 1853).

      Bihlioguaphy: Mc'irr^ Konvcrsalionti-Lexiko^i.
      s. F. T. H.

      GTJIDACERIUS, AGATHI-US : Italian Chris-
      tian Hebraist; born at Kocca-Coragio, Calabria, in
      the second half of the fifteenth century. Having
      studied Hebrew under a Portuguese rabbi at Rome,
      he was appointed teacher of that language at the
      university. In 1530 he was appointed by Francis I.
      professor at the College de France, where he inter-
      preted both the Hebrew and Greek texts of the
      Scripture. Giiidacerius wrote the following: "In-
      stitutiones Grammatics Hebraic^ LinguiE," compiled




      from the grammar " Petah Debarai " aud the " MiU-
      lol" of Kiiiihi (Home, ir)i4: Paris, 1529, IMO, and
      1546); " Peeulium Agathi," on the Hebrew letters,
      vowels, aceeuts, and syllables (Paris, 1037) ; " Versio
      Latina Graniraaticjc David Kimehi " (Paris, 1540);
      commentaries to (lie Psalms; a commentary to Can-
      tielcs, with the Hebrew and Latin texts (Rome. 1524) ;
      a commentary to Eeelesiastes (Paiis, liiSl).

      Bibi,io(;rai>IIV: Wolf, liilil. TIrhr. ii. li(lS, iv. SSi); steln-
      si'hneidPr, liihUDnraphiiiclieK Handbuch, p. 5(5; lIoefiT,
      Nouvdlc liiofjraphic Ginerale.
      IX I. Bn.

      GTJIDE, THE. See Pkuiodicai.s.

      scholastic; bishop of Paris from li'JS i,o 1249. lie
      was one of the originators of Cliristian scholasticism
      in the thirteenlh century. In his writings he dis-
      played an e.vtcusive knowledge of Hebrew litera-
      tnre; and, although lie nevei' cites jNIainionidcs l)y
      name, lie was on many occasions influenced by the
      " Moreh Nebukim." Thus the anonymous Hebrew
      philosopher cited by Guillaume on the superiority
      of the matter of heavenly bodies (" De Univer.so," I.,
      parti., ch. iii., p. 031) is none other than Maimonides
      (I.e. II., ch. x.wi.).

      Maimonides' work was frequently utilized by
      Guillaume, especially in the first part of his " De
      Legibus." He follows Maimonides' theories on the
      symbolism of the sacrifice worship and the rational
      motivation of the Biblical commandments (" De
      Legibus," xvi. 46; com p. "Moreh Nebukim," iii., ch.
      .wxi.). Starting with Deut. iv. 6, Guillaume, like
      Maimonides, concludes that, besides tlieir e.\oteric
      sense, the precepts have an esoteric meaning {ib.).
      The numerous commandments were intended to di-
      vert the Israelites from certain ideas and customs
      which were in vogue among the idol-
      De- atrous nations, especialh' from the

      pendence teachings of the Sabeans {I.e. i. 24;

      on Mai- conip. "Moreh Nebukim," iii. 388).

      monides Guillaume combats Maimonides' view
      and that the sacrifice was to be considered

      Gabirol. only as a concession to the ideas of

      antiquity; but he accepts tliis view

      witli regard to some prescriptions concerning the

      sacrifices (Z.c. vii. 38: comp. " i\Ioreh Nebukim," iii,


      The Jewish philosopher wliom Guillaume revered
      most highly was Solomon ibn Gabirol, whose "Pons
      Vit£E" he often cited under the title "Pons Sapien-
      ti;e." Gal)irol, who was known to Guillaume by the
      name " Avicebron," was believed by him to have been
      a Christian who lived in an Islamic country. Guil-
      laume was much impressed by Gabirol's theory of
      the will, which he considered to bo the Christian " Lo-
      gos." Thus, although he combated Avicenua's the-
      ory of emanation on the ground that God would not
      be the immediate cause of all created beings, he did
      not object to that of Gabirol which leads to the same
      result (" De Universo," I., part i., ch. xxvi.). Even
      when he deems it necessary to combat Gabirol's
      views, lie does it without mentioning his name ; e.g..
      when he objects to the theory that there are no im-
      materia! substances, or that even the intellectual
      substances consist of matter and form (*/;. II., part
      ii., ch. vii., p. 8."i0).

      (tuillaume's attitude toward the Jews was far
      from benevolent. During his bishopric aud through
      his personal influence the Talmud was burned in
      Paris (1242). Nor did ho spare the Jews in his wri-
      tings. For him, the omission in Ww. Bible of certain
      very important dogmas, such as the creation of
      angels, the immortality of the soul, ('tc, was due to
      the narrowness of the intellectual perception of the
      Jews and to tlieir moral depravity.

      Guillaume distinguishes three periods in the intel-
      lectual development of the Jews: (1) the 15iblical
      period, when the Jewi.sh nation contented itself with
      the Bible; (2) the Talmuilic anil Midrasliic, wliich
      he calls " the period of the fables " ; and (3) the
      period of llie jihilosophers (//'. I., part iii., eh. xxxi.,
      p. 805, col. 2).

      liim.ioe.KAPHV: N. ValoK (luilhunur liWuvirtinr. Eiu'ijuc
      lie I'atis. Sa Vic el Srs fEuvns. p. 238, iidtc 1.' I'liris. l.ssil;
      fiaumpartner. Die hjrkf'nntHi.s.^lrhrc ./r.v VVilliflii) vtni
      Anvaijiic, p. ino, Miinstcr. ISI):!; .1. Cutimann, Dir. Si Imlnx-
      tih lira DrcAzchnten JiOirhinutcrta in IJnrn Uczipintii{jcn
      znm .htdenthum utnl zur .llidischrn Liti-rat\ir. p. l.'J, Bres-
      lau, v.m.
      G. I. Bit.

      GUILT-OFFERING. See Atonk.mknt.

      GTJIMARAES: City of Portugal. In the four-
      teenth century it had a wealth}- Jewish eomniunity,
      whose quarter was located on the sit(' of the pres-
      ent flsh-market, " pra(;a do pcixe." and extended to
      tlie H0I3- Ghost street. A few years previous to the
      expulsion of the Jews from Portugal this commu-
      nity paid a yearly tax of 35,000 reis. For centuries
      Slaranos were living in the city, and it was the
      native place of the poet Manuel Thomtis and of
      JIanasseh ben Israel's wife.

      BiRLIOGRAPiTY: Kavserling, Gt'.sc/i. fUr Judcn in Portugal^
      pp. 49, 57 itscq..2So, ZU.
      c. M. K.


      DE : Piinciaiid ruler, in the fifteen 111 century, of the
      Tamau peninsula on the east coast of the Black Sea;
      descendant of Simeone de Guizolfi, a Genoese Jew,
      who, by marriage with Princess Bikhakhanim and
      under the protection of the Genoese republic, be-
      came ruler of the peninsula in 1419.

      Beset by the Turks in 1482, Guizolfi ami his Cir-
      cassian subjects were compelled to retire from his
      stronghold i\Iatriga (Taman). and sought refuge on
      the island of Matriee, whence (Aug. 12) he informed
      the directors of the Bank of St. George in Genoa
      of his position, and called for 1,000 ducats with
      which to retain the friendship of his allies, the Goths,
      who had exhausted his resources; he. stated that unless
      he received the support of the republic he would
      remove to Wallaehia. where the waywode Stefan
      had olTered him a castle.

      Notwithstanding the fact that the Turks had cap-
      tured Tana (Azov) aud most of the settlements in
      Chazaria, Guizolfi continued the war from Matriee,
      but with only a small measure of success. Learn-
      ing that he liad expressed a desire to come to Kus-
      sia, and glad of an opportunity to attract the Cir-
      cassians, the czar Ivan III., Vassilivich, directed
      Nozdrovaty, his anibassa<lor to the Tatar khan
      Jlengli Girei, to for\v,-ird a message "sealed with the
      gold seal " to Zaeliarias (Skariya) the Jew, at Kaffa.
      This message, dated March 14, I4S4. and forwarded




      by Luka and Prince Vasili, both court dignitaries,
      reads as follows;

      " By the grace of God the great ruler of the Russian country,
      the Grand Diike Ivan Vassilivlch, Czar of all the Russias, . . .
      to Zacharlas tlie Hebrew.

      •• You have written to us through Gabriel Petrov, our guest,
      that you desire to come to us. It is our wish that you do so.
      When you are with us we will give you evidence of our favor-
      able disposition toward you. It you wish to seive us, our desire
      will be to confer distinction upon you ; but should you not wish
      to reirialn with us and prefer to return to your own country,
      you shall be tree to go" ("Shornik Imperatorskavo Ruskavo
      Isloricheskavo Obschestva," xli. 10. For a second message,
      dated Oct. 18, 1487, see lb. p. 71).

      From a despatch in Latin dated Conario on the Ku-
      ban, June 8, 1-187, and signed " Zachariah Guigursis,"
      it is clear that Guizolli, intending to accept the
      czar's hospitality, started for Russia, but while on
      the way was robbed and tortured by Stefan, the
      waywode of Moldavia, and returned liome. Not-
      withstanding this e-xperience, Guizolfi and his men
      declared themselves ready to join the czar provided
      that guides were furnished them. Replying to this
      despatch, March 18, 1488, the czar repeated his in-
      vitation, and informed Guizolti that he had notified
      Dmitri Shcin, his ambassador at the Crimean court,
      that he had requested Mengli Girci to send to Tscher-
      kassy two men to guide Guizolfi to JIoscow. He
      dii-ected Shein to add to this number a Tatar from
      his own suite.

      Several years passed before guides were sent, but
      in the spring of 1496 they reached the mouth of the
      Miyusha and Taigana rivers, where Guizolfi was to
      meet them four weeks after Easter. It had been
      arranged that in the event of either party reaching
      the rendezvous before the other, the first should
      wait until Whitsuntide, and if need be luitil Peter
      and Paul's Day. The guides waited until St. Nich-
      olas' Day (Dec. 6), when they learned that Guizolfi
      was unable to advance on account of disturbances
      among his people, for "the man Zacharias is sub-
      stantial, his family is great, .and probably it is diffi-
      cult to induce them to move." In his report to the
      czar the Ciimean ambassador declares that, out of
      friendship for his royal master, the khan Mengli
      Girei would take Guizolfi under his protection, but
      fear she dare not do so, since Guizolfi has antago-
      nized the Turks, who are the khan's protectors (Hi.
      pp. 77-114).

      From subsequent events it is evident that Guizolfi
      entered the service of the khan, for further negotia-
      tions were carried on, and in April, 1500, the czar,
      instructing his ambassador, refers to Guizolfi as
      " Zacharias the Fryazin [i.e., "the Italian "], who had
      lived in Cirea.ssia and is now in the service of
      Mengli Girei, but who never reached Russia" {i/>.
      p. 309).

      The czar's repeated invitations to Guizolfi seem
      to indicate that he hoped the latter's services would
      be valuable to him in extending Russian infiuence
      on the Black Sea. Yet it is strange that during a
      period of more than eighteen yeai's Guizolfi did not
      succeed in reaching Russia. Whether the fact that
      Guizolfi was a Jew had anything to do with the im-
      pediments put in his way, it is difficult to ascertain,
      for no mention of him is to be found in Jewish wri-
      tings. The different spellings of Zachariah's name
      in Italian and Russian documents — "Guizolti,"

      "Guigursis," and "Guilgursis" — may be attributed
      to errors of the Russian scribes.

      Biblio(;rapiiy : In addition to the works cited in the article,
      Atti ilella SiK.ictd Liyurc di Stoi-ui Patria, Iv. 127, 128, tien-
      oa, l»'i(l; Lowe, Die Reste der Germanen am Schwarzcn
      Mecrc, pp. 42,86, 89, Halle, 189«; Sbornilt Gosudarstven-
      nvkh Oramul i Dogovoruv, ii. 24.

      H. R.

      GUMPERZ, AARON SOLOMON (also called
      Emrich or Emmerich): Geiinan .scholar and phy-
      sician; born Dec. 10, 1723; died 1709. In Marcli,
      1751, Gumperz giaduated as M.D. from the Univer-
      sity of Fiaukfort-on-the-Oder, his dissertation being
      " Ueber die Temperamente. " He was the first Prus-
      sian Jew who obtained a doctor's degree. Gumpeiz
      was especially known for liaving been IVIendelssolm's
      teacher of philosophy and for having inspired him
      with a love for literature. He wrote a calendar for
      the year 0509 (1748-49), and " Megalleh Sod," a su-
      percommeutary on Ibn Ezra to the Five Scrolls. Of
      the latter work that part dealing with Ecclesiastes
      was the only one publi.shed (Hamburg, 17G5; Wilna,
      1830). It is followed by an essay entitled "Ma'mar
      ha-Madda'," on religion and philosophy. Mendels-
      sohn strongly recommended this work in his "Bi'ur
      Millot ha-Higgayon " (§ 14).

      Bibliography : Gratz, Oesch. 2d ed., xl. 6 ; Kayserling,
      iHo.s&s Mendelssolni, pp. 14-20; idem; in AUg. Zeit. dcs

      Jud. 1899, p. 4(i;j ; Wertheimer's Jahrb. 185B-57, pp. 131-141 ;

      Die Gegemoart, 1867, pp. 318-365.
      G. M. Sel.

      GTJMPIilN : German satirical poet of unknown

      date. Tlie only poem of his that has been preserved

      is a satire of seven strophes, ending with a refrain

      in which he very wittily criticizes the inhabitants

      of the Rhine province. Although his vocabulary

      is not always pure, the versification is perfect and

      betrays great ability. The name "Gumplin" is

      given in acrostic. Abraham Geiger published the

      I)oem, together with a German translation, in his

      "Melo Chofnajim."

      Bibliography: Zunz, Z. G. p. 167: A. Geiger, Melo Clwf-
      naiim, p. 102.

      g! I. Bn.

      GUMPLCWICZ, LUD'WIG: Christian hist.i-
      rian and jurist; born at Cracow March 9, 1838;
      studied at the universities of Cracow and Vienna,
      and [jractised law at Cracow. In 1876 he was ap-
      pointed decent, in 1883 assistant professor, and In
      1893 professor, at Graz Uni\'ersity. He is the au-
      thor of a work on jurisprudence, and also of a
      •work entitled "Prawodawstwo Polskie Wzgle-
      dem Zydow," which treats of Polish legislation
      concerning .Tews. The author introduces new ma-
      terial and advances original views. According to
      him, the history of Poland is divided into tliree
      periods, the Pyast, Y'agellon, and Elected King
      periods, in each of which the three estates, king,
      clergy, and legislature, were in constant, frequently
      in violent, opposition. In the first period the legis-
      lative power was in the hands of the king, in the
      second in the hands of the nobility, and in the third
      in the hands of the Catholic clergy and of the Jesu-
      its. The kings, the author is inclined to believe,
      were generally favorably disposed toward the Jews,
      while the nobility was not altogether unfavorably
      disposed toward them. The tliird period is that of
      the domination of the clergy and of the Jesuits.




      The views of the clergy as regards the Jews always
      remaiiu'd the same, but until the third period they
      lacked the jiower to enlorce them. On assuming
      the education of the Polish youth the clerijy taught
      them to regard the Jews as the enemies of the
      Church (see Poland).

      BIBLIOCRAIMIY : Bershadski, hilovskilie Ycvrci, p. 13.5. St.
      PetersburjT, IfvSJ.
      n. u. J. G. h.

      GUMURJINA: Town in European Turkey,
      west of Adiiaiiiiiile. It has a population of 26,000,
      including 1,200 Jews. The Jewish community pos-
      sesses separate scliools for boys and girls willi a roll
      of 200 children, a synagogue, and five charitable so-
      cieties. A few Jewish artisans dwell in Gumurjina,
      but the majority of Jews there live by commerce,
      and several fill public offices. The community isad-
      ministered by a council of twelve, but is without
      an appointed rabbi. Religious questions are ad-
      dressed to the grand rabbinate of Adrianople.

      According to local traditions, tlie foundation of
      the Jewish community of Gumurjina goes back to
      the first half of the seventeenth century. The earli-
      est chief rabbi of the city was Rab Judab, said to
      have died in 1G73. In times of distress the Jews
      go to his tomb to pray. A proof of the presence of
      Jews in this town at that epoch is the fact that
      Nathan of Gaza, the acolyte of the pseudo-Messiah
      Shabbcthai Zebi, fled there after the conversion of
      his master to Islam. About the year 1780 an inci-
      dent occurred that placed the tiews of Gumurjina
      in grave peril. Motos Agha, at the head of the brig-
      ands who infested the neighboring mountains, won
      possession of the fort, and when the governor, Ali
      Eflfendi, recaptured it, he accused the Jews of
      having favored the brigands, and threw the most
      prominent among tliem into prison. They, however,
      succeeded in proving the falsity of the accusation
      and were restored to liberty. In memory of this
      double deliverance from siege and imprisonment the
      Jews of Gumurjina observe the 22d day of Ehil as
      a festival under the name of the "Brigands' Purim."
      Up to 1865 this festival was celebrated with great
      solemnity; but the arrival of new Jewish settlers
      who were strangers to the tradition has caused the
      custom to fall into comparative disuse, though the
      older inhabitants still maintain it.

      BIBLIOGRAPHT : row/ Da'at, ed. Abratiam Danon, Adrianople,
      Dec. a), 1888.

      D. M. Fr.

      GUNI (':iJ): 1. A son of Naphtali (Gen. .\lvi.
      24; I Chrou. vii. 13), and founder of the family of
      the Gunites (Num. xxvi. 48). In Hebrew, -'Guni"
      is used for the individual and for the family. S.
      A descendant of Gad, and the father of Abdiel, who
      was a chief in his tribe (I Chron. v. 15).

      E. G. II. M. Sel.

      GUNSBEE.G, ISIDOR: Engli.sh merchant and
      chess-master; born in Budapest Nov. 3, 1854.
      When nine years old he went to England, in which
      coimtry he has since resided, comiietiug in numer-
      ous chess tournaments as an English representative.
      In 1885 he surprised tlie che.ss world by capturing
      the first prize at the Hamlnirg Chess-Masters' Tour-
      nament, beating Blackburne. the English champion,

      and Tarrasch. His principal subsequent tourney

      successes have been :

      1885. Hrltl.sli Ctiess Assoclal.ion. First prize.

      188T. liritisli Che.ss Assoclnllnii. Tli'd with Burn fur Ilrst prize.

      1888. Brailfiird. First prize, beatlBK Mackenzie and Burileleben.

      1888. Londun. First prize.

      In matches he has beaten Bird by 5 to 1, and
      Blackliurue by 5 to 2; drawn witli Tseliigorin, i) all ;
      and scored 4 to G against Steinitz. He is also very
      successful in simultaneous play. Gunsberg is chess
      editor of the " Daily News," London, in which city
      he now (1903) resides.
      Biuliocraphy: Cheshire, The. Hn!<lin(ix Tnunuvnint, p.:V>S

      ■'■ A. P.

      uulhorand preacher; born Dec. 9, 1784, at Lissa; died
      at Breshui Jan. 23, 1860. He studied jihilology and
      lihilosophy at Berlin, and for a time he ptililislied
      with Ed. Kley "Erbauuugen, oder Gottes Werk und
      Wort " ( 1813-14). For a few years he also pi-eaehed
      in tile Jacolisou Temple at Berlin, and in 1819 .set-
      tled at Bieslau. He took an active interest in tlie
      Jewish community, and presented his library (Aug.
      19, 18.59) to the Lehr- und Lcseverein, which Abra-
      ham Geiger founded in 1842. lie is the author of
      "Pai-abeln," 3 vols., Berlin, 1820 (3 vols., Breslau,
      1826); "Der Geist des Orients," Breslau, 1830. In
      conjunction with Kley he published a prayer-book,
      "Die Deutsche Synagoge," etc., in 2 parts, Berlin,

      BiBr.iocRAPHV : Kayserllnsr, UiliUothck JUdischtr KiuizeU
      tcilner. i. 1.5 et seq.; Nowag, ScldcsiKches Schriftstcller-
      Lfxiknn, s.v.; Winter and Wiinsche, Die Jtldische Littera-
      tto' scit .ift.sT/(7u,ss defi Kanon!<, iii. 773.

      s. B. P.

      G'tJNZBURG : Town of Bavaria, in the province
      of Swabia, on tlie Danube. A small but flourishing
      Jewish community existed there in the sixteenth
      century. In 1566 the Jews of Giinzburg petitioned
      Emperor Maximilian II. to recognize as rabbi Isaac
      ha-Levi, who had ofliciated in that capacity for
      thirty years. Tlie official recognition was sought in
      consequence of family quarrels between members of
      the community, which the rabbi was powerless to
      settle so long as his authority w'as unrecognized.
      Among these members was the rich and influential
      Simeon Giinzburg, ancestor of the Giinzburg family.
      Solomon Luria (ReSHaL; Responsa, No. 11) ex-
      presses his astonishment that discord could have
      found room in such a pious and learned congrega-
      tion as that of Giinzburg.

      The community has long since ceased to exist;
      but the name of the town is familiar to tlie Jews
      from the fact of its having been the birthplace of
      the Giinzburg, Gliuz, and Gaunz families.

      BIBLIOCRAPHY : A. Kohut, Gcsch. dcr Juden in DmitseMnnd,
      p. .5f>l ; David Magffid, Zur (jesch, und fientalngU: dcr
      Oiinztmrgr, St. Pet^i-sburg, 1899; Kenescl YehczkeU '>4b.
      D. ' I. Bll.

      GUNZBURG (also spelled GINZBURG,
      GUNSBERG): Family wliich originated in the
      town of GiJNZBUUc.. It is believed that the family
      went thither from the city of Ulm, Wi'irttemberg,
      and that for this reason the best-known progenitor
      of tlie familj'and someof his immediate descendants,
      as well ascertain others, called themselves "Ulma




      Giinzburg." The Ulm, Ulma, and Ullnian families
      are supposed to be branches of tiie Giinzburg family.
      Kaufmanu ("R. Jair Chajini Bacharach luid Seine
      Ahnen," p. 45, Treves. 1894) proves (hat "Gunz"
      and "Gaimz " are simply variants of "Giinzburg."

      When, early in the emancipation period, the Jews
      of Russia and of Austria were ordered by their gov-
      ernments to adopt family names, it was natural (hat
      many of them should choose a name so respected
      and pleasing as that of Giinzburg. There is on
      record a lawsuit instituted b^' Baer Giinzburg of
      Grodno against a Jewish family of that city who
      had adopted the same name under the decree of 1804
      (Maggid, "Toledot]NrishpeliotGinzburg," p. 339, St.
      Petersburg, 1899). The court sustained the right of
      Jewish families to adopt any name they chose, and the
      number of Giinzburg families accordingly increased.

      The following is a part of the genealogical tree
      constructed by Maggid in the work quoted above:



      physician: Talniudic scholar of the eighteenth cen-
      tury. Contrary to the custom of tlie Polish Tal-
      mudists of that time, Giinzburg turned his mind to
      the study of secular sciences. lie studied medicine
      in the University of Gottingen, but did not neglect
      the Talmud. In 1T37 he applied to Jacob Emden
      to determine the question whether he was allowed
      to dissect on Saturdays the bodies of dead animals.
      Emden's answer ('' She'elat Ya'abez," No. 40) shows
      that he held Giinzburg in great esteem. Giinzburg's
      medical work is entitled " De Medicina ex Tal-
      mudicis Illustrata," GiJttingen, 1743. Hillcl Noah
      Maggid thinks that Benjamin Wolf Gunzburg of
      Ostrog, whose novelhe are to be found in Joshua
      Falk's "Goral Yehoshua'," may be identified with
      the physician of the Gottingen University.

      Jeliiel iif Porto

      Abraham (or Eliezer)

      Simeon Ulma-Uunzburg (d. 1586)

      Asher Aaron


      Jacob nima, teacher of R. Lipman Heller

      Simeon (Scholtes)


      Isaac of Worms (1615)

      Naphtall Hirz, rabbi of
      Pinsk and Slutsk


      Saul, rabbi of Pinsb



      Asher of Vizun

      (and Pinsk?)


      Aryeh Lob, author of
      " Sha'agat Aryeh."

      Aaron " Slitadlan
      of Wiina

      (R. Kalman's






      Kalonymus Kalman
      of i'insk


      Asher (d. 1791)


      Aaron .Tudah L5b

      (RU'': d. 1804)


      auUior of

      Rnzon "


      Isaac Lob

      Morderal Klaczko
      (d. 184L')


      Hayyah Zlata,

      m. Moses Rosenthal

      (d. 18B4)

      Naphtali Hirz (d. 1797)

      Gabriel Jacob (1793-1853)

      Elka, m. Hayyim
      Eeschel Rosenberg




      Hannah, m.

      Baron Horace


      Theofllin, m.

      Rose, m.

      Joseph von

      11 Irsch

      Josef Yozel, Baron

      (lSlU'-78) .


      Naphtall Hirz, Baron

      Horace (b. 1833;

      m. Sassoon

      David Mathilde,
      1 m. Gutmaun

      Anne Joseph Vozel Sophie

      Genealogical Thee op the Gijnzbuko Fa.mily.

      BiBMOCRAPHY : Eisenstadt- Wiener, Da'at Krdnshim. pp. 108-
      212, St. Petersbuig, 18ii7-y8: Belinsohn, S'liVume Emmie
      Yisrael. Odessa. 1898; Ei7i Wiirt llher ilie Famnic GuDiz-
      hii r-fi. St. Petersburg, 1858. The chief source is Maggid's work,
      quoted above.

      E. C. P. Wl.

      BIBLTOORAPHT : Sternberg, Gesrhichte fier Judcn in Polmtd,
      p. 14S; maggid, TnlediA Mishpchat GiHj'mry, pp. 53-53.

      II. ri. M. Sel.

      Orientalist and communal leader; born at Kanien-




      etz-Podolsk July 5, 1857. He was educated at
      home, his teaclievs being Adolph Neubauer, Senior
      Sachs, and Hirsch Habinovieh. At tlie age of
      twenty he received the degree of " candidate " at St.
      Petersburg University, after having al tended tlu^ lec-
      tures of Stanislas Guyard at Paris and jiaron Rosen
      at St. Petersburg; later lie studied Arabic poetry
      under Ahlwardt at Greifswald (18~!)-80). He edilcd
      the "Tarshish" of Jloses ibn Ezra in a fascicle
      ■which was issued bj' the Mekize Nirdaniim Society,
      and prepared for the jiress the Arabic translation of
      the same work, with a commentary. He published
      also "Ibn Guzman" (Berlin), and wrote a series of
      articles on " Metrics, " published in the memoirs of the
      Oriental Department of the Russian Areheological
      Society (1803) and of the Keo-Philological Society
      (1892)," in the ".lournal" of the Ministry of Public
      Instruction of Russia, and elsewhere.

      Glinzburg is an enthusiastic patron of Jewish art,
      and is publishing, with Stassov, " L'Ornement He-
      breu " (Berlin, 1903). In this book he gives exam-
      ples of Jewish ornamentation from various manu-
      scripts from Syria, Africa, and Yemen. He has
      edited a catalogue of the manuscripts in the Institute
      for Oriental Languages. Besides he has contrib-
      uted largely to the "Revue des Etudes J uives," to
      the "Revue Critique," to"Voskhod," to"Ha-Yom,"
      and to the collections of articles in honor of Zunz,
      Steinschneider, Baron Rosen, etc.

      Giinzburg's library is one of the largest private
      libraries in Europe, and contains many rare books
      and manuscripts. He is one of the trustees of the
      St. Peter.sburg community, a member of the Com-
      mittee for the Promotion of Culture Among the Jews
      of Russia, the central committee of the Jewish Colo-
      nization Association, the Society for Oriental Studies,
      the Scientific Committee of the Russian Department
      of Public Instruction, and a life-member of the
      Areheological Society of St. Petersburg and of the
      Societfe Asiatique of Paris.

      n. li. 8. J.

      NAPHTALIHIRZ : Lithuanian tinancierand phi-
      lanthropist; born at Wilna about 1793; died at Sim-
      feropol, Crimea, May 2, 1853. After Glinzburg had
      been married at Viteb.sk, he settled at Kamenetz-
      Podolsk. But his business was distributed over
      many other places, and he lived for a certain time
      at St. Petersburg. Glinzburg applied his philan-
      thropy to four towns, Wilna. Vitebsk, Kamenetz-
      Podolsk, and Simferopol ; in the last-named town he
      built a hospital. On the proposition of the Russian
      minister of finances, Nicholas I. conferred on Glinz-
      burg the title of "honorary and hereditary citizen "
      (Oct. 22, 1848).

      BiBi.ioiiRAPMY: Fuenn, Jtiri/ah AVcma7!aft, p. 283; Maggld,
      Tolcdiit Mmpelwt Oinzhurg. pp. 78-81, \W>-U1.
      11. R. M. Sei..

      philanthropist; born Feb. b, 1833, in Zvenigorodka,
      government of Kiev, Russia, where he received his
      education. After the Crimean war his father, Jo-
      seph Giinzburg, then a wealthy merchant and army
      contractor, settled W'ith his family in St. Petersburg.

      Horace tirst came before the public in 1863 as one
      of the founders of the Society for the Promotion of

      Horace Giinzl)iirg.

      Culture Among the Jews of Russia, the only society
      of the kind in Russia. He was one of the charter
      members of the society, and after the death of his
      father in 1878 suc-ceeded him in the presidency,
      which olliee h(^ still holds, lie was the largest con-
      tributor to itssupport
      and one of its most
      energetic woik(is
      The work uhi(h
      made him so w idc 1\
      popular among tin
      Jews was his unu
      mitting efl'oit, m
      which frequent ap-
      peals to the Russi in
      government wtie m
      volved, toward the
      improvement of the
      legal status of his
      coreligionists, and foi
      the securing b^ legis
      l.'ition, as well as b^
      other means, of th( ir
      economic and moral

      In the year 1870 he
      was summoned as an

      expert before the commission on the "Jewish ques-
      tion," which met under the auspices of the Ministry
      of the Interior.

      He was chairman of the Jewish congress which,
      by permission of the government, assembled in St.
      Petersburg in 1883. In 1887 he was invited to par-
      ticipate in the discussions of the high commission
      on the Jewish question, under the presidency of
      Count Pahlen. In 1880 he became a member of the
      board of governors of the temporary commission
      for the organization of a society for the purpose
      of encouraging Russian Jews to engage in agricul-
      ture and trades. Since 1893 he has been chairman
      of the central committee of the Jewish Agricultural
      Society. One of the colonies in Argentine is named
      in honor of Baron Glinzburg. In 1890 he was elected
      president of the Hygienic and Low-House-Rent So-
      ciety of St. Petersburg. In 1901 he became presi-
      dent of the board of directors of the Jewish Agricul-
      tural Farms in Minsk, and director of the Jewish
      Agricultural Scliool in Novo-Poltavka.

      The Jewish community of St. Petersburg is also
      under obligation to Baron Glinzburg for its syna-
      gogue, of which he is president. He is also the head
      of the new school erected in honor of the wedding
      of Czar Nicholas II. This institution is non-sec-

      Baron Giinzburg is also closely identified with
      other institutions of a non-sectarian character. He
      has been an honorary member of the committee of
      the Prince Oldenburg Infant Asylum since 1863, and
      honorary member of the Society for Improving the
      Condition of Poor Children of St. Petersburg since
      1876. Between 1868and 1872 he was consul-general
      of Hesse-Darmstadt. In 1871 the title "baron " was
      bestowed upon him by the Grand Duke of Hesse-
      Darmstadt, permission being given by the czar to
      ac(^ept that title of nobility. In 1880, 1884, and
      1888 he received successively the titles of " counsel




      of commerce," "secretary of state," and "member
      of the council of commerce of the Treasury Depart-
      ment. " For many years he was an alderman of St.
      Petersburg, but, upon tlie passage of a statute pro-
      hibiting the election of Jewish aldermen, vacated
      that oltice. Baron Giinzburg was repeatedly elected
      trustee of the charitable affairs of tlie Stock Ex-
      change of St. Petersburg aud member of the
      ccumcil of tlie Stock Exchange Hospital. He con-
      tribuled heavily to the erection of tha latter institu-
      tion. In 1898 he was elected member of the com-
      mittee of the Society for the Dissemination of
      Commercial Knowledge, and iu the same year be-
      came chairman of the liouse committee of the
      Women's Sewing-School of the Czarina Maria Alex-
      androvna. In 1899 he was made trustee of the
      School of Conuuerce of Czar Nicholas II. In 1900
      lie was chosen a member of the committee of
      the Russian Society for the Protection of Women.
      He is (1903) a member of the board of the Treasury
      Department of the Stock Exchange, aud a member
      of the executive board of the St. Petersburg Arche-
      ological Institute. Even at bis present advanced
      age he is often invited by the government to sit on
      commissions for the revision of general legislation.
      Very recently {1895, 1900-01) he has been associated
      with such imperial commissions fortheaiuendmentof
      the laws governing the Slock Exchange, stock com-
      panies, corporations, and mining companies. The
      seventieth birthday of Baron Giinzburg, which was
      coincident with the fortieth anniversary of his entry
      upon an educational career, was celebrated all over
      Europe and also in New York and many other cities
      of the United States. On this occasion the Russian
      goverument conferred on the baron the medal of
      St. Anue (1st class). In New York a Baron de Giinz-
      burg Fund has been started, the interest of which
      will be given periodically as a premium for the best
      work on Jewish history and literature.

      H. u. " M. R.

      sian sculptor ; son of Meyer Jacob; born at Grodno
      May, ISoO. The sculptor Antokolski, on his way
      through Wilna in 1870, happened to notice one of
      young Gliuzburg's attemjjts at sculpture. Struck
      by the evidence of ability, be took the boy with him
      to St. Petersburg. Giinzburg was then but ten
      years of a.ge. He studied for a time with Anto-
      kolski, Ryepin, and Semiradski, and later accom-
      panied his patron to Italy. On his return to St.
      Petersburg he entered the high school, and gradu-
      ated in 1878.

      In 188C he was graduated from the St. Petersburg
      Academy of Arts, winning the small gold medal.
      In 1889 he was awarded a prize for his exhibits at
      the Paris Exhibition. Since then his work has ap-
      peared regularly among the annual exhibits of the
      St. Petersburg Academy of Arts, and also at other
      European exhibitions. He has executed about
      twenty studies in child life, besides a number of
      portraits and statuettes of famous Russians, such as
      Tolstoi. Rubinstein, Tchaikovski, D. P. Mendeleyev,
      and others, as well as a number of busts. He ex-
      hibited twelve studies at the Paris Exposition of
      1900. and was awarded a gold medal.

      His elder brother, Boris Yakovlevich Giinz-

      burg, is a railway engineer aud constructor in the
      service of the Russian government.

      Bibliography : Mir Bozhi, May and June, 1903 (an autu-
      blograpUieal slietcli) .
      II R D. G.


      Russian Talmudisl; lived at Bicst-Lilovsk in the
      second half of the seventeenth century and at the be-
      ginning of the eighteenth. His father officiated as
      rabbi of Brest from 1664 until 1685. and Joseph oc-
      cupied for many years the position of communal
      leader. He was the author of " Leket Yosef, " a lexi-
      con for preachers, giving in alphabetical order all
      the haggadot and the moral sentences fouud in rab-
      binical literature, published first in 1688 (Ham-
      burg ?). He wrote also novellK on the Pentateuch,
      "Hiddushe Torah," which were published together
      with those of Isaac Benjamin Wolf, author of "Na-
      halat Binyamin," under the title "Leket Yosef,"
      Offenbach, 1716.

      Bibliography: Steinschneider, Cat. Bofll. col. 1471; Furst,
      I3il)l. Jud. 1. 348 ; Zeduer, Cat. Hebr. Dnoks Brit. Mus. p.
      G. I. Br.

      BRIEL JACOB: Russiau huaneier and pliilan-
      thnipist; born 1813; died at Paris Jan. 12, 1878.
      Having acquired great wealth during the Crimean
      war, Giinzburg established a banking firm at St.
      Petersburg. There he began to labor on behalf of
      the welfare of the Jewi,sh community. In Nov.,
      18G1, he was appointed by the Russian government
      member of the rabbinical commission, the meetings
      of which lasteil five mouths. He exerted liimself to
      raise the standard of the education of the Jews, and
      to this effect he founded in 1863 with the permission
      of the Russian government the Society for th» Pro-
      motion of Culture Among the Jews, of which he
      tilled the office of president till his death. Owing
      to Glinzburg's efforts, the regulations concerning
      the military service of the Jews were in 1874 made
      identical with those of the peoples of other creeds.
      He also instituted a fund for the Talmud Torah of
      Wilna, his father's native town. Giinzburg was
      ennobled bj' the Grand Duke of Hesse-Darmstadt
      Nov. 9, 1870, and created baron Aug. 2, 1874.

      Bibliography: Fuenn, Kcncsct Tisract, p. 460; Archives
      Itiraaues, 1878, p. 89.
      II. R. M. Sel.

      JTJDAH ASHER: Russian Hebrew writer; born
      at Salauty, goverument of Kovno, Dec. 3, 1795; died
      at Wilna Nov. 5, 1846. Having stuilied Hebrew
      aud Talmud under his father, lie contiuued their
      study at Shavly, until 1816, under his father-iu-law.
      Thence he went to Polangen and Jlitau, Courland.
      where he taught Hebrew and translated legal papers
      into Germau. His conscientious and exact teaching
      won him considerable influence over the Jews of
      Courland, where, because of his thorough knowl-
      edge of German, he came to be known as the "Ger-
      manist." He did not stay in Courland long, but
      after a period of wandering settled at Wilna.

      His philosophy of reh'gion was based on the only
      two books which were within his reach when he was
      a young man: a Hebrew translation of Slendels-


      THE .JEWISH EN( V( l.ol'KDIA



      solin's " Pliaedon " and llie " Sofer Im-Beiit " of Tliiin--
      lias Klijali b. Mci'r. He stniggk'd energetically
      against Cabala and superstition as llic sources of the
      Ilasidic movement: but, lie was at the same time
      oiiposed to freelliiMking. and regarded tlie German

      rabbis as unlit for
      llie rabbiniea! olliee.
      Gi'mzburg was the
      creator of the modern
      Hebrew jirose style.
      He never hesitated to
      borrow exjiressions
      froiuTalmudic- litera-
      ture oreven from the
      modern languages,
      'iut the expressions he
      1 irrowed never eon-
      ?!j dieted with the spirit
      of the Hebrew. He
      begins a chapter gen-
      erally with a fable.
      Glinzburg's style is in its form somewhat archaic,
      but is at the same time simple and clear. He exerted
      a salutary influence over the masses of his coreligion-
      ists, and especiallj' over the younger generation.
      He wrote:

      (Jelot ha-Arez ha-Hadasbah, on tlie discovery of America,
      iiclapted from Campe. Wilna, 182.3.

      Toledot Bene ha-Adani, a ujiiversal history, adapted from
      Politz's " Wellfjeschichte." First part ih. ls;t2. A few cbaptei-s
      of the second vuUime were puljlislied in the "Leket Amarim,"
      a supplement to " Ha-Meliz," 18S9 (pp. .5:)-,si).

      Kiryat Sc-fer, a collection of 103 model letters in Hebrew.
      Wilna, 1835.

      Mal'akut Filon ha-Yehudi. an adaptation of Eckhard's Ger-
      man translation of Pbilo's embassy to Caligula. Wilna, 1S:J7.

      'Ittote Russiya, a history of Russia. Wilna, 1839.

      Ha-Zarfatim be-Russiya, a history of the French invasion of
      Russia in lsl2-i:3. Wilna, 1842.

      -Magpid Emet, a refutation of Lilienthal's " Mapffid Ve.shu'ah.''
      Lfipsic, 1843.

      Debir, a collection of letters, tales, and sketches, mostly trans-
      lations from the German. Wilna, 1844-62.

      Pi ha-Hirot, a history of the Russian invasion of France in
      ISKS-l.j. ' Wilna, 1»14.

      Yeme ha-Dor, a history of Europe from 1770 to 1812. Wilna,


      Hamat Dammesek, a history of the Damascus affair of 1840.
      KiJnigsberg, 18ti0.

      Abi'ezer, autobiography. Wilna, 1864.

      Tikkun Laban ba-Arami, a satirical poem. Wilna, 18R4.

      Ha-Moriyyab, a cuilcrtiDn of brief essays. Warsaw. 1878.

      Lei Sliitinnunm. a vision, adapted from Zschokke's "Abeu-
      teuer." Wilna, 18S4.
      Biin.ior.R.vruy : Giinzburg, Ahi'czer, Wilna, 1864: Maggid,

      Tiilcdnt Mi.thpch'il Ghizhuru, pp. 86-ll(i, St. Petersburg.

      1899: Slouschz, La Rcnai.ixancc de la Littcrahire Hr-

      hraique, pp. 88-89, Paris, 1903.
      11. li. M. Sri..

      EZER : German scholar: communal worker: born
      ;ii Gliuzburg, Bavaria, lOOG; died at Burgau .Ian. 9,
      l.">8.5. He was the first who adopted anil transmitted
      to his descendants the name "Gi'mzburg" asa family
      name. He was a rich merchant, and traveled around
      in Germany and Poland in the interests of his busi-
      ness. He was also a great Talmudist, and had .some
      knowledge of secular sciences. It is probiibly ow-
      ing to these facts that Simon Glinzburg is variousl}-
      described by dilferent historians. Albertrandy.
      quoted by Sternberg ("Gesch. dcr Juden in Poleii,"
      p. 148), says: "Simon, also called Selig Giluzburg,
      was known as a celelirated architect and geometer.
      VI.— 8

      He wrote many works, and was the liead of tlie rab-
      binate and yeshibah." It seems that Albertrandy
      confused Simon Gi'mzburg with the physician Selig
      Giinzbnrg of Sliitsk. Czacki cites him as the
      court physieian of King Sigismund August and
      chief id' the community of Posen (Griitz. "(iesch."
      i.\. 4-IS). But Simon Gilnzburg never settled at
      Posen. His residence was (irst at Gi'mzburg, where
      lie built a synagogue and eslablished a cemetery:
      and then he settled at Burgau, a neigliboring town.
      There also he worked for the welfare of the com
      imtiiily. for which reason his name is commemorated
      ill a special prayer.

      Uiiii.iooinPiiY; SnTnberg, GoT/iic/ifc <l(r Jmlni in I'nirn,
      p. 148; (iratz, (irscli.M ed., ix. 44N; i\;\KKM. TdlcdnlMish-
      lirhol t;inzhwv. pp. 4 cf .scQ.; David Kaiiiiiiaiin, ili. p. 17.5.

      II. I!. JI. Si;i..

      and llrbrrw ^vriter; born at KIrrk. goveniiiient of
      Minsk, in 184:!; died at Odessa iMarcli 14, IsflO. At
      the age of ten Gurland entered the rabbinical school
      of Wilna, from which he graduated as rabbi in 18G0.
      Then he went to St. Petersburg, and was admitted
      to attend the lectures of the philological faculty, de-
      voting himself to the study of Semitic languages
      under the direction of Chwolson. During his stay
      at the university Gurhind translated inio Russian
      the failles of Lokman. and published a dissertation
      on the influence of the Arabian pliilosojihy on Jloses
      JIaiinonides— a subject proposed by the faculty, and
      for his treatment of which Gurland received a gold
      medal. On obtaining in 18G4 his first degree
      ("candidatus") from the university, Gurland de-
      voted three years to the study of the Kirkovich
      collection of Karaite manuscripts in the Iiii|ierial
      Library. The result of his study was the publica-
      tion, in Russian, of a work on the life of jMordeca.i
      Comtino and his contemporaries, which gained for
      its author the degree of "magister." Gurland was
      then charged with the cataloguing of the Hebrew
      liooks of the Imperial Library. In 18()!t he went to
      Yekaterinoslav, where he was apjiointed examining
      magi.strate iuone of the precincts. In 1873 Gurland
      was appointed inspector of the normal colleges for
      teachers at Jitomir, a position which he held for
      seven years. The government conferred upon him
      two orders and the title of "college councilor." In
      1880, in consequence of illness. Gurland went to
      Germany, where he sojourned for three years. On
      his return, he settled at Odessa, and founded there a
      classic and scientific college of eight cla.sses. with a
      curriculum including Jewish hi.story and Hebrew
      literature. In 1888 Gurland was elected govern
      nieiit rabbi of Odessa.

      Gurland was the author of the following: (1)
      "O Vliyanii Filosofii Musiilmanskoi Religii na
      Filo.sotiyu Religii ;\Ioiseya .Mainionida," St. Peters-
      burg, 1863. (3)"Ma'ainarlia-T;iiiiniiiz." Chwolson 's
      explanation of the term "Tamniuz " as it is u.sed by
      the prophet Ezekiel. translated from German into
      Hebrew, Lyck, 18()4. (3) "Giiize Yisrael be Sankt
      Petersburg," on the Karaite nianuseriiits of the
      Imperial Library of St. Petersburg. The work
      is divided into finir parts, containing the following
      subjects: (rt) a description of voyages to Palestine
      made bv three Karailes of the Crimea in the sev-




      enteenth and eigliteeutb centuries, published at
      Lycli, 1865; {/>) a description of tljc nmnuscripts
      of tlie Imperial Library dealing with mathematics,
      astrononi}-, and astrblog}'. published in Russian and
      German, 8t. Petersburg, IStiO; (c) extracts from the
      writings of Mordeeai Conilino, Caleb Afendopolo.
      and Abraham Bali, published us an appendix to Gur-
      land's dissertation "Novyye JIaterialy dlya Istorii
      Yevreiskoi Literatury XV Stolyetiya. il. Kuma-
      tiano.YevoZhizn, Sochinenij-a 1 Sootecbestveuniki,"
      St. Petersburg, ISeii; ((?) " Peniue ha-JIelizot," a
      collection of sentences, proverbs, and maxims of
      divers sages, ib. 1867. (4) "Tif'eret le-.Mosheb,
      Gloire a Mo'ise," in honor of Moses jNIontetiore, St.
      Petersburg, 1867. (.5) " Luah Yisrael," a Jewish al-
      manac in Russian and Hebrew, published tiist (only
      Russian) at Kiev, 1877; secondly, at Warsaw, 187^>;
      thirdly, at St. Petersburg, 1879; fourthly, ib. 1880.
      (6) "Luah YeshuruD," Hebrew and Russian calen-
      dar for the year 1884, St. Petersburg, 1883. (7)
      "Le-Korot ha-Gezerot be- Yisrael," a collection of
      memoirs, documents, and elegies on the persecu-
      tions of the Jews in Poland in 1648, with historical
      anuotation.s, published in "Ozar ha-Sirrut," 1887-89.
      His hrotber, Jacob Gurland, rabbi of Poltava,
      is the aidhor of "Kcbod ba-Bayit," on the rabbin-
      ical school of Wilna, 1858.

      Bibliography : Snkolnv, ttefer Zikkarnn, pp. 1.33 ct xeq.; Zeit-
      lin, miA. Pnsl-MiiHlrls. p. l:il.

      11. u. I. Br.

      GUTAH, ZEBAHIAH: Talmudic author of
      the seventeenlh centuiy; died at Cairo in 1047. He
      was a pupil of Jehiel Bassani and Joseph di Trani
      while living in Constantinople. He removed later
      to Jerusalem, and thence to Hebron, and finally
      settled in Cairo. Among his disciples was Jndah
      Sharaf. Two years after Gutali's death his remains
      were taken to the Holy Land and there buried (see
      AzuLAl). Under the title "Zera' Ya'akob " Gutab
      wrote a commentary on the "Bet Yosef " of Caro;
      he also composed various liaggadic works and made
      collections of responsa. One volume of these, with
      the approbations of Bassani and Trani, has been
      preserved to the present daj'. Gutah's works are
      in manuscript only.

      BiBLiOGRAPnY : Confortp, Kurt; ha-Dornt, p. ola, Berlin, 1S4(> ;
      Aziilai, Shf^m ha-(_ictlolim\ Benjacob, Ozar hii-Scfttrim,
      p. 5.i6.
      D. L. GRl'r.

      GUTERBOCK, LUDWIG : German physician ;
      born ut Berlin (let. 2:i. 1S14 (University of Beilin,
      M.D. 1837); died there Feb. 28, 1895. He settled in
      his native city, and practised there until his death.

      Giiterbock wrote several essays for the medical
      journals, and was one of the collaborators on the
      "Jahi-esberichte iiber die Fortscbritte der Gesamm-
      ten Medicin in Allen Landern." He was also the
      author of " Schiinlein's Klini.sche Vortriige in dem
      Charite-Krankenhause zu Berlin," Berlin, 1840 (3d
      ed., 1844). and " Dr. Schimlein als Arzt und Kli-
      nischer Lehrer," ih. 1843.

      BIBLIOGRAPHY: V!\Sf\. liinil. LiJ'.

      s. F. T. 11.

      GUTERBOCK, PAUL : German surgeon ; born
      at Berlin June 2. IS44; died there Oct. 17, 1897. He
      was educated at Ihe universities of AViirzburg and

      Berlin, graduating (M.D.) in 1865. After postgrad-
      uate couises in Vienna, Paris, London, and Edin-
      burgh, he began to practise in Berlin in 1866, be-
      coming at the same time assistant at the surgical
      clinic of the university. In 1873 he was admitted
      to the medical faculty of the university as privat-
      docent in surgery ; in 1884 he was appointed assessor
      to the health board of Brandenburg; in 1894 he re-
      ceived the title of "professor," and in 1896 of "Ge-
      heimer Medizinalrath." His special surgical prov-
      ince was in male genital diseases. He was one of
      the collab(u-ators of the " Jahresberichte viber die
      Fortscbritte der Gesaminten IMedicin in Allen Lan-
      dern," and has written many essaj's in the medical
      journals. Among Gliterbock's works the follow-
      ing may be mentioned: "Die Neueren Methoden
      der Wundbebandluug auf Statistischer Grundlage,"
      Berlin, 1876; "Die Englischen Krankenhauser," ji.
      1881; "Die Chirurgischen Krankheiten der Ilarn-
      und Mannlichen Geschlechtswerkzeuge," Vienna,

      Bim,ioi;p.APnY: Pasel, Bioy. Lex.; Anton Bettelheim, Biog.
      BUitta: 1S9S, p. :.■•..
      s. F. T. H.

      trian merchant; iibilanthropisl ; brolher of Wilhelm
      von Gutmann ; born at Leipuik, Moravia, Dec. 24,
      1834. As president of the Israelitiscbe AUianz of
      Vienna he did much for the relief of his persecuted
      coreligionists in Russia in 1882, as well as in Ru-
      mania in 1900, and after the Kishinef outrages in
      1903. He is president of the Jews' poorhouse and
      of the Baron dc Hirsch school-funds for Galicia, and
      is a member of the board of trustees of the Jewish
      congregation. In 1879 Gutmann was created Knight
      of the Iron Crown and raised to the hereditary

      BrBLiouRAPHY: H. Wledniann, Fattschrift Anlliiislich dea
      Vicrziwilhrigcn Geschtlft^uhilUums des Hauses Gut-
      s. E. J.

      GUTMANN, MOSES : Bavarian rabbi ; born in
      Baiersd.irr 1805; died at Redwitz Feb, 1, 1883;
      son of Vom-Tob Gutmann. Moses Gutmann was
      educated at Erlangen Universit)-. and when twenty-
      two years old was elected district rabbi of Redwitz,
      which ollice he held for thirty-five years. He was
      the first rabbi of Bavaria with an academic educa-
      tion as well as a thorough Talmudical training who
      espoused the cause of Reform, to ■which fact his con-
      tributions to Gciger's "Zeitschrift fl'ir Jlid. Tlieolo-
      gie," Stein's " Volkslehrer," and several of his re-
      sponsa bear wilness. He published a translation,
      with notes, of the Apocrypha, under the title "Die
      Apokrypben des A. Testaments aufs Neue aus dera
      GriechLschen Text Ueber.setzt" (Altona, 1841). His
      translation of Josephus with a scholarly Latin
      commentary has remained in manuscript.
      BiBLiocRAPiiY : Alli). Zeit. des Jurl. x,xvl. 150 ct scq.

      s. :\r. K


      Austrian merchant; philanthropist; born at Leip-
      nik, Moravia, Aug. 18, 1835; died at Vienna May
      17, 1895. Destined for a teacher, the unlooked-
      for death of bis father made it necessary f(u- him to
      enter into commerce to suiiport his mother and two




      younger children. Utter failure was (he result of
      his first venture, and the savings (if his parents were
      entirely lost. As manager of a linie-worlis his atten-
      tion was directed to the coal-deposits of Silesia, and
      lie planne<l for their development. In 18o:i he and
      his brother David established the linn which, (lur-
      ing the M'ar of IHoD-GO, despite tlit^ ditlieulties
      then surrounding business ventures, supplied coal
      for all the railroads, for all the great factories
      throughout the empire, and for the cities of Vienna,
      Budapest, and Briiim. Gutmann liros. leased some
      coal-mines from the Rothschilds in liSOr), and pur-
      chased outright other valuable carboniferous prop-
      erties in Silesia, Galieia, and Hungary. The clo.se
      connection between coal and the production of
      iron easily led the Gutmauns to combine their in-
      terests with the Witkowitz iron-works, which they
      afterward owned conjointly with the Rothschilds and
      the counts Larisch and Audrassy. With KulTner
      they built (1871) the first sugar-factory in Au.stria.

      In philanthropy Gutmann displayed no less en-
      thusiasm and activity than in business. Xumerous
      institutions for the care of the poor and the sick
      either owe their foundation solely to him or are
      imder obligation to his generous beneficence for
      assistance. Of such may be mentioned: girls' or-
      phanage at Diililing, founded by the brothers Wil-
      Uelm and David, and endowed with 300,000 fl.
      (8120,000) ; a hospital for children, with fifty beds, at
      the Polyklinik in Vienna, to which organization they
      also gave 60,000 11. (824,000) for the erection of the
      premises. They founded also a hospital at Krems,
      which accommodates 60 cripples.

      Wilhelm von Gutmann was elected to the Lower
      Austrian Diet, where he gave impetus to the reform
      of the poor-laws. The comnninity conferred upon
      him its highest honors. lie held the offices of presi-
      dent of the community (1890-92) and of the Jewish
      Theological Seminaiy. Through a daughter by a
      second marriage he became father-in-law to Sir
      Francis Montefiore. By will he left 200.000 15.
      (§80,000). the interest of which was to be divided
      equally among the indigent Jews and Christians of
      Vienna. Gutmann was delegate of the Vienna
      Chamber of Commerce in the Diet of Lower Aus-
      tria, and honorary citizen of Liepnik and 3Iahrisch-

      Biiii.iooRArHV: Jcirixh Chrmiicle, May 24,189.1; Wlefimann,
      Festsichrift AnlflKiHch des Vierziyjfihrigcn Gcscliiiftsjii,-
      hiUlums des Haiu-tv Gtitmann.
      S. F. S. W.

      GTJTTMANN, JAKOB: Hungarian sculptor;
      born in Arad 1811; died in Vienna April 28, 1860.
      In his early childhood he carved toys, and in 1833
      went to Vienna to satisfy his artistic cravings. Here
      he became an engraver, and worked for three years
      with his burin. He then received a scholarship
      from Prince Metternich. which enabled him to study
      at the Vienna Academy of Fine Arts. He reiuained
      here until 1843. receiving awards for an embossed
      profile in wax of the emperor Joseph II. and for a
      steel-engraving of Metastasio.

      In 1844 Guttmann produced a bronze statuette
      of Baron Solomon von Rothschild from a portrait,
      and was commissioned by the baron to execute a rep-
      lica in marble. The baron ,-iIso|iaid Gultmami an an-

      nuity, thus enabling him to go to Home. Here he
      modeled his bust of Pope Pius IX., and comjileted
      his master])ieee, " Der Blumenspender."

      While in Rome, Guttmann was deejily interested
      in the ghetto, which he described in letters to his
      father. Later he went to Pitris; and in IS.'iT he be-
      came insane.

      linu.KKatAiMiY: Miiller anil SiiiKer, Allncmritto Klhixller-
      Lfxivaii, il. lin, l-'riiiilifort-on-tlie-Malii, ISOIJ ; Wertliciincr's
      Jahrhucfu iv. S7 <f .vr(/.
      s. A. M. F.

      GUTTMANN, PAUL : German physici;m and
      medical aullior; lioiii at Ratibor, Prussian Silesia,
      Sept. 9, 1833; died in P,erlin May 24, 1893. He re-
      ceived his educaticm at the gymnasium of his native
      town and at the univei^ities of Berlin, Vieima, and
      WUrzburg, graduating from the last-named as doc-
      tor of medicine in 18iJ8. The following year he
      engaged in ])ractise as a physician in Berlin, becom-
      ing a privat-doeent at the university in 1867, and
      in 1879 chief physician of tlu^ Moahit municipal

      Guttmann's reputation as a clinician was widely
      extended. He was the author of about eighty essays
      on different medical subjects. The following are
      his principal works: "Die Physiologie und Patho-
      logic des Sympaticus " (with Albert Eulenburg),
      which was published in Berlin in 1873. and which,
      on its republication in London in 1879. received the
      Astley-Cooper prize: and " Lehrbuch der Klim'schen
      Untersuchungsmethoden," Berlin, 1884. From I'^So
      to 1.893 Guttmann was the editor of the ".Tourn;il fiir
      Practische Aerzte."

      Biiu.iooRAPHY : Jciii. Chraii June 9, ISiW ; Ilirscli, rSiog.
      Ler. S.V.. Vienna, 1884: Paget, King. Lex. s.v., Vienna,

      s. F. T. n.

      GUTTMANN, SAMUEI. : German gynecolo-
      gist and medied writer; born at Ostrowo, Prussia,
      1839: died at Berlin Dec. 22. 1893. After comple-
      ting his course at the gymnasium he entered the
      University of Berlin, graduating thence as doctor of
      medicine in 1804. In 1866 he settled as a physician
      temporarily in Drebkau, Prussian Silesia, but sub-
      seipiently removed to Berlin, where he succeeded in
      building up a large practise, and became a specialist
      in gynecology.

      For a few years he was a regular contributor to
      the ".lahrbuch fur Practi.sche Aerzte," and was also
      assistant editor of the "Deutsche Medizinische
      Wochenschrift," succeeding Paul Albrecht ]?oerner
      in the editorship on the death of the latter in 188.5.
      At this time he was also editing the "Reichsmedi-
      zinal-Kalender." He was one of the collaborators
      in the series of publications, edited by Leydeii, on
      the "Influenza Epidemic von 1890-91."

      Guttmann wrote many essays on medical sub-
      jects: but his forte lay in organization, for which
      he found a wide field in connection with the jour-
      nals with which he was editorially associated.

      BiBLiofUiAPHY : Jew. Chrtin. .Tan. .'). 18!M ; Ilirscb, Bi<m. Lex.
      S.V., Vienna, LSS-t; Paget, Biog. Lex. s.v.
      s. F. T. II.

      GUTZMANN, HERMANN: German physi-
      cian; biiin at BiUow. in Ponierania, Jan. 29, 186.").
      He received the degree of doctor of medicine from




      the University of Berlin in 1887, and since 1889 lias
      practised as a specialist in diseases of the vocal

      Gutzraanu has published: " Verluitunij; uud Be-
      kiimpfungdes Stotternsin der Schule," Berlin, 188!) ;
      " Vorlcsungen ilber die StOrungeu der Sprache," ib.
      1893: (with Th. S. Flatau) " DieBauehreduerkunst,"
      ib. 1894; and "Ueljer das Stottern," ?7i. 1897. Since
      1891 he has been editor and publisher of the " Mo-
      natssehrift fiir die Gesamrut.e Spraehbeilkunde. "

      BiriLioiiRAi'HV: Pagel, Bind. Lcr. s.v., Vlenrin. VM)l.
      9. F. T. H.

      musieian; liorn at ^Shklov 180(j; died at Bru.ssels
      Oct. 21, 1837. He was descended from a family of
      talented musicians, and became while still a youth
      a skilful performer on many instruments. Accom-
      panied by his father and other members of the fam-
      ily, he made concert tours in Russia, played before

      the emperor Nicholas and the empress in 1838, and,
      after successful concerts in Moscow and Kiev, vis-
      ited Odessa, where he met Lamartine and was ad-
      vised by him to make a tour of Europe. He resided
      in Vienna for tive months, where he was distin-
      guished by the emperor and Prince Metternieh, and
      befriended by artists and musicians. Guzikov ne.xt
      visited Prague, Dresden, and Berlin, and was well
      received at the coiu't of Berlin. From Berlin lie
      went to Paris, and thence to Brussels. Here he fell
      a victim to nervous prostration, of which he died.

      Guzikov was the inventor of the straw violin, on
      which be played with such masterly skill as to create
      great enthu.siasm whei'ever he went. There are
      jnany talentecl musicians among the Guzikov family
      in Russia.

      Biiii.iOKRAPHY: Sc'hlesinger. Uebcr Ouzihnv, Vienna, l.SSii;
      AUg. Zcil. (les Jud. l.s:37, p. 436.
      II n. J. G. L.

      GYMNASIUM. See Gladiator.


      author; born in Ilambin-g Nov. 14, 1797; died there
      Sept. 35. 1869. Following the e.xample of his father,
      the founder of the Jewish School of Hamburg, and
      under the influence of bis guardian, the father of
      Gabriel Riesser, he interested himself early in the
      affairs of the Jews. He took an active part in the
      establishment of the Tempelverein, being one of
      the collaborators in the revision of its prayer-book ;
      and he founded the Verein zur Beforderung Nlitz-
      lieher Gewerbe Untcr den Juden, which he directed
      from 1823 to 1840. In 1840 he became secretary of
      the congregation of Handmrg. Htuirbleicher, who
      possessed an extraordinary knowledge of Romance
      and Germanic languages, and wrote with ease in
      Hebrew, was an acute and clever critic. Forty of
      his songs and poems are contained in the hymn-book
      of the Hamburg congregation. His poem "Hag-
      bahah " was often a.scribed to Gabriel Riesser. Some
      years prior to liis death he published the first part
      of "Zwei Epochen aus der Gesch. der Deutsch-
      Israelitiscben Geineinde in Hamburg," Hamburg,
      1866, a valuable work which remained unfinished.


      AU\i. Zrit. <ha Jud. xx.xiii. 893 et acq.

      M. K.

      HAAS, ROBERT: German Lutheran minister;
      lived in the lirst half of the nineteenth century, in
      the duchy of Nassau ; pastor in the villages of
      Griivenwiesbacli, Dotzheim near Wie.sbaden, Diek-
      scliied near Langenschwalbaeh. He was interested
      in Jewish affairs, and advocated the civic equality
      of the Jews. Among his friends was Abraham
      Geiger. He indorsed the rabbinical convention
      held at Wiesbaden in 1887. In the .same year he
      addressed a circular letter to "all Christians in Ger-
      many " to aid in establishing a faculty of Jewish
      science and a Jewish seminary in a German uni-
      versity. He was the author of "Das Staatsbl'ir-

      girtuni der Juden vom Standpunkt der Inneren
      Politik." Frankfort-on-the-Main, 1837, and of other

      s. M. Si.

      and preacher; born in Dobvowitz, Bohemia, 1710;
      died in Brahilov 1768. He was father-in-law to Sol-
      omon Dubno, and was a preacher in Brahilov. In
      1764 he wrote an account of his journey to Pales-
      tine, " Ahabat Ziyyon " or " Sippure Erez ha-Galil "
      (Grodno, n.d.). A large portion of this book in its
      printed form was, however, written by the Karaite
      Samuel ben David, an earlier traveler in Palestine.
      Haas also published "Neti'ah shel Simhah," speci-
      mens of Hebrew poetry and rhetoric (Grodno,
      1753), and " Leli Simhah." on morals and ascetics (ib.

      Bibliography : himcz, JeniftaUm, iv. 7, ISQetseq.; Renjacob,
      (izar ha-Scfarlm, p. IS; Fiirst. Bibl. .Tuil. 111. 333.
      c. M. K


      Moravian rabbi of the first half of the nineteenth
      century. Haas was successively dayyan at Holle-
      schau and rabbi of Strassnitz. Moravia. He was the
      author of " Kerem Sheloinoh," novellas on the Shul-
      han 'Aruk, Orah Hayyim, Yoreh De'ah, and Ebeu
      ha-'Ezer (Presburg, 1840-46).

      i;«9; Zediier,

      BIBLIOORAPHY: Steinsi-Iineider, Cat. Biull. col.
      Cat. Hehr. Books Brit. Mus. p. 877.

      M. Sel.

      HA-ASIF ("The Harvest"): Hebrew year-
      book, edited and published by Nahum Sokolow in
      Warsaw. Its first volume (5645) appeared in 1884;
      it continued to appear regularly every year until
      1889, when the fifth volume (5649) came out at the
      end instead of at the beginning of the Jewish .year.
      The sixth and last volume (5654) appeared in 1893.
      The " Sefer ha-Shanah " (Book of the Year), which ia




      now aiimiuUy publisliwi by Snkolow, is considered
      11 continuation of " H:i-Asif." The " SeferZilcUaron,"
      a l)io!jrapliieal dieti<inary of contemporary Jewisli
      aulliors, was pvd)lislied as a supplement to the fifth
      volume of "Ha-Asif."

      Most of the better-known nel)rew writers of the
      day have contributed to the six volumes of "ila-
      Asif," which form an important collection of literal y.
      historical, biographical, and popular scientilic es-
      says. They also contain poems, sketches, and
      novels, some of which possess considerable merit ;
      while its yearly reviews, obituaries, and deseri|itions
      of Kusso-Jewish eonununilies arc of great value to
      Jewish biography and history. Samuel Alexan-
      (Irow's " Masseket Nega'im " (Warsaw, 1880) is ii, crit-
      icism of the first two volumes of "'Ha-Asif." A list
      of other reviews of one or more of its numbers is
      given in tlie "Bulletin of the New York Public
      Librarv." vi. 259.

      E. c' P. Wi.

      HABAIAH or HOBAIAH (n-nn, n'an) : Head

      of a family of priesis wlio returned from Babylon
      with Zerubbabel; not being able to prove their
      genealogy, they were excluded from the priesthood
      (Ezra 11^01 ; Neh. vii. 03), In I Esd. v. 38 the name
      is given as " Obdia."

      E. c. u. M. Sei,.

      HABAKKUK (pip3n; LXX. 'AmiaKoifi; Vul-
      gate, " Habaeuc ''); Prophet; author of the eighth
      in the collection of the twelve minor prophet-
      ical books. The etymology of the name of the
      prophet is not clear. It seems to be a loan-word
      representing the Assyrian "hambakuku," a garden-
      plant (Friedrieh Delitzsch, "Prolegomena," p. 84;
      KOnig, "Historiseh-Kritisches Lehrgebiiude dcr He-
      briiiselien Sprache," ii. 1, 473, ou the vocalization),
      and has the appearance of being a writer's pseudo-
      nym (F. E. Peiser, " Der Prophet Habakuk," in
      "Mitteilungen der Vorderasiatischeu Gesellschaft,"
      1903, i. 13), That he was a Levite has been urged
      on the strength of the postscript to eh. iii. (verse 19,
      "on my stringed instruments"), which indicates that
      he owned instruments: only a Levite was author-
      ized to use an instrument to accompany his songs in
      the Temple. The superscription of the Scptuagint
      apocryphon B;//l ml Apaiaji', in the Code.x Chisianus,
      also designates him a Levite.

      The absence of exact information concerning his
      life left a vacuum that has been tilled by myths and
      legends (see Franz Delitzsch, " De Ilabacuci Pro-
      phetic Vita "). The above-named apocry phcm makes
      him a contemporary of Daniel, wliom he was mirac-
      ulously privileged to visit in the lion's den and sup-
      ply with food. In this Greek story his father's
      name is given as "Jesus" (Joshua). Jewish tradi-
      tion makes him the .son of the Shunammite woman
      (see ELisir,\), but nevertheless a contemporary of
      Daniel (see" Seder ha-Dorot " ; Abravanel'scommen-
      tary to Habakkuk; Zohar, Lek Leka; Neubauer,
      "The Book of Tobit," Appendi.x). Of the many
      conceits current among tlie eabalists with reference
      to this prophet, the most curious was that which
      declared him to be the reincarnation of .■\dam. His
      grave was shown at several places (see HuivKOk).

      Peiser (/.<■.) contends that Habakkuk is tlie pseudo-

      nym of a Judean ))rince held as a hostage in Nineveh,
      and who witnes.sed the attack of the Jledcs, in alli-
      ance with Chaldca and Babylon, in ()2.") ii.c. But
      his book announces a second attack.

      The Age This prince may have been the son or

      and Home graiukson of Manasseh. Peiser shows

      of Ha- tliat Habakkuk displays remarkable

      bakkuk. familiarity with Assyrian literature,
      his similes indicating quotations from,
      and ada|)tations of, Assyrian mythological wiitings.
      By others, Habakkuk is mad(' the conlemitorary
      of Jeremiah and a resident of Jerusalem, after the
      "discovery " of Deuleronomy (0'-!l n.c), but before
      the death of Josiah ((iOy B.C.). By many Jewish
      commentators he is assigned to the reign of Manas-
      S(!h. He is, however, clearly under the iulluence of
      Isaiah; and the view wdiich makes him a younger
      disciple of the greater prophet, advanced by Walter
      K. Betteridge in "Journal of American Theology,"
      <_)ct., 1903, seems to meet best the situation reflected
      in the book. The Assyrians, originally regarded by
      the Prophets as appointed agents of Yiiwii, looked
      upon themselves as "gods"(Isa. xiv.); but under
      Sennacherib, through a rebellion of the Babylo-
      nians (the Chaldeans), the plans of the conqueror
      are thwarted. E. G. H.

      HABAKKUK, BOOK OF. — Biblical Data:

      One of the twelve minor prcqjhelical books. It
      readily falls into two parts: (1) ch. i. and ii. ; (2) ch..
      iii. The first part is a "massa" (a condemnatory
      prophecy). But contrary to the u.sa.gc in other
      prophetical books, it is not .stated against what

      people the prophecy is spoken. As it
      Contents, now stands in the Ma.soretic te.xt, the

      first part is in the form of a dialogue.
      Ch. i. 2-4 laments the prevailing moral corruption,
      which God does not seem to heed; i. 5-11 contains
      the divine announcement of an impending judg-
      ment through the Chaldeans; i. 12-17 gives the
      prophet's complaint of the excessive pride and
      cruelty of the enemy. In ch. ii. God admonishes-
      Habakkuk not to judge hastily that evil is trium--
      ])hant, but to remain confident (1-4). Five"wos,'"'
      the contents of the "maslial" or "tatuiting prov-
      eib " (5-6), phrased by the verj' people op|)ressed
      by the conqueror, are enumerated (ti, 9, 12, 13, 19).
      Ch. iii. is a psalm reciting various Iheophanies.
      descril)ing God's warlike power, which bends earth,
      mountains, and rivers to His purposes — yea, even
      sun and moon, in behalf of His people. The song
      concludes with ii declaration that though the bless-
      ings of nature shall fail in days of dearth, the singer
      will rejoice in the Lord (17-19).

      The book abounds in strikingexpressionsand rare
      words, e.i/., the description of the invasion of the
      Chaldeans (i. 6 H .W7.); of God as having "eyes too

      ]Hire to behold evil " (i. 13); of "men
      Style. as fishes of the sea " (i. 14) ; of the

      worship of the fisherman's implements
      (i. 1(5); of "the stone thatcrieth out" (ii. 11); of the
      folly of idolatry (ii. 18-19). Ch. iii. esi)ecially is
      rich in striking similes (14-15). The book is re-
      markable also for ori.ginality. The author departs
      from the usual method of the Prophets. In I heir
      addresses the nation is central: in H:ib.-d;kuk's it




      is God and His government of the world. He at-
      tempts to unravel tlie meaning of God's tolerance of
      tyranny and wrong. In liis que.stious Habakkuk
      voices doubts to God, though not against God
      (G. A. Smith. "Tiie Twelve Prophets," ii. 130
      ct seq. ).

      Critical View: Ch. i. and ii., on the whole,

      are regarded as tlie work of one prophet. Still, the
      te.xt as now presented has been found to contain
      certain difficulties. Taking i. 2-4 to be descriptive
      of Israel's moral corruption, critics have argued that
      this section could not have been part of a prophecy
      devoted to the setting forth of the wrongs under
      which Israel was suffering, a different sense thus at-
      taching to the "wicked" and "righteous" in i. 4
      audi. 13 respectively. Giesebrecht ("Beitrage zur
      Jesaiakritik," pp. 197 et seq.) and Wellhausen
      (" KleinePropheten,"in" Vorarbeiteu und Skizzen")
      therefore consider i. 5-11 to be an older and inde-
      pendent prophecy written previous to the remainder
      of i. and ii. ; ch. i. 12 is regarded as the sequel to i.
      4. The subject of the complaint in i. 2 is different
      from that in ii. 1. Kirkpatrick (" Doctrine of the
      Prophets," p. 268) holds the book as a whole to
      be the fruit of religious reflection, giving con-
      clusions reached only "after a prolonged mental

      That i. 5-6. where the power of the Chaldeans
      is represented as still of the futm'e, and i. 13-16, ii.
      10, 17 disagree, tliough their descriptions of foreign
      nations appear to be based on actual observation, is
      anot her dilticulty raised by critical scholars. Budde
      (in "Studien und Kritiken," 1893, pp. Z'SZ et seq.),
      reverting to a certain extent to Kuenen's disinclina-
      tion to assume an earlier and a later section (see
      Knenen, "Histori.sch-Criti.sch Onderzoek," ii. 386 fd
      seq., Leyden. 1889), showed that Habakkuk had in
      mind two world-powers; an oppressor (i, 2-4), and
      the Chaldeans, appointed to punish him (i. 5 et seq.).
      But this necessitates the placing of i. 5-11 after
      ii. 4. The oppressor to be destroyed is Assyria.*
      and the Chaldeans are the implement of God's
      judgment. It is of the Assyrian's pride that the
      prophet speaks, not of the Chaldeans' presump-

      Ch. iii. is a psalm, not free from mythological
      elements and not by Habakkuk. It must have
      formed part of a liturgical collection, accidentally
      incorporated with Habakkuk's prophecies (Stade's
      "Zeitschrift," iv. 1.57 et seq.). The te.xt is corrupt in
      many places (Wellhausen, " Die Kleinen Propheten,"
      3d ed.). Verses 17-19 are additions by later hands,
      verse 18 being a eulogy, such as is frequently found
      at the close of liturgical songs.

      Bibliography : Nowaclf. Die Kleinen Propheten. Gottingen,
      IS'.iT; Botbstein, in Studien und Krllihcn.Vm: Budde, in
      The Expositor, May, 1895.

      E. G. H.
      HABAB or HABBAR. See Zoroastiu


      HABAZINIAH (n-JVnn) : The head of a family
      of Rechabites. His giand.son Jaazaniali was a chief
      of the Kechabites in the time of Jeremiah (Jer.
      XXXV. 3).

      E. G. H. M. SeL.

      HABAZZELET. See Periodicals.


      (n^nan, nbl2ii. xn^iax = " separation " ; "distinc-
      tion"); The rabbinical term for the benedic-
      tions and prayers by means of which a division is
      made between times of varying degrees of holiness,
      e.ff., between Sab-
      bath and work-day,
      festival and work-
      day, or Sabbath and
      festival. The rabbin-
      ical law requires that
      a formal separation
      be made between
      holy and profane
      times, and prohibits
      the resumption of or-
      dinary work after a
      holy day until such
      division shall have
      been made. This is
      accomplished by pro-
      nouncing the Habda-
      lah. At the evening
      service of a da_y fol-
      lowing one of greater
      holiness, words ex-
      pressing the distinc-
      tion are inserted in
      the " 'Amidah " ; and
      just before the con-
      clusion of the service
      a special Habdalah
      ceremony is p e r-
      formed. This is be-
      gun, in all cases, b_v
      pronouncing a bene-
      diction over a cup of
      wine, or, if wine can
      not be obtained, over
      any other beverage
      except water ordi-
      narily used in the
      country where the
      ceremony takes
      place. At the conclu-
      sion of the Sabbath
      are added brief bene-
      dictions over spices
      and a freshly kindled
      light. These are fol-
      lowed by a lengthier
      benediction in which
      the distinction be-
      tween the holy and
      the profane is em-
      phasized, and thanks are given to God as the Author
      of this distinction.^

      While pronouncing the benediction over the light
      it is customary to open and close the hands and to

      gaze at the finger-nails. For this, three

      Blessing reasons are given ; (1) in older to obey

      Over Light, the Tahnudic precept which prohibits

      the pronunciation of a benediction over
      light unless one derives some advantage therefrom
      ("En mebarekin 'al ha-ner 'ad she-ye'otu le-oro";
      Ber. 53b); (2) because the nails in their unceasing

      Haljdalali LiKlit.



      S.T- InilieBrlllsli Miutpiim. Uindon. 3,5.8. II. In Ilii- Mux-t-ar ruiiiy. rails- t, 13. In tliL- possession or Fuly Rauiiliclin. New Vurk. 6. It. lu tlie piMBwilrin of U-ununl L. t'ulii-u. LoniluG
      Jill, Uindon. III. In ihi- piwi'ftisKm ol lli-lnrk'li KrnuberfnT. Kn>iik(iirt-<m'tl)i-5]utii. II'. In TvnipU- S)ii.-nrlth iHniol. \'i>u' Yurk. IS, In ttie Bevlv Jlurlu SjuoiMKue. Lnndon.
      10. In lh<- iKwi-sdluu or Suly Furtli, Miiyt-uue. IT- In lh>* LultfO Siait^ Xiiikiniil Miiwkitii, Wusliloirton.

      II. In Itii- Vlrmrl




      growth are a symbol of the prosperity which, it is
      hoped, the week will bring ("Tur," in the name of
      Hal Giion); (;i) because the blood, i.e., the life, can
      be seen lluoiigh Ihe fingers.

      Some modern rabbis consider tlie blessing over tlie
      light as a recognition of the importance of the ele-
      ment fire as an instinment designed by God for the
      economic subjugation of the world (S. H. Iliisdi,
      "Choreb." p. 109). Tlie usual interpretation is that
      liglit having been created by God at the beginning
      of the week, it is tlierefon^ proper to pronounce a
      benediction over it at the beginning of each recur-
      ring week (Gen. R. .\ii.). A more natural explana-
      tion seems to be that, since fire may not be used in
      any form on the Sabbath, its emiiloyment is a dem-
      onstration of the fact that tlie Sabbath has ended
      and the working-days have recommenced ; its use,
      therefore, is very appropriate in a Habdalah or sep-
      aration ceremony. Thise.xplanation is corroborated
      by the fact that the blessing over the light forms no
      part of the Habdalah after festivals on which the
      use of tire is permitted, while in the Habdalah after
      the Day of Atonement, which resembles the Sab-
      bath in tlie prohibition of the u.se of tire, this bene-
      ilictioii is inserted. Tlie candle or taper over which

      the blessing is spoken
      must have at least
      two wicks, giving
      two or more liglits,
      since the language
      of the benediction is
      [ilural, "who creates
      tlie lights of fire"
      ("bore mc'ore ha-
      esli ").

      All varieties of
      spices and odorifer-
      ous plants are suit-
      able for the benedic-
      tion of the spices,
      except that thej' must
      not have been u.sed
      for any obnoxious
      purpose, as, for in-
      stance, to disguise
      the odor of decom-
      position or other foul
      smells, or for idol-
      atrous worship.
      Some authorities pro-
      hibit the use of
      sharp, acrid spices,
      such as pepper. The
      use of mj'rtle is en-
      joined, in allusion
      to Isa. Iv. 13, "In-
      stead of the brier shall come up the myrtle," but it
      is not obligatory. The reasons usually given for tlie
      employment of spices in the Habdalali
      are that perceptions and enjoyments
      througli the sense of smell are the most
      delicate ; that they afford not a gross,
      material pleasure, but rather a spir-
      itual one; and that the perfume of
      spices is, therefore, a comfort to the over-soul of the
      Sabbath ("' neshamah yeterali "), which grieves when

      Habdalati Spice-Uo-x and Taper-

      (la the Moae'e de Cluoy, ParSs.j

      of Sweet-

      the lioly day departs (Sliulhan 'Aruk, Oral; Hay-
      yini, 297; Bal.iya to Gen. xxxii.-.xxxvi.).

      The order of benedictions in the Habdalah is indi-
      cated by the nine-

      monic word n J 3'\
      formed from the initial
      letters of J", D'DE'a.
      IJ, n^ian = "wine,
      spices, light, separa-
      tion-formula." It is
      c u s t o m a r 3' t (j sing
      hymns at the Hab-
      dalah service after the
      close of the Sabbath.
      Of these, several con-
      tain references to tlie
      prophet Elijah, who.
      according to one view,
      will apjiear after the
      conclusion of that day.
      These hymns are some-
      times accompanied by
      instrumental music,
      which, forbidden on
      the Sabbath, is ap-
      propriate for the Hab-
      dalah. Perhaps the
      best known of these
      hymns is that begin-
      ning "May He who
      distinguishes between
      holy and profane for-
      give our sins" (" Ha-
      mabdil ben kodesli
      le-hol hatotenu yini-
      hol "). I^abbi Jloses
      Sofer, following Mor-
      decai ben Hillel on
      Yoma, has pointed out
      that this hymn was
      originally intended for
      the Habdalah service
      after the Day of
      Atonement ("Hatani
      Sofer, O r a h Hay
      yim," No. 67), and it
      is so employed among
      the Sephardim when
      the Day of Atone-
      ment falls on the Sab-

      silver Spii'e-Iio.K for liabdalali.

      (la Ihe (>o&st..,si«Q of S. Heilbut, London.)

      BiBLinr.RAPiiT : T»r and Mntiimic Ercf. Ornh Uaiiyim,
      9 297; Levinsolm, 3/»'Aricf MiiilKmiiii, iierlin, 1S4(';; s. E.
      Hirscb. VhiivtU. Frankfcirt-ou-thi'-Miiln, 188;i: Dembitz. Jeio-
      Mi ^erricix in fiiiiiiitiuytif fiiiil Home, I'biladelphla, 1893;
      Laiidsbuth. Hniiiini Lrh. Konifrsberg, 1845; SeUgman Baer,
      'Abodat i'isract, Rodelheim, 1868.
      A. B. D.

      The Habdalah benediction reads: "Blessed art
      Thou, O Lord, our God, King of the Universe! Who
      hast made a separation between what is holy and
      what is profane [Lev. x. 10; Ezck. xlii. 20]; be-
      tween light and darkness [Gen. i. 4, IS]; between
      Israel and other nations [Lev. xx. 26] ; between the
      seventh day and the six working days. Blessed art
      Thou who hast separated the holy from the pro-
      fane." According to another, a.',id apparently older.




      tradition, these words were added : " between clean
      and uncleun [Lev. xi. 47, xx. 25]; between the upper
      and the lower waters [Gen. i. 6, 7]; between land
      and sea [Gen. i. 10]^ between the priestly tribe of
      Levi and the common people of Israel [Deut. x. 8]"
      (see Pes. 104a). The questions as to whether the
      benediction over the spices or that over the light
      was to be recited first, and as to whether the benedic-
      tion should precede or follow grace after meals, were
      matters of coutro-
      ver.sy between the
      schools of Shammai
      audllillel. The Hab-
      dalah formula was
      originally recited in
      the home at the
      opening of the eve-
      ning meal or before
      each course (comp.
      Ta'au. iv. 3, which
      shows that there was
      no Friday or Satur-
      day evening service
      in the Temple; see
      also H e r z f e 1 d .
      "Gesch. des Volkes
      Israel," iii. [ii.] 209);
      soon, however, it
      came to be recited
      in the sj-nagogue
      also : sometimes as
      a .special benediction
      of the Shemoneh
      'Esreh (this was the
      view of K. Akiba);
      sometimes inserted in
      the last benediction
      but one (this was
      the view of R. Eli-
      ezcr) ; but it finally
      became the custom
      to insert it in the
      fourth benediction
      (Ber. V. 2).

      The Habdalah
      benediction was
      afterward ascribed
      to the "men of the
      Great Synagogue,"
      and it was held to

      have been originally instituted as a sj'uagogal
      benediction; in times of prosperity for the Jews it

      was the custom to recite it over the

      Origin of cup of wine at the home meal, but

      Habdalah. when distress befell the people it was

      recited in its original place (Ber. 33a).
      The many diffierences prevailing among the Taunaim
      and Amoraim concerning the Habdalah (see Pes.
      103b et mij. ; Hul. i. 7; Shab. 150b; Yer. Ber. v. 91))
      indicate either the lack of anj' fixed custom or the
      want of an authm-ity able to establish the custom
      permanently. While Abba Arika declared the Hab-
      dalah in the synagogue to be of greater importance
      tlian that at tlie table over the wine-cup (Ber. 33a),
      others promised future .salvation (Pes. 113a), family
      continuity through male descendants (Slieb. ISb),

      (lu the |,

      and material blessings (Pirke R. El. xxi.) to him
      who recited the Habdalah over the wine-cup. No
      one was allowed to eat before the Habdalah cere-
      mony (Pes. 107a).

      Especial importance was attached to the Habdalah
      light, the reason given being that it was created on
      the first day (Pes. 53b, 54a). Opinions differed,
      however, as to whether it was preferable to recite
      the lipiiedicfion over a light pi'oduced afresh by fric-
      tion between pieces
      of wood or stone, or
      over a light that had
      been burning before
      (Ber. 52b; Pes. 54a).
      A blazing, torch-like
      light was considered
      most appropriate
      (Pes. 8a). The fol-
      lowing legend, obvi-
      ously based on the
      connection of the
      Habdalah with the
      fourth benediction of
      Shemoneh 'Esreh —
      the thanksgiving for
      the reason with
      which God has en-
      dowed man — is told
      by Jose, the pupil of
      Akiba: "Fire was
      one of the things God
      had left uncreated
      when Sabbath set in;
      but after tlie close of
      the Sabbath, God
      endowed man with
      divine wisdom. Man
      then took two stones,
      and by grinding them
      together produced
      fire; after which he
      recited the benedic-
      tion : ■ Blessed be He
      who crealeth the
      blaze of the fire ' "
      (Pes. 53b). This is
      elaborated in Gen.
      R. xi. (comp. Pesik.
      R. 23; Yer. Ber.
      viii. 12b): "The light
      which God created on the first day lit up the world
      for man from the time he was created until the
      sunset of the following day, when the
      Habdalah darkness surrounding him filled him
      Light. \Vith dread and the fear that the
      tempting serpent would altogether
      overpower him. Then God furnished him with two
      bricks, which he rubbed together until fire was pro-
      duced; whereupon he offered a benediction over the
      fire." According to Pirke R. El. xx., God sent him
      a pillar of fire, and, holding His hands against it,
      said the benediction over fire; then, removing His
      hands, said the Habdalah benediction. Stress is
      also laid on the fact that one recites the benediction
      on seeing the bla/.e of the fire reflected either in the
      wine-cup or on the finger-nails; if there Is no fire, a




      glance at the rcflfction of the stars on tlie tinjiier-nails
      should prompt the hcnoiliction (conii), Midr. Teh.
      to Ps. xx.w. 2). Healing powers weie also aseribeil
      to the Habdulah wine when put upon the eyes
      (I'irUe R. El. /.c; conii). Shab. IKib for th(^"Ki<l-
      dush " wine).

      M.my other enstonis sprang up with regard to the
      Habdalah liglit, for which a wa.\ candle came into
      u.se later on (.see "Tanya," .\.\i., and Tur Orah Hay-
      yini, 298).

      The spices formed another subject for mystic spec-
      ulation. The remark of Uesh Lakish that Adam
      was given a higher soul on Sabbath and was de-
      prived of it at the close of the day, was connected
      with the custom of reciting a benediction over
      spices (see Sanuiel b. Mcir, Pes. 102b; Maimonides,
      "Yad," Shabbat, x.\i.x. 29). A myrtle was pref-
      erably chosen, cabalistic reasons being given for it
      (Kol Bo .\li. ; comp. Zohar, Wavakhel, and Kizzur
      Shene Luhot ha-Berit, Hilkot Slnib-
      Tlie Sjjices, bat). According to the German cus-
      and toni, Isa. xii. 2-3, Ps. iii. 9, xlvi. 12,

      Habdalah Eslh. viii. 16, and Ps. cxci. 13 are re-
      Legends, cited before the Habdalah. The Ro-
      man JIahzor and the Portuguese use
      dillereut verses. With Isa. xii. 3 a legend is con-
      nected, according to which water from the won-
      drous well of Miriam may be drawn at that time,
      and healing for diseases be obtained by drinking it
      (Kol Bo xli.). According to another legend Elij.di
      the Prophet, who does not appear on the eve of
      Sabbaths or of holy days ('Er. 43b), but who is eager
      to reward faithful Sabbath observance, is expected
      toappcarat thebi'ginningof anew week and fortify
      those who wait for the redemption of Israel (Abudra-
      ham, Ililkot JVIoze'e Shabbat, and Ibn Yarhi, in Ha-
      Jlanhig, Hilkot Shabbat, 71). Many songs and reci-
      tations, as well as conjurations referring to Elijah
      tlie Prophet, are recited before and after the Hab-
      dalali ecremou}', together with prayers for the new
      week's work. It is especiall}' significant that a lit-
      tle prayer in the German vernacular is said, because
      many pious Jews of old would speak onl^' Hebrew,
      as the holy language, on the Sabbath day. See
      1I.\-Mai!dil aud Elij.\h in JIediev.\l Foi.k-Lohe.

      BiBLiDfiRAPUV: Baer. 'Ahnilat Tisracl. 1.S68. pp. .SIO ct scq.;
      M. Briick. PhiiritiilUchc ViilJa^sittoi itii<l liiluaUf:n^ pp.
      l()S-13;i; Geii^er. Lehr- und Lci^chHch ziir Siirachc di-r
      Mu^chuaK pp. GG ct .secy.; idem, Jlid. Zed. vl. lll.")-n(>.

      A. K.

      As one of the chief home ceremonies of the Jews
      it is natural that a certain amount of superstition
      should have grown up around the custom; but
      whether such superstitions were derived from the
      surrounding peoples or not, it is dillicult to sa}'.

      Thus both in Russia and Galicia it is

      Super- believed that if a girl drink of the wine

      stitious. of Habdalah she will get a nuistacbe

      ("Urquell," 1893, p. 7-1), and the .same
      belief is held among the Jews of Baden (" Mitteil-
      ungen," iii. 9). If yousprinkle the table-cloth with
      the wine of Habdalah you will have a '"full week"
      ("Uniuell," 1893. p. 33), and if the Habdalah candle
      burns until consumed you will get good sons in-law
      (ill. p. 81). Wliere spirits are used instead of wine,
      as in Kiev, it is customar}' to pour what remains

      after the Habdalah is completed into a metal pan,
      and set it alire with the Habdalah light. If it burns
      completely away good luck will result. As it burns,
      some dip their lingers into the tlame and convey
      their lingers to their pockets, in order to gain a " full
      week." ,1.

      HABEB (-|3n = " associate " ; " colleague " ; " fel-
      low ''): Term ordinarily used in rabbinical lore in its
      original Biblical sense, "companion," "friend" (P.s.
      cxix. (i3; Ab. ii. 9, 10). A Tabnudic proverb says,
      " Thy haber has a haber, and thy haber's liaber lias a
      l.iaber; thy words will thus circulate and become
      public " (B. B. 38b : 'Ar. 16a). The Rabbis urgently
      reeonimend study in company, a.sseiting that only in
      this way can knowledge beac((uired (Her. (i3b; Ned.
      81a); therefcu'e, if necessary, one should v.Vi'.n expend
      money for the purpose of acquiring a companion
      (Ab. R. N. viii. 3). A prominent teaclier of tlie sec-
      ond century declared that, while he had learned
      much from his masters, he had learned more from his
      "haberini" (Ta'an. 7a). Hence the term came to
      mean a "companion in study," a "colleague " ; and
      wlien preceded or followed by the term " talniid "
      (pupil) it denotes one who is at once the pujiil and
      colleague of a certain teacher, a scholar who from
      being a pupil has risen to be a colleague or fellow
      (comp. B. B. loSb ; Yer. Sbek. iii. 47b).
      " Scholar" Eventually "haber" assumed the gen-
      in General, eral meaning of "scholar" (15. B. 7.')a),
      and appears as a title subordinate to
      H.VKAM (comp. Kid. o3b). The title " haber " was
      known in comparatively early times (11th cent.),
      when it probably referred to a member of a court of
      j\islice (see Schecbter, "Saadyaua," p. 81, note 2);
      but in Germany in later centuries it indicated that
      its possessor had devoted many years to the study
      of sacre<l literature. In congregational life it was
      conferred as a rule on married men, but often also
      on yeshibali graduates wlio were single. It is
      worthy of note that Jonathan Eybescluitz conferred
      it on the Christian professor Tychsen.

      "Haber" also denotes a member of a society or
      order ("l.iaburah," "haburta," "keneset " = "ag-
      gregation," "company," "union"), or of a union of
      Pharisees for the purpose of carrying out the observ-
      ance of the laws of " clean " aud " unclean " to their
      fullest possible development. In their eyes, any
      person about whom there was a doubt as to whether
      he was particular in the observance of these laws
      or tliose concerning the tithes was an 'A.\r ir.\-AnEZ,
      whose contact was defiling. But the term "halier"
      is by no means synonymous with "Parush " (Phail-
      see), since not all Pharisees were haherim, though
      sometimes the generic term "parush " is used in its
      stead (Tosef., Shab. i. 15). Occasionally the more
      S|)eciiic term "ne'eman" (trusty) takes the place of
      "haber" (Dem. iv. 5, 6). On the Scriptural saying,
      "He shall . . . cleanse it and hallow it"(licv. xvi.
      19), rabbinical ethics bases the maxim, "Cleanliness
      leads to iKtliness" (Yer. Shab. i. 3c: comp. Solali
      ix. 15). But cleanliness was understood to be closely
      connected with Levitical purity; of this there were
      .several degrees, there being sections in the commu-
      nity which observed its rules more strictly and ex-
      tensively than did others. Some even extended all




      the precautions necessary for the priest iu eating
      holy things to the layman who lived on secular food
      (Hag. ii. 6, 7; see PiiAttisEUs).

      The Bible (Lev. xxvii. aO-33; Num. xviii. 31-28;

      clean, " were doubtless familiar to the people at
      large; but not all people found it convenient or pos-
      sibte to comply with them. Particularly dillicult
      must their observance have been in the unsettled



      I \

      (Iu the poMesHioii of Prof. G. Peuts.li.)

      Deut. xiv. 22-29) lays on the products of an Israel-
      ite's farm and on his herds certain imposts to
      be paid respectively to the priest, the Levite,
      and the poor (comp. Tobit i. 6-8), but which were
      not universally paid. The rules governing these
      imposts, as well as the rules of " clean " and " un-

      state of affairs during the Maccabeau wars. It is
      suggested by some that it was at this time that the
      so-called '"am ha-aiez " (who included the great
      majorilv of the people), either driven by circum-
      stances "or seduced by temptation, neglected them;
      and that a certain more rigorous minority, not




      knowing whom to trust in such matters, formotl
      among thcmsclvcsassociutions(" huburot"), Iheincin-
      hcrs ("haberim") of which plcilgcil
      lievitically themselves to licep faithfully the rules
      Pure. of Lcvitical purity and those regard-
      ing the tithes. Accordingly the haber
      is one who strictly observes Ihe lawsof " nia'aserot "
      (I ithes) and of Lcvitical cleanness (see Git. v. 9). To
      be admitted as a haber the candidate must declare
      his determination never to present the"terumah"
      or the "ma'aser " to a priest or a Levitc who is classed
      as an 'am ha-arez; nor to allow his ordinary fooil to
      be prepared by an 'am ha-arcz ; nor to eat his ordi-
      nary food ("hullin," grain and fruit from which
      teruniah and ma'aser have been separated) except in
      a certain state of Levilical cleanness (Tosef., Dem.
      ii. 2). This declaration must be made before three
      members of the order, and if they are satistied that
      the candidate has lived up to the rules in his private
      life, he is accepted at once; otherwise he is admitted
      as a "ben hadieneset" (son of the union, neophyte;
      comp. Bek. v. 5; Zab. ill. 2) for thirty days. Ac-
      cording to Bet Shammai, this period suffices only
      when membership is sought for the lesser degrees of
      purity, while for the higher degrees the period of
      [irobation must be extended to a year. After this
      ]ieriod, if the candidate has proved his constanc}',
      lie becomes a haber or ne'cman. And in this respect
      no distinction is made between the learned and
      the ignorant; all must make this declaration. An
      exception is made only in favor of a scholar at-
      tached to a college, it being presumed that he
      took the pledge when he first joined the college
      (Bek. 30b).

      As there are several degrees of Lcvitical cleanness,
      so there are several classes of haberim and ne'emanim.
      pledging themselves to corresponding
      Degrees of observances. The lowest class is that
      Haburah. which pledges itself to practise Lcvit-
      ical cleanness of "kenafayim" (lit.
      "wings"). This is a very obscure term, for which
      no satisfactory explanation has been found. It is
      generally assumed to mean "hands"; and inasmuch
      as the Pharisaic maxim is, "Hands are always busy,"
      touching without intention on the part of their
      owner both clean and unclean things, they are re-
      garded as being in a state of uncertain cleanness;
      hence one must cleanse them before eating anything
      Levitically clean (Toh. vii. 8; comp. Mark vii. 3 et
      seq.). This may be legally accomplished by pouring
      on them one-fourth of a log of water. But that proc-
      ess suffices only where a person wishes to eat hullin,
      ma'aser, or terumah. If he desires to eat the sacri-
      ficial portions, he must dip his hands into forty
      sealis of water; and if about to handle the water of
      lustration, he must first subject his whole body to
      immersion (Hag. ii. 5; Gem. 18b et seq.). As the
      ordinary Israelite and the Levite are not permilted
      lo handle the most sacred things, it naturally follows
      that not all men are eligible for the higher degrees;
      and even of those whose descent does not bar tlicir
      admission, not all are willing to assume the corre-
      spondinglj' greater precautions incident to the priv-
      ilege. Provision is therefore made for general ad-
      mission lo the lower degrees, of which most people
      availed themselves. It is ordained that if one de-

      sires to join the order of haberim, but docs not
      wish to subject him.sdf to the duties tlevolving
      upon the members of the higher degrees — the pre-
      cautions necessary to keep himself Levitically clean,
      as for the more sacred things — he may be ai',-
      cepted; but where, on the contrary, one seeks
      adnii.ssion to the higher degrees while refusing to
      pledge himself lo strict oliscrvancc of the rules
      governing the lower degrees, he mu.st b(! rejected
      (Bek. I.e.).

      Having been admitted as reliable in matters of

      ma'aser, a haber must tithe what he consumes, what

      he .sells of his own i)roducing, and what

      Separation he buys for the purpose of selling, and

      from must not eat at the board of an 'am

      the 'Am ha-arez, lest he be served with vic-luals
      ha-Arez. that have not been pro|ierly tithed.
      If he would become a full haber, he
      must not sell to an 'am ha-arez anything that mois-
      ture would render subject to uncleauncss (see Lev. xi.
      38; Maksh. i.), lest the 'am ha-arez expose the goods
      to contamination; for rabbinical law forbids the
      causing of defilement even to things secular in Pal-
      estine ("Ab. Zarah o5b). Nor must he buy of an
      'am ha-arez auj'thing so rendered subject to un-
      cleauncss, nor accept invitations to the board of an
      'am ha-arez, nor entertain one who is in his ordinary
      garments, which may have been exposed to defile-
      ment (Dem. ii. 2, 3).

      A haber's wife, and his child or servant, are consid-
      ered, in respect to religious observances, as the haber
      himself ('Ab. Zarah 31)a); therefore the admission of
      a candidate into the order embraces all the members
      of his family. Even after the haber's death his
      family enjoy the confidence previously reposed in
      them, unless there be reason for impugning their
      fidelity. The same is the case when one of them
      joins the family of an 'am ha-arez ; as long as there
      is no reasonable suspicion to the contrary, it is pre-
      sumed that the habits acquired under the influence
      of the observant head of the family will not be dis-
      carded, even under different circumstances. Simi-
      !aii_y, the presumption of habit governs the case of
      members of the family of an 'am ha-arez joining
      that of a haber; they are not considered trustworthy
      unless the}' pledge themselves to live up to the rules
      of the haburah. However, the child or servant of
      an 'am ha-arez entering the house of a haber for the
      purpose of study is exempt from the operation of
      that presumption as long as he remains under the
      haber's direction. On the other hand, when the
      pupil is the son or servant of a haber and the teacher
      is an 'am ha-arez, the presumption is extended in the
      pupil's favor. Again, where a man is recognized
      as reliable while his wife is not — as when a haber
      marries the widow or daughter of an 'am ha-arez —
      haberim may unhesitatingly buy of him articles of
      food, but must not eat at his board if it is presided over
      by his wife. If, on the contrary, the wife is reliable,
      being the widow or daughter of a haber, while the
      husband is an 'am ha-arez, haberim may eat at his
      table, but must not buy from him (Tosef., Dem. ii.

      As to the haber himself, once he has been recog-
      nized as such, he continues so as long as he is not
      found guilty of backsliding. If suspicion of back-




      slidiug is reasonably aroused against him, lie is sus-
      peuded from tlie I.iaburali until he reestablishes his

      trustworthiness. Similarly, where a

      Suspension haber accepts au othce that is consid-

      from ered suspicious — as that of tax-col-

      the Oi'der. lector or publican — he is suspended

      from the l.iaburah, but is ivinstated
      upon surrender of the office (Bek. 31a).

      The e.vact date when the haberim first appeared
      can not be determined. That they existed, how-
      ever, as a haburah in ante-AIaccabean days, and arc
      identical with those cited in I Mace. xiv. 38 as the
      " great congregation of priests " (Geiger, " Ur-
      schrift," p. 124), is not very probable, since in the
      later jieriod of Ihe Jledo-Persian rule over Pales-
      tine no great formative events are on record which
      could account for so great a separation from the
      body of the people. The precise period of the ha-
      burah's organization should be sought, therefore,
      in the last decades of the second pre-Christian cen-
      tury. See 'A.MnA-AREz; De.mai; Ma'aseuot.

      Bibliography: Geiger, Urscltrifl, pp. 131 et ncq.; Griltz,
      (re,«c/i. 'M ed.. iii. 74 ct scq„ and noU's 9, 10, 13; Hamburger.
      R. B. r. ii. 120; Leopokl Low, NacligclOfiscuc Schriftcn^ ii.
      140; Mainionides, Yad. Ma'ascrat^ ix.-xii.; Scmag, precept
      13-3 ; Sohiirer. (Jescli. M ed., ii. :K ; MonteUori-, Ililihirt
      Z/t'c(iircs, p. 498 ; 'Bacber, in Monataschrifl, xliii. 34.")-aiJO;
      idem, Aitsdcm ^^YJ^tl:rbuch Tanrltnm Jcrnscliatmis, p. :.'0.
      s. s. S. M.

      HABER, SOLOMON VON: German banker;
      born at Breslau Nov. 3, 1760; died Feb. 20, 1839.
      TIio sou of poor parents, he rose to a position of
      wealth and eminence by his taljnts and energy. He
      settled at Carlsruhe during the stormy years at the
      end of the eighteenth century. Slany of the larger
      Gei'man national loans were effected through him,
      and he was instrumental also in founding some of
      the industrial enterprises of the grand duchy of
      Baden. After being appointed court banker by
      Grand Duke Karl (1811-18), Grand Duke Ludwig
      conferred upon him (1829) a patent of hereditary
      nobility. In 181(5, and again in 1819, the ancient
      prejudice against the Jews that was threatening to
      break out into open hostility in Carlsruhe was held
      in check by Haber, who used his influence and posi-
      tion to shield his coreligionists. Haber was instru-
      mental in the founding (1818) of a " Cultusverein,"
      which conducted services on the Hamburger Tem-
      ple plan. The services, however, were soon discon-
      tinued; but the result was th;it in 1824 the Grossher-
      zogliche Oberrat, which had been founded in 1809,
      and of which Haber was a member, introduced
      officially the German sermon. Until bis death Ha-
      ber was a member of the Grossherzogliche Oberrat
      fur die Staatsbtirger Mosaischen Glaubens in Baden.
      One of his sons, Louis, became a member of the
      Austrian House of Lords (Herrenbaus), having pre-
      viously embraced Christianity.

      BiBMOGRAPHT: Friedrioti Weech, narUxchc liinrirapliifn, I.
      324: A.Chorin. Igacrct ai-^.sn/, pp. 28-48, Prague, 1S2I> ; Ben
      Chananja, 1863, p. 73; Kayserling, Bihlinikck Jtlduichcr
      KanzcUxdner^ p. 350.
      s. A. Bi.uxf.

      MUS) : Polish rablii of the sixteenth century, lie
      is the first known rabbi of the city of Ostrog. Vol-
      h3"nia, where he settled after having previously jjre-
      sidcd over a yeshibah in Lemberg. His daughter

      Lipka married Solomon Luria, who succeeded to the
      rabbinate of Ostrog when llaberkasten went to
      I\ilestiiie, about 15G0. llaberkasten is known to
      have made the acquaintance of the great cabalists
      who then flourished in the Holy Land, and is men-
      tioned by Hayyim Vital Calabrese in the manuscript
      work "Ijikkute Torah."

      BiBLiOfiRArnv : Gans, Zemah Dau'i<l, I.Mr, part i.; Buber, An~
      she Shrill, p. 201, Cracow, 189,5; Nissenliaum, Le-Kitivt lui-
      Ychudiin hc-Lubliii, p. 20, Lublin. 1S9",).
      K. P. Wl.


      Spanish Talinudist; born at Zainora about 1400;
      died at Salonica 1516. In his youth Habib studied
      the Talmud under R. Samuel Valensi. In 1492,
      when the Jews were expelled from Spain, he settled
      at Salonica, where he wrote his "'En Ya'akob" in
      the house of Don Judah ben Abraham Benveniste,
      who placed his rich library at his disposal. Habib
      also availed himself of the library of D(m Samuel
      Benveniste, which contained, among other great
      works, a large collection of novellaj on the Talmud
      by many distinguished commentators. By the aid
      of the works from these two libraries Habib col-
      lected all the haggadio pas.sages from the Babylo-
      nian, and many from the Palestinian. Talmud. The
      publication of this work began in 1.'J16 in the print-
      ing establishment of Judah Gedaliah, the author
      himself carefully reading the proof-sheets; but he
      died just as the first two orders (Zera'im and Mo'ed)
      came from the press. His son, R. Levi, completed
      the labors of his father, but the work appeared be-
      fore the public without the notes of the author to the
      last four orders (" sedarim "), and without the index,
      which the author originall)' intended to cover the
      entire work. The haggadot of the Jerusalem Tal-
      mud are also lacking.

      The "'En Ya'akob" is the only work Habib left
      to the world. I'he object of the author was to
      familiarize the public with the ethical spirit of Tal-
      mudic literature; at the same time his notes were
      intended to refute the charges brought against the
      Talmud by the numerous Spanish converts. The
      book, which thus appealed to the mass of the un-
      learned, became very popular. It was often edited
      and annotated, and served as a text-book of re-
      ligious instruction. There are over thirty editions
      known; the latest (Wilna, 1883) contains twenty
      commentaries, among them one which consists of
      selections from more than one hundred homiletical
      works. Of the additions, the most important one is
      that of Leo di Jlodena, under the title "Ha-Boneh,"
      which has appeared in all editions since 1684. The
      author's intention was chiefly to propagate a mere
      rationalistic view of the Tabnudic Haggadah. In
      some editions the title of the whole work is "'En

      Bi ni.ioG RAPHT : Besides the bihliograpliical woiics s.v. 2pV T'i .
      see the introduction of tlie author and the various cominen-
      lators in the ■iVilna edition of IS.'vJ: Zuuz, G. V. p. 94: Miel-
      ziner, lutioiluethiii to Ihe Talmud, p. Tti; Griitz, Gc^ch. x.
      3."); llaliliiiiovicz. liikdiike Siiiferim, Introduction to j"lfc);iiin7i.

      D.— B. Fu.

      HABIB, JOSEPH IBN (called also JOSEPH
      HABIBA): Spanish T;ilmudist; flourished in tlie
      fourteentli and fifteenth centuries. Like his prede-
      cessor. R. Nissim b. Ketiben (RaN), Ibn Habib wrote




      a commcnliuy on tlio halakot of Isjiuc Alfasi, en-
      titlrd "iS'iiuiiuikc Vosof,'' publislu'd with tlic text
      and the coiiimL'iitiiry of K. Nissim ^Coiistanliiiople,
      15U!)). Against tliu opinion of Conforte (,"' Koil' lui-
      Dorot," p. 2Ua) that ll>n Habib conniu'ntalud only
      those treatises whieh K. Nissim had omitted, Azulai
      (" Shcni lia-Gedolim") proved that Ibn l.Iabib's " Nim-
      midve Yoscf" covered the entire halali.ot of Isaac
      Alfasi. but a part of it had remained unpnhlished,
      and that the connnentary to the halakot of Jlo'ed
      Katan and Jlakkol. altrilnitcd to U. Nissim, belongs
      to ibn Habib. The latter quotes Asher b. Jebiel.
      Yom-Tob ben Aliraham, his master KaM, and U.
      Nissim himself. The "Nimmuke Yosef " on Ketu-
      bot and Nedarim was also included in tlie work
      " Ishshe Adouai " (Leiihorn. 179")), and the portion on
      Shebu'ot in the " Bet ha-Behirah " (Hi. 1795). Azulai
      says that Ibn Habib was the author of novelUe on
      the whole Talmud.

      BiBr.iocRAPMv: .Izulai, Slum lin-(jeilolim: Cassel, in j;rsch
      and (iruber, Enciic. section li., part 31, p. 73; Steinscluioider,
      Cal. HiicII. col. IMli; Kiu-nn, Kemsrt Visracl. p. 470.

      K. M. Sei,.

      HABIB, LEVI BEN JACOB IBN : Habbi of

      Jerusalem; born at Zamora, Spain, about 1-480; died
      at Jerusalem about 1545. Under King Manuel of
      Portugal, and when about seventeen, he was com-
      pelled to submit to baptism, but at the first oppor-
      tunity fled to Salonica, where he could follow the
      dictates of his conscience in safety. In 1523 he went
      to Jerusalem, but in a short time returned to Salo-
      nica. In 1525 he settled permanently at Jerusalem,
      where his learning won him the position of chief
      rabbi. There he met Jacob Bek.\I!, with whom he
      often came into conflict on questions of rabbinical
      law. A serious quarrel broke out between these
      two rabbis when Berab, becoming chief rabbi of
      Safed, leintroduced the ancient practise of the ordi-
      nation of rabbis. They carried on a bitter and en-
      venomed controvers}' for some time, in the course of
      which Berab referred to Ibn Habib's adoption of
      Christianity. The latter frankly admitted the fact,
      but pointed out that at the time he was a mere
      youth, that his involuntary pi-ofe.ssion of Christian-
      ity lasted hardly a year, and that he took the first
      opportunity to escape and rejoin the religion of
      his fatheis. This controversy was chiefly responsi-
      ble for the fact that the practiseof ordination ceased
      again soon after Berab's death.

      Ibn Habib had some knowledge of mathematics
      and astronomy. In his youth he edited his father's
      "'En Ya'akob" (Constantinople, 1516; see H.-vkib,
      Jacob ibn). He wrote: "She'elot u-Teshubot," a
      collection of 147 responsa; "Kontres ha-Semikah,"
      a treatise on ordination ; " Perusli Kiddush ha-
      Hodesh," a commentary on Kiddush ha-Hodesh
      (rules governing the construction of the calendar
      in Slaimonides' code). All these works were pub-
      lished together at Venice (15G5); the last-named
      work was also published separatel}' {Hk 1574-7G).

      BmLiOGRAPHT: Conforte, J^nre hn-Dnrnt, pp. 32a. 33t>, .'37a;
      Cratz, Gefcli. M ed., ix. :;;i:}-296; l)e Uossi, Dizuitinrin.i. Hi;
      Hazan, Hu-Ma'atnt U-SUehimiih. PP- •">3a-.i4a; Fiirst. Bibl.
      Jiul. i. ia.i; Stcinsclmetder, Cat. Bnill. col. IBOB.
      D. M. Set,.

      HABIB, MOSES IBN : Palestinian rabbi of the
      scTenteenth century. He was a disciple of Jacob

      Hagi/., one of whose daughters he married. lie
      wrote: "Gel Pashut," on llie laws of divoice. Orta-
      keni. 1714; "Shammot ha-Arez," Talmudicnovellif ;
      Con.stantinople, 1727; "'Ezrat Nashim," on matri-
      monial law, i/>. 17;!1. Some of his responsa are
      found in Alirahani ha-Levi's "Ginnat Weradim,"
      Constantiuoiile, 171.5-10.

      Bunjacol), (J^ir

      DiBi.ioc.u,iriiY : Aziilai, Sliciii ha-Gfdul.

      L. Giiu.


      bi'ew giammariaii. port, tiaiislaloi', and philosoi)her
      of the fifteenth and si.\teenth centuries. Being a
      native of Lisbon, he called himself "Sefardi"; but
      he left his natives country long before the expulsion
      of the Jews. He lived for a time in the Levant
      (SxyOi^' T"1X3), then went to southern Italy, and
      died in the beginning of the sixteenth century. As
      grammarian he was under the influence of Efodi,
      who endeavored lo base Ilebiew grammar upon
      logic. He wrote a grammatical work entitled " Perah
      Shoshan" (British I\Iuseum MS. No. 2857). quoted
      by Ibn Habib himself in "Darke No'am," and fre-
      quently by Abraham de Balnies in "Mikneh Abra-
      ham." This book is divided intr> seven sections
      (D'-|J)B»), each consisting of a number of chajiters
      (D'p"l3)- -^^ ^'S chief sources he names Hayyuj,
      Ibn Janah, Ibn Ezra, and Efodi. He finished the
      book at Naples the 27th of Kislew, a.m. 5245 ( =
      Dee. 15, 1484), having commenced it on the 23d of
      Siwan, a.m. 5244 (— June 16, 1484). A second
      and smaller giammatical work by him, entitled
      " Jlarpe L:ishou," summarizes the piinciples of
      the Hebrew language in catechetic form. It ap-
      peai'ed at Constantinople about 1520. next in the col-
      lection " Dikdukim " (V^enice, 1506). in the gram-
      mar "Debar Tob " of Abigdor Levi of Glogau
      (Prague, 1783), and finally in an edition b_v Ileiden-
      heim (Rbdelhcim, 1806). 'V\'ith it was printed the
      "Darke No'am," containing a summary of Hebrew
      poetics and versification based on Aristotle's "Poet-
      ics. " In " Darke No 'am" Habib makes the statement,
      often repeated since, that he saw a rimed inscription
      of two lines on the tombstone of a Jewish gen-
      eral (?)Amaziah, in Spain. The introductory poem,
      dated the 14th of Ni.san, 1486. is dedicated to the
      physician Joseph Levi, in Bitonto, Apulia. At
      Otianto Ibn Habib wrote for his pujiil Azariah b.
      Joseph acommentary to Jedaiah Bedersi's "Behinat
      'Olam," published at Constantinople about 1.520
      (only a fragment of this edition, now in the posses-
      sion of Dr. Harkavy, is known), at FeiTara in 1551,
      and at Zolkiev in 1741. Extracts from this com-
      mentary were made by other commentators on the
      same work, including Yom-Tob Lipman Heller.
      Eleazar b. Solomon in " Migdanot Eleazar." and
      Jacob b. Nahum of Tyszowce in "Or Ilakamim."
      In this commentary, which evidences its author's
      thoi-ough knowledge of philosophical literature, Ibn
      Ilabib speaks of composing a work entitled "ICiryat
      Arba'." concerning the number four, hence indefinite
      in subject : but nothing is known about such a work.
      11)11 Habib translated "She'elot u-Teslmbot," ques-
      tions and answers on the six natural things the body
      reqtiires, accoi'ding to the scienc(! of medicine; the
      original is ascrib<>d to "Albertus." probably Al-

      $ad Gaclya



      liertus ^lagiuis. The mamiscript of lliis translation
      is in the Bibliotheque Nationule, Paris (No. 977).
      Tiie contents are quoted by Steiuschueider ("llebr.

      BiBLiOfiRAPHY: Sleinschneider, Cat. BniU. col. IT.'^*) : idem.
      Hebr. Uebers. p. 110 ami 8 48ri: Kinn, in lln-Kiiiiiiel, Kai-
      1864, iv. 198 (repeated WVJ. p. .'i41; uurelhiblei; Bailier, Vii:
      Helirilische Si)ractiwlfseiiscluift viiin Zclnitcii bis ziim
      Sechzdnilen Jahrliun(tcyt,ftc., pp. UB, \i'.i; Wiener, InBtu
      Clianaiija, 180i, p. 5(1; Ben,jac'Ob, Ozm- Im-Scfarim, s.v.
      □Sn -'ynz ; Tienan-t^euhaaer,LcsEcrioainsJulfsFrani;ai:<.
      pp. 39^a; Wiener, Bibliotheca FricdlaiKtiana, i., Nos. 111)3
      et 6cq.

      K. S. P.

      JOSEPH (MAESTRO MANOEL) : Spanisli
      philiisopliiT ; lived at JInnzon, Aragon, in the second
      half of the lifieenth century. He was an admirer of
      the Christian scholastics, and studied Latin in order
      to translate into Hebrew some of their works, espe-
      cially those dealing with psychology. The works
      wliieli he partly translated and partly adapted
      (some bearing his name; others, though anonymous,
      known to be liis) were the following of Thomas
      Aquuias: " Qu:T?stioncs Disputata?, QuiEslio de Ani-
      ma" (Steinsehneider, "Cat. Hamburg," No. 267);
      "De Aninia; Facultatibus" (Hebr. title, "Ma'amar
      be-Kohot ha-Nefesh"), published by Jcllinek in
      "Pliilosophie und Kabbala," Leipsic, 18.54; and
      "De Universalibus" (Steinsehneider, I.e. No. 267);
      "Slie'elot Ma'amar be-Nimza ube-Mahut," questions
      on Thomas Aquinas' treatise on being and quality
      (Neul)auer, " Cat. Bodl. Hebr. MSS." No. 2453 »). He
      furthermore ti'auslated : three treatises of Occam's
      (or Okani's). entitled "Summa Tolius Logices," to
      which headdedanappendi.x (MSS. Parma, No. 457);
      "QuKstiones PliiIosophica\" by the same author
      (lb. No. 201) ; " De Causa," thirty-two premi.scs, with
      tlieir explanations, by Aristotle {ili. No. 457). Ac-
      cording to Jelliuek and Steinsehneider, Habillo also
      transUited, anonymou.sly, Vincenz of Beaiivais' " De
      Uuivei'salibus," under tlie title" JIa'amarNikbad bi-
      Kelal " (lb. No. 457 ■>).

      DiBLior.RAPHT: Miink, in Orient. Lit. vii. 72."); idem, .17i'-
      /((?(f/c,N'. p. ',ny^; Jellinek, Pliilosophie unil Kaliliala. p. xiv.;
      Steins<-hneider. //c/)r. Uelters. pp. 26.">, 47(i, 477, 48:j; idem.
      Cat. Jlaiithui-it. p. Hi.

      a. I. r.K.

      SOLOMON : Venetian Talmudistof the <'ighleeiith
      eentuiy; (k'scendant of a piominent Palestinian
      family. Judali Chavillo is mentioned asa renowned
      Talmudist in the respousa " Darke No'ain" (iii. 3t))
      of Mordecai Levi of Cairo. Elislia was a disciple of
      David Pardo and the author of tlie following works:
      (1) " Pat Lehem." containing the ritualistic laws con-
      cerning the benedictiims, especially the grace after
      meals (]1T0n HDia) (Leghorn, 1704); (2) "Hamon
      Hogeg," commentary on tlie Haggadah of Passover
      {ib. 1793); (8) "'Abo'dat lia-Tamid," conunentary on
      the prayer-book according to the Siianish rile (ib.
      1794), in Avhich he adopted many interpretations of
      the renowned Shabbethai Hayyiin, aftei'ward dis-
      carding tliem as being heretical; (4) "Shif'at Rebi-
      bim," liturgical poems of David Pardo, with addi-
      tions of his own (ib. 1793).

      BlRLincRAPnT: Nepi-niiirnnrii, Toledot fledole Yisrnii. p. 11 ;
      MorUira, Indiee Alfiihrlieo, p. l:i; Zeriner, (Vrf. llelo-. Hoot.s
      liiit. Mux. p. 17U, s.v. rimrillo: Furst, Bibl. Jiai. iii. r>9:!.
      G. I. lii:

      DAVID: Kabbi at Hebrou in the middle of the
      seventeenth century ; contenqjorary of Mii.5esZacuto,
      who approved his works. Habillo was the author
      of: "Hebel ben Yehudah," a commentary on the
      Haggadah of Passover, Mantua, 1G94; and " Helek
      Yehudah," a commentary on Rutli, jniblished to-
      gether with the te.xt, Venice, 1695. The last-named
      work is preceded l.iy a prayer of Habillo arranged
      in the style of Psalm cxix.

      Bibliography : Steinsehneider, Cat. BoJU m\. aill ; Nepi-
      Ciliirondi, Toledot Gedole YisraeU p. 331.

      K. I. Bk.

      HABINENXJ : Initial word, also the name, of a
      prayer containing in abridged form the Eighteen
      Benedictions (see SfiEMONEU 'EsuEH), minus the first
      three and the closing three (see Lituhg Y). The prayer
      was formulated by Samuel of Nehardea, to be sub-
      stituted where time or circumstances prevent the
      reciting of all the benedictions in full (Ber. 29a). At
      the close of Sabbaths and festival days, when the
      "Habdalah"is to be recited, the "Habinenu " does
      not serve as substitute, nor may it be used when the
      prayer for rain is to be olTered. In the Jerusalem
      Talmud (Ber. iv. 8a) the version differs somewhat
      from the commonly adopted one given in the Baby-
      lonian Talmud. Translated into English, it reads
      as follows:

      " Render lis intelligent tbat we may know Thy wa.ys. Cir-
      cumcise our hearts to fear Thee ; forgive us ihat we may be re-
      deemed. Keep us far from pain, and ferlilize for us the green
      pastures of Thy land. Gather us from the four cornels of the
      earth. Let those who have strayed from Thy knowledge be
      taught therightway. Lift Thy hand aiiainsttiie wicked. Grant
      joy to the just in the reconstruction of Thy city, in the restora^
      tion of Thy Temple, in the renewal of the kingdom of Thy serv-
      ant David and of the splendor of the son of Jes.se, Thine
      anointed. Hear us before we call ! Blessed be Thou, O Lord !
      who hearkenest to prayer."

      Bibliography: S. Baer, 'Ahodat Visrael, p. 108, note.

      K. I. Bn.

      HA-BOKER OR. See PliKlODlCALS.

      HABOR : River flowing through the land of
      Gozan; the classical " Chaboras." To the banks of
      this river Tiglath-pileser carried "the Reubeuites,
      and the G;i(lites, and the half tribe of Manasseh,
      and brought them unto Halah and Ilabor " (I Cliron.
      V. 26). In the ninth year of King Hoshea, Slial-
      maneser " took Samaria, and carried Israel away into
      Assyria, and placed them in Halah and in Habor by
      the river of Gozan" (II Kings .xvii. 6, xviii. 11).
      Ilabor is identified with the modern Kliabur.

      K. G. 11. B, P.

      HACHILAH, HILL OF (n!7'3nn nV^J) : A
      hill in the wooded country of the wilderness of Ziph,
      where David hid himself from Saul (I Sam. xxiii.
      19: xxvi. 1, 3).

      K. G. U. JI. SkL.

      HACHMONI, THE SON OF ('JIDDn p): 1.
      .lasliobeaiii. one of David's mighty men (I Cliron.
      \i. 11). 2. Jehiel, tutor of David's children (ib.
      XX vii. 32). The former, however, occurs in the Eng-
      lish Authorized Version as "an Hachinonite." In
      the parallel list of II Sam. xxiii. 8, the name of the
      same hero occurs as " Yosheb ba-Shebet Tahkemoni,"



      $ad Gadya

      which the AuUioii/.ed Version translates "llii' Tacli
      moiiitc lliat sat iu the seat," tlie wliolo scMtcucc
      beinj; an epithet of Amxo the Eznite.

      !■:. i.. 11. M. Ski..

      HACHUEL, SOL: Moorish niaityr; licheaded
      at Fez lSo4. On account of ilomeslie troubles she
      Hed from her lionie to some Mohammedan friends.
      Two women among these testified that she had
      agreed to resign her.self to the Mohammedan faith.
      She refused to do this and was cast into prison.
      whence on appeal she came before the sultan. He
      was so struck with her beauty that he offered her a
      place iu liis harem if she would abjure. This she
      refused to do, and she was beheaded outside Fez.
      Her beauty and resolution attracted attention to her
      fate, which was made the subject of a drama, " La
      Heroiua Hebrea," by Antonio Calle (1B.52).

      BiHLiOGRAPiiY : I"-. M. Romero, El MartiiHo tic la Jovcii
      Hichuti, Gibraltar, IS*); Meakin, The Moors, p. 4S8, Lon-
      don, tlK)-'.
      s. J.

      HAD GADYA ( " One Kill " ) : An Aramaic song,
      which is recited at the couclusiou of the Seder
      service, held on the first two evenings of the Pass-
      over (" Pesal.i ") festival in Jewish households (sec
      II.\GG.\D.vil). It is so called after the introductory
      phrase, which is also used as a continuous refrain at
      the end of each of the ten verses of which the poem
      consists. It belongs to a species of cumulative rimes
      familiar alike to the child in the nursery and to the
      folklorist. It was for a long time regarded as an
      allegorical version of tlic: principle of "jus talionis."
      a .sort of coramentaiy upon Ex. xxi. 24-23. It is, in
      fact, simply a Jewish nursery -rime, now known to
      have been borrowed from, or fashioned after, a pop-
      ular German ballad, the prototype of which seems
      to have been an old French song. The English

      " One onty liid, one only liid, whioli my father bouRlit for two
      zuzim. One only liid, one only kid. Tlie eat came and ate the
      kid, etc. Then came the dog, and bit the cat, etc. Then came
      the stick, and beat the dog, etc. Then came the Are that
      burned the stick, etc. Then came the water, and quenched the
      fire. etc. Then came the ox, and drank the water, etc. Then
      came the slaughterer, and killed the o.\, etc. Then came the
      angel of death, and slew the slaughterer, etc. Then came the
      Most Holy— blessed be He ! -and destroyed the angel of de:iih
      that slew the slaughterer that killed the ox that drank the
      water that quenched the Are that burned the stick that beat the
      dog that bit the cat that ate the kid which my father bought for
      two zuzim. One only kid, one only kid."

      According to the commentators, the legend illus-
      trates how the people of Lsrael were for centuries
      oppressed and persecuted by all the nations of an-
      tiquity, and how the oppressors all perished one by
      one, and how Israel, the oppressed, survived. The
      allegorical explanation of the story is this: The /.(■(/
      symbolizes the Hebrew nation; Yiiwn being the
      father, who bought or redeemed His people througli
      Moses and Aaron (= t'le two pieces of money) from
      Egj'pt. The eat is Assyria, conqueror of Israel.
      The do/) is Babylonia, the next to oppress the Jew.s.
      The sliek stands for Persia: thejire, for Macedonia;
      the jcatei; for Home; the o.r, for the Saracens, who
      conquered Palestine; the daiiriliterer, for the Cru-
      saders; the anr/el of death, for the Turk, now ruling
      over Palestine; and. fin.ally, the Most Iloly. for the
      principle of eternal justice to vindicate Israel, the
      one onli) hid of the allegory.

      IJiiile an extensive and interesting literature clus-
      ters about this curious droll. In 1731 Philip ISic-
      oilemus Lebreclit, a baptized Jew, published at
      Lcipsic a tract with the following titli': " K«lj Tn.
      Kill Zicklein. das 1st, ein ^lerckwuidigcs P.iitzel aus
      der .Uidischen Oster-Liturgie Welches in Sich Be-
      grcifet die J5egebenlieiten und Schicksahle des Ju-
      disehen Voleks, so Sie vouAusgang /Egyptian biss
      auf die Zukunft Hues Annoch Tiiiilich [zu| Erwart-
      enden Messiie Darunter Verstelien " (conip. Wolf,
      '■l!il)l. Ilebr." iv. i).")4, 9.V)). This commentary is
      borrowed from tl:e Latin of Herrmann von der
      llardt, who iu 1727 published at Hrlmstadt an ex-
      planation of the "riddle," midcr the title. " Aenig-
      inata Judaica" (Wolf, i.e. p. 1044; Franz Delitzsch,
      "Zur Oesch. der Jiidisehen Poesie," ji. 81. Leipsie,
      IS;i(;; Sleinschneider, "Cat. Bodl." col. 10:j2). In
      17;J2 Christian Andreas Teuber published in Leipsie
      another treatise, based upon Lebrecht's, em i tied;
      "^Nlt;" N^ Xnj nn, h. e. Wahrseheinliche j^Iuht-
      massung von dem Alien und Dunckeln Jiidisehen
      Ostcr-Liede: Ein Zicklein, ein Zicklein." Wolf (/.c.
      iv. 1044) gives full information concerning the con-
      tents of this book. A number of other Christian
      w-riters have published and commented ti])()ii this
      nursery-rime, as tliough it were a profound philo-
      sophical poem, notably Wagenseil ("Belehrung von
      der Jiidisch-Teufschen Red- und Sehreili-.Vrt," 2d
      ed., pp. i)8, lOo, Konigsberg, 10!!!)) and Boilen-
      schatz (" Kirchliche Verfassung der Ileutigen Ju-
      den," section viii., pp. 310-319, Eriangen, 174S). In
      England, too, the legend was known and di.scussed in
      the "Loudon Congregational Jlagazine" for 1834,
      whence it was reprinted in Kew York, 183"), under
      the title, "A Kid, a Kid. or thi; Jewish Origin
      of the Cel(0)rated Legend. ' The House That Jack
      Built ' " (see au article describing this little book in
      "The New York Times Saturday Review," Feb. !),
      1901). In the preface it is called a "parabolical
      hymn." Heury George published in London in 18(53
      an essay on the same subject: "Au Attempt to
      Show that Our Nursery Rime ' The House That Jack
      Built' Is an Historical Allegory. . . . To Which Is
      Appended a Translation and Interpretation of an
      Ancient Jewish Hymn " (comp. Sleinschneider,
      "Hebr. Bibl." v. 03)".

      There are, moreover, a number of Jewish com-
      mentaries on "Had Gadya." A partial list of them
      (the earlier items alphalietically arranged) is given iu
      the bibliography to this article.

      Parallels to this legend may be found in Oriental
      and Occidental folk-lcjre. Joseph Jacobs, in the
      notes to his "English Fairy Tales " (London, 1893),

      h:is collected .some of the analogues,
      Folk-Lore from " Don Quixote," and from Per-
      Parallels. sian, Indian, and other sources. The

      origin, however, is now held to be a
      German folk-song, " Der Ilerr der Schickt den Jokel
      aus," a variant of which was sung in certain jilaces in
      Germany on vSept. 17 — a date .sacred to a local .saint,
      St. Lambert — and called " Lanibertuslied " (see
      Nork, " Festkalender," pp. .")87-388, Stuttgart, 1847).
      A French chanson, edited by Gaston Paris (see
      bibliography), is also cited as the prototype of the
      (Jhaldaic verses. There are. besides, two other
      French nurserv-rimes, "Ah! Tu Sortiras, Biquette"

      Had G-adya



      aud "La Petite Fourmi qui AUait a Jerusalem,"
      wliicli bear a striking resemblance to the Jewish
      legend. G. A. Kohut has republished (see bibliog-
      raphy) the German, French, and modern Greek vari-
      ants: but perhaps the most curious analogue, in
      Siamese, was printed in "Trubner's Record" for
      Feb., 1800 (comp. "Jewish Messenger," New York,
      April 23, 1897).

      As regards the age of the Jewish song, the Prague
      (1.52C) edition of the Haggadah does not contain it;
      but the edition of 1.590, published in the same city,
      prints it with a German translation (coiuj). Zunz,
      "G. V." 2d cd., p. 13:ia; Steiuschneider, " Ilebr.
      Bibl." xiv. 52). The Portuguese and South-Arabian
      (Yemen) rituals do not include either the Eitad mi
      YoDEA'or the "Had Gadya"; though one Yemen
      manuscript, in the Sutro Library, San I>ancisco, is
      said to contain the latter, added by a later hand, and
      Zunz found the former in a niahzor of Avignon
      (" Allg. Zeit. des Jiid." iii. 469). It is interesting to
      note that a German version of the "Had Gadya "is
      to be foun<l in Von Arnim and Brentano's anthology
      " Des Knaben Wunderhorn."

      BlBUOGRAPHT : Moses b. Jacob Aberle, n^jo o'^ipD 'nj IBD
      N^unn'^i' m'nn tid, Altoim, 1770; Anonymous, p-n« n'mN
      N'TJ -\n n-i-nn jnnD in, Amsterdam, 1763 (on the title-page
      It is stated that " the author, in deep tuimillty, wishes to with-
      hold his name." The preface states that the interpretation
      oiiDie to him in a vision); Asher Anshel, nn Sy p'DDO •M!<''3
      Nn.i, London, 1785 ; Moses b. Simeon Btuinenfeld, d'Iw"' iJO
      N-Tj nni j'nr 'n inx "^y ''D. Hanover, 1853 (see Benjacob,
      Oznr )ia-Sifarim. p. 389, No. 358); Judah Judet (Stn)
      EngHl, Nnj in NfD'Dn ''V '-s ^J"3 '■!;:« IDD, Altona, 1779;
      Jonathan ben Nathan (Nata)Eyl>eschUtz, D'ti- mjn '^y □•;;nTn

      ,s-Tj nn S^ ''Di (MS. Michael, No. 405; comp. Benjacob, Lc.
      p. 17(), No. S'.ri): Judah ben Mordecai Horwitz, >^J py mj 'D,
      Konipslierg, 1764, Dubno, 1794; Judah ben Moses, injn 's n'^c,
      Altona (?), 1776; Zebi Hirsh ben Solomon Salman, NipD
      N'-i) Tn '?)! ''D i;'i|i, rrague, 1837 (extract from the sam«
      author's worli, '3S 'i;', which doesnot appear to have been

      Besides these .special treatises and commentaries see the
      numerous editions of the Pet^afi Uaiigntlafi. *.(/.. ttio.'^e of
      David Oissi'l and L. l/.indshuth. 'Totli.' laii.r'siditiout.lldf;-
      gid ine-llis]iilli, Berlin, 18.56) Steinsrliucidfi li;isr.iutnbuted
      a biblioRraphy, Natlnvort, die. Lilt mltii ilm- Umiu'tda lii>
      treffenil, pp. .xxvi.-xxx. (comp. G. I'oliik, lh!y<i(ul<i)i shi:] Pe,-
      sah, Amsterdam, 1851). The lltei-ature is carefully li.sied, with
      critical notes, iii Benjaci»b. Oz<ir lia-St'Uiriin, pit. 134-130,
      Wilna, 18.S(). See also Steinsclineider, Cut. ISmll. cols. 411,
      430. 1.5'JK; Zedner, Cut. llrhr. iJoo/t.s Brit. ilus. pp. 440-446;
      Roost, Cat. h'n.-<ciit)i(il. mill. pp. 6SS-(;t)5; S. Wiener,